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topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities ...

topology
and related branches of
mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and their changes (cal ...
, a connected space is a
topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gener ...
that cannot be represented as the union of two or more disjoint
non-empty#REDIRECT Empty set#REDIRECT Empty set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, chan ...

non-empty
open subsets. Connectedness is one of the principal
topological propertiesIn topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object ...
that are used to distinguish topological spaces. A subset of a topological space ''X'' is a if it is a connected space when viewed as a
subspace
subspace
of ''X''. Some related but stronger conditions are
path connected In topology and related branches of mathematics, a connected space is a topological space that cannot be represented as the union (set theory), union of two or more disjoint set, disjoint Empty set, non-empty open (topology), open subsets. Conne ...
,
simply connected In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric objec ...
, and
n-connected In the mathematical branch of algebraic topology 250px, A torus, one of the most frequently studied objects in algebraic topology Algebraic topology is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. T ...
. Another related notion is
locally connected In this topological space, ''V'' is a neighbourhood of ''p'' and it contains a connected open set (the dark green disk) that contains ''p''. In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In ...
, which neither implies nor follows from connectedness.


Formal definition

A
topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gener ...
''X'' is said to be if it is the union of two disjoint non-empty open sets. Otherwise, ''X'' is said to be connected. A
subset In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). ...

subset
of a topological space is said to be connected if it is connected under its subspace topology. Some authors exclude the
empty set #REDIRECT Empty set #REDIRECT Empty set#REDIRECT Empty set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry ...

empty set
(with its unique topology) as a connected space, but this article does not follow that practice. For a topological space ''X'' the following conditions are equivalent: #''X'' is connected, that is, it cannot be divided into two disjoint non-empty open sets. #''X'' cannot be divided into two disjoint non-empty
closed set In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of ...
s. #The only subsets of ''X'' which are both open and closed (
clopen set In topology, a clopen set (a portmanteau of closed-open set) in a topological space is a set which is both open set, open and closed set, closed. That this is possible may seem counter-intuitive, as the common meanings of and are antonyms, but ...
s) are ''X'' and the empty set. #The only subsets of ''X'' with empty
boundary Boundary or Boundaries may refer to: * Border, in political geography Entertainment *Boundaries (2016 film), ''Boundaries'' (2016 film), a 2016 Canadian film *Boundaries (2018 film), ''Boundaries'' (2018 film), a 2018 American-Canadian road trip ...
are ''X'' and the empty set. #''X'' cannot be written as the union of two non-empty
separated sets In topology and related branches of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (ma ...
(sets for which each is disjoint from the other's closure). #All
continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Continuity (mathematics), the opposing concept to discreteness; common examples include ** Continuous probability distribution or random variable in probability and statistics ** Continuous ga ...
functions from ''X'' to \ are constant, where \ is the two-point space endowed with the discrete topology. Historically this modern formulation of the notion of connectedness (in terms of no partition of ''X'' into two separated sets) first appeared (independently) with N.J. Lennes,
Frigyes Riesz Frigyes Riesz ( hu, Riesz Frigyes, , sometimes spelled as Frederic; 22 January 1880 – 28 February 1956) was a HungarianEberhard Zeidler: Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Its Applications: Linear monotone operators. Springer, 199/ref> mathematic ...
, and
Felix Hausdorff Felix Hausdorff (November 8, 1868 – January 26, 1942) was a German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as q ...
at the beginning of the 20th century. See for details.


Connected components

Given some point x in a topological space X, the union of any collection of connected subset that each contain x will once again be a connected subset. The x in X is the union of all connected subsets of X that contain x; it is the unique largest (with respect to \subseteq) connected subset of X that contains x. The maximal connected subsets (ordered by
inclusion Inclusion or Include may refer to: Sociology * Social inclusion, affirmative action to change the circumstances and habits that leads to social exclusion ** Inclusion (disability rights), including people with and without disabilities, people of ...

inclusion
\subseteq) of a non-empty topological space are called the s of the space. The components of any topological space X form a
partition
partition
of X: they are
disjoint
disjoint
, non-empty, and their union is the whole space. Every component is a
closed subset In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of ...
of the original space. It follows that, in the case where their number is finite, each component is also an open subset. However, if their number is infinite, this might not be the case; for instance, the connected components of the set of the
rational number In mathematics, a rational number is a number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction (mathematics), fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator . For example, is a rational number, as is every integer (e.g. ) ...
s are the one-point sets ( singletons), which are not open. Proof: Any two distinct rational numbers q_1 are in different components. Take an irrational number q_1 < r < q_2, and then set A = \ and B = \. Then (A,B) is a separation of \Q, and q_1 \in A, q_2 \in B. Thus each component is a one-point set. Let \Gamma_x be the connected component of x in a topological space X, and \Gamma_x' be the intersection of all
clopen upright=1.3, A graph with several clopen sets. Each of the three large pieces (i.e. components) is a clopen set, as is the union of any two or all three. In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied i ...
sets containing x (called quasi-component of x.) Then \Gamma_x \subset \Gamma'_x where the equality holds if X is compact Hausdorff or locally connected.


Disconnected spaces

A space in which all components are one-point sets is called . Related to this property, a space ''X'' is called if, for any two distinct elements ''x'' and ''y'' of ''X'', there exist disjoint open sets ''U'' containing ''x'' and ''V'' containing ''y'' such that ''X'' is the union of ''U'' and ''V''. Clearly, any totally separated space is totally disconnected, but the converse does not hold. For example take two copies of the rational numbers Q, and identify them at every point except zero. The resulting space, with the
quotient topology In topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), ...
, is totally disconnected. However, by considering the two copies of zero, one sees that the space is not totally separated. In fact, it is not even
Hausdorff
Hausdorff
, and the condition of being totally separated is strictly stronger than the condition of being Hausdorff.


Examples

* The closed interval
standard Standard may refer to: Flags * Colours, standards and guidons * Standard (flag), a type of flag used for personal identification Norm, convention or requirement * Standard (metrology), an object that bears a defined relationship to a unit of ...
subspace topology is connected; although it can, for example, be written as the union of [0, 1) and [1, 2), the second set is not open in the chosen topology of [0, 2). * The union of , 1) and (1, 2/math> is disconnected; both of these intervals are open in the standard topological space , 1) \cup (1, 2 * (0, 1) \cup \ is disconnected. * A
convex subset
convex subset
of Rn is connected; it is actually
simply connected In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric objec ...
. * A
Euclidean plane In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...
excluding the origin, (0, 0), is connected, but is not simply connected. The three-dimensional Euclidean space without the origin is connected, and even simply connected. In contrast, the one-dimensional Euclidean space without the origin is not connected. * A Euclidean plane with a straight line removed is not connected since it consists of two half-planes. * R, The space of
real number In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no g ...
s with the usual topology, is connected. * The
Sorgenfrey line In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...
is disconnected. * If even a single point is removed from R, the remainder is disconnected. However, if even a countable infinity of points are removed from \R^n, where n \geq 2, the remainder is connected. If , then \R^n remains simply connected after removal of countably many points. * Any
topological vector space In mathematics, a topological vector space (also called a linear topological space and commonly abbreviated TVS or t.v.s.) is one of the basic structures investigated in functional analysis. A topological vector space is a vector space (an Abstra ...
, e.g. any
Hilbert space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
or
Banach space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and th ...
, over a connected field (such as \R or \Complex), is simply connected. * Every discrete topological space with at least two elements is disconnected, in fact such a space is
totally disconnectedIn topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object ...
. The simplest example is the
discrete two-point spaceIn topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics, topology (from the Greek language, Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a mathematical object, geometric object ...
. * On the other hand, a finite set might be connected. For example, the spectrum of a
discrete valuation ringIn abstract algebra, a discrete valuation ring (DVR) is a principal ideal domain In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra ...
consists of two points and is connected. It is an example of a Sierpiński space. * The
Cantor set In mathematics, the Cantor set is a set of points lying on a single line segment that has a number of remarkable and deep properties. It was discovered in 1874 by Henry John Stephen Smith and introduced by German mathematician Georg Cantor in 188 ...

Cantor set
is totally disconnected; since the set contains uncountably many points, it has uncountably many components. * If a space ''X'' is
homotopy equivalent In topology, a branch of mathematics, two continuous function (topology), continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from grc, ὁμός "same, similar" and "place") if one can be "continuously deformed ...

homotopy equivalent
to a connected space, then ''X'' is itself connected. * The
topologist's sine curve In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the topologist's sine curve or Warsaw sine curve is a topological space with several interesting properties that make it an important textbook example. It can be defined as the graph of a function, ...

topologist's sine curve
is an example of a set that is connected but is neither path connected nor locally connected. * The
general linear group In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ge ...
\operatorname(n, \R) (that is, the group of ''n''-by-''n'' real, invertible matrices) consists of two connected components: the one with matrices of positive determinant and the other of negative determinant. In particular, it is not connected. In contrast, \operatorname(n, \Complex) is connected. More generally, the set of invertible bounded operators on a complex Hilbert space is connected. * The spectra of commutative
local ring In abstract algebra In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra (occasionally called modern algebra) is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include group (mathematics), groups, ring (mathematics), r ...
and integral domains are connected. More generally, the following are equivalent *# The spectrum of a commutative ring ''R'' is connected *# Every
finitely generated projective module In mathematics, particularly in algebra, the Class (set theory), class of projective modules enlarges the class of free modules (that is, module (mathematics), modules with basis vectors) over a ring (mathematics), ring, by keeping some of the main ...
over ''R'' has constant rank. *# ''R'' has no
idempotent Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), an ...
\ne 0, 1 (i.e., ''R'' is not a product of two rings in a nontrivial way). An example of a space that is not connected is a plane with an infinite line deleted from it. Other examples of disconnected spaces (that is, spaces which are not connected) include the plane with an
annulus Annulus (or anulus) or annular may refer to: Human anatomy * ''Anulus fibrosus disci intervertebralis'', spinal structure * Annulus of Zinn, a.k.a. annular tendon or ''anulus tendineus communis'', around the optic nerve * Annular ligament (disam ...
removed, as well as the union of two disjoint closed disks, where all examples of this paragraph bear the
subspace topologyIn topology and related areas of mathematics, a subspace of a topological space ''X'' is a subset ''S'' of ''X'' which is equipped with a Topological_space#Definitions, topology induced from that of ''X'' called the subspace topology (or the relative ...
induced by two-dimensional Euclidean space.


Path connectedness

A is a stronger notion of connectedness, requiring the structure of a path. A path from a point ''x'' to a point ''y'' in a
topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gener ...
''X'' is a continuous function ''ƒ'' from the
unit interval In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities and ...
,1to ''X'' with ''ƒ''(0) = ''x'' and ''ƒ''(1) = ''y''. A of ''X'' is an
equivalence class In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...
of ''X'' under the
equivalence relation In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...
which makes ''x'' equivalent to ''y'' if there is a path from ''x'' to ''y''. The space ''X'' is said to be path-connected (or pathwise connected or 0-connected) if there is exactly one path-component, i.e. if there is a path joining any two points in ''X''. Again, many authors exclude the empty space (note however that by this definition, the empty space is not path-connected because it has zero path-components; there is a unique equivalence relation on the empty set which has zero equivalence classes). Every path-connected space is connected. The converse is not always true: examples of connected spaces that are not path-connected include the extended
long lineLong line or longline may refer to: *''Long Line'', an album by Peter Wolf *Long line (topology), or Alexandroff line, a topological space *Long line (telecommunications), a transmission line in a long-distance communications network *Longline fishi ...
''L''* and the . Subsets of the
real line In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...
R are connected
if and only if In logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning. Informal logic seeks to characterize Validity (logic), valid arguments informally, for instance by listing varieties of fallacies. Formal logic represents st ...
they are path-connected; these subsets are the intervals of R. Also, open subsets of R''n'' or C''n'' are connected if and only if they are path-connected. Additionally, connectedness and path-connectedness are the same for
finite topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It h ...
s.


Arc connectedness

A space ''X'' is said to be or if any two
topologically distinguishable In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical struct ...
points can be joined by an arc, which is an
embedding In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gen ...
f :
, 1 The comma is a punctuation Punctuation (or sometimes interpunction) is the use of spacing, conventional signs (called punctuation marks), and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of written text, ...
\to X. An arc-component of X is a maximal arc-connected subset of X; or equivalently an equivalence class of the equivalence relation of whether two points can be joined by an arc or by a path whose points are topologically indistinguishable. Every
Hausdorff space In topology In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), ...

Hausdorff space
that is path-connected is also arc-connected; more generally this is true for a Δ-Hausdorff space, which is a space where each image of a path is closed. An example of a space which is path-connected but not arc-connected is given by the line with two origins; its two copies of 0 can be connected by a path but not by an arc. Intuition for path-connected spaces does not readily transfer to arc-connected spaces. Let X be the line with two origins. The following are facts whose analogues hold for path-connected spaces, but do not hold for arc-connected spaces: * Continuous image of arc-connected space may not be arc-connected: for example, a quotient map from an arc-connected space to its quotient with countably many (at least 2) topologically distinguishable points cannot be arc-connected due to too small cardinality. * Arc-components may not be disjoint. For example, X has two overlapping arc-components. * Arc-connected product space may not be a product of arc-connected spaces. For example, X \times \mathbb is arc-connected, but X is not. * Arc-components of a product space may not be products of arc-components of the marginal spaces. For example, X \times \mathbb has a single arc-component, but X has two arc-components. *If arc-connected subsets have a non-empty intersection, then their union may not be arc-connected. For example, the arc-components ofX intersect, but their union is not arc-connected.


Local connectedness

A topological space is said to be
locally connected In this topological space, ''V'' is a neighbourhood of ''p'' and it contains a connected open set (the dark green disk) that contains ''p''. In topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In ...
at a point ''x'' if every neighbourhood of ''x'' contains a connected open neighbourhood. It is locally connected if it has a
base Base or BASE may refer to: Brands and enterprises * Base (mobile telephony provider), a Belgian mobile telecommunications operator *Base CRM Base CRM (originally Future Simple or PipeJump) is an enterprise software company based in Mountain Vie ...
of connected sets. It can be shown that a space ''X'' is locally connected if and only if every component of every open set of ''X'' is open. Similarly, a topological space is said to be if it has a base of path-connected sets. An open subset of a locally path-connected space is connected if and only if it is path-connected. This generalizes the earlier statement about R''n'' and C''n'', each of which is locally path-connected. More generally, any
topological manifold In topology, a branch of mathematics, a topological manifold is a topological space which locally resembles real numbers, real ''n''-dimension (mathematics), dimensional Euclidean space. Topological manifolds are an important class of topological sp ...
is locally path-connected. Locally connected does not imply connected, nor does locally path-connected imply path connected. A simple example of a locally connected (and locally path-connected) space that is not connected (or path-connected) is the union of two separated intervals in \R, such as (0,1) \cup (2,3). A classical example of a connected space that is not locally connected is the so called
topologist's sine curve In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the topologist's sine curve or Warsaw sine curve is a topological space with several interesting properties that make it an important textbook example. It can be defined as the graph of a function, ...

topologist's sine curve
, defined as T = \ \cup \left\, with the
Euclidean topologyIn mathematics, and especially general topology, the Euclidean topology is the natural topology induced on n-dimensional Euclidean space \R^n by the Euclidean distance, Euclidean metric. Definition In any metric space, the Ball (mathematics), ope ...
induced
induced
by inclusion in \R^2.


Set operations

The intersection of connected sets is not necessarily connected. The union of connected sets is not necessarily connected, as can be seen by considering X=(0,1) \cup (1,2). Each ellipse is a connected set, but the union is not connected, since it can be partitioned to two disjoint open sets U and V. This means that, if the union X is disconnected, then the collection \ can be partitioned to two sub-collections, such that the unions of the sub-collections are disjoint and open in X (see picture). This implies that in several cases, a union of connected sets necessarily connected. In particular: # If the common intersection of all sets is not empty ( \bigcap X_i \neq \emptyset), then obviously they cannot be partitioned to collections with
disjoint union In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities an ...

disjoint union
s. Hence ''the union of connected sets with non-empty intersection is connected''. # If the intersection of each pair of sets is not empty (\forall i,j: X_i \cap X_j \neq \emptyset) then again they cannot be partitioned to collections with disjoint unions, so their union must be connected. # If the sets can be ordered as a "linked chain", i.e. indexed by integer indices and \forall i: X_i \cap X_ \neq \emptyset, then again their union must be connected. # If the sets are pairwise-disjoint and the quotient space X / \ is connected, then must be connected. Otherwise, if U \cup V is a separation of then q(U) \cup q(V) is a separation of the quotient space (since q(U), q(V) are disjoint and open in the quotient space). The
set difference In set theory Set theory is the branch of mathematical logic that studies Set (mathematics), sets, which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch ...

set difference
of connected sets is not necessarily connected. However, if X \supseteq Y and their difference X \setminus Y is disconnected (and thus can be written as a union of two open sets X_1 and X_2), then the union of Y with each such component is connected (i.e. Y \cup X_ is connected for all i).


Theorems

*Main theorem of connectedness: Let ''X'' and ''Y'' be topological spaces and let ''ƒ'' : ''X'' → ''Y'' be a continuous function. If ''X'' is (path-)connected then the image ''ƒ''(''X'') is (path-)connected. This result can be considered a generalization of the
intermediate value theorem In mathematical analysis Analysis is the branch of mathematics dealing with Limit (mathematics), limits and related theories, such as Derivative, differentiation, Integral, integration, Measure (mathematics), measure, sequences, Series (mathema ...

intermediate value theorem
. *Every path-connected space is connected. *Every locally path-connected space is locally connected. *A locally path-connected space is path-connected if and only if it is connected. *The closure of a connected subset is connected. Furthermore, any subset between a connected subset and its closure is connected. *The connected components are always closed (but in general not open) *The connected components of a locally connected space are also open. *The connected components of a space are disjoint unions of the path-connected components (which in general are neither open nor closed). *Every
quotient In arithmetic Arithmetic (from the Ancient Greek, Greek wikt:en:ἀριθμός#Ancient Greek, ἀριθμός ''arithmos'', 'number' and wikt:en:τική#Ancient Greek, τική wikt:en:τέχνη#Ancient Greek, έχνη ''tiké échne' ...
of a connected (resp. locally connected, path-connected, locally path-connected) space is connected (resp. locally connected, path-connected, locally path-connected). *Every product of a family of connected (resp. path-connected) spaces is connected (resp. path-connected). *Every open subset of a locally connected (resp. locally path-connected) space is locally connected (resp. locally path-connected). *Every
manifold In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (geometry), and quantities a ...

manifold
is locally path-connected. *Arc-wise connected space is path connected, but path-wise connected space may not be arc-wise connected *Continuous image of arc-wise connected set is arc-wise connected.


Graphs

Graph Graph may refer to: Mathematics *Graph (discrete mathematics), a structure made of vertices and edges **Graph theory, the study of such graphs and their properties *Graph (topology), a topological space resembling a graph in the sense of discret ...
s have path connected subsets, namely those subsets for which every pair of points has a path of edges joining them. But it is not always possible to find a topology on the set of points which induces the same connected sets. The
5-cycle
5-cycle
graph (and any ''n''-cycle with ''n'' > 3 odd) is one such example. As a consequence, a notion of connectedness can be formulated independently of the topology on a space. To wit, there is a category of connective spaces consisting of sets with collections of connected subsets satisfying connectivity axioms; their morphisms are those functions which map connected sets to connected sets . Topological spaces and graphs are special cases of connective spaces; indeed, the finite connective spaces are precisely the finite graphs. However, every graph can be canonically made into a topological space, by treating vertices as points and edges as copies of the unit interval (see topological graph theory#Graphs as topological spaces). Then one can show that the graph is connected (in the graph theoretical sense) if and only if it is connected as a topological space.


Stronger forms of connectedness

There are stronger forms of connectedness for
topological space In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no gener ...
s, for instance: * If there exist no two disjoint non-empty open sets in a topological space, ''X'', ''X'' must be connected, and thus
hyperconnected space :''For hyper-connectivity in node-link graphs, see Connectivity_(graph_theory)#Super-_and_hyper-connectivity.'' In the mathematical field of topology s, which have only one surface and one edge, are a kind of object studied in topology. In m ...
s are also connected. * Since a
simply connected space In topology, a topological space is called simply connected (or 1-connected, or 1-simply connected) if it is path-connected and every Path (topology), path between two points can be continuously transformed (intuitively for embedded spaces, staying ...
is, by definition, also required to be path connected, any simply connected space is also connected. Note however, that if the "path connectedness" requirement is dropped from the definition of simple connectivity, a simply connected space does not need to be connected. *Yet stronger versions of connectivity include the notion of a
contractible space In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It ...
. Every contractible space is path connected and thus also connected. In general, note that any path connected space must be connected but there exist connected spaces that are not path connected. The deleted comb space furnishes such an example, as does the above-mentioned
topologist's sine curve In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the topologist's sine curve or Warsaw sine curve is a topological space with several interesting properties that make it an important textbook example. It can be defined as the graph of a function, ...

topologist's sine curve
.


See also

*
Connected component (graph theory) In graph theory In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ...
*
Connectedness locus In one-dimensional complex dynamics, the connectedness locus (mathematics), locus is a subset of the parameter space of Rational function, rational functions, which consists of those parameters for which the corresponding Julia set is Connected s ...
*
Extremally disconnected spaceIn mathematics, an extremally disconnected space is a topological space in which the closure of every open set is open. (The term "extremally disconnected" is correct, even though the word "extremally" does not appear in most dictionaries. The term ' ...
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Locally connected spaceImage:Neighborhood illust1.svg, In this topological space, ''V'' is a neighbourhood of ''p'' and it contains a connected open set (the dark green disk) that contains ''p''. In topology and other branches of mathematics, a topological space ''X'' is ...
* ''n''-connected * Uniformly connected space *Pixel connectivity


References


Further reading

* * * * . {{DEFAULTSORT:Connected Space General topology Properties of topological spaces