Equivalence Relation
In mathematics, an equivalence relation is a binary relation that is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. The equipollence relation between line segments in geometry is a common example of an equivalence relation. Each equivalence relation provides a partition of the underlying set into disjoint equivalence classes. Two elements of the given set are equivalent to each other if and only if they belong to the same equivalence class. Notation Various notations are used in the literature to denote that two elements a and b of a set are equivalent with respect to an equivalence relation R; the most common are "a \sim b" and "", which are used when R is implicit, and variations of "a \sim_R b", "", or "" to specify R explicitly. Nonequivalence may be written "" or "a \not\equiv b". Definition A binary relation \,\sim\, on a set X is said to be an equivalence relation, if and only if it is reflexive, symmetric and transitive. That is, for all a, b, and c in X: * a \sim a ( ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Set Partitions 5; Matrices
Set, The Set, SET or SETS may refer to: Science, technology, and mathematics Mathematics *Set (mathematics), a collection of elements *Category of sets, the category whose objects and morphisms are sets and total functions, respectively Electronics and computing *Set (abstract data type), a data type in computer science that is a collection of unique values ** Set (C++), a set implementation in the C++ Standard Library * Set (command), a command for setting values of environment variables in Unix and Microsoft operatingsystems * Secure Electronic Transaction, a standard protocol for securing credit card transactions over insecure networks * Singleelectron transistor, a device to amplify currents in nanoelectronics * Singleended triode, a type of electronic amplifier * Set!, a programming syntax in the scheme programming language Biology and psychology * Set (psychology), a set of expectations which shapes perception or thought *Set or sett, a badger's den *Set, a small t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Congruence (geometry)
In geometry, two figures or objects are congruent if they have the same shape and size, or if one has the same shape and size as the mirror image of the other. More formally, two sets of points are called congruent if, and only if, one can be transformed into the other by an isometry, i.e., a combination of rigid motions, namely a translation, a rotation, and a reflection. This means that either object can be repositioned and reflected (but not resized) so as to coincide precisely with the other object. Therefore two distinct plane figures on a piece of paper are congruent if they can be cut out and then matched up completely. Turning the paper over is permitted. In elementary geometry the word ''congruent'' is often used as follows. The word ''equal'' is often used in place of ''congruent'' for these objects. *Two line segments are congruent if they have the same length. *Two angles are congruent if they have the same measure. *Two circles are congruent if they ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Algebraic Expression
In mathematics, an algebraic expression is an expression built up from integer constants, variables, and the algebraic operations ( addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponentiation by an exponent that is a rational number). For example, is an algebraic expression. Since taking the square root is the same as raising to the power , the following is also an algebraic expression: :\sqrt An ''algebraic equation'' is an equation involving only algebraic expressions. By contrast, transcendental numbers like and are not algebraic, since they are not derived from integer constants and algebraic operations. Usually, is constructed as a geometric relationship, and the definition of requires an ''infinite number'' of algebraic operations. A rational expression is an expression that may be rewritten to a rational fraction by using the properties of the arithmetic operations ( commutative properties and associative properties of addition and multiplication, dis ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Equality (mathematics)
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value, or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object. The equality between and is written , and pronounced equals . The symbol "" is called an "equals sign". Two objects that are not equal are said to be distinct. For example: * x=y means that and denote the same object. * The identity (x+1)^2=x^2+2x+1 means that if is any number, then the two expressions have the same value. This may also be interpreted as saying that the two sides of the equals sign represent the same function. * \ = \ if and only if P(x) \Leftrightarrow Q(x). This assertion, which uses setbuilder notation, means that if the elements satisfying the property P(x) are the same as the elements satisfying Q(x), then the two uses of the setbuilder notation define the same set. This property is often expressed as "two sets that have t ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Antisymmetric Relation
In mathematics, a binary relation R on a set X is antisymmetric if there is no pair of ''distinct'' elements of X each of which is related by R to the other. More formally, R is antisymmetric precisely if for all a, b \in X, \text \,aRb\, \text \,a \neq b\, \text \,bRa\, \text, or equivalently, \text \,aRb\, \text \,bRa\, \text \,a = b. The definition of antisymmetry says nothing about whether aRa actually holds or not for any a. An antisymmetric relation R on a set X may be reflexive (that is, aRa for all a \in X), irreflexive (that is, aRa for no a \in X), or neither reflexive nor irreflexive. A relation is asymmetric if and only if it is both antisymmetric and irreflexive. Examples The divisibility relation on the natural numbers is an important example of an antisymmetric relation. In this context, antisymmetry means that the only way each of two numbers can be divisible by the other is if the two are, in fact, the same number; equivalently, if n and m are distinct ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Partial Order
In mathematics, especially order theory, a partially ordered set (also poset) formalizes and generalizes the intuitive concept of an ordering, sequencing, or arrangement of the elements of a set. A poset consists of a set together with a binary relation indicating that, for certain pairs of elements in the set, one of the elements precedes the other in the ordering. The relation itself is called a "partial order." The word ''partial'' in the names "partial order" and "partially ordered set" is used as an indication that not every pair of elements needs to be comparable. That is, there may be pairs of elements for which neither element precedes the other in the poset. Partial orders thus generalize total orders, in which every pair is comparable. Informal definition A partial order defines a notion of comparison. Two elements ''x'' and ''y'' may stand in any of four mutually exclusive relationships to each other: either ''x'' ''y'', or ''x'' and ''y'' are ''inco ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vacuously True
In mathematics and logic, a vacuous truth is a conditional or universal statement (a universal statement that can be converted to a conditional statement) that is true because the antecedent cannot be satisfied. For example, the statement "she does not own a cell phone" will imply that the statement "all of her cell phones are turned off" will be assigned a truth value. Also, the statement "all of her cell phones are turned ''on''" would also be vacuously true, as would the conjunction of the two: "all of her cell phones are turned on ''and'' turned off", which would otherwise be incoherent and false. For that reason, it is sometimes said that a statement is vacuously true because it is meaningless. More formally, a relatively welldefined usage refers to a conditional statement (or a universal conditional statement) with a false antecedent. One example of such a statement is "if Tokyo is in France, then the Eiffel Tower is in Bolivia". Such statements are considered vacuous tr ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Empty Relation
In mathematics, a homogeneous relation (also called endorelation) over a set ''X'' is a binary relation over ''X'' and itself, i.e. it is a subset of the Cartesian product . This is commonly phrased as "a relation on ''X''" or "a (binary) relation over ''X''". An example of a homogeneous relation is the relation of kinship, where the relation is over people. Common types of endorelations include orders, graphs, and equivalences. Specialized studies order theory and graph theory have developed understanding of endorelations. Terminology particular for graph theory is used for description, with an ordinary graph presumed to correspond to a symmetric relation, and a general endorelation corresponding to a directed graph. An endorelation ''R'' corresponds to a logical matrix of 0s and 1s, where the expression ''xRy'' corresponds to an edge between ''x'' and ''y'' in the graph, and to a 1 in the square matrix of ''R''. It is called an adjacency matrix in graph terminology. Particula ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Natural Numbers
In mathematics, the natural numbers are those numbers used for counting (as in "there are ''six'' coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the ''third'' largest city in the country"). Numbers used for counting are called '' cardinal numbers'', and numbers used for ordering are called '' ordinal numbers''. Natural numbers are sometimes used as labels, known as '' nominal numbers'', having none of the properties of numbers in a mathematical sense (e.g. sports jersey numbers). Some definitions, including the standard ISO 800002, begin the natural numbers with , corresponding to the nonnegative integers , whereas others start with , corresponding to the positive integers Texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, while in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers (including negative integers). The natural numbers form a set. Many other number sets are built by suc ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Common Factor
In mathematics, the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two or more integers, which are not all zero, is the largest positive integer that divides each of the integers. For two integers ''x'', ''y'', the greatest common divisor of ''x'' and ''y'' is denoted \gcd (x,y). For example, the GCD of 8 and 12 is 4, that is, \gcd (8, 12) = 4. In the name "greatest common divisor", the adjective "greatest" may be replaced by "highest", and the word "divisor" may be replaced by "factor", so that other names include highest common factor (hcf), etc. Historically, other names for the same concept have included greatest common measure. This notion can be extended to polynomials (see Polynomial greatest common divisor) and other commutative rings (see below). Overview Definition The ''greatest common divisor'' (GCD) of two nonzero integers and is the greatest positive integer such that is a divisor of both and ; that is, there are integers and such that and , and is the larges ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Domain Of A Function
In mathematics, the domain of a function is the set of inputs accepted by the function. It is sometimes denoted by \operatorname(f) or \operatornamef, where is the function. More precisely, given a function f\colon X\to Y, the domain of is . Note that in modern mathematical language, the domain is part of the definition of a function rather than a property of it. In the special case that and are both subsets of \R, the function can be graphed in the Cartesian coordinate system. In this case, the domain is represented on the axis of the graph, as the projection of the graph of the function onto the axis. For a function f\colon X\to Y, the set is called the codomain, and the set of values attained by the function (which is a subset of ) is called its range or image. Any function can be restricted to a subset of its domain. The restriction of f \colon X \to Y to A, where A\subseteq X, is written as \left. f \_A \colon A \to Y. Natural domain If a real function ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Image (mathematics)
In mathematics, the image of a function is the set of all output values it may produce. More generally, evaluating a given function f at each element of a given subset A of its domain produces a set, called the "image of A under (or through) f". Similarly, the inverse image (or preimage) of a given subset B of the codomain of f, is the set of all elements of the domain that map to the members of B. Image and inverse image may also be defined for general binary relations, not just functions. Definition The word "image" is used in three related ways. In these definitions, f : X \to Y is a function from the set X to the set Y. Image of an element If x is a member of X, then the image of x under f, denoted f(x), is the value of f when applied to x. f(x) is alternatively known as the output of f for argument x. Given y, the function f is said to "" or "" if there exists some x in the function's domain such that f(x) = y. Similarly, given a set S, f is said to "" if there ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 