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Idempotent
Idempotence (, ) is the property of certain operations in mathematics and computer science whereby they can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial application. The concept of idempotence arises in a number of places in abstract algebra (in particular, in the theory of projectors and closure operators) and functional programming (in which it is connected to the property of referential transparency). The term was introduced by American mathematician Benjamin Peirce in 1870 in the context of elements of algebras that remain invariant when raised to a positive integer power, and literally means "(the quality of having) the same power", from + '' potence'' (same + power). Definition An element x of a set S equipped with a binary operator \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' under \cdot if : . The ''binary operation'' \cdot is said to be ''idempotent'' if : . Examples * In the monoid (\mathbb, \times) of the natural numbers with multiplication, ...
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Inverse Element
In mathematics, the concept of an inverse element generalises the concepts of opposite () and reciprocal () of numbers. Given an operation denoted here , and an identity element denoted , if , one says that is a left inverse of , and that is a right inverse of . (An identity element is an element such that and for all and for which the left-hand sides are defined.) When the operation is associative, if an element has both a left inverse and a right inverse, then these two inverses are equal and unique; they are called the ''inverse element'' or simply the ''inverse''. Often an adjective is added for specifying the operation, such as in additive inverse, multiplicative inverse, and functional inverse. In this case (associative operation), an invertible element is an element that has an inverse. Inverses are commonly used in groupswhere every element is invertible, and ringswhere invertible elements are also called units. They are also commonly used for operations th ...
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Tropical Semiring
In idempotent analysis, the tropical semiring is a semiring of extended real numbers with the operations of minimum (or maximum) and addition replacing the usual ("classical") operations of addition and multiplication, respectively. The tropical semiring has various applications (see tropical analysis), and forms the basis of tropical geometry. The name ''tropical'' is a reference to the Hungarian-born computer scientist Imre Simon, so named because he lived and worked in Brazil. Definition The ' (or or ) is the semiring (ℝ ∪ , ⊕, ⊗), with the operations: : x \oplus y = \min\, : x \otimes y = x + y. The operations ⊕ and ⊗ are referred to as ''tropical addition'' and ''tropical multiplication'' respectively. The unit for ⊕ is +∞, and the unit for ⊗ is 0. Similarly, the ' (or or or ) is the semiring (ℝ ∪ , ⊕, ⊗), with operations: : x \oplus y = \max\, : x \otimes y = x + y. The unit for ⊕ is −∞, and the unit for ⊗ is 0. The two semirings ...
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Boolean Ring
In mathematics, a Boolean ring ''R'' is a ring for which ''x''2 = ''x'' for all ''x'' in ''R'', that is, a ring that consists only of idempotent elements. An example is the ring of integers modulo 2. Every Boolean ring gives rise to a Boolean algebra, with ring multiplication corresponding to conjunction or meet ∧, and ring addition to exclusive disjunction or symmetric difference (not logical disjunction, disjunction ∨, which would constitute a semiring). Conversely, every Boolean algebra gives rise to a Boolean ring. Boolean rings are named after the founder of Boolean algebra, George Boole. Notations There are at least four different and incompatible systems of notation for Boolean rings and algebras: *In commutative algebra the standard notation is to use ''x'' + ''y'' = (''x'' ∧ ¬ ''y'') ∨ (¬ ''x'' ∧ ''y'') for the ring sum of ''x'' and ''y'', and use ''xy'' = ''x'' ∧ ''y'' for their product. *In M ...
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Closure Operator
In mathematics, a closure operator on a set ''S'' is a function \operatorname: \mathcal(S)\rightarrow \mathcal(S) from the power set of ''S'' to itself that satisfies the following conditions for all sets X,Y\subseteq S : Closure operators are determined by their closed sets, i.e., by the sets of the form cl(''X''), since the closure cl(''X'') of a set ''X'' is the smallest closed set containing ''X''. Such families of "closed sets" are sometimes called closure systems or "Moore families", in honor of E. H. Moore who studied closure operators in his 1910 ''Introduction to a form of general analysis'', whereas the concept of the closure of a subset originated in the work of Frigyes Riesz in connection with topological spaces. Though not formalized at the time, the idea of closure originated in the late 19th century with notable contributions by Ernst Schröder, Richard Dedekind and Georg Cantor. Closure operators are also called "hull operators", which prevents confusion with ...
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Monoid
In abstract algebra, a branch of mathematics, a monoid is a set equipped with an associative binary operation and an identity element. For example, the nonnegative integers with addition form a monoid, the identity element being 0. Monoids are semigroups with identity. Such algebraic structures occur in several branches of mathematics. The functions from a set into itself form a monoid with respect to function composition. More generally, in category theory, the morphisms of an object to itself form a monoid, and, conversely, a monoid may be viewed as a category with a single object. In computer science and computer programming, the set of strings built from a given set of characters is a free monoid. Transition monoids and syntactic monoids are used in describing finite-state machines. Trace monoids and history monoids provide a foundation for process calculi and concurrent computing. In theoretical computer science, the study of monoids is fundamental ...
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Projector (linear Algebra)
In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself (an endomorphism) such that P\circ P=P. That is, whenever P is applied twice to any vector, it gives the same result as if it were applied once (i.e. P is idempotent). It leaves its image unchanged. This definition of "projection" formalizes and generalizes the idea of graphical projection. One can also consider the effect of a projection on a geometrical object by examining the effect of the projection on points in the object. Definitions A projection on a vector space V is a linear operator P : V \to V such that P^2 = P. When V has an inner product and is complete (i.e. when V is a Hilbert space) the concept of orthogonality can be used. A projection P on a Hilbert space V is called an orthogonal projection if it satisfies \langle P \mathbf x, \mathbf y \rangle = \langle \mathbf x, P \mathbf y \rangle for all \mathbf x, \mathbf y \in V. A projection on a Hilbe ...
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Benjamin Peirce
Benjamin Peirce (; April 4, 1809 – October 6, 1880) was an American mathematician who taught at Harvard University for approximately 50 years. He made contributions to celestial mechanics, statistics, number theory, algebra, and the philosophy of mathematics. Early life He was born in Salem, Massachusetts, the son of Benjamin Peirce (1778–1831), later librarian of Harvard, and Lydia Ropes Nichols Peirce (1781–1868). After graduating from Harvard University in 1829, he taught mathematics for two years at the Round Hill School in Northampton, and in 1831 was appointed professor of mathematics at Harvard. He added astronomy to his portfolio in 1842, and remained as Harvard professor until his death. In addition, he was instrumental in the development of Harvard's science curriculum, served as the college librarian, and was director of the U.S. Coast Survey from 1867 to 1874. In 1842, he was elected as a member of the American Philosophical Society. He was elected a Fore ...
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Operation (mathematics)
In mathematics, an operation is a function which takes zero or more input values (also called "'' operands''" or "arguments") to a well-defined output value. The number of operands is the arity of the operation. The most commonly studied operations are binary operations (i.e., operations of arity 2), such as addition and multiplication, and unary operations (i.e., operations of arity 1), such as additive inverse and multiplicative inverse. An operation of arity zero, or nullary operation, is a constant. The mixed product is an example of an operation of arity 3, also called ternary operation. Generally, the arity is taken to be finite. However, infinitary operations are sometimes considered, in which case the "usual" operations of finite arity are called finitary operations. A partial operation is defined similarly to an operation, but with a partial function in place of a function. Types of operation There are two common types of operations: unar ...
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Abstract Algebra
In mathematics, more specifically algebra, abstract algebra or modern algebra is the study of algebraic structures. Algebraic structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, lattices, and algebras over a field. The term ''abstract algebra'' was coined in the early 20th century to distinguish this area of study from older parts of algebra, and more specifically from elementary algebra, the use of variables to represent numbers in computation and reasoning. Algebraic structures, with their associated homomorphisms, form mathematical categories. Category theory is a formalism that allows a unified way for expressing properties and constructions that are similar for various structures. Universal algebra is a related subject that studies types of algebraic structures as single objects. For example, the structure of groups is a single object in universal algebra, which is called the '' variety of groups''. History Before the nineteenth century, alge ...
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Union (set Theory)
In set theory, the union (denoted by ∪) of a collection of sets is the set of all elements in the collection. It is one of the fundamental operations through which sets can be combined and related to each other. A refers to a union of zero (0) sets and it is by definition equal to the empty set. For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Union of two sets The union of two sets ''A'' and ''B'' is the set of elements which are in ''A'', in ''B'', or in both ''A'' and ''B''. In set-builder notation, :A \cup B = \. For example, if ''A'' = and ''B'' = then ''A'' ∪ ''B'' = . A more elaborate example (involving two infinite sets) is: : ''A'' = : ''B'' = : A \cup B = \ As another example, the number 9 is ''not'' contained in the union of the set of prime numbers and the set of even numbers , because 9 is neither prime nor even. Sets cannot have duplicate elements, so the union of the sets and is . Multiple ...
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Intersection (set Theory)
In set theory, the intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set containing all elements of A that also belong to B or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A. Notation and terminology Intersection is written using the symbol "\cap" between the terms; that is, in infix notation. For example: \\cap\=\ \\cap\=\varnothing \Z\cap\N=\N \\cap\N=\ The intersection of more than two sets (generalized intersection) can be written as: \bigcap_^n A_i which is similar to capital-sigma notation. For an explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols. Definition The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A \cap B, is the set of all objects that are members of both the sets A and B. In symbols: A \cap B = \. That is, x is an element of the intersection A \cap B if and only if x is both an element of A and an element of B. For example: * The intersection of the sets and is . * The number 9 is in ...
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Power Set
In mathematics, the power set (or powerset) of a set is the set of all subsets of , including the empty set and itself. In axiomatic set theory (as developed, for example, in the ZFC axioms), the existence of the power set of any set is postulated by the axiom of power set. The powerset of is variously denoted as , , , \mathbb(S), or . The notation , meaning the set of all functions from S to a given set of two elements (e.g., ), is used because the powerset of can be identified with, equivalent to, or bijective to the set of all the functions from to the given two elements set. Any subset of is called a ''family of sets'' over . Example If is the set , then all the subsets of are * (also denoted \varnothing or \empty, the empty set or the null set) * * * * * * * and hence the power set of is . Properties If is a finite set with the cardinality (i.e., the number of all elements in the set is ), then the number of all the subsets of is . This fact as we ...
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