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Product Topology
In topology and related areas of mathematics, a product space is the Cartesian product of a family of topological spaces equipped with a natural topology called the product topology. This topology differs from another, perhaps more natural-seeming, topology called the box topology, which can also be given to a product space and which agrees with the product topology when the product is over only finitely many spaces. However, the product topology is "correct" in that it makes the product space a categorical product of its factors, whereas the box topology is too fine; in that sense the product topology is the natural topology on the Cartesian product. Definition Throughout, I will be some non-empty index set and for every index i \in I, let X_i be a topological space. Denote the Cartesian product of the sets X_i by X := \prod X_ := \prod_ X_i and for every index i \in I, denote the i-th by \begin p_i :\;&& \prod_ X_j &&\;\to\; & X_i \\ .3ex && \l ...
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Topology
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek words , and ) is concerned with the properties of a geometric object that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending; that is, without closing holes, opening holes, tearing, gluing, or passing through itself. A topological space is a set endowed with a structure, called a '' topology'', which allows defining continuous deformation of subspaces, and, more generally, all kinds of continuity. Euclidean spaces, and, more generally, metric spaces are examples of a topological space, as any distance or metric defines a topology. The deformations that are considered in topology are homeomorphisms and homotopies. A property that is invariant under such deformations is a topological property. Basic examples of topological properties are: the dimension, which allows distinguishing between a line and a surface; compactness, which allows distinguishing between a line and a circle; co ...
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Open Cylinder
In mathematics, the cylinder sets form a basis of the product topology on a product of sets; they are also a generating family of the cylinder σ-algebra. General definition Given a collection S of sets, consider the Cartesian product X = \prod_ Y of all sets in the collection. The canonical projection corresponding to some Y\in S is the function p_ : X \to Y that maps every element of the product to its Y component. A cylinder set is a preimage of a canonical projection or finite intersection of such preimages. Explicitly, it is a set of the form, \bigcap_^n p_^ \left(A_i\right) = \left\ for any choice of n, finite sequence of sets Y_1,...Y_n\in S and subsets A_ \subseteq Y_i for 1 \leq i \leq n. Here x_Y\in Y denotes the Y component of x\in X. Then, when all sets in S are topological spaces, the product topology is generated by cylinder sets corresponding to the components' open sets. That is cylinders of the form \bigcap_^n p_^ \left(U_i\right) where for each i, U_i is open ...
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Countable
In mathematics, a set is countable if either it is finite or it can be made in one to one correspondence with the set of natural numbers. Equivalently, a set is ''countable'' if there exists an injective function from it into the natural numbers; this means that each element in the set may be associated to a unique natural number, or that the elements of the set can be counted one at a time, although the counting may never finish due to an infinite number of elements. In more technical terms, assuming the axiom of countable choice, a set is ''countable'' if its cardinality (its number of elements) is not greater than that of the natural numbers. A countable set that is not finite is said countably infinite. The concept is attributed to Georg Cantor, who proved the existence of uncountable sets, that is, sets that are not countable; for example the set of the real numbers. A note on terminology Although the terms "countable" and "countably infinite" as defined here are quite c ...
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Homeomorphic
In the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism, topological isomorphism, or bicontinuous function is a bijective and continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are the mappings that preserve all the topological properties of a given space. Two spaces with a homeomorphism between them are called homeomorphic, and from a topological viewpoint they are the same. The word ''homeomorphism'' comes from the Greek words '' ὅμοιος'' (''homoios'') = similar or same and '' μορφή'' (''morphē'') = shape or form, introduced to mathematics by Henri Poincaré in 1895. Very roughly speaking, a topological space is a geometric object, and the homeomorphism is a continuous stretching and bending of the object into a new shape. Thus, a square and a circle are homeomorphic to each other, but a sphere and a torus are not. However, this ...
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Cantor Set
In mathematics, the Cantor set is a set of points lying on a single line segment that has a number of unintuitive properties. It was discovered in 1874 by Henry John Stephen Smith and introduced by German mathematician Georg Cantor in 1883. Through consideration of this set, Cantor and others helped lay the foundations of modern point-set topology. The most common construction is the Cantor ternary set, built by removing the middle third of a line segment and then repeating the process with the remaining shorter segments. Cantor mentioned the ternary construction only in passing, as an example of a more general idea, that of a perfect set that is nowhere dense. More generally, in topology, ''a'' Cantor space is a topological space homeomorphic to the Cantor ternary set (equipped with its subspace topology). By a theorem of Brouwer, this is equivalent to being perfect nonempty, compact metrizable and zero dimensional. Construction and formula of the ternary set The Cantor t ...
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Euclidean Topology
In mathematics, and especially general topology, the Euclidean topology is the natural topology induced on n-dimensional Euclidean space \R^n by the Euclidean metric. Definition The Euclidean norm on \R^n is the non-negative function \, \cdot\, : \R^n \to \R defined by \left\, \left(p_1, \ldots, p_n\right)\right\, ~:=~ \sqrt. Like all norms, it induces a canonical metric defined by d(p, q) = \, p - q\, . The metric d : \R^n \times \R^n \to \R induced by the Euclidean norm is called the Euclidean metric or the Euclidean distance and the distance between points p = \left(p_1, \ldots, p_n\right) and q = \left(q_1, \ldots, q_n\right) is d(p, q) ~=~ \, p - q\, ~=~ \sqrt. In any metric space, the open balls In mathematics, a ball is the solid figure bounded by a ''sphere''; it is also called a solid sphere. It may be a closed ball (including the boundary points that constitute the sphere) or an open ball (excluding them). These concepts are defin ... form a base for a ...
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Standard Topology
In mathematics, the real coordinate space of dimension , denoted ( ) or is the set of the -tuples of real numbers, that is the set of all sequences of real numbers. With component-wise addition and scalar multiplication, it is a real vector space, and its elements are called coordinate vectors. The coordinates over any basis of the elements of a real vector space form a ''real coordinate space'' of the same dimension as that of the vector space. Similarly, the Cartesian coordinates of the points of a Euclidean space of dimension form a ''real coordinate space'' of dimension . These one to one correspondences between vectors, points and coordinate vectors explain the names of ''coordinate space'' and ''coordinate vector''. It allows using geometric terms and methods for studying real coordinate spaces, and, conversely, to use methods of calculus in geometry. This approach of geometry was introduced by René Descartes in the 17th century. It is widely used, as it allows loc ...
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Real Line
In elementary mathematics, a number line is a picture of a graduated straight line that serves as visual representation of the real numbers. Every point of a number line is assumed to correspond to a real number, and every real number to a point. The integers are often shown as specially-marked points evenly spaced on the line. Although the image only shows the integers from –3 to 3, the line includes all real numbers, continuing forever in each direction, and also numbers that are between the integers. It is often used as an aid in teaching simple addition and subtraction, especially involving negative numbers. In advanced mathematics, the number line can be called as a real line or real number line, formally defined as the set of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space (or affine space), a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum. Just like ...
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Pointwise Convergence
In mathematics, pointwise convergence is one of various senses in which a sequence of functions can converge to a particular function. It is weaker than uniform convergence, to which it is often compared. Definition Suppose that X is a set and Y is a topological space, such as the real or complex numbers or a metric space, for example. A net or sequence of functions \left(f_n\right) all having the same domain X and codomain Y is said to converge pointwise to a given function f : X \to Y often written as \lim_ f_n = f\ \mbox if (and only if) \lim_ f_n(x) = f(x) \text x \text f. The function f is said to be the pointwise limit function of the \left(f_n\right). Sometimes, authors use the term bounded pointwise convergence when there is a constant C such that \forall n,x,\;, f_n(x), .

# Properties

This concept is often contrasted with

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Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function from a set to a set assigns to each element of exactly one element of .; the words map, mapping, transformation, correspondence, and operator are often used synonymously. The set is called the domain of the function and the set is called the codomain of the function.Codomain ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics'Codomain. ''Encyclopedia of Mathematics''/ref> The earliest known approach to the notion of function can be traced back to works of Persian mathematicians Al-Biruni and Sharaf al-Din al-Tusi. Functions were originally the idealization of how a varying quantity depends on another quantity. For example, the position of a planet is a ''function'' of time. Historically, the concept was elaborated with the infinitesimal calculus at the end of the 17th century, and, until the 19th century, the functions that were considered were differentiable (that is, they had a high degree of regularity). The concept of a function was formalized at the end of ...
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Real Number
In mathematics, a real number is a number that can be used to measure a ''continuous'' one-dimensional quantity such as a distance, duration or temperature. Here, ''continuous'' means that values can have arbitrarily small variations. Every real number can be almost uniquely represented by an infinite decimal expansion. The real numbers are fundamental in calculus (and more generally in all mathematics), in particular by their role in the classical definitions of limits, continuity and derivatives. The set of real numbers is denoted or \mathbb and is sometimes called "the reals". The adjective ''real'' in this context was introduced in the 17th century by René Descartes to distinguish real numbers, associated with physical reality, from imaginary numbers (such as the square roots of ), which seemed like a theoretical contrivance unrelated to physical reality. The real numbers include the rational numbers, such as the integer and the fraction . The rest of the real ...