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Aristotle
Aristotle
(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[n 1] was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece. Along with Plato, Aristotle
Aristotle
is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy", which inherited almost its entire lexicon from his teachings, including problems and methods of inquiry, so influencing almost all forms of knowledge. Little is known for certain about his life. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC).[4] His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, politics and government – and constitute the first comprehensive system of Western philosophy. Shortly after Plato
Plato
died, Aristotle
Aristotle
left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC.[5] Teaching Alexander gave Aristotle
Aristotle
many opportunities. He established a library in the Lyceum
Lyceum
which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books, which were papyrus scrolls. The fact that Aristotle
Aristotle
was a pupil of Plato
Plato
contributed to his former views of Platonism, but, following Plato's death, Aristotle
Aristotle
immersed himself in empirical studies and shifted from Platonism
Platonism
to empiricism.[6] He believed all concepts and knowledge were ultimately based on perception. Aristotle's views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
and the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard
and John Buridan. Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
profoundly influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism
Neoplatonism
of the Early Church
Early Church
and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle
Aristotle
was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher". His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of academic study. Though Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.[7] Aristotle
Aristotle
has been depicted by major artists including Raphael
Raphael
and Rembrandt. Early Modern theories including William Harvey's circulation of the blood and Galileo Galilei's kinematics were developed in reaction to Aristotle's. In the 19th century, George Boole
George Boole
gave Aristotle's logic a mathematical foundation with his system of algebraic logic. In the 20th century, Martin Heidegger
Martin Heidegger
created a new interpretation of Aristotle's political philosophy, but elsewhere Aristotle
Aristotle
was widely criticised, even ridiculed by thinkers such as the philosopher Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
and the biologist Peter Medawar. More recently, Aristotle
Aristotle
has again been taken seriously, such as in the thinking of Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
and Alasdair MacIntyre, while Armand Marie Leroi has reconstructed Aristotle's biology. The image of Aristotle
Aristotle
tutoring the young Alexander remains current, as in the 2004 film Alexander, and the Poetics continues to play a role in the cinema of the United States.

Contents

1 Life 2 Abstract philosophy

2.1 Logic

2.1.1 Analytics and the Organon

2.2 Epistemology 2.3 Metaphysics

2.3.1 Substance, potentiality and actuality 2.3.2 Universals and particulars

3 Natural philosophy

3.1 Physics

3.1.1 Five elements 3.1.2 Motion 3.1.3 Four causes 3.1.4 Optics 3.1.5 Chance and spontaneity

3.2 Astronomy 3.3 Geology 3.4 Biology

3.4.1 Empirical research 3.4.2 Scientific style 3.4.3 Classification of living things

3.5 Psychology

3.5.1 Soul 3.5.2 Memory 3.5.3 Dreams

4 Practical philosophy

4.1 Ethics 4.2 Politics 4.3 Rhetoric
Rhetoric
and poetics 4.4 Views on women

5 Influence

5.1 On his successor, Theophrastus 5.2 On later Greek philosophers 5.3 On Hellenistic science 5.4 On Byzantine scholars 5.5 On the medieval Islamic world 5.6 On medieval Europe 5.7 On Early Modern
Early Modern
scientists 5.8 On 19th century
19th century
thinkers 5.9 Modern rejection and rehabilitation

6 Surviving works

6.1 Corpus Aristotelicum 6.2 Loss and preservation

7 Legacy

7.1 Depictions of Aristotle 7.2 Eponyms

8 See also 9 Notes, references and sources

9.1 Notes 9.2 References 9.3 Sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

Life

School of Aristotle
Aristotle
in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece

In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established. The biographies written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.[8] Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek,[9] was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice, about 55 km (34 miles) east of modern-day Thessaloniki.[10][11] His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle
Aristotle
was orphaned at a young age, and Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian.[12] Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.[13] At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle
Aristotle
moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy.[14] He remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato
Plato
died.[15] Aristotle
Aristotle
then accompanied Xenocrates
Xenocrates
to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle
Aristotle
travelled with his pupil Theophrastus
Theophrastus
to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon. While in Lesbos, Aristotle
Aristotle
married Pythias, either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle
Aristotle
was invited by Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
to become the tutor to his son Alexander.[16][5]

Portrait bust of Aristotle; an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd century AD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos

Aristotle
Aristotle
was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and Cassander.[17] Aristotle
Aristotle
encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia
Persia
was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants".[17] By 335 BC, Aristotle
Aristotle
had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle
Aristotle
conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle
Aristotle
became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.[18] This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle
Aristotle
is believed to have composed many of his works.[5] He wrote many dialogues, of which only fragments have survived. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul
On the Soul
and Poetics. Aristotle
Aristotle
studied and made significant contributions to "logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre."[4] Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle
Aristotle
became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia
Persia
and Persians. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle
Aristotle
of playing a role in Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some six years after the death.[19] Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens was rekindled. In 322 BC, Demophilus and Eurymedon the Hierophant reportedly denounced Aristotle for impiety,[20] prompting him to flee to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, on Euboea, at which occasion he was said to have stated: "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy"[21][22] – a reference to Athens's trial and execution of Socrates. He died on Euboea
Euboea
of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.[23] Abstract philosophy Logic Main article: Term logic Further information: Non-Aristotelian logic With the Prior Analytics, Aristotle
Aristotle
is credited with the earliest study of formal logic,[24] and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th century
19th century
advances in mathematical logic.[25] Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
that with Aristotle
Aristotle
logic reached its completion.[26] Analytics and the Organon Main article: Organon

One of Aristotle's types of syllogism[n 2]

In words In terms[n 3] In equations[n 4]

    All men are mortal.

    All Greeks are men.

∴ All Greeks are mortal. M a P

S a M

S a P

What we today call Aristotelian logic with its types of syllogism (methods of logical argument),[27] Aristotle
Aristotle
himself would have labelled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, because it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle
Aristotle
were compiled into a set of six books called the Organon around 40 BC by Andronicus of Rhodes or others among his followers.[29] The books are:

Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics On Sophistical Refutations

The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics)[30] and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. The Rhetoric
Rhetoric
is not conventionally included, but it states that it relies on the Topics.[31] Epistemology

Plato
Plato
(left) and Aristotle
Aristotle
in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle
Aristotle
holds his Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
and gestures to the earth, representing empirical observation, whilst Plato
Plato
gestures to the heavens, representing The Forms, and holds his Timaeus.[32]

Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle's ontology places the universal (katholou) in particulars (kath' hekaston), things in the world, whereas for Plato
Plato
the universal is a separately existing form which actual things imitate. This means that Aristotle's epistemology is based on the study of things that exist or happen in the world, and rises to knowledge of the universal, whereas for Plato
Plato
epistemology begins with knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) and descends to knowledge of particular imitations of these.[31] For Aristotle, "form" is still what phenomena are based on, but is "instantiated" in a particular substance.[33] Aristotle
Aristotle
uses induction from examples alongside deduction, whereas Plato
Plato
relies on deduction from a priori principles.[31] In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. Aristotle's work encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. Aristotle
Aristotle
makes philosophy in the broad sense coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science". Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For Aristotle, "all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical" ( Metaphysics
Metaphysics
1025b25). His practical science includes ethics and politics; his poetical science means the study of fine arts including poetry; his theoretical science covers physics, mathematics and metaphysics.[34] Metaphysics Main article: Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Aristotle) Aristotle
Aristotle
defines metaphysics as "the knowledge of immaterial being", or of "being in the highest degree of abstraction".[35][36] He refers to metaphysics as "first philosophy",[37] as well as "the theologic science".[38] Substance, potentiality and actuality Further information: Hylomorphism and Potentiality and actuality (Aristotle) Aristotle
Aristotle
examines the concepts of substance (ousia) and essence (to ti ên einai, "the what it was to be") in his Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form, a philosophical theory called hylomorphism. In Book VIII, he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum, or the stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house, while the form of the substance is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia that let us define something as a house. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.[39][40] With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics
Physics
and On Generation and Corruption
On Generation and Corruption
319b–320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from:

growth and diminution, which is change in quantity; locomotion, which is change in space; and alteration, which is change in quality.

Aristotle
Aristotle
argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning.

The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate – being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise – acting). Actuality is the fulfilment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do.[40]

For that for the sake of which (to hou heneka) a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see.[41]

In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end. Then Aristotle
Aristotle
proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality. With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle
Aristotle
tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, for example, "what is it that makes a man one"? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same.[40][42][43] Universals and particulars

Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism).

Main article: Aristotle's theory of universals Plato
Plato
argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyse a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Plato
Plato
argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form. Aristotle
Aristotle
disagreed with Plato
Plato
on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated at some period of time, and that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. In addition, Aristotle
Aristotle
disagreed with Plato
Plato
about the location of universals. Where Plato
Plato
spoke of the world of forms, a place where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle
Aristotle
maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.[33][44] Natural philosophy Aristotle's "natural philosophy" spans a wide range of natural phenomena including those now covered by physics, biology and other natural sciences.[34] Physics

The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles and Aristotle
Aristotle
illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed.

Main article: Aristotelian physics Five elements Main article: Classical element In his On Generation and Corruption, Aristotle
Aristotle
related each of the four elements proposed earlier by Empedocles, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, to two of the four sensible qualities, hot, cold, wet, and dry. In the Empedoclean scheme, all matter was made of the four elements, in differing proportions. Aristotle's scheme added the heavenly Aether, the divine substance of the heavenly spheres, stars and planets.[45]

Aristotle's elements[45]

Element Hot/Cold Wet/Dry Modern state of matter

Earth Cold Dry Solid

Water Cold Wet Liquid

Air Hot Wet Gas

Fire Hot Dry Plasma

Aether (divine substance) — —

Motion Further information: History of classical mechanics Aristotle's physics of moving bodies is either overlooked in philosophical accounts or dismissed as "intuitive", grossly erroneous, or not even science.[46] For example, it is stated that John Philoponus and Galileo showed by experiment that Aristotle's claim that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.[34] However, the physicist Carlo Rovelli
Carlo Rovelli
argues that this is "profoundly misleading", since Aristotle's physics of motion is based on observation, is counterintuitive, and correct within its domain of validity. Aristotle
Aristotle
describes "violent (or unnatural) motion", such as that of a thrown stone, in the Physics
Physics
(254b10), and "natural motion", such as of a falling object, in On the Heavens (300a20). In violent motion, as soon as the agent stops causing it, the motion stops also. Natural motion depends on the element concerned: the aether naturally moves in a circle around the heavens, while the 4 Empedoclean elements move vertically up (like fire, as is observed) or down (like earth) towards their natural resting places.[46]

Aristotle's laws of motion. In Physics
Physics
he states that objects fall at a speed proportional to their weight and inversely proportional to the density of the fluid they are immersed in. This is a correct approximation for objects in Earth's gravitational field moving in air or water.[46]

In the Physics
Physics
(215a25), Aristotle
Aristotle
effectively states a quantitative law, that the speed, v, of a falling body is proportional (say, with constant c) to its weight, W, and inversely proportional to the density, ρ, of the fluid in which it is falling:[46]

v = c

W ρ

displaystyle v=c frac W rho

though he implies that in a vacuum the speed of fall would become infinite, and concludes from this apparent absurdity that a vacuum is not possible.[46] The law is a "highly nontrivial" and "correct approximation of Newtonian physics" for objects in the Earth's gravitational field immersed in a fluid such as air or water, as everything in daily life is. In this system, Aristotle
Aristotle
was correct to state that heavy bodies in steady fall travel faster than light ones (whether friction is ignored, or not[46]), and that they fall more slowly in a denser medium.[n 5] Philoponus and Galileo correctly objected that for the transient phase (still increasing in speed) with heavy objects falling a short distance, the law does not apply: Galileo used balls on a short incline to show this. Rovelli notes that "Two heavy balls with the same shape and different weight do fall at different speeds from an aeroplane, confirming Aristotle's theory, not Galileo's."[46] For heavenly bodies like the Sun, Moon, and stars, the observed motions are "to a very good approximation" circular around the Earth's centre, (for example, the apparent rotation of the sky because of the rotation of the Earth, and the rotation of the moon around the Earth) as Aristotle
Aristotle
stated.[46] Rovelli notes that Archimedes
Archimedes
corrected Aristotle's theory that bodies move towards their natural resting places; metal boats can float if they displace enough water; floating depends in Archimedes' scheme on the mass and volume of the object, not as Aristotle
Aristotle
thought its elementary composition.[46] Rovelli notes, too, that Newton's "forced" motion corresponds to Aristotle's "violent" motion with its external agent, but that Aristotle's assumption that the agent's effect stops immediately it stops acting (e.g., the ball leaves the thrower's hand) has awkward consequences: he has to suppose that surrounding fluid helps to push the ball along to make it continue to rise even though the hand is no longer acting on it, resulting in the Medieval
Medieval
theory of impetus.[46] Four causes Main article: Four causes

Aristotle
Aristotle
argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: the wood used (material cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).[47]

Aristotle
Aristotle
suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active factors. His name aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.[48][49]

Material cause
Material cause
describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino.[48] The formal cause is its form, i.e., the arrangement of that matter. It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly put, the formal cause is the idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.[48] The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which the change under consideration proceeds. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over.[48] In the case of animals, this agency is a combination of how it develops from the egg, and how its body functions.[50] The final cause (telos) is its purpose, the reason why a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition.[48] In the case of living things, it implies adaptation to a particular way of life.[50]

Optics Further information: History of optics Aristotle
Aristotle
describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problems, book 15. The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. With it, he saw that whatever shape he made the hole, the sun's image always remained circular. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.[51] Chance and spontaneity Further information: Accident (philosophy) According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things, "from what is spontaneous". There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle
Aristotle
names "luck", that only applies to people's moral choices.[52][53] Astronomy Further information: History of astronomy In astronomy, Aristotle
Aristotle
refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out correctly that if "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then... the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them."[54]

Aristotle
Aristotle
noted that the ground level of the Aeolian islands
Aeolian islands
changed before a volcanic eruption.

Geology Further information: History of geology Aristotle
Aristotle
was one of the first people to record any geological observations. He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person's lifetime.[55][56] The geologist Charles Lyell noted that Aristotle
Aristotle
described such change, including "lakes that had dried up" and "deserts that had become watered by rivers", giving as examples the growth of the Nile delta
Nile delta
since the time of Homer, and "the upheaving of one of the Aeolian islands, previous to a volcanic eruption."'[57] Biology Main article: Aristotle's biology

Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle
Aristotle
described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom left).

Empirical research Aristotle
Aristotle
was the first person to study biology systematically,[58] and biology forms a large part of his writings. He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos
Lesbos
and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos.[59][60] His data in History of Animals, Generation of Animals, Movement of Animals, and Parts of Animals
Parts of Animals
are assembled from his own observations, statements given by people with specialised knowledge such as beekeepers and fishermen, and less accurate accounts provided by travellers from overseas.[61] His apparent emphasis on animals rather than plants is a historical accident: his works on botany have been lost, but two books on plants by his pupil Theophrastus
Theophrastus
have survived.[62] Aristotle
Aristotle
reports on the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and the catches of fishermen. He describes the catfish, electric ray, and frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus. His description of the hectocotyl arm, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century.[63] He gives accurate descriptions of the four-chambered fore-stomachs of ruminants,[64] and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark.[65] He notes that an animal's structure is well matched to function, so, among birds, the heron, which lives in marshes with soft mud and lives by catching fish, has a long neck and long legs, and a sharp spear-like beak, whereas ducks that swim have short legs and webbed feet.[66] Darwin, too, noted these sorts of differences between similar kinds of animal, but unlike Aristotle
Aristotle
used the data to come to the theory of evolution.[67] Aristotle's writings can seem to modern readers close to implying evolution, but while Aristotle
Aristotle
was aware that new mutations or hybridisations could occur, he saw these as rare accidents. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a "survival of the fittest" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results.[68] To put his views into modern terms, he nowhere says that different species can have a common ancestor, or that one kind can change into another, or that kinds can become extinct.[69] Scientific style

Aristotle
Aristotle
inferred growth laws from his observations on animals, including that brood size decreases with body mass, whereas gestation period increases. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: data are shown for mouse and elephant.

Aristotle
Aristotle
did not do experiments in the modern sense.[70] He used the ancient Greek term pepeiramenoi to mean observations, or at most investigative procedures like dissection.[71] In Generation of Animals, he finds a fertilised hen's egg of a suitable stage and opens it to see the embryo's heart inside.[72][73] Instead, he practised a different style of science: systematically gathering data, discovering patterns common to whole groups of animals, and inferring possible causal explanations from these.[74][75] This style is common in modern biology when large amounts of data become available in a new field, such as genomics. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed. In this sense, Aristotle's biology
Aristotle's biology
is scientific.[74] From the data he collected and documented, Aristotle
Aristotle
inferred quite a number of rules relating the life-history features of the live-bearing tetrapods (terrestrial placental mammals) that he studied. Among these correct predictions are the following. Brood size
Brood size
decreases with (adult) body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young (usually just one) per brood than a mouse. Lifespan increases with gestation period, and also with body mass, so that elephants live longer than mice, have a longer period of gestation, and are heavier. As a final example, fecundity decreases with lifespan, so long-lived kinds like elephants have fewer young in total than short-lived kinds like mice.[76]

Classification of living things Further information: Scala naturae

Aristotle
Aristotle
recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.[77]

Aristotle
Aristotle
distinguished about 500 species of animals,[78][79] arranging these in the History of Animals
History of Animals
in a graded scale of perfection, a scala naturae, with man at the top. His system had eleven grades of animal, from highest potential to lowest, expressed in their form at birth: the highest gave live birth to hot and wet creatures, the lowest laid cold, dry mineral-like eggs. Animals came above plants, and these in turn were above minerals.[80] He grouped what the modern zoologist would call vertebrates as the hotter "animals with blood", and below them the colder invertebrates as "animals without blood". Those with blood were divided into the live-bearing (mammals), and the egg-laying (birds, reptiles, fish). Those without blood were insects, crustacea (non-shelled – cephalopods, and shelled) and the hard-shelled molluscs (bivalves and gastropods). He recognised that animals did not exactly fit into a linear scale, and noted various exceptions, such as that sharks had a placenta like the tetrapods. To a modern biologist, the explanation, not available to Aristotle, is convergent evolution.[81] He believed that purposive final causes guided all natural processes; this teleological view justified his observed data as an expression of formal design.[82]

Aristotle's Scala naturae
Scala naturae
(highest to lowest)

Group Examples (given by Aristotle) Blood Legs Souls (Rational, Sensitive, Vegetative) Qualities (Hot–Cold, Wet–Dry)

Man Man with blood 2 legs R, S, V Hot, Wet

Live-bearing tetrapods Cat, hare with blood 4 legs S, V Hot, Wet

Cetaceans Dolphin, whale with blood none S, V Hot, Wet

Birds Bee-eater, nightjar with blood 2 legs S, V Hot, Wet, except Dry eggs

Egg-laying tetrapods Chameleon, crocodile with blood 4 legs S, V Hot, Wet except scales, eggs

Snakes Water snake, Ottoman viper with blood none S, V Cold, Wet except scales, eggs

Egg-laying fishes Sea bass, parrotfish with blood none S, V Cold, Wet, including eggs

(Among the egg-laying fishes): placental selachians Shark, skate with blood none S, V Cold, Wet, but placenta like tetrapods

Crustaceans Shrimp, crab without many legs S, V Cold, Wet except shell

Cephalopods Squid, octopus without tentacles S, V Cold, Wet

Hard-shelled animals Cockle, trumpet snail without none S, V Cold, Dry (mineral shell)

Larva-bearing insects Ant, cicada without 6 legs S, V Cold, Dry

Spontaneously-generating Sponges, worms without none S, V Cold, Wet or Dry, from earth

Plants Fig without none V Cold, Dry

Minerals Iron without none none Cold, Dry

Psychology Soul Further information: On the Soul

Aristotle
Aristotle
proposed a three-part structure for souls of plants, animals, and humans, making humans unique in having all three types of soul.

Aristotle's psychology, given in his treatise On the Soul
On the Soul
(peri psyche), posits three kinds of soul ("psyches"): the vegetative soul, the sensitive soul, and the rational soul. Humans have a rational soul. The human soul incorporates the powers of the other kinds: Like the vegetative soul it can grow and nourish itself; like the sensitive soul it can experience sensations and move locally. The unique part of the human, rational soul is its ability to receive forms of other things and to compare them using the nous (intellect) and logos (reason).[83]</ref> For Aristotle, the soul is the form of a living being. Because all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings, e.g. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of plants, growth and chemical transformations, which Aristotle
Aristotle
considers types of movement).[84] In contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, he placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain.[85] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally went against previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.[86] Memory According to Aristotle
Aristotle
in On the Soul, memory is the ability to hold a perceived experience in your mind and to distinguish between the internal "appearance" and an occurrence in the past.[87] In other words, a memory is a mental picture (phantasm) that can be recovered. Aristotle
Aristotle
believed an impression is left on a semi-fluid bodily organ that undergoes several changes in order to make a memory. A memory occurs when stimuli such as sights or sounds are so complex that the nervous system cannot receive all the impressions at once. These changes are the same as those involved in the operations of sensation, Aristotelian 'common sense', and thinking.[88][89] Aristotle
Aristotle
uses the term 'memory' for the actual retaining of an experience in the impression that can develop from sensation, and for the intellectual anxiety that comes with the impression because it is formed at a particular time and processing specific contents. Memory is of the past, prediction is of the future, and sensation is of the present. Retrieval of impressions cannot be performed suddenly. A transitional channel is needed and located in our past experiences, both for our previous experience and present experience.[90] Because Aristotle
Aristotle
believes people receive all kinds of sense perceptions and perceive them as impressions, people are continually weaving together new impressions of experiences. To search for these impressions, people search the memory itself.[91] Within the memory, if one experience is offered instead of a specific memory, that person will reject this experience until they find what they are looking for.Recollection occurs when one retrieved experience naturally follows another. If the chain of "images" is needed, one memory will stimulate the next. When people recall experiences, they stimulate certain previous experiences until they reach the one that is needed.[92] Recollection is thus the self-directed activity of retrieving the information stored in a memory impression.[93] Only humans can remember impressions of intellectual activity, such as numbers and words. Animals that have perception of time can retrieve memories of their past observations. Remembering involves only perception of the things remembered and of the time passed.[94]

Senses, perception, memory, dreams, action in Aristotle's psychology. Impressions are stored in the seat of perception, linked by his Laws of Association (similarity, contrast, and contiguity).

Aristotle
Aristotle
believed the chain of thought, which ends in recollection of certain impressions, was connected systematically in relationships such as similarity, contrast, and contiguity, described in his Laws of Association. Aristotle
Aristotle
believed that past experiences are hidden within our mind. A force operates to awaken the hidden material to bring up the actual experience. According to Aristotle, association is the power innate in a mental state, which operates upon the unexpressed remains of former experiences, allowing them to rise and be recalled.[95] Dreams Further information: Dream § Classical history Aristotle
Aristotle
describes sleep in On Sleep and Wakefulness.[96] Sleep takes place as a result of overuse of the senses[97] or of digestion,[96] so it is vital to the body.[97] While a person is asleep, the critical activities, which include thinking, sensing, recalling and remembering, do not function as they do during wakefulness. Since a person cannot sense during sleep they can not have desire, which is the result of sensation. However, the senses are able to work during sleep,[97] albeit differently,[96] unless they are weary.[97] Dreams do not involve actually sensing a stimulus. In dreams, sensation is still involved, but in an altered manner.[97] Aristotle explains that when a person stares at a moving stimulus such as the waves in a body of water, and then look away, the next thing they look at appears to have a wavelike motion. When a person perceives a stimulus and the stimulus is no longer the focus of their attention, it leaves an impression.[96] When the body is awake and the senses are functioning properly, a person constantly encounters new stimuli to sense and so the impressions of previously perceived stimuli are ignored.[97] However, during sleep the impressions made throughout the day are noticed as there are no new distracting sensory experiences.[96] So, dreams result from these lasting impressions. Since impressions are all that are left and not the exact stimuli, dreams do not resemble the actual waking experience.[98] During sleep, a person is in an altered state of mind. Aristotle
Aristotle
compares a sleeping person to a person who is overtaken by strong feelings toward a stimulus. For example, a person who has a strong infatuation with someone may begin to think they see that person everywhere because they are so overtaken by their feelings. Since a person sleeping is in a suggestible state and unable to make judgements, they become easily deceived by what appears in their dreams, like the infatuated person.[96] This leads the person to believe the dream is real, even when the dreams are absurd in nature.[96] One component of Aristotle's theory of dreams disagrees with previously held beliefs. He claimed that dreams are not foretelling and not sent by a divine being. Aristotle
Aristotle
reasoned naturalistically that instances in which dreams do resemble future events are simply coincidences.[99] Aristotle
Aristotle
claimed that a dream is first established by the fact that the person is asleep when they experience it. If a person had an image appear for a moment after waking up or if they see something in the dark it is not considered a dream because they were awake when it occurred. Secondly, any sensory experience that is perceived while a person is asleep does not qualify as part of a dream. For example, if, while a person is sleeping, a door shuts and in their dream they hear a door is shut, this sensory experience is not part of the dream. Lastly, the images of dreams must be a result of lasting impressions of waking sensory experiences.[98] Practical philosophy Aristotle's practical philosophy covers areas such as ethics, politics, and rhetoric.[34]

Virtues and their accompanying vices[4]

Too little Virtuous mean Too much

Humbleness High-mindedness Vainglory

Lack of purpose Right ambition Over-ambition

Spiritlessness Good temper Irascibility

Rudeness Civility Obsequiousness

Cowardice Courage Rashness

Insensibility Self-control Intemperance

Sarcasm Sincerity Boastfulness

Boorishness Wit Buffoonery

Shamelessness Modesty Shyness

Callousness Just resentment Spitefulness

Pettiness Generosity Vulgarity

Meanness Liberality Wastefulness

Ethics Main article: Aristotelian ethics Aristotle
Aristotle
considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nicomachean Ethics.[100] Aristotle
Aristotle
taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (ergon) of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the psuchē (soul) in accordance with reason (logos). Aristotle
Aristotle
identified such an optimum activity (the virtuous mean, between the accompanying vices of excess or deficiency[4]) of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, eudaimonia, generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (ēthikē aretē), often translated as moral or ethical virtue or excellence.[101] Aristotle
Aristotle
taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (phronesis) and their intellect (nous) can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other words, a philosopher.[102] Politics Main article: Politics
Politics
(Aristotle) In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle
Aristotle
addressed the city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".[103] He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political animal" and also arguing that humanity's defining factor among others in the animal kingdom is its rationality.[104] Aristotle conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.[105]

Aristotle's classifications of political constitutions

The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different from Aristotle's understanding. Although he was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires, the natural community according to Aristotle
Aristotle
was the city (polis) which functions as a political "community" or "partnership" (koinōnia). The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: "The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together." This is distinguished from modern approaches, beginning with social contract theory, according to which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences."[n 6] In Protrepticus, the character 'Aristotle' states:[106]

For we all agree that the most excellent man should rule, i.e., the supreme by nature, and that the law rules and alone is authoritative; but the law is a kind of intelligence, i.e. a discourse based on intelligence. And again, what standard do we have, what criterion of good things, that is more precise than the intelligent man? For all that this man will choose, if the choice is based on his knowledge, are good things and their contraries are bad. And since everybody chooses most of all what conforms to their own proper dispositions (a just man choosing to live justly, a man with bravery to live bravely, likewise a self-controlled man to live with self-control), it is clear that the intelligent man will choose most of all to be intelligent; for this is the function of that capacity. Hence it's evident that, according to the most authoritative judgment, intelligence is supreme among goods.[106]

Rhetoric
Rhetoric
and poetics

The Blind Oedipus Commending his Children to the Gods (1784) by Bénigne Gagneraux. In his Poetics, Aristotle
Aristotle
uses the tragedy Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles
Sophocles
as an example of how the perfect tragedy should be structured, with a generally good protagonist who starts the play prosperous, but loses everything through some hamartia (fault).[107]

Main articles: Rhetoric
Rhetoric
(Aristotle) and Poetics (Aristotle) Aristotle's Rhetoric
Rhetoric
proposes that a speaker can use three basic kinds of appeals to persuade his audience: ethos (an appeal to the speaker's character), pathos (an appeal to the audience's emotion), and logos (an appeal to logical reasoning).[108] He also categorises rhetoric into three genres: epideictic (ceremonial speeches dealing with praise or blame), forensic (judicial speeches over guilt or innocence), and deliberative (speeches calling on an audience to make a decision on an issue).[109] Aristotle
Aristotle
also outlines two kinds of rhetorical proofs: enthymeme (proof by syllogism) and paradeigma (proof by example).[110] Aristotle
Aristotle
writes in his Poetics that epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry, painting, sculpture, music, and dance are all fundamentally acts of mimesis ("imitation"), each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.[111][112] He applies the term mimesis both as a property of a work of art and also as the product of the artist's intention[111] and contends that the audience's realisation of the mimesis is vital to understanding the work itself.[111] Aristotle
Aristotle
states that mimesis is a natural instinct of humanity that separates humans from animals[111][113] and that all human artistry "follows the pattern of nature".[111] Because of this, Aristotle believed that each of the mimetic arts possesses what Stephen Halliwell calls "highly structured procedures for the achievement of their purposes."[111] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.[114] While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics originally comprised two books – one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle
Aristotle
taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, thought, spectacle, and lyric poetry.[115] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle
Aristotle
concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.[116] Aristotle
Aristotle
was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.[117] Views on women Main article: Aristotle's views on women Further information: Aristotle's biology
Aristotle's biology
§ Inheritance Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element. On this ground, proponents of feminist metaphysics have accused Aristotle
Aristotle
of misogyny[118] and sexism.[119] However, Aristotle
Aristotle
gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his Rhetoric
Rhetoric
that the things that lead to happiness need to be in women as well as men.[n 7] Influence Further information: List of writers influenced by Aristotle More than 2300 years after his death, Aristotle
Aristotle
remains one of the most influential people who ever lived.[121][122] He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge then in existence, and he was the founder of many new fields. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee, "it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did".[123] Among countless other achievements, Aristotle
Aristotle
was the founder of formal logic,[124] pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.[125][126][127] Taneli Kukkonen, writing in The Classical Tradition, observes that his achievement in founding two sciences is unmatched, and his reach in influencing "every branch of intellectual enterprise" including Western ethical and political theory, theology, rhetoric and literary analysis is equally long. As a result, Kukkonen argues, any analysis of reality today "will almost certainly carry Aristotelian overtones ... evidence of an exceptionally forceful mind."[127] Jonathan Barnes wrote that "an account of Aristotle's intellectual afterlife would be little less than a history of European thought".[128] On his successor, Theophrastus Main articles: Theophrastus
Theophrastus
and Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus)

Frontispiece to a 1644 version of Theophrastus's Historia Plantarum, originally written around 300 BC

Aristotle's pupil and successor, Theophrastus, wrote the History of Plants, a pioneering work in botany. Some of his technical terms remain in use, such as carpel from carpos, fruit, and pericarp, from pericarpion, seed chamber.[129] Theophrastus
Theophrastus
was much less concerned with formal causes than Aristotle
Aristotle
was, instead pragmatically describing how plants functioned.[130] On later Greek philosophers Further information: Peripatetic school The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle
Aristotle
was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"[131] On Hellenistic science Further information: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
medicine After Theophrastus, the Lyceum
Lyceum
failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.[132] It is not until the age of Alexandria under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found. The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not.[133] Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius
Lucretius
challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr
Ernst Mayr
states that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius
Lucretius
and Galen
Galen
until the Renaissance."[134] On Byzantine scholars See also: Commentaries on Aristotle and Byzantine Aristotelianism Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle
Aristotle
by copying all the extant Greek language
Greek language
manuscripts of the corpus. The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were Philoponus, Elias, and David in the sixth century, and Stephen of Alexandria
Alexandria
in the early seventh century.[135] Philoponus stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle's views on the eternity of the world, movement, and other elements of Aristotelian thought.[136] After a hiatus of several centuries, formal commentary by Eustratius and Michael of Ephesus reappears in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, apparently sponsored by Anna Comnena.[137] On the medieval Islamic world Further information: Logic
Logic
in Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
and Transmission of the Greek Classics

Islamic portrayal of Aristotle, c. 1220

Aristotle
Aristotle
was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle,[138] as well as a number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim philosophers, scientists and scholars. Averroes, Avicenna
Avicenna
and Alpharabius, who wrote on Aristotle in great depth, also influenced Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. Alkindus
Alkindus
considered Aristotle
Aristotle
the outstanding and unique representative of philosophy[139] and Averroes spoke of Aristotle
Aristotle
as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.[140] Medieval
Medieval
Muslim scholars regularly described Aristotle
Aristotle
as the "First Teacher".[138] The title "teacher" was first given to Aristotle
Aristotle
by Muslim scholars, and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous poem of Dante) who were influenced by the tradition of Islamic philosophy.[141] In accordance with the Greek theorists, the Muslims considered Aristotle
Aristotle
to be a dogmatic philosopher, the author of a closed system, and believed that Aristotle
Aristotle
shared with Plato
Plato
essential tenets of thought. Some went so far as to credit Aristotle
Aristotle
himself with neo-Platonic metaphysical ideas.[142] On medieval Europe

Woodcut of Aristotle
Aristotle
ridden by Phyllis by Hans Baldung, 1515[143]

Further information: Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
and Syllogism
Syllogism
§ Medieval With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle
Aristotle
was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the Organon made by Boethius. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in Aristotle
Aristotle
revived and Latin Christians had translations made, both from Arabic translations, such as those by Gerard of Cremona,[144] and from the original Greek, such as those by James of Venice and William of Moerbeke. After the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
wrote his Summa Theologica, working from Moerbeke's translations and calling Aristotle "The Philosopher",[145] the demand for Aristotle's writings grew, and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
in Europe that continued into the Renaissance.[146] These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece
Greece
into the Middle Ages. Scholars such as Boethius, Peter Abelard, and John Buridan
John Buridan
worked on Aristotelian logic.[147] The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having

at his beddes heed Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed, Of aristotle and his philosophie,[148]

A cautionary medieval tale held that Aristotle
Aristotle
advised his pupil Alexander to avoid the king's seductive mistress, Phyllis, but was himself captivated by her, and allowed her to ride him. Phyllis had secretly told Alexander what to expect, and he witnessed Phyllis proving that a woman's charms could overcome even the greatest philosopher's male intellect. Artists such as Hans Baldung
Hans Baldung
produced a series of illustrations of the popular theme.[149][143] The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle
Aristotle
in The Divine Comedy:

Dante L'Inferno, Canto IV. 131–135 Translation Hell

vidi 'l maestro di color che sanno seder tra filosofica famiglia. Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno: quivi vid'ïo Socrate e Platone che 'nnanzi a li altri più presso li stanno;

I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family, By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato
Plato
too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest.

On Early Modern
Early Modern
scientists

William Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, 1628, showed that the blood circulated, contrary to classical era thinking.

In the Early Modern
Early Modern
period, scientists such as William Harvey
William Harvey
in England and Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
in Italy reacted against the theories of Aristotle
Aristotle
and other classical era thinkers like Galen, establishing new theories based to some degree on observation and experiment. Harvey demonstrated the circulation of the blood, establishing that the heart functioned as a pump rather than being the seat of the soul and the controller of the body's heat, as Aristotle
Aristotle
thought.[150] Galileo used more doubtful arguments to displace Aristotle's physics, proposing that bodies all fall at the same speed whatever their weight.[151] On 19th century
19th century
thinkers The 19th century
19th century
German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.[152] Aristotle
Aristotle
rigidly separated action from production, and argued for the deserved subservience of some people ("natural slaves"), and the natural superiority (virtue, arete) of others. It was Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition.[153] The English mathematician George Boole
George Boole
fully accepted Aristotle's logic, but decided "to go under, over, and beyond" it with his system of algebraic logic in his 1854 book The Laws of Thought. This gives logic a mathematical foundation with equations, enables it to solve equations as well as check validity, and allows it to handle a wider class of problems by expanding propositions of any number of terms, not just two.[154] Modern rejection and rehabilitation

"That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle
Aristotle
tutoring the future conqueror Alexander".[127] Illustration by Charles Laplante (fr), 1866

During the 20th century, Aristotle's work was widely criticised. The philosopher Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
argued that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell also refers to Aristotle's ethics as "repulsive", and called his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell stated that these errors made it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembered what an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.[5] In 1985, the biologist Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
could still state in "pure seventeenth century"[155][156] tones that Aristotle
Aristotle
had assembled "a strange and generally speaking rather tiresome farrago of hearsay, imperfect observation, wishful thinking and credulity amounting to downright gullibility".[155] By the start of the 21st century, however, Aristotle
Aristotle
was taken more seriously: Kukkonen noted that "In the best 20th-century scholarship Aristotle
Aristotle
comes alive as a thinker wrestling with the full weight of the Greek philosophical tradition."[127] Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
accredited Aristotle as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking.[157] More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre
Alasdair MacIntyre
has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.[158] Armand Marie Leroi has reconstructed Aristotle's biology.[159] Kukkonen observed, too, that "that most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle
Aristotle
tutoring the future conqueror Alexander" remained current, as in the 2004 film Alexander, while the "firm rules" of Aristotle's theory of drama have ensured a role for the Poetics in Hollywood.[127] Surviving works Corpus Aristotelicum Main article: Corpus Aristotelicum

First page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
in Greek and Latin

The works of Aristotle
Aristotle
that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organisation of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica, Berlin, 1831–1870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.[160] Loss and preservation Further information: Recovery of Aristotle Aristotle
Aristotle
wrote his works on papyrus scrolls, the common writing medium of that era.[n 8] His writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric", intended for the public, and the "esoteric", for use within the Lyceum
Lyceum
school.[162][n 9][163] Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterisation from the surviving Aristotelian corpus. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with an view to subsequent publication, the surviving works mostly resemble lecture notes not intended for publication.[164][165] Cicero's description of Aristotle's literary style as "a river of gold" must have applied to the published works, not the surviving notes.[n 10] A major question in the history of Aristotle's works is how the exoteric writings were all lost, and how the ones we now possess came to us.[167] The consensus is that Andronicus of Rhodes collected the esoteric works of Aristotle's school which existed in the form of smaller, separate works, distinguished them from those of Theophrastus
Theophrastus
and other Peripatetics, edited them, and finally compiled them into the more cohesive, larger works as they are known today.[168][169] Legacy Depictions of Aristotle Aristotle
Aristotle
has been depicted by major artists including Lucas Cranach the Elder,[170] Justus van Gent, Raphael, Paolo Veronese, Jusepe de Ribera,[171] Rembrandt,[172] and Francesco Hayez
Francesco Hayez
over the centuries. Among the best-known is Raphael's fresco The School of Athens, in the Vatican's Apostolic Palace, where the figures of Plato
Plato
and Aristotle are central to the image, at the architectural vanishing point, reflecting their importance.[173] Rembrandt's Aristotle
Aristotle
with a Bust of Homer, too, is a celebrated work, showing the knowing philosopher and the blind Homer
Homer
from an earlier age: as the art critic Jonathan Jones writes, "this painting will remain one of the greatest and most mysterious in the world, ensnaring us in its musty, glowing, pitch-black, terrible knowledge of time."[174][175]

Nuremberg Chronicle
Nuremberg Chronicle
anachronistically shows Aristotle
Aristotle
in a medieval scholar's clothing. Ink and watercolour on paper, 1493

Aristotle
Aristotle
by Justus van Gent. Oil on panel, c. 1476

Phyllis and Aristotle
Aristotle
by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Oil on panel, 1530

Aristotle
Aristotle
by Paolo Veronese, Biblioteka Marciana. Oil on canvas, 1560s

Aristotle
Aristotle
and Campaspe,[n 11] Alessandro Turchi
Alessandro Turchi
(attrib.) Oil on canvas, 1713.

Aristotle
Aristotle
by Jusepe de Ribera. Oil on canvas, 1637

Aristotle
Aristotle
with a Bust of Homer
Homer
by Rembrandt. Oil on canvas, 1653

Aristotle
Aristotle
by Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder. Oil on canvas, by 1813

Aristotle
Aristotle
by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1811

Eponyms The Aristotle Mountains
Aristotle Mountains
in Antarctica
Antarctica
are named after Aristotle. He was the first person known to conjecture, in his book Meteorology, the existence of a landmass in the southern high-latitude region and called it "Antarctica".[176] Aristoteles is a crater on the Moon bearing the classical form of Aristotle's name.[177] See also

Aristotelian society Conimbricenses

Notes, references and sources Notes

^ That these dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/383 BC, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown by August Boeckh
August Boeckh
(Kleine Schriften VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. Ingemar Düring, Aristotle
Aristotle
in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Göteborg, 1957, p. 253 ^ This type of syllogism, with all three terms in 'a', is known by the traditional (medieval) mnemonic Barbara.[27] ^ M is the Middle (here, Men), S is the Subject (Greeks), P is the Predicate (mortal).[27] ^ The first equation can be read as 'It is not true that there exists an x such that x is a man and that x is not mortal.'[28] ^ Rovelli goes a step further, suggesting that the speed is proportional to the square root of the term, (weight/density), but he admits that Aristotle
Aristotle
could not have expressed this.[46] ^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
and Politics
Politics
see Polanyi, Karl (1957) "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78–115 ^ "Where, as among the Lacedaemonians, the state of women is bad, almost half of human life is spoilt."[120] ^ "When the Roman dictator Sulla invaded Athens in 86 BC, he brought back to Rome a fantastic prize – Aristotle's library. Books then were papyrus rolls, from 10 to 20 feet long, and since Aristotle's death in 322 BC, worms and damp had done their worst. The rolls needed repairing, and the texts clarifying and copying on to new papyrus (imported from Egypt – Moses' bulrushes). The man in Rome who put Aristotle's library in order was a Greek scholar, Tyrannio."[161] ^ Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
1102a26–27. Aristotle
Aristotle
himself never uses the term "esoteric" or "acroamatic". For other passages where Aristotle
Aristotle
speaks of exōterikoi logoi, see W. D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics
Metaphysics
(1953), vol. 2, pp. 408–10. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to "discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school", rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own. ^ "veniet flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles", (Google translation: " Aristotle
Aristotle
will come pouring forth a golden stream of eloquence").[166] ^ Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.

References

^ Kantor, J. R. (1963). The Scientific Evolution
Evolution
of Psychology, Volume I. Principia Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-911188-25-7.  ^ Aristotle
Aristotle
(350 B.C.). On the soul. Translated by J. A. Smith ^ "Aristotle" entry in Collins English Dictionary. ^ a b c d " Aristotle
Aristotle
(384—322 B.C.E.)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2009.  ^ a b c d Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy, Simon & Schuster, 1972. Book One. Ancient Philosophy, Part II. Socrates, Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, Chapter XXII. ISBN 978-0671201586 ^ Barnes 1995, p. 16. ^ Barnes 1995, p. 9. ^ See Shields, C., "Aristotle's Philosophical Life and Writings" in The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle
Aristotle
(Oxford University Press, 2012), pp. 3–16, ISBN 978-0195187489. Düring, I., Aristotle
Aristotle
in the Ancient Biographical Tradition (Göteborg, 1957) covers ancient biographies of Aristotle. ^ Campbell, Michael. "Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and History of the Name "Aristotle"". Behind the Name. Retrieved 6 April 2012.  ^ McLeisch, Kenneth Cole (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-415-92392-7.  ^ "Aristoteles-Park in Stagira". Dimos Aristoteli. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ "Biography of Aristotle". Biography.com. Retrieved 12 March 2014.  ^ Anagnostopoulos, Georgios (2013). A Companion to Aristotle. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-118-59243-4.  ^ Blits, Kathleen C. (1999-04-15). "Aristotle: Form, function, and comparative anatomy". The Anatomical Record. 257 (2): 58–63. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(19990415)257:2<58::AID-AR6>3.0.CO;2-I.  ^ Aristotle
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(1984). Lord, Carnes, ed. The Politics. University of Chicago Press. pp. Introduction. ISBN 978-0226921846.  ^ Shields, Christopher (2016). Zalta, Edward N., ed. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 ed.). Metaphysics
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Research Lab, Stanford University.  ^ a b Green, Peter (1991). Alexander of Macedon. University of California Press. pp. 58–59. ISBN 978-0520275867.  ^ William George Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 3, p. 88 Archived 28 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Green, Peter (1991). Alexander of Macedon. University of California Press. p. 460. ISBN 978-0520275867.  ^ Filonik, Jakub (2013). "Athenian impiety trials: a reappraisal". Dike (16): 72–73. doi:10.13130/1128-8221/4290 .  ^ Jones, W. T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-15-538312-8.  ^ Vita Marciana 41, cf. Aelian Varia historica 3.36, Ingemar Düring, Aristotle
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in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Göteborg, 1957, T44a-e. ^ Haase, Wolfgang (1992). Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie (Doxographica [Forts. ]). Walter de Gruyter. p. 3862. ISBN 978-3-11-013699-9.  ^ Degnan, Michael (1994). "Recent Work in Aristotle's Logic". Philosophical Books. 35 (2 (April 1994)): 81–89.  ^ Corcoran, John (2009). "Aristotle's Demonstrative Logic". History and Philosophy of Logic. 30: 1–20.  ^ Kant, Immanuel (1787). Critique of Pure Reason
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to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones in the History of Mathematics. Sterling. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4027-5796-9.  ^ "Prior Analytics", 24b18–20; Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Ancient Logic: Aristotle: Non-Modal Syllogistic and Ancient Logic: Aristotle: Modal Logic ^ a b c Zalta, Edward N., ed. (2017). "Aristotle's Logic". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ " The School of Athens
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by Raphael". Visual Arts Cork. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ a b Cohen, S. Marc (2016). "Aristotle's Metaphysics: Substances and Universals". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ a b c d Zalta, Edward N., ed. (2016). "John Philiponus". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Turner, William (1929). History of Philosophy. Ginn. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-105-91931-2.  ^ Counahan, James (1969). "The Quest for Metaphysics". The Thomist: A Speculative Quarterly Review. Johns Hopkins University Press. 33 (3): 519–572. doi:10.1353/tho.1969.0027.  ^ e.g., in Movement of Animals 700b9. ^ " Aristotle
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VIII 1045a–b ^ Cohen, S. Marc (2016). "Aristotle's Metaphysics: Substance and Definition". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Lloyd, G. E. R. (1968). The critic of Plato. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–47. ISBN 978-0-521-09456-6.  ^ a b Lloyd 1968, pp. 133–139, 166–169. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rovelli, Carlo (2015). "Aristotle's Physics: A Physicist's Look". Journal of the American Philosophical Association. 1 (1): 23–40. doi:10.1017/apa.2014.11.  ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 88–90. ^ a b c d e Lloyd, G. E. R. (1996). Causes and correlations. Adversaries and Authorities: Investigations into ancient Greek and Chinese science. Cambridge University Press. pp. 96–100, 106–107. ISBN 978-0-521-55695-8.  ^ Hankinson, R. J. (1998). Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 159. doi:10.1093/0199246564.001.0001. ISBN 978-0198237457.  ^ a b Leroi 2015, pp. 91–92, 369–373. ^ Lahanas, Michael. " Optics
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2.6 ^ Miller, Willard M. (1973). " Aristotle
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We Live On. Alfred A. Knopf. p. 13. OCLC 1024467091.  ^ Aristotle. Meteorology. Book 1, Part 14 ^ Lyell, Charles (1832). Principles of Geology. p. 17. OCLC 609586345.  ^ Leroi 2015, p. 7. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 14. ^ Thompson, D'Arcy (1910). Ross, W.D.; Smith, J. A., eds. Historia animalium. The works of Aristotle
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Inside a Chicken's Egg". BBC. Retrieved 17 November 2016.  ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 197–200. ^ a b Leroi 2015, pp. 365–368. ^ Taylor 1922, p. 49. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 408. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 72–74. ^ Bergstrom, Carl T.; Dugatkin, Lee Alan (2012). Evolution. Norton. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-393-92592-0.  ^ Rhodes, Frank Harold Trevor (1974). Evolution. Golden Press. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-307-64360-5.  ^ Mayr, Ernst (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap Press. pp. 201–202. ISBN 978-0674364462.  see also: Lovejoy, Arthur O. (31 January 1976). The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0674361539.  ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 111–119. ^ Mason, Stephen F. (1979). A History of the Sciences. Collier Books. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0020934004.  ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 156–163. ^ Zalta, Edward N., ed. (2016). "Psychology". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ Mason, Stephen F. (1979). A History of the Sciences. Collier Books. p. 45. ISBN 9780020934004. OCLC 924760574.  ^ Guthrie, W. (2010). A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. p. 348. ISBN 978-0521294201.  ^ Bloch, David (2007). Aristotle
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on Memory and Recollection. p. 12. ISBN 978-90-04-16046-0.  ^ Bloch 2007, p. 61. ^ Carruthers, Mary (2007). The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval
Medieval
Culture. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-42973-3.  ^ Bloch 2007, p. 25. ^ Warren, Howard (1921). A History of the Association Psychology. p. 30. OCLC 21010604.  ^ Warren 1921, p. 25. ^ Carruthers 2007, p. 19. ^ Warren 1921, p. 296. ^ Warren 1921, p. 259. ^ a b c d e f g Holowchak, Mark (1996). " Aristotle
Aristotle
on Dreaming: What Goes on in Sleep when the 'Big Fire' goes out". Ancient Philosophy. 16 (2): 405–23. doi:10.5840/ancientphil199616244.  ^ a b c d e f Shute, Clarence (1941). The Psychology
Psychology
of Aristotle: An Analysis of the Living Being. Columbia University Press. pp. 115–18. OCLC 936606202.  ^ a b Modrak, Deborah (2009). "Dreams and Method in Aristotle". Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research. 20: 169–181.  ^ Webb, Wilse (1990). Dreamtime and dreamwork: Decoding the language of the night. Jeremy P. Tarcher. pp. 174–84. ISBN 978-0-87477-594-5.  ^ Kraut, Richard (1 May 2001). "Aristotle's Ethics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 March 2018.  ^ Nicomachean Ethics
Ethics
Book I. See for example chapter 7 1098a. ^ Nicomachean Ethics
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Book VI. ^ Politics
Politics
1253a19–24 ^ Aristotle
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(2009) [1995]. Politics. Translated by Ernest Barker and revised with introduction and notes by R. F. Stalley (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 320–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953873-7.  ^ Ebenstein, Alan; William Ebenstein (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. p. 59.  ^ a b Hutchinson, D. S.; Johnson, Monte Ransome (2015). "Exhortation to Philosophy" (PDF). Protrepticus. p. 22.  ^ Kaufmann, Walter Arnold (1968). Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton University Press. pp. 56–60. ISBN 978-0-691-02005-1.  ^ Garver, Eugene (1994). Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character. University of Chicago Press. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-0-226-28425-5.  ^ Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg (1996). Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg, ed. Structuring Rhetoric. Essays on Aristotle's Rhetoric. University of California Press. pp. 3–7. ISBN 978-0-520-20227-6.  ^ Grimaldi, William M. A. (1998). "Studies in the Philosophy of Aristotle's Rhetoric". In Enos, Richard Leo; Agnew, Lois Peters. Landmark Essays on Aristotelian Rhetoric. Landmark Essays. 14. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-880393-32-1.  ^ a b c d e f Halliwell, Stephen (2002). "Inside and Outside the Work of Art". The Aesthetics
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in Islamic philosophy. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Taylor and Francis. doi:10.4324/9780415249126-H002-1. Retrieved 29 March 2018.  ^ Rasa'il I, 103, 17, Abu Rida ^ Comm. Magnum in Aristotle, De Anima, III, 2, 43 Crawford ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1996). The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia. Curzon Press. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-7007-0314-2.  ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Aristutalis ^ a b "Phyllis and Aristotle
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The Triumph of Seduction over Intellect". Louvre. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ Zalta, Edward N., ed. (2014). "Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.  ^ E.g. Summa Theologica, Part I, Question 3 ^ Zalta, Edward N., ed. (2018). " Aristotelianism
Aristotelianism
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to Zoos: a philosophical dictionary of biology. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0192830432. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Mayhew, Robert. " Aristotle
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Sources

Barnes, Jonathan (1995). "Life and Work". The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42294-9.  Leroi, Armand Marie (2015). The Lagoon: How Aristotle
Aristotle
Invented Science. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1408836224.  Lloyd, G. E. R. (1968). The critic of Plato. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09456-6.  Sorabji, Richard (1990). Aristotle
Aristotle
Transformed. Duckworth. ISBN 978-0715622544. 

Further reading The secondary literature on Aristotle
Aristotle
is vast. The following references are only a small selection.

Ackrill J. L. (1997). Essays on Plato
Plato
and Aristotle, Oxford University Press. Ackrill, J. L. (1981). Aristotle
Aristotle
the Philosopher. Oxford University Press.  Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle
Aristotle
for Everybody. Macmillan.  Ammonius (1991). Cohen, S. Marc; Matthews, Gareth B, eds. On Aristotle's Categories. Cornell University
Cornell University
Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2688-9.  Aristotle
Aristotle
(1908–1952). The Works of Aristotle
Aristotle
Translated into English Under the Editorship of W. D. Ross, 12 vols. Clarendon Press.  These translations are available in several places online; see External links. Bakalis, Nikolaos. (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing ISBN 978-1-4120-4843-9 Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. North-Holland.  Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. Burnyeat, M. F. et al. (1979). Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy. Cantor, Norman F.; Klein, Peter L., eds. (1969). Ancient Thought: Plato
Plato
and Aristotle. Monuments of Western Thought. 1. Blaisdell.  Chappell, V. (1973). "Aristotle's Conception of Matter". Journal of Philosophy. 70: 679–96. doi:10.2307/2025076.  Code, Alan (1995). Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76. Ferguson, John (1972). Aristotle. Twayne Publishers.  De Groot, Jean (2014). Aristotle's Empiricism: Experience and Mechanics in the 4th Century BC, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-83-4 Frede, Michael (1987). Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Fuller, B.A.G. (1923). Aristotle. History of Greek Philosophy. 3. Cape.  Gendlin, Eugene T. (2012). Line by Line Commentary on Aristotle's De Anima, Volume 1: Books I & II; Volume 2: Book III. The Focusing Institute. Gill, Mary Louise (1989). Aristotle
Aristotle
on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton University Press. Guthrie, W. K. C. (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy. 6. Cambridge University Press.  Halper, Edward C. (2009). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha – Delta, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-21-6. Halper, Edward C. (2005). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing, ISBN 978-1-930972-05-6. Irwin, T. H. (1988). Aristotle's First Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press, ISBN 0-19-824290-5. Jaeger, Werner (1948). Robinson, Richard, ed. Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of His Development (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press.  Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele, Bruno Mondadori (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of Science") ISBN 978-88-424-9737-0. Kiernan, Thomas P., ed. (1962). Aristotle
Aristotle
Dictionary. Philosophical Library.  Knight, Kelvin (2007). Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics
Ethics
and Politics from Aristotle
Aristotle
to MacIntyre, Polity Press. Lewis, Frank A. (1991). Substance and Predication in Aristotle. Cambridge University Press. Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago University Press. Loux, Michael J. (1991). Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Metaphysics
Ζ and Η. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Cornell University
Press. Maso, Stefano (Ed.), Natali, Carlo (Ed.), Seel, Gerhard (Ed.) (2012) Reading Aristotle: Physics
Physics
VII.3: What is Alteration? Proceedings of the International ESAP-HYELE Conference, Parmenides
Parmenides
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-930972-73-5 McKeon, Richard (1973). Introduction to Aristotle
Aristotle
(2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press.  Owen, G. E. L. (1965c). "The Platonism
Platonism
of Aristotle". Proceedings of the British Academy. 50: 125–150.  [Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R. R. K. Sorabji, eds.(1975). Articles on Aristotle
Aristotle
Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth 14–34.] Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle
Aristotle
and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge University Press. Plato
Plato
(1979). Allen, Harold Joseph; Wilbur, James B, eds. The Worlds of Plato
Plato
and Aristotle. Prometheus Books.  Reeve, C. D. C. (2000). Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics. Hackett. Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Charles C Thomas.  Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle
Aristotle
(6th ed.). Routledge.  Scaltsas, T. (1994). Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Cornell University
Cornell University
Press. Strauss, Leo (1964). "On Aristotle's Politics", in The City and Man, Rand McNally. Swanson, Judith (1992). The Public and the Private in Aristotle's Political Philosophy. Cornell University
Cornell University
Press.  Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology". Greek Biology
Biology
and Medicine. Archived from the original on 27 March 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2017.  Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. Indiana University Press.  Woods, M. J. (1991b). " Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics". Aristotle
Aristotle
and the Later Tradition. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Suppl. pp. 41–56. 

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John Ray
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