The Info List - Aristotle

(/ˈærɪˌstɒtəl/;[3] Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs, pronounced [aristotélɛːs]; 384–322 BC)[A] was a philosopher during the Classical period in Ancient Greece, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school
Peripatetic school
of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he is considered the "Father of Western Philosophy". His writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle
provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Aristotle
was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle
was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian. At seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Plato's Academy
Plato's Academy
in Athens
and remained there until the age of thirty-seven (c. 347 BC).[4] Shortly after Plato
died, Aristotle
left Athens
and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC.[5] He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls. Though Aristotle
wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.[6] The fact that Aristotle
was a pupil of Plato
contributed to his former views of Platonism, but, following Plato's death, Aristotle
developed an increased interest in natural sciences and adopted the position of immanent realism. Aristotle's views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard
Peter Abelard
and John Buridan. Aristotle's influence on logic also continued well into the 19th century He influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism
of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle
was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as "The First Teacher" and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
as simply "The Philosopher". His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre
Alasdair MacIntyre
and Philippa Foot.


1 Life 2 Speculative philosophy

2.1 Logic

2.1.1 Analytics and the Organon

2.2 Epistemology 2.3 Metaphysics

2.3.1 Substance, potentiality and actuality 2.3.2 Universals and particulars

3 Natural philosophy

3.1 Physics

3.1.1 Five elements 3.1.2 Motion 3.1.3 Four causes 3.1.4 Optics 3.1.5 Chance and spontaneity

3.2 Astronomy 3.3 Geology 3.4 Biology

3.4.1 Empirical research 3.4.2 Scientific style 3.4.3 Classification of living things

3.5 Psychology

3.5.1 Soul 3.5.2 Memory 3.5.3 Dreams

4 Practical philosophy

4.1 Just war theory 4.2 Ethics 4.3 Politics 4.4 Economics 4.5 Rhetoric
and poetics 4.6 Views on women

5 Influence

5.1 On his successor, Theophrastus 5.2 On later Greek philosophers 5.3 On Hellenistic science 5.4 On Byzantine scholars 5.5 On the medieval Islamic world 5.6 On medieval Europe 5.7 On Early Modern
Early Modern
scientists 5.8 On 19th-century thinkers 5.9 Modern rejection and rehabilitation

6 Surviving works

6.1 Corpus Aristotelicum 6.2 Loss and preservation

7 Legacy

7.1 Depictions 7.2 Eponyms

8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations 9.3 Sources

10 Further reading 11 External links

Life School of Aristotle
in Mieza, Macedonia, Greece In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established. The biographies written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.[B] Aristotle, whose name means "the best purpose" in Ancient Greek,[7] was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice, about 55 km (34 miles) east of modern-day Thessaloniki.[8][9] His father Nicomachus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about thirteen, and Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian.[10] Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.[11] At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle
moved to Athens
to continue his education at Plato's Academy.[12] He remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens
in 348/47 BC. The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus, although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens
at that time and left before Plato
died.[13] Aristotle
then accompanied Xenocrates
to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor. After the death of Hermias, Aristotle
travelled with his pupil Theophrastus
to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon. While in Lesbos, Aristotle
married Pythias, either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias. In 343 BC, Aristotle
was invited by Philip II of Macedon
Philip II of Macedon
to become the tutor to his son Alexander.[14][5]

Portrait bust of Aristotle; an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd century AD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos Aristotle
was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander, but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy
and Cassander.[15] Aristotle
encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia
was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be "a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants".[15] By 335 BC, Aristotle
had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle
conducted courses at the school for the next twelve years. While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle
became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus. According to the Suda, he also had an erômenos, Palaephatus of Abydus.[16] This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle
is believed to have composed many of his works.[5] He wrote many dialogues, of which only fragments have survived. Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students. His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul
On the Soul
and Poetics. Aristotle
studied and made significant contributions to "logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre."[4] Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle
became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia
and Persians. A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle
of playing a role in Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some six years after the death.[17] Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens
was rekindled. In 322 BC, Demophilus and Eurymedon the Hierophant reportedly denounced Aristotle
for impiety,[18] prompting him to flee to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, on Euboea, at which occasion he was said to have stated: "I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy"[19][20][21] – a reference to Athens's trial and execution of Socrates. He died on Euboea
of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.[22]

Speculative philosophy Logic Main article: Term logic Further information: Non-Aristotelian logic With the Prior Analytics, Aristotle
is credited with the earliest study of formal logic,[23] and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th-century advances in mathematical logic.[24] Kant stated in the Critique of Pure Reason that with Aristotle
logic reached its completion.[25]

Analytics and the Organon Main article: Organon

One of Aristotle's types of syllogism[C]

In words In terms[D] In equations[E]

    All men are mortal.    All Greeks are men.∴ All Greeks are mortal. M a PS a MS a P

What we today call Aristotelian logic with its types of syllogism (methods of logical argument),[26] Aristotle
himself would have labelled "analytics". The term "logic" he reserved to mean dialectics. Most of Aristotle's work is probably not in its original form, because it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers. The logical works of Aristotle
were compiled into a set of six books called the Organon around 40 BC by Andronicus of Rhodes or others among his followers.[28] The books are:

Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics On Sophistical Refutations The order of the books (or the teachings from which they are composed) is not certain, but this list was derived from analysis of Aristotle's writings. It goes from the basics, the analysis of simple terms in the Categories, the analysis of propositions and their elementary relations in On Interpretation, to the study of more complex forms, namely, syllogisms (in the Analytics)[29][30] and dialectics (in the Topics and Sophistical Refutations). The first three treatises form the core of the logical theory stricto sensu: the grammar of the language of logic and the correct rules of reasoning. The Rhetoric
is not conventionally included, but it states that it relies on the Topics.[31]

Epistemology Plato
(left) and Aristotle
in Raphael's 1509 fresco, The School of Athens. Aristotle
holds his Nicomachean Ethics
and gestures to the earth, representing his view that knowledge comes from experience, whilst Plato
gestures to the heavens, indicating his Theory of Forms, and holds his Timaeus.[32][33] Like his teacher Plato, Aristotle's philosophy aims at the universal. Aristotle's ontology places the universal (katholou) in particulars (kath' hekaston), things in the world, whereas for Plato
the universal is a separately existing form which actual things imitate. This means that Aristotle's epistemology is based on the study of things that exist or happen in the world, and rises to knowledge of the universal, whereas for Plato
epistemology begins with knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) and descends to knowledge of particular imitations of these.[31] For Aristotle, "form" is still what phenomena are based on, but is "instantiated" in a particular substance.[34] Aristotle
uses induction from examples alongside deduction, whereas Plato
relies on deduction from a priori principles.[31] In Aristotle's terminology, "natural philosophy" is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today as physics, biology and other natural sciences. Aristotle's work encompassed virtually all facets of intellectual inquiry. Aristotle
makes philosophy in the broad sense coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as "science". Note, however, that his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term "scientific method". For Aristotle, "all science (dianoia) is either practical, poetical or theoretical" ( Metaphysics
1025b25). His practical science includes ethics and politics; his poetical science means the study of fine arts including poetry; his theoretical science covers physics, mathematics and metaphysics.[35]

Metaphysics Main article: Metaphysics
(Aristotle) The word "metaphysics" appears to have been coined by the first century AD editor who assembled various small selections of Aristotle's works to the treatise we know by the name Metaphysics.[36] Aristotle
called it "first philosophy", and distinguished it from mathematics and natural science (physics) as the contemplative (theoretikē) philosophy which is "theological" and studies the divine. He wrote in his Metaphysics

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 if there were no other independent things besides the composite natural ones, the study of nature would be the primary kind of knowledge; but if there is some motionless independent thing, the knowledge of this precedes it and is first philosophy, and it is universal in just this way, because it is first. And it belongs to this sort of philosophy to study being as being, both what it is and what belongs to it just by virtue of being.[37]

Substance, potentiality and actuality Further information: Hylomorphism and Potentiality and actuality (Aristotle) Aristotle
examines the concepts of substance (ousia) and essence (to ti ên einai, "the what it was to be") in his Metaphysics
(Book VII), and he concludes that a particular substance is a combination of both matter and form, a philosophical theory called hylomorphism. In Book VIII, he distinguishes the matter of the substance as the substratum, or the stuff of which it is composed. For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house, while the form of the substance is the actual house, namely 'covering for bodies and chattels' or any other differentia that let us define something as a house. The formula that gives the components is the account of the matter, and the formula that gives the differentia is the account of the form.[38][34] With regard to the change (kinesis) and its causes now, as he defines in his Physics
and On Generation and Corruption
On Generation and Corruption
319b–320a, he distinguishes the coming to be from:

growth and diminution, which is change in quantity; locomotion, which is change in space; and alteration, which is change in quality. Aristotle
argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning. The coming to be is a change where nothing persists of which the resultant is a property. In that particular change he introduces the concept of potentiality (dynamis) and actuality (entelecheia) in association with the matter and the form. Referring to potentiality, this is what a thing is capable of doing, or being acted upon, if the conditions are right and it is not prevented by something else. For example, the seed of a plant in the soil is potentially (dynamei) plant, and if it is not prevented by something, it will become a plant. Potentially beings can either 'act' (poiein) or 'be acted upon' (paschein), which can be either innate or learned. For example, the eyes possess the potentiality of sight (innate – being acted upon), while the capability of playing the flute can be possessed by learning (exercise – acting). Actuality is the fulfilment of the end of the potentiality. Because the end (telos) is the principle of every change, and for the sake of the end exists potentiality, therefore actuality is the end. Referring then to our previous example, we could say that an actuality is when a plant does one of the activities that plants do.[34]

For that for the sake of which (to hou heneka) a thing is, is its principle, and the becoming is for the sake of the end; and the actuality is the end, and it is for the sake of this that the potentiality is acquired. For animals do not see in order that they may have sight, but they have sight that they may see.[39]

In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is also a final cause or end. Then Aristotle
proceeds and concludes that the actuality is prior to potentiality in formula, in time and in substantiality. With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle
tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, for example, "what is it that makes a man one"? Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity? However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same.[34][40]

Universals and particulars Plato's forms exist as universals, like the ideal form of an apple. For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism). Main article: Aristotle's theory of universals Plato
argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to other things. When we look at an apple, for example, we see an apple, and we can also analyse a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, we can place an apple next to a book, so that we can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Plato
argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form. Aristotle
disagreed with Plato
on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated at some period of time, and that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. In addition, Aristotle
disagreed with Plato
about the location of universals. Where Plato
spoke of the world of forms, a place where all universal forms subsist, Aristotle
maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.[34][41]

Natural philosophy Aristotle's "natural philosophy" spans a wide range of natural phenomena including those now covered by physics, biology and other natural sciences.[35]

Physics The four classical elements (fire, air, water, earth) of Empedocles and Aristotle
illustrated with a burning log. The log releases all four elements as it is destroyed. Main article: Aristotelian physics Five elements Main article: Classical element In his On Generation and Corruption, Aristotle
related each of the four elements proposed earlier by Empedocles, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, to two of the four sensible qualities, hot, cold, wet, and dry. In the Empedoclean scheme, all matter was made of the four elements, in differing proportions. Aristotle's scheme added the heavenly Aether, the divine substance of the heavenly spheres, stars and planets.[42]

Aristotle's elements[42]

Element Hot/Cold Wet/Dry Motion Modern stateof matter

Earth Cold Dry Down Solid

Water Cold Wet Down Liquid

Air Hot Wet Up Gas

Fire Hot Dry Up Plasma

Aether (divinesubstance) — Circular(in heavens) —

Motion Further information: History of classical mechanics Aristotle
describes two kinds of motion: "violent" or "unnatural motion", such as that of a thrown stone, in the Physics
(254b10), and "natural motion", such as of a falling object, in On the Heavens (300a20). In violent motion, as soon as the agent stops causing it, the motion stops also; in other words, the natural state of an object is to be at rest,[43][F] since Aristotle
does not address friction.[44] With this understanding, it can be observed that, as Aristotle
stated, heavy objects (on the ground, say) require more force to make them move; and objects pushed with greater force move faster.[45][G] This would imply the equation[45]

F = m v

displaystyle F=mv

, incorrect in modern physics.[45] Natural motion depends on the element concerned: the aether naturally moves in a circle around the heavens,[H] while the 4 Empedoclean elements move vertically up (like fire, as is observed) or down (like earth) towards their natural resting places.[46][44][I]

Aristotle's laws of motion. In Physics
he states that objects fall at a speed proportional to their weight and inversely proportional to the density of the fluid they are immersed in.[44] This is a correct approximation for objects in Earth's gravitational field moving in air or water.[46] In the Physics
(215a25), Aristotle
effectively states a quantitative law, that the speed, v, of a falling body is proportional (say, with constant c) to its weight, W, and inversely proportional to the density,[J] ρ, of the fluid in which it is falling:[46][44]

v = c

W ρ

displaystyle v=c frac W rho

implies that in a vacuum the speed of fall would become infinite, and concludes from this apparent absurdity that a vacuum is not possible.[46][44] Opinions have varied on whether Aristotle
intended to state quantitative laws. Henri Carteron held the "extreme view"[44] that Aristotle's concept of force was basically qualitative,[47] but other authors reject this.[44] Archimedes
corrected Aristotle's theory that bodies move towards their natural resting places; metal boats can float if they displace enough water; floating depends in Archimedes' scheme on the mass and volume of the object, not as Aristotle
thought its elementary composition.[46] Aristotle's writings on motion remained influential until the Early Modern period. John Philoponus (in the Middle Ages) and Galileo are said to have shown by experiment that Aristotle's claim that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.[35] A contrary opinion is given by Carlo Rovelli, who argues that Aristotle's physics of motion is correct within its domain of validity, that of objects in the Earth's gravitational field immersed in a fluid such as air. In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones (whether friction is ignored, or not[46]), and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium.[45][K] Newton's "forced" motion corresponds to Aristotle's "violent" motion with its external agent, but Aristotle's assumption that the agent's effect stops immediately it stops acting (e.g., the ball leaves the thrower's hand) has awkward consequences: he has to suppose that surrounding fluid helps to push the ball along to make it continue to rise even though the hand is no longer acting on it, resulting in the Medieval
theory of impetus.[46]

Four causes Main article: Four causes Aristotle
argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: in the case of a table, the wood used (material cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).[48] Aristotle
suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active factors. His term aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.[49][50]

Material cause
Material cause
describes the material out of which something is composed. Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino.[49] The formal cause is its form, i.e., the arrangement of that matter. It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as the whole-part causation. Plainly put, the formal cause is the idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing.[49] The efficient cause is "the primary source", or that from which the change under consideration proceeds. It identifies 'what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed' and so suggests all sorts of agents, nonliving or living, acting as the sources of change or movement or rest. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs. In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over.[49] In the case of animals, this agency is a combination of how it develops from the egg, and how its body functions.[51] The final cause (telos) is its purpose, the reason why a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities. The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition.[49] In the case of living things, it implies adaptation to a particular way of life.[51] Optics Further information: History of optics Aristotle
describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problems, book 15. The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. With it, he saw that whatever shape he made the hole, the sun's image always remained circular. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.[52]

Chance and spontaneity Further information: Accident (philosophy) According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity. Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things, "from what is spontaneous". There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle
names "luck", that only applies to people's moral choices.[53][54]

Astronomy Further information: History of astronomy In astronomy, Aristotle
refuted Democritus's claim that the Milky Way was made up of "those stars which are shaded by the earth from the sun's rays," pointing out correctly that if "the size of the sun is greater than that of the earth and the distance of the stars from the earth many times greater than that of the sun, then... the sun shines on all the stars and the earth screens none of them."[55]

noted that the ground level of the Aeolian islands
Aeolian islands
changed before a volcanic eruption. Geology Further information: History of geology Aristotle
was one of the first people to record any geological observations. He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person's lifetime.[56][57] The geologist Charles Lyell
Charles Lyell
noted that Aristotle
described such change, including "lakes that had dried up" and "deserts that had become watered by rivers", giving as examples the growth of the Nile delta since the time of Homer, and "the upheaving of one of the Aeolian islands, previous to a volcanic eruption."'[58]

Biology Main article: Aristotle's biology Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle
described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom left). Empirical research Aristotle
was the first person to study biology systematically,[59] and biology forms a large part of his writings. He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos
and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos.[60][61] His data in History of Animals, Generation of Animals, Movement of Animals, and Parts of Animals
Parts of Animals
are assembled from his own observations, statements given by people with specialised knowledge such as beekeepers and fishermen, and less accurate accounts provided by travellers from overseas.[62] His apparent emphasis on animals rather than plants is a historical accident: his works on botany have been lost, but two books on plants by his pupil Theophrastus
have survived.[63] Aristotle
reports on the sea-life visible from observation on Lesbos and the catches of fishermen. He describes the catfish, electric ray, and frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus. His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century.[64] He gives accurate descriptions of the four-chambered fore-stomachs of ruminants,[65] and of the ovoviviparous embryological development of the hound shark.[66] He notes that an animal's structure is well matched to function, so, among birds, the heron, which lives in marshes with soft mud and lives by catching fish, has a long neck and long legs, and a sharp spear-like beak, whereas ducks that swim have short legs and webbed feet.[67] Darwin, too, noted these sorts of differences between similar kinds of animal, but unlike Aristotle
used the data to come to the theory of evolution.[68] Aristotle's writings can seem to modern readers close to implying evolution, but while Aristotle
was aware that new mutations or hybridisations could occur, he saw these as rare accidents. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes. He was thus critical of Empedocles's materialist theory of a "survival of the fittest" origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could lead to orderly results.[69] To put his views into modern terms, he nowhere says that different species can have a common ancestor, or that one kind can change into another, or that kinds can become extinct.[70]

Scientific style Aristotle
inferred growth laws from his observations on animals, including that brood size decreases with body mass, whereas gestation period increases. He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: data are shown for mouse and elephant. Aristotle
did not do experiments in the modern sense.[71] He used the ancient Greek term pepeiramenoi to mean observations, or at most investigative procedures like dissection.[72] In Generation of Animals, he finds a fertilised hen's egg of a suitable stage and opens it to see the embryo's heart beating inside.[73][74] Instead, he practised a different style of science: systematically gathering data, discovering patterns common to whole groups of animals, and inferring possible causal explanations from these.[75][76] This style is common in modern biology when large amounts of data become available in a new field, such as genomics. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed. In this sense, Aristotle's biology is scientific.[75]

From the data he collected and documented, Aristotle
inferred quite a number of rules relating the life-history features of the live-bearing tetrapods (terrestrial placental mammals) that he studied. Among these correct predictions are the following. Brood size
Brood size
decreases with (adult) body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young (usually just one) per brood than a mouse. Lifespan increases with gestation period, and also with body mass, so that elephants live longer than mice, have a longer period of gestation, and are heavier. As a final example, fecundity decreases with lifespan, so long-lived kinds like elephants have fewer young in total than short-lived kinds like mice.[77] Classification of living things Further information: Scala naturae Aristotle
recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.[78] Aristotle
distinguished about 500 species of animals,[79][80] arranging these in the History of Animals in a graded scale of perfection, a scala naturae, with man at the top. His system had eleven grades of animal, from highest potential to lowest, expressed in their form at birth: the highest gave live birth to hot and wet creatures, the lowest laid cold, dry mineral-like eggs. Animals came above plants, and these in turn were above minerals.[81] see also:[82] He grouped what the modern zoologist would call vertebrates as the hotter "animals with blood", and below them the colder invertebrates as "animals without blood". Those with blood were divided into the live-bearing (mammals), and the egg-laying (birds, reptiles, fish). Those without blood were insects, crustacea (non-shelled – cephalopods, and shelled) and the hard-shelled molluscs (bivalves and gastropods). He recognised that animals did not exactly fit into a linear scale, and noted various exceptions, such as that sharks had a placenta like the tetrapods. To a modern biologist, the explanation, not available to Aristotle, is convergent evolution.[83] He believed that purposive final causes guided all natural processes; this teleological view justified his observed data as an expression of formal design.[84]

Aristotle's Scala naturae
Scala naturae
(highest to lowest)

Group Examples(given by Aristotle) Blood Legs Souls(Rational,Sensitive,Vegetative) Qualities(Hot–Cold,Wet–Dry)

Man Man with blood 2 legs R, S, V Hot, Wet

Live-bearing tetrapods Cat, hare with blood 4 legs S, V Hot, Wet

Cetaceans Dolphin, whale with blood none S, V Hot, Wet

Birds Bee-eater, nightjar with blood 2 legs S, V Hot, Wet, except Dry eggs

Egg-laying tetrapods Chameleon, crocodile with blood 4 legs S, V Cold, Wet except scales, eggs

Snakes Water snake, Ottoman viper with blood none S, V Cold, Wet except scales, eggs

Egg-laying fishes Sea bass, parrotfish with blood none S, V Cold, Wet, including eggs

(Among the egg-laying fishes):placental selachians Shark, skate with blood none S, V Cold, Wet, but placenta like tetrapods

Crustaceans Shrimp, crab without many legs S, V Cold, Wet except shell

Cephalopods Squid, octopus without tentacles S, V Cold, Wet

Hard-shelled animals Cockle, trumpet snail without none S, V Cold, Dry (mineral shell)

Larva-bearing insects Ant, cicada without 6 legs S, V Cold, Dry

Spontaneously-generating Sponges, worms without none S, V Cold, Wet or Dry, from earth

Plants Fig without none V Cold, Dry

Minerals Iron without none none Cold, Dry

Psychology Soul Further information: On the Soul Aristotle
proposed a three-part structure for souls of plants, animals, and humans, making humans unique in having all three types of soul. Aristotle's psychology, given in his treatise On the Soul
On the Soul
(peri psychēs), posits three kinds of soul ("psyches"): the vegetative soul, the sensitive soul, and the rational soul. Humans have a rational soul. The human soul incorporates the powers of the other kinds: Like the vegetative soul it can grow and nourish itself; like the sensitive soul it can experience sensations and move locally. The unique part of the human, rational soul is its ability to receive forms of other things and to compare them using the nous (intellect) and logos (reason).[85] For Aristotle, the soul is the form of a living being. Because all beings are composites of form and matter, the form of living beings is that which endows them with what is specific to living beings, e.g. the ability to initiate movement (or in the case of plants, growth and chemical transformations, which Aristotle
considers types of movement).[14] In contrast to earlier philosophers, but in accordance with the Egyptians, he placed the rational soul in the heart, rather than the brain.[86] Notable is Aristotle's division of sensation and thought, which generally differed from the concepts of previous philosophers, with the exception of Alcmaeon.[87]

Memory According to Aristotle
in On the Soul, memory is the ability to hold a perceived experience in the mind and to distinguish between the internal "appearance" and an occurrence in the past.[88] In other words, a memory is a mental picture (phantasm) that can be recovered. Aristotle
believed an impression is left on a semi-fluid bodily organ that undergoes several changes in order to make a memory. A memory occurs when stimuli such as sights or sounds are so complex that the nervous system cannot receive all the impressions at once. These changes are the same as those involved in the operations of sensation, Aristotelian 'common sense', and thinking.[89][90] Aristotle
uses the term 'memory' for the actual retaining of an experience in the impression that can develop from sensation, and for the intellectual anxiety that comes with the impression because it is formed at a particular time and processing specific contents. Memory is of the past, prediction is of the future, and sensation is of the present. Retrieval of impressions cannot be performed suddenly. A transitional channel is needed and located in our past experiences, both for our previous experience and present experience.[91] Because Aristotle
believes people receive all kinds of sense perceptions and perceive them as impressions, people are continually weaving together new impressions of experiences. To search for these impressions, people search the memory itself.[92] Within the memory, if one experience is offered instead of a specific memory, that person will reject this experience until they find what they are looking for. Recollection occurs when one retrieved experience naturally follows another. If the chain of "images" is needed, one memory will stimulate the next. When people recall experiences, they stimulate certain previous experiences until they reach the one that is needed.[93] Recollection is thus the self-directed activity of retrieving the information stored in a memory impression.[94] Only humans can remember impressions of intellectual activity, such as numbers and words. Animals that have perception of time can retrieve memories of their past observations. Remembering involves only perception of the things remembered and of the time passed.[95]

Senses, perception, memory, dreams, action in Aristotle's psychology. Impressions are stored in the seat of perception, linked by his Laws of Association (similarity, contrast, and contiguity). Aristotle
believed the chain of thought, which ends in recollection of certain impressions, was connected systematically in relationships such as similarity, contrast, and contiguity, described in his Laws of Association. Aristotle
believed that past experiences are hidden within the mind. A force operates to awaken the hidden material to bring up the actual experience. According to Aristotle, association is the power innate in a mental state, which operates upon the unexpressed remains of former experiences, allowing them to rise and be recalled.[96]

Dreams Further information: Dream § Classical history Aristotle
describes sleep in On Sleep and Wakefulness.[97] Sleep takes place as a result of overuse of the senses[98] or of digestion,[97] so it is vital to the body.[98] While a person is asleep, the critical activities, which include thinking, sensing, recalling and remembering, do not function as they do during wakefulness. Since a person cannot sense during sleep they can not have desire, which is the result of sensation. However, the senses are able to work during sleep,[98] albeit differently,[97] unless they are weary.[98] Dreams do not involve actually sensing a stimulus. In dreams, sensation is still involved, but in an altered manner.[98] Aristotle
explains that when a person stares at a moving stimulus such as the waves in a body of water, and then look away, the next thing they look at appears to have a wavelike motion. When a person perceives a stimulus and the stimulus is no longer the focus of their attention, it leaves an impression.[97] When the body is awake and the senses are functioning properly, a person constantly encounters new stimuli to sense and so the impressions of previously perceived stimuli are ignored.[98] However, during sleep the impressions made throughout the day are noticed as there are no new distracting sensory experiences.[97] So, dreams result from these lasting impressions. Since impressions are all that are left and not the exact stimuli, dreams do not resemble the actual waking experience.[99] During sleep, a person is in an altered state of mind. Aristotle
compares a sleeping person to a person who is overtaken by strong feelings toward a stimulus. For example, a person who has a strong infatuation with someone may begin to think they see that person everywhere because they are so overtaken by their feelings. Since a person sleeping is in a suggestible state and unable to make judgements, they become easily deceived by what appears in their dreams, like the infatuated person.[97] This leads the person to believe the dream is real, even when the dreams are absurd in nature.[97] One component of Aristotle's theory of dreams disagrees with previously held beliefs. He claimed that dreams are not foretelling and not sent by a divine being. Aristotle
reasoned naturalistically that instances in which dreams do resemble future events are simply coincidences.[100] Aristotle
claimed that a dream is first established by the fact that the person is asleep when they experience it. If a person had an image appear for a moment after waking up or if they see something in the dark it is not considered a dream because they were awake when it occurred. Secondly, any sensory experience that is perceived while a person is asleep does not qualify as part of a dream. For example, if, while a person is sleeping, a door shuts and in their dream they hear a door is shut, this sensory experience is not part of the dream. Lastly, the images of dreams must be a result of lasting impressions of waking sensory experiences.[99]

Practical philosophy Aristotle's practical philosophy covers areas such as ethics, politics, economics, and rhetoric.[35]

Virtues and their accompanying vices[4]

Too little Virtuous mean Too much

Humbleness High-mindedness Vainglory

Lack of purpose Right ambition Over-ambition

Spiritlessness Good temper Irascibility

Rudeness Civility Obsequiousness

Cowardice Courage Rashness

Insensibility Self-control Intemperance

Sarcasm Sincerity Boastfulness

Boorishness Wit Buffoonery

Shamelessness Modesty Shyness

Callousness Just resentment Spitefulness

Pettiness Generosity Vulgarity

Meanness Liberality Wastefulness

Just war theory Aristotelian just war theory is not well regarded in the present day, especially his view that warfare was justified to enslave "natural slaves". In Aristotelian philosophy, the abolition of what he considers "natural slavery" would undermine civic freedom. The pusuit of freedom is inseparable from pursuing mastery over "those who deserve to be slaves". According to The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Politics
the targets of this aggressive warfare were non-Greeks, noting Aristotle's view that "our poets say 'it is proper for Greeks to rule non-Greeks'".[101] Aristotle
generally has a favorable opinion of war, extolling it as a chance for virtue and writing that "the leisure that accompanies peace" tends to make people "arrogant". War to "avoid becoming enslaved to others" is justified as self-defense. He writes that war "compels people to be just and temperate", however, in order to be just "war must be chosen for the sake of peace" (with the exception of wars of aggression discussed above).[101]

Ethics Main article: Aristotelian ethics Aristotle
considered ethics to be a practical rather than theoretical study, i.e., one aimed at becoming good and doing good rather than knowing for its own sake. He wrote several treatises on ethics, including most notably, the Nicomachean Ethics.[102] Aristotle
taught that virtue has to do with the proper function (ergon) of a thing. An eye is only a good eye in so much as it can see, because the proper function of an eye is sight. Aristotle reasoned that humans must have a function specific to humans, and that this function must be an activity of the psuchē (soul) in accordance with reason (logos). Aristotle
identified such an optimum activity (the virtuous mean, between the accompanying vices of excess or deficiency[4]) of the soul as the aim of all human deliberate action, eudaimonia, generally translated as "happiness" or sometimes "well being". To have the potential of ever being happy in this way necessarily requires a good character (ēthikē aretē), often translated as moral or ethical virtue or excellence.[103] Aristotle
taught that to achieve a virtuous and potentially happy character requires a first stage of having the fortune to be habituated not deliberately, but by teachers, and experience, leading to a later stage in which one consciously chooses to do the best things. When the best people come to live life this way their practical wisdom (phronesis) and their intellect (nous) can develop with each other towards the highest possible human virtue, the wisdom of an accomplished theoretical or speculative thinker, or in other words, a philosopher.[104]

Politics Main article: Politics
(Aristotle) In addition to his works on ethics, which address the individual, Aristotle
addressed the city in his work titled Politics. Aristotle considered the city to be a natural community. Moreover, he considered the city to be prior in importance to the family which in turn is prior to the individual, "for the whole must of necessity be prior to the part".[105] He also famously stated that "man is by nature a political animal" and also arguing that humanity's defining factor among others in the animal kingdom is its rationality.[106] Aristotle
conceived of politics as being like an organism rather than like a machine, and as a collection of parts none of which can exist without the others. Aristotle's conception of the city is organic, and he is considered one of the first to conceive of the city in this manner.[107]

Aristotle's classifications of political constitutions The common modern understanding of a political community as a modern state is quite different from Aristotle's understanding. Although he was aware of the existence and potential of larger empires, the natural community according to Aristotle
was the city (polis) which functions as a political "community" or "partnership" (koinōnia). The aim of the city is not just to avoid injustice or for economic stability, but rather to allow at least some citizens the possibility to live a good life, and to perform beautiful acts: "The political partnership must be regarded, therefore, as being for the sake of noble actions, not for the sake of living together." This is distinguished from modern approaches, beginning with social contract theory, according to which individuals leave the state of nature because of "fear of violent death" or its "inconveniences."[L] In Protrepticus, the character 'Aristotle' states:[108]

For we all agree that the most excellent man should rule, i.e., the supreme by nature, and that the law rules and alone is authoritative; but the law is a kind of intelligence, i.e. a discourse based on intelligence. And again, what standard do we have, what criterion of good things, that is more precise than the intelligent man? For all that this man will choose, if the choice is based on his knowledge, are good things and their contraries are bad. And since everybody chooses most of all what conforms to their own proper dispositions (a just man choosing to live justly, a man with bravery to live bravely, likewise a self-controlled man to live with self-control), it is clear that the intelligent man will choose most of all to be intelligent; for this is the function of that capacity. Hence it's evident that, according to the most authoritative judgment, intelligence is supreme among goods.[108]

Economics Main article: Politics
(Aristotle) Aristotle
made substantial contributions to economic thought, especially to thought in the Middle Ages.[109] In Politics, Aristotle
addresses the city, property, and trade. His response to criticisms of private property, in Lionel Robbins's view, anticipated later proponents of private property among philosophers and economists, as it related to the overall utility of social arrangements.[109] Aristotle
believed that although communal arrangements may seem beneficial to society, and that although private property is often blamed for social strife, such evils in fact come from human nature. In Politics, Aristotle
offers one of the earliest accounts of the origin of money.[109] Money
came into use because people became dependent on one another, importing what they needed and exporting the surplus. For the sake of convenience, people then agreed to deal in something that is intrinsically useful and easily applicable, such as iron or silver.[110] Aristotle's discussions on retail and interest was a major influence on economic thought in the Middle Ages. He had a low opinion of retail, believing that contrary to using money to procure things one needs in managing the household, retail trade seeks to make a profit. It thus uses goods as a means to an end, rather than as an end unto itself. He believed that retail trade was in this way unnatural. Similarly, Aristotle
considered making a profit through interest unnatural, as it makes a gain out of the money itself, and not from its use.[110] Aristotle
gave a summary of the function of money that was perhaps remarkably precocious for his time. He wrote that because it is impossible to determine the value of every good through a count of the number of other goods it is worth, the necessity arises of a single universal standard of measurement. Money
thus allows for the association of different goods and makes them "commensurable".[110] He goes to on state that money is also useful for future exchange, making it a sort of security. That is, "if we do not want a thing now, we shall be able to get it when we do want it".[110]

and poetics The Blind Oedipus Commending his Children to the Gods (1784) by Bénigne Gagneraux. In his Poetics, Aristotle
uses the tragedy Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles
as an example of how the perfect tragedy should be structured, with a generally good protagonist who starts the play prosperous, but loses everything through some hamartia (fault).[111] Main articles: Rhetoric
(Aristotle) and Poetics (Aristotle) Aristotle's Rhetoric
proposes that a speaker can use three basic kinds of appeals to persuade his audience: ethos (an appeal to the speaker's character), pathos (an appeal to the audience's emotion), and logos (an appeal to logical reasoning).[112] He also categorises rhetoric into three genres: epideictic (ceremonial speeches dealing with praise or blame), forensic (judicial speeches over guilt or innocence), and deliberative (speeches calling on an audience to make a decision on an issue).[113] Aristotle
also outlines two kinds of rhetorical proofs: enthymeme (proof by syllogism) and paradeigma (proof by example).[114] Aristotle
writes in his Poetics that epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dithyrambic poetry, painting, sculpture, music, and dance are all fundamentally acts of mimesis ("imitation"), each varying in imitation by medium, object, and manner.[115][116] He applies the term mimesis both as a property of a work of art and also as the product of the artist's intention[115] and contends that the audience's realisation of the mimesis is vital to understanding the work itself.[115] Aristotle
states that mimesis is a natural instinct of humanity that separates humans from animals[115][117] and that all human artistry "follows the pattern of nature".[115] Because of this, Aristotle believed that each of the mimetic arts possesses what Stephen Halliwell calls "highly structured procedures for the achievement of their purposes."[115] For example, music imitates with the media of rhythm and harmony, whereas dance imitates with rhythm alone, and poetry with language. The forms also differ in their object of imitation. Comedy, for instance, is a dramatic imitation of men worse than average; whereas tragedy imitates men slightly better than average. Lastly, the forms differ in their manner of imitation – through narrative or character, through change or no change, and through drama or no drama.[118] While it is believed that Aristotle's Poetics originally comprised two books – one on comedy and one on tragedy – only the portion that focuses on tragedy has survived. Aristotle
taught that tragedy is composed of six elements: plot-structure, character, style, thought, spectacle, and lyric poetry.[119] The characters in a tragedy are merely a means of driving the story; and the plot, not the characters, is the chief focus of tragedy. Tragedy is the imitation of action arousing pity and fear, and is meant to effect the catharsis of those same emotions. Aristotle
concludes Poetics with a discussion on which, if either, is superior: epic or tragic mimesis. He suggests that because tragedy possesses all the attributes of an epic, possibly possesses additional attributes such as spectacle and music, is more unified, and achieves the aim of its mimesis in shorter scope, it can be considered superior to epic.[120] Aristotle
was a keen systematic collector of riddles, folklore, and proverbs; he and his school had a special interest in the riddles of the Delphic Oracle and studied the fables of Aesop.[121]

Views on women Main article: Aristotle's views on women Further information: Aristotle's biology
Aristotle's biology
§ Inheritance Aristotle's analysis of procreation describes an active, ensouling masculine element bringing life to an inert, passive female element. On this ground, proponents of feminist metaphysics have accused Aristotle
of misogyny[122] and sexism.[123] However, Aristotle
gave equal weight to women's happiness as he did to men's, and commented in his Rhetoric
that the things that lead to happiness need to be in women as well as men.[M]

Influence Further information: List of writers influenced by Aristotle More than 2300 years after his death, Aristotle
remains one of the most influential people who ever lived.[125][126] He contributed to almost every field of human knowledge then in existence, and he was the founder of many new fields. According to the philosopher Bryan Magee, "it is doubtful whether any human being has ever known as much as he did".[127] Among countless other achievements, Aristotle
was the founder of formal logic,[128] pioneered the study of zoology, and left every future scientist and philosopher in his debt through his contributions to the scientific method.[129][130][131] Taneli Kukkonen, writing in The Classical Tradition, observes that his achievement in founding two sciences is unmatched, and his reach in influencing "every branch of intellectual enterprise" including Western ethical and political theory, theology, rhetoric and literary analysis is equally long. As a result, Kukkonen argues, any analysis of reality today "will almost certainly carry Aristotelian overtones ... evidence of an exceptionally forceful mind."[131] Jonathan Barnes wrote that "an account of Aristotle's intellectual afterlife would be little less than a history of European thought".[132]

On his successor, Theophrastus Main articles: Theophrastus
and Historia Plantarum (Theophrastus) Frontispiece to a 1644 version of Theophrastus's Historia Plantarum, originally written around 300 BC Aristotle's pupil and successor, Theophrastus, wrote the History of Plants, a pioneering work in botany. Some of his technical terms remain in use, such as carpel from carpos, fruit, and pericarp, from pericarpion, seed chamber.[133] Theophrastus
was much less concerned with formal causes than Aristotle was, instead pragmatically describing how plants functioned.[134][135]

On later Greek philosophers Further information: Peripatetic school The immediate influence of Aristotle's work was felt as the Lyceum grew into the Peripatetic school. Aristotle's notable students included Aristoxenus, Dicaearchus, Demetrius of Phalerum, Eudemos of Rhodes, Harpalus, Hephaestion, Mnason of Phocis, Nicomachus, and Theophrastus. Aristotle's influence over Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
is seen in the latter's bringing with him on his expedition a host of zoologists, botanists, and researchers. He had also learned a great deal about Persian customs and traditions from his teacher. Although his respect for Aristotle
was diminished as his travels made it clear that much of Aristotle's geography was clearly wrong, when the old philosopher released his works to the public, Alexander complained "Thou hast not done well to publish thy acroamatic doctrines; for in what shall I surpass other men if those doctrines wherein I have been trained are to be all men's common property?"[136]

On Hellenistic science Further information: Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
medicine After Theophrastus, the Lyceum failed to produce any original work. Though interest in Aristotle's ideas survived, they were generally taken unquestioningly.[137] It is not until the age of Alexandria
under the Ptolemies that advances in biology can be again found. The first medical teacher at Alexandria, Herophilus of Chalcedon, corrected Aristotle, placing intelligence in the brain, and connected the nervous system to motion and sensation. Herophilus also distinguished between veins and arteries, noting that the latter pulse while the former do not.[138] Though a few ancient atomists such as Lucretius
challenged the teleological viewpoint of Aristotelian ideas about life, teleology (and after the rise of Christianity, natural theology) would remain central to biological thought essentially until the 18th and 19th centuries. Ernst Mayr states that there was "nothing of any real consequence in biology after Lucretius
and Galen
until the Renaissance."[139]

On Byzantine scholars See also: Commentaries on Aristotle and Byzantine Aristotelianism Greek Christian scribes played a crucial role in the preservation of Aristotle
by copying all the extant Greek language
Greek language
manuscripts of the corpus. The first Greek Christians to comment extensively on Aristotle were Philoponus, Elias, and David in the sixth century, and Stephen of Alexandria
in the early seventh century.[140] John Philoponus stands out for having attempted a fundamental critique of Aristotle's views on the eternity of the world, movement, and other elements of Aristotelian thought.[141] Philoponus questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics, noting its flaws and introducing the theory of impetus to explain his observations.[142] After a hiatus of several centuries, formal commentary by Eustratius and Michael of Ephesus reappeared in the late eleventh and early twelfth centuries, apparently sponsored by Anna Comnena.[143]

On the medieval Islamic world Further information: Logic
in Islamic philosophy
Islamic philosophy
and Transmission of the Greek Classics Islamic portrayal of Aristotle, c. 1220 Aristotle
was one of the most revered Western thinkers in early Islamic theology. Most of the still extant works of Aristotle,[144] as well as a number of the original Greek commentaries, were translated into Arabic and studied by Muslim philosophers, scientists and scholars. Averroes, Avicenna
and Alpharabius, who wrote on Aristotle
in great depth, also influenced Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
and other Western Christian scholastic philosophers. Alkindus
greatly admired Aristotle's philosophy,[145] and Averroes
spoke of Aristotle
as the "exemplar" for all future philosophers.[146] Medieval
Muslim scholars regularly described Aristotle
as the "First Teacher".[144] The title "teacher" was first given to Aristotle
by Muslim scholars, and was later used by Western philosophers (as in the famous poem of Dante) who were influenced by the tradition of Islamic philosophy.[147]

On medieval Europe

Woodcut of Aristotle
ridden by Phyllis by Hans Baldung, 1515[148] Further information: Aristotelianism
and Syllogism
§ Medieval With the loss of the study of ancient Greek in the early medieval Latin West, Aristotle
was practically unknown there from c. AD 600 to c. 1100 except through the Latin translation of the Organon made by Boethius. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, interest in Aristotle
revived and Latin Christians had translations made, both from Arabic translations, such as those by Gerard of Cremona,[149] and from the original Greek, such as those by James of Venice and William of Moerbeke. After the Scholastic Thomas Aquinas wrote his Summa Theologica, working from Moerbeke's translations and calling Aristotle
"The Philosopher",[150] the demand for Aristotle's writings grew, and the Greek manuscripts returned to the West, stimulating a revival of Aristotelianism
in Europe that continued into the Renaissance.[151] These thinkers blended Aristotelian philosophy with Christianity, bringing the thought of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
into the Middle Ages. Scholars such as Boethius, Peter Abelard, and John Buridan
John Buridan
worked on Aristotelian logic.[152] The medieval English poet Chaucer describes his student as being happy by having

at his beddes heed Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reed, Of aristotle and his philosophie,[153]

A cautionary medieval tale held that Aristotle
advised his pupil Alexander to avoid the king's seductive mistress, Phyllis, but was himself captivated by her, and allowed her to ride him. Phyllis had secretly told Alexander what to expect, and he witnessed Phyllis proving that a woman's charms could overcome even the greatest philosopher's male intellect. Artists such as Hans Baldung
Hans Baldung
produced a series of illustrations of the popular theme.[154][148] The Italian poet Dante says of Aristotle
in The Divine Comedy:

DanteL'Inferno, Canto IV. 131–135 TranslationHell

vidi 'l maestro di color che sanno seder tra filosofica famiglia. Tutti lo miran, tutti onor li fanno: quivi vid'ïo Socrate e Platone che 'nnanzi a li altri più presso li stanno;

I saw the Master there of those who know, Amid the philosophic family, By all admired, and by all reverenced; There Plato
too I saw, and Socrates, Who stood beside him closer than the rest.

On Early Modern
Early Modern
scientists William Harvey's De Motu Cordis, 1628, showed that the blood circulated, contrary to classical era thinking. In the Early Modern
Early Modern
period, scientists such as William Harvey
William Harvey
in England and Galileo Galilei
Galileo Galilei
in Italy reacted against the theories of Aristotle
and other classical era thinkers like Galen, establishing new theories based to some degree on observation and experiment. Harvey demonstrated the circulation of the blood, establishing that the heart functioned as a pump rather than being the seat of the soul and the controller of the body's heat, as Aristotle thought.[155] Galileo used more doubtful arguments to displace Aristotle's physics, proposing that bodies all fall at the same speed whatever their weight.[156]

On 19th-century thinkers The 19th-century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
has been said to have taken nearly all of his political philosophy from Aristotle.[157] Aristotle
rigidly separated action from production, and argued for the deserved subservience of some people ("natural slaves"), and the natural superiority (virtue, arete) of others. It was Martin Heidegger, not Nietzsche, who elaborated a new interpretation of Aristotle, intended to warrant his deconstruction of scholastic and philosophical tradition.[158] The English mathematician George Boole
George Boole
fully accepted Aristotle's logic, but decided "to go under, over, and beyond" it with his system of algebraic logic in his 1854 book The Laws of Thought. This gives logic a mathematical foundation with equations, enables it to solve equations as well as check validity, and allows it to handle a wider class of problems by expanding propositions of any number of terms, not just two.[159]

Modern rejection and rehabilitation "That most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle
tutoring the future conqueror Alexander".[131] Illustration by Charles Laplante [fr], 1866 During the 20th century, Aristotle's work was widely criticised. The philosopher Bertrand Russell argued that "almost every serious intellectual advance has had to begin with an attack on some Aristotelian doctrine". Russell called Aristotle's ethics "repulsive", and labelled his logic "as definitely antiquated as Ptolemaic astronomy". Russell stated that these errors made it difficult to do historical justice to Aristotle, until one remembered what an advance he made upon all of his predecessors.[5] The Dutch historian of science Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis
Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis
wrote that Aristotle
and his predecessors showed the difficulty of science by "proceed[ing] so readily to frame a theory of such a general character" on limited evidence from their senses.[160] In 1985, the biologist Peter Medawar
Peter Medawar
could still state in "pure seventeenth century"[161] tones that Aristotle
had assembled "a strange and generally speaking rather tiresome farrago of hearsay, imperfect observation, wishful thinking and credulity amounting to downright gullibility".[161][162] By the start of the 21st century, however, Aristotle
was taken more seriously: Kukkonen noted that "In the best 20th-century scholarship Aristotle
comes alive as a thinker wrestling with the full weight of the Greek philosophical tradition."[131] Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
accredited Aristotle
as "the greatest philosopher in history" and cited him as a major influence on her thinking.[163] More recently, Alasdair MacIntyre has attempted to reform what he calls the Aristotelian tradition in a way that is anti-elitist and capable of disputing the claims of both liberals and Nietzscheans.[164] Kukkonen observed, too, that "that most enduring of romantic images, Aristotle tutoring the future conqueror Alexander" remained current, as in the 2004 film Alexander, while the "firm rules" of Aristotle's theory of drama have ensured a role for the Poetics in Hollywood.[131] Biologists continue to be interested in Aristotle's thinking. Armand Marie Leroi has reconstructed Aristotle's biology,[165] while Niko Tinbergen's four questions, based on Aristotle's four causes, are used to analyse animal behaviour; they examine function, phylogeny, mechanism, and ontogeny.[166][167]

Surviving works Corpus Aristotelicum Main article: Corpus Aristotelicum First page of a 1566 edition of the Nicomachean Ethics
in Greek and Latin The works of Aristotle
that have survived from antiquity through medieval manuscript transmission are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum. These texts, as opposed to Aristotle's lost works, are technical philosophical treatises from within Aristotle's school. Reference to them is made according to the organisation of Immanuel Bekker's Royal Prussian Academy edition (Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica, Berlin, 1831–1870), which in turn is based on ancient classifications of these works.[168]

Loss and preservation Further information: Recovery of Aristotle Aristotle
wrote his works on papyrus scrolls, the common writing medium of that era.[N] His writings are divisible into two groups: the "exoteric", intended for the public, and the "esoteric", for use within the Lyceum school.[170][O][171] Aristotle's "lost" works stray considerably in characterisation from the surviving Aristotelian corpus. Whereas the lost works appear to have been originally written with a view to subsequent publication, the surviving works mostly resemble lecture notes not intended for publication.[172][170] Cicero's description of Aristotle's literary style as "a river of gold" must have applied to the published works, not the surviving notes.[P] A major question in the history of Aristotle's works is how the exoteric writings were all lost, and how the ones we now possess came to us.[174] The consensus is that Andronicus of Rhodes collected the esoteric works of Aristotle's school which existed in the form of smaller, separate works, distinguished them from those of Theophrastus and other Peripatetics, edited them, and finally compiled them into the more cohesive, larger works as they are known today.[175][176]

Legacy Depictions Aristotle
has been depicted by major artists including Lucas Cranach the Elder,[177] Justus van Gent, Raphael, Paolo Veronese, Jusepe de Ribera,[178] Rembrandt,[179] and Francesco Hayez over the centuries. Among the best-known is Raphael's fresco The School of Athens, in the Vatican's Apostolic Palace, where the figures of Plato
and Aristotle
are central to the image, at the architectural vanishing point, reflecting their importance.[180] Rembrandt's Aristotle
with a Bust of Homer, too, is a celebrated work, showing the knowing philosopher and the blind Homer
from an earlier age: as the art critic Jonathan Jones writes, "this painting will remain one of the greatest and most mysterious in the world, ensnaring us in its musty, glowing, pitch-black, terrible knowledge of time."[181][182]

Nuremberg Chronicle
Nuremberg Chronicle
anachronistically shows Aristotle
in a medieval scholar's clothing. Ink and watercolour on paper, 1493

by Justus van Gent. Oil on panel, c. 1476

Phyllis and Aristotle
by Lucas Cranach the Elder. Oil on panel, 1530

by Paolo Veronese, Biblioteka Marciana. Oil on canvas, 1560s

and Campaspe,[Q] Alessandro Turchi
Alessandro Turchi
(attrib.) Oil on canvas, 1713

by Jusepe de Ribera. Oil on canvas, 1637

with a Bust of Homer
by Rembrandt. Oil on canvas, 1653

by Johann Jakob Dorner the Elder. Oil on canvas, by 1813

by Francesco Hayez. Oil on canvas, 1811

Eponyms The Aristotle Mountains
Aristotle Mountains
in Antarctica
are named after Aristotle. He was the first person known to conjecture, in his book Meteorology, the existence of a landmass in the southern high-latitude region and called it Antarctica.[183] Aristoteles is a crater on the Moon bearing the classical form of Aristotle's name.[184]

See also Aristotelian Society Conimbricenses References Notes

^ That these dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/383 BC, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown by August Boeckh
August Boeckh
(Kleine Schriften VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. Ingemar Düring, Aristotle
in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Göteborg, 1957,p. 253

^ See(Shields 2012, pp. 3–16);(Düring 1957) covers ancient biographies of Aristotle.

^ This type of syllogism, with all three terms in 'a', is known by the traditional (medieval) mnemonic Barbara.[26]

^ M is the Middle (here, Men), S is the Subject (Greeks), P is the Predicate (mortal).[26]

^ The first equation can be read as 'It is not true that there exists an x such that x is a man and that x is not mortal.'[27]

^ Rhett Allain notes that Newton's First Law
Newton's First Law
is "essentially a direct reply to Aristotle, that the natural state is not to change motion.[43]

^ Leonard Susskind
Leonard Susskind
comments that Aristotle
had clearly never gone ice skating or he would have seen that it takes force to stop an object.[45]

^ For heavenly bodies like the Sun, Moon, and stars, the observed motions are "to a very good approximation" circular around the Earth's centre, (for example, the apparent rotation of the sky because of the rotation of the Earth, and the rotation of the moon around the Earth) as Aristotle

^ Drabkin quotes numerous passages from Physics
and On the Heavens (De Caelo) which state Aristotle's laws of motion.[44]

^ Drabkin agrees that density is treated quantitatively in this passage, but without a sharp definition of density as weight per unit volume.[44]

^ Philoponus and Galileo correctly objected that for the transient phase (still increasing in speed) with heavy objects falling a short distance, the law does not apply: Galileo used balls on a short incline to show this. Rovelli notes that "Two heavy balls with the same shape and different weight do fall at different speeds from an aeroplane, confirming Aristotle's theory, not Galileo's."[46]

^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomachean Ethics
and Politics
see Polanyi, Karl (1957) "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies: Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78–115

^ "Where, as among the Lacedaemonians, the state of women is bad, almost half of human life is spoilt."[124]

^ "When the Roman dictator Sulla invaded Athens
in 86 BC, he brought back to Rome a fantastic prize – Aristotle's library. Books then were papyrus rolls, from 10 to 20 feet long, and since Aristotle's death in 322 BC, worms and damp had done their worst. The rolls needed repairing, and the texts clarifying and copying on to new papyrus (imported from Egypt – Moses' bulrushes). The man in Rome who put Aristotle's library in order was a Greek scholar, Tyrannio."[169]

^ Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics
1102a26–27. Aristotle
himself never uses the term "esoteric" or "acroamatic". For other passages where Aristotle
speaks of exōterikoi logoi, see W.D. Ross, Aristotle's Metaphysics
(1953), vol. 2 pp= 408–10. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle's own works, usually refers generally to "discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school", rather than to specific works of Aristotle's own.

^ "veniet flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles", (Google translation: " Aristotle
will come pouring forth a golden stream of eloquence").[173]

^ Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.


^ Kantor 1963, p. 116.

^ On the Soul.

^ Collins English Dictionary.

^ a b c d Aristotle
(384–322 B.C.E.).

^ a b c d Russell 1972.

^ Barnes 1995, p. 9.

^ Campbell.

^ McLeisch 1999, p. 5.

^ Aristoteles-Park in Stagira.

^ Hall 2018, p. 14.

^ Anagnostopoulos 2013, p. 4.

^ Blits 1999, pp. 58–63.

^ Aristotle
1984, pp. Introduction.

^ a b Shields 2016.

^ a b Green 1991, pp. 58–59.

^ Smith 2007.

^ Green 1991, p. 460.

^ Filonik 2013, pp. 72–73.

^ Jones 1980, p. 216.

^ Gigon 2017, p. 41.

^ Düring 1957, p. T44a-e..

^ Haase 1992, p. 3862.

^ Degnan 1994, pp. 81–89.

^ Corcoran 2009, pp. 1–20.

^ Kant 1787, pp. Preface.

^ a b c Lagerlund 2016.

^ Predicate Logic.

^ Pickover 2009, p. 52.

^ Prior Analytics, pp. 24b18–20.

^ Bobzien 2015.

^ a b c Smith 2017.

^ School of Athens.

^ Stewart 2019.

^ a b c d e Cohen 2016.

^ a b c d Wildberg 2016.

^ Cohen 2000.

^ Aristotle
1999, p. 111.

^ Metaphysics, p. VIII 1043a 10–30.

^ Metaphysics, p. IX 1050a 5–10.

^ Metaphysics, p. VIII 1045a–b.

^ Lloyd 1968, pp. 43–47.

^ a b Lloyd 1968, pp. 133–39, 166–69.

^ a b Allain 2016.

^ a b c d e f g h i Drabkin 1938, pp. 60–84.

^ a b c d e Susskind 2011.

^ a b c d e f g h i Rovelli 2015, pp. 23–40.

^ Carteron 1923, pp. 1–32 and passim.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 88–90.

^ a b c d e Lloyd 1996, pp. 96–100, 106–07.

^ Hankinson 1998, p. 159.

^ a b Leroi 2015, pp. 91–92, 369–73.

^ Lahanas.

^ Physics, p. 2.6.

^ Miller 1973, pp. 204–13.

^ Meteorology, p. 1. 8.

^ Moore 1956, p. 13.

^ Meteorology, p. Book 1, Part 14.

^ Lyell 1832, p. 17.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 7.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 14.

^ Thompson 1910, p. Prefatory Note.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 196, 248.

^ Day 2013, pp. 5805–16.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 66–74, 137.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 118–19.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 73.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 135–36.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 206.

^ Sedley 2007, p. 189.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 273.

^ Taylor 1922, p. 42.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 361–65.

^ Leroi 2011.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 197–200.

^ a b Leroi 2015, pp. 365–68.

^ Taylor 1922, p. 49.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 408.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 72–74.

^ Bergstrom & Dugatkin 2012, p. 35.

^ Rhodes
1974, p. 7.

^ Mayr 1982, pp. 201–02.

^ Lovejoy 1976.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 111–19.

^ Mason 1979, pp. 43–44.

^ Leroi 2015, pp. 156–63.

^ Mason 1979, p. 45.

^ Guthrie 2010, p. 348.

^ Bloch 2007, p. 12.

^ Bloch 2007, p. 61.

^ Carruthers 2007, p. 16.

^ Bloch 2007, p. 25.

^ Warren 1921, p. 30.

^ Warren 1921, p. 25.

^ Carruthers 2007, p. 19.

^ Warren 1921, p. 296.

^ Warren 1921, p. 259.

^ a b c d e f g Holowchak 1996, pp. 405–23.

^ a b c d e f Shute 1941, pp. 115–18.

^ a b Modrak 2009, pp. 169–81.

^ Webb 1990, pp. 174–84.

^ a b Deslauriers & Destrée 2013, pp. 157-162.

^ Kraut 2001.

^ Nicomachean Ethics Book I. See for example chapter 7.

^ Nicomachean Ethics, p. Book VI.

^ Politics, pp. 1253a19–24.

^ Aristotle
2009, pp. 320–21.

^ Ebenstein & Ebenstein 2002, p. 59.

^ a b Hutchinson & Johnson 2015, p. 22.

^ a b c Robbins 2000, pp. 20–24.

^ a b c d Aristotle
1948, pp. 16–28.

^ Kaufmann 1968, pp. 56–60.

^ Garver 1994, pp. 109–10.

^ Rorty 1996, pp. 3–7.

^ Grimaldi 1998, p. 71.

^ a b c d e f Halliwell 2002, pp. 152–59.

^ Poetics, p. I 1447a.

^ Poetics, p. IV.

^ Poetics, p. III.

^ Poetics, p. VI.

^ Poetics, p. XXVI.

^ Aesop
1998, pp. Introduction, xi–xii.

^ Freeland 1998.

^ Morsink 1979, pp. 83–112.

^ Rhetoric, p. Book I, Chapter 5.

^ Leroi 2015, p. 8.

^ Aristotle's Influence 2018.

^ Magee 2010, p. 34.

^ Guthrie 1990, p. 156.

^ Aristotle
(Greek philosopher).

^ Durant 2006, p. 92.

^ a b c d e Kukkonen 2010, pp. 70–77.

^ Barnes 1982, p. 86.

^ Hooker 1831, p. 219.

^ Mayr 1982, pp. 90–91.

^ Mason 1979, p. 46.

^ Plutarch
1919, p. Part 1, 7:7.

^ Annas 2001, p. 252.

^ Mason 1979, p. 56.

^ Mayr 1985, pp. 90–94.

^ Sorabji 1990, pp. 20, 28, 35–36.

^ Sorabji 1990, pp. 233–74.

^ Lindberg 1992, p. 162.

^ Sorabji 1990, pp. 20–21, 28–29, 393–406, 407–08.

^ a b Kennedy-Day 1998.

^ Staley 1989.

^ Averroes
1953, p. III, 2, 43.

^ Nasr 1996, pp. 59–60.

^ a b Phyllis and Aristotle.

^ Hasse 2014.

^ Aquinas 2013.

^ Kuhn 2018.

^ Lagerlund.

^ Allen & Fisher 2011, p. 17.

^ Aristotle

^ Aird 2011, pp. 118–29.

^ Machamer 2017.

^ Durant 2006, p. 86.

^ Sikka 1997, p. 265.

^ Boole 2003.

^ Dijksterhuis 1969, p. 72.

^ a b Leroi 2015, p. 353.

^ Medawar & Medawar 1984, p. 28.

^ Mayhew.

^ Knight 2007, pp. passim.

^ Leroi 2015.

^ MacDougall-Shackleton 2011, pp. 2076–85.

^ Hladký & Havlíček 2013.

^ Aristotelis Opera.

^ When libraries were 2001.

^ a b Barnes 1995, p. 12.

^ House 1956, p. 35.

^ Irwin & Fine 1996, pp. xi–xii.

^ Cicero

^ Barnes & Griffin 1999, pp. 1–69.

^ Anagnostopoulos 2013, p. 16.

^ Barnes 1995, pp. 10–15.

^ Lucas Cranach the Elder.

^ Lee & Robinson 2005.

^ Aristotle
with Bust 2002.

^ Phelan 2002.

^ Held 1969.

^ Jones 2002.

^ Aristotle

^ Aristoteles.

Sources .mw-parser-output .refbegin font-size:90%;margin-bottom:0.5em .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul list-style-type:none;margin-left:0 .mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>ul>li,.mw-parser-output .refbegin-hanging-indents>dl>dd margin-left:0;padding-left:3.2em;text-indent:-3.2em;list-style:none .mw-parser-output .refbegin-100 font-size:100% Aesop
(1998). The Complete Fables By Aesop. Translated by Temple, Olivia; Temple, Robert. Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-044649-4..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em Aird, W. C. (2011). "Discovery of the cardiovascular system: from Galen
to William Harvey". Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 9: 118–29. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2011.04312.x. PMID 21781247. Allain, Rhett (21 March 2016). "I'm So Totally Over Newton's Laws of Motion". Wired. Retrieved 11 May 2018. Allen, Mark; Fisher, John H. (2011). The Complete Poetry
and Prose of Geoffrey Chaucer. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0-15-506041-8. Anagnostopoulos, Georgios (2013). A Companion to Aristotle. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-118-59243-4. Annas, Julia (2001). Classical Greek Philosophy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285357-8. Aquinas, Thomas (20 August 2013). Summa Theologica. e-artnow. ISBN 978-80-7484-292-4. Aristoteles (31 January 2019) [1831]. Bekker, Immanuel (ed.). "Aristotelis Opera edidit Academia Regia Borussica Aristoteles graece". apud Georgium Reimerum. Retrieved 31 January 2019 – via Internet Archive. "Aristoteles". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 19 March 2018. "Aristoteles-Park in Stagira". Dimos Aristoteli. Retrieved 20 March 2018. " Aristotle
(384–322 B.C.E.)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2009. " Aristotle
(Greek philosopher)". Britannica.com. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009. Aristotle. "Metaphysics". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Aristotle. "Meteorology". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Aristotle. "Nicomachean Ethics". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Aristotle. "On the Soul". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Aristotle. "Physics". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 31 January 2019. Aristotle. "Poetics". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Aristotle. "Politics". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 30 January 2019. Aristotle. "Prior Analytics". classics.mit.edu. The Internet Classics Archive. Aristotle. "Rhetoric". Translated by Roberts, W. Rhys. " Aristotle
Mountains". SCAR Composite Antarctic Gazetteer. Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide. Department of the Environment and Energy, Australian Antarctic Division, Australian Government. Retrieved 1 March 2018. Aristotle
(1948). Monroe, Arthur E. (ed.). Politics-Ethics, In Early Economic Thought: Selections from Economic Literature Prior to Adam Smith. Harvard University Press. Aristotle
(1984). Lord, Carnes (ed.). The Politics. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-92184-6. Aristotle
(2009) [1995]. Politics. Translated by Ernest Barker and revised with introduction and notes by R.F. Stalley (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-953873-7. Aristotle
(1999). Aristotle's Metaphysics. Translated by Sachs, Joe. Green Lion Press. " Aristotle
and Phyllis". Art Institute Chicago. Retrieved 22 March 2018. " Aristotle
definition and meaning". www.collinsdictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary. " Aristotle
with a Bust of Homer, Rembrandt
(1653)". The Guardian. 27 July 2002. Retrieved 23 March 2018. Averroes
(1953). Crawford, F. Stuart (ed.). Commentarium Magnum in Aristotelis De Anima
De Anima
Libros. Mediaeval Academy of America. OCLC 611422373. Barnes, Jonathan (1982). Aristotle: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285408-7. Barnes, Jonathan (1995). "Life and Work". The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42294-9. Barnes, Jonathan; Griffin, Miriam Tamara (1999). Philosophia Togata: Plato
and Aristotle
at Rome. II. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-815222-4. Bergstrom, Carl T.; Dugatkin, Lee Alan (2012). Evolution. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-92592-0. Blits, Kathleen C. (15 April 1999). "Aristotle: Form, function, and comparative anatomy". The Anatomical Record. 257 (2): 58–63. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(19990415)257:2<58::AID-AR6>3.0.CO;2-I. PMID 10321433. Bloch, David (2007). Aristotle
on Memory and Recollection. ISBN 978-90-04-16046-0. Bobzien, Susanne (2015). "Ancient Logic". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics
Research Lab, Stanford University – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Boole, George (2003) [1854]. The Laws of Thought. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-089-9. Campbell, Michael. "Behind the Name: Meaning, Origin and History of the Name "Aristotle"". Behind the Name. Retrieved 6 April 2012. Carruthers, Mary (2007). The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval
Culture. ISBN 978-0-521-42973-3. Carteron, Henri (1923). Notion de Force dans le Systeme d'Aristote (in French). J. Vrin. Cicero, Marcus Tullius (1874). "Book II, chapter XXXVIII, §119". In Reid, James S. (ed.). The Academica of Cicero
106–43 BC. Macmillan. Cohen, S. Marc (8 October 2000). "Aristotle's Metaphysics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics
Research Lab Center for the Study of Language
and Information. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Cohen, S. Marc (2016). "Aristotle's Metaphysics". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cohen, S. Marc (2016). "Aristotle's Metaphysics: Substance and Definition". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cohen, S. Marc (2016). "Aristotle's Metaphysics: Substances and Universals". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Corcoran, John (2009). "Aristotle's Demonstrative Logic". History and Philosophy of Logic. 30: 1–20. CiteSeerX doi:10.1080/01445340802228362. Day, J. (2013). " Botany
meets archaeology: people and plants in the past". Journal of Experimental Botany. 64 (18): 5805–16. doi:10.1093/jxb/ert068. PMID 23669575. Degnan, Michael (1994). "Recent Work in Aristotle's Logic". Philosophical Books. 35 (2 (April 1994)): 81–89. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0149.1994.tb02858.x. Deslauriers, Marguerite; Destrée, Pierre (2013). The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle's Politics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 157–162. ISBN 978-1107004689. Dijksterhuis, Eduard Jan (1969). The Mechanization of the World Picture. Translated by C. Dikshoorn. Princeton University Press. Drabkin, Israel E. (1938). "Notes on the Laws of Motion in Aristotle". The American Journal of Philology. 59 (1): 60–84. doi:10.2307/290584. JSTOR 90584. Durant, Will (2006) [1926]. The Story of Philosophy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-73916-4. Düring, Ingemar (1957). Aristotle
in the Ancient Biographical Tradition. By Ingemar Düring. Almqvist & Wiksell in Komm. Ebenstein, Alan; Ebenstein, William (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Wadsworth Group. Filonik, Jakub (2013). "Athenian impiety trials: a reappraisal". Dike (16): 72–73. doi:10.13130/1128-8221/4290. Freeland, Cynthia A. (1998). Feminist Interpretations of Aristotle. Penn State University Press. ISBN 978-0-271-01730-3. Garver, Eugene (1994). Aristotle's Rhetoric: An Art of Character. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-28425-5. Gigon, Olof (2017) [1965]. Vita Aristotelis Marciana. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-082017-1. Green, Peter (1991). Alexander of Macedon. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-27586-7. Grimaldi, William M. A. (1998). "Studies in the Philosophy of Aristotle's Rhetoric". In Enos, Richard Leo; Agnew, Lois Peters (eds.). Landmark Essays on Aristotelian Rhetoric. Landmark Essays. 14. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-880393-32-1. Guthrie, W. (2010). A History of Greek Philosophy Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29420-1. Guthrie, W.K.C. (1990). A history of Greek philosophy: Aristotle : an encounter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-38760-6. Haase, Wolfgang (1992). Philosophie, Wissenschaften, Technik. Philosophie (Doxographica [Forts. ]). Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-013699-9. Hall, Edith (2018). Aristotle's Way: How Ancient Wisdom Can Change Your Life. The Bodley Head. ISBN 978-1-84792-407-0. Halliwell, Stephen (2002). "Inside and Outside the Work of Art". The Aesthetics
of Mimesis: Ancient Texts and Modern Problems. Princeton University Press. pp. 152–59. ISBN 978-0-691-09258-4. Hankinson, R.J. (1998). Cause and Explanation in Ancient Greek Thought. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/0199246564.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-823745-7. Hasse, Dag Nikolaus (2014). "Influence of Arabic and Islamic Philosophy on the Latin West". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Held, Julius (1969). Rembrandt's Aristotle
and Other Rembrandt Studies. Princeton University Press. Hladký, V.; Havlíček, J (2013). "Was Tinbergen an Aristotelian? Comparison of Tinbergen's Four Whys and Aristotle's Four Causes" (PDF). Human Ethology
Bulletin. 28 (4): 3–11. Holowchak, Mark (1996). " Aristotle
on Dreaming: What Goes on in Sleep when the 'Big Fire' goes out". Ancient Philosophy. 16 (2): 405–23. doi:10.5840/ancientphil199616244. Hooker, Sir William Jackson (1831). The British Flora: Comprising the Phaenogamous, Or Flowering Plants, and the Ferns. Longman. OCLC 17317293. House, Humphry (1956). Aristotle's Poetics. Rupert Hart-Davis. Hutchinson, D. S.; Johnson, Monte Ransome (2015). "Exhortation to Philosophy" (PDF). Protrepticus. p. 22. Irwin, Terence; Fine, Gail, eds. (1996). Aristotle: Introductory Readings. Hackett Pub. ISBN 978-0-87220-339-6. Jones, Jonathan (27 July 2002). " Aristotle
with a Bust of Homer, Rembrandt
(1653)". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 March 2018. Jones, W. T. (1980). The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-538312-8. Kant, Immanuel (1787). Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason
(Second ed.). OCLC 2323615. Kantor, J. R. (1963). The Scientific Evolution
of Psychology, Volume I. Principia Press. ISBN 978-0-911188-25-7. Kaufmann, Walter Arnold (1968). Tragedy and Philosophy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-02005-1. Kennedy-Day, Kiki (1998). " Aristotelianism
in Islamic philosophy". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Taylor and Francis. doi:10.4324/9780415249126-H002-1. ISBN 978-0-415-25069-6. Retrieved 29 March 2018. Knight, Kelvin (2007). Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics
& Politics from Aristotle
to MacIntyre. Polity Press. ISBN 978-0-7456-1977-4. Kraut, Richard (1 May 2001). "Aristotle's Ethics". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 March 2018. Kuhn, Heinrich (2018). " Aristotelianism
in the Renaissance". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Kukkonen, Taneli (2010). Grafton, Anthony; et al. (eds.). The classical tradition. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-03572-0. Lagerlund, Henrik (2016). " Medieval
Theories of the Syllogism". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Lagerlund, Henrik. " Medieval
Theories of the Syllogism". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Lahanas, Michael. " Optics
and ancient Greeks". Mlahanas.de. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009. Lee, Ellen Wardwell; Robinson, Anne (2005). Indianapolis Museum of Art: Highlights of the Collection. Indianapolis Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-936260-77-8. Leroi, Armand Marie (2015). The Lagoon: How Aristotle
Invented Science. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4088-3622-4. Leroi, Armand Marie (Presenter) (3 May 2011). "Aristotle's Lagoon: Embryo
Inside a Chicken's Egg". BBC. Retrieved 17 November 2016. Lindberg, David (1992). The Beginnings of Western Science. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-48205-7. Lloyd, G. E. R. (1968). The critic of Plato. Aristotle: The Growth and Structure of His Thought. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09456-6. Lloyd, G. E. R. (1996). Causes and correlations. Adversaries and Authorities: Investigations into ancient Greek and Chinese science. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-55695-8. Lovejoy, Arthur O. (31 January 1976). The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36153-9. "Lucas Cranach the Elder Phyllis and Aristotle". Sotheby's. 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2018. Lyell, Charles (1832). Principles of Geology. J. Murray, 1832. OCLC 609586345. MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A. (27 July 2011). "The levels of analysis revisited". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 366 (1574): 2076–85. doi:10.1098/rstb.2010.0363. PMC 3130367. PMID 21690126. Machamer, Peter (2017). "Galileo Galilei". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Magee, Bryan (2010). The Story of Philosophy. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-241-24126-4. Mason, Stephen F. (1979). A History of the Sciences. Collier Books. ISBN 978-0-02-093400-4. OCLC 924760574. Mayhew, Robert. " Aristotle
For Objectivists". The Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
Institute. Retrieved 29 March 2018. Mayr, Ernst (1982). The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36446-2. Mayr, Ernst (1985). The Growth of Biological Thought. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36446-2. McLeisch, Kenneth Cole (1999). Aristotle: The Great Philosophers. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-92392-7. Medawar, Peter B.; Medawar, J. S. (1984). Aristotle
to Zoos: a philosophical dictionary of biology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-283043-2. Miller, Willard M. (1973). " Aristotle
on Necessity, Chance, and Spontaneity". New Scholasticism. 47 (2): 204–13. doi:10.5840/newscholas197347237. Modrak, Deborah (2009). "Dreams and Method in Aristotle". Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research. 20: 169–81. Moore, Ruth (1956). The Earth
We Live On. Alfred A. Knopf. OCLC 1024467091. Morsink, Johannes (Spring 1979). "Was Aristotle's Biology
Sexist?". Journal of the History of Biology. 12 (1): 83–112. doi:10.1007/bf00128136. JSTOR 10.2307/4330727. PMID 11615776. Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (1996). The Islamic Intellectual Tradition in Persia. Curzon Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-0314-2. Phelan, Joseph (September 2002). "The Philosopher
as Hero: Raphael's The School of Athens". ArtCyclopedia. Retrieved 23 March 2018. "Phyllis and Aristotle". 1 February 2019 – via Musee du Louvre. Pickover, Clifford A. (2009). The Math Book: From Pythagoras
to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones in the History of Mathematics. Sterling. ISBN 978-1-4027-5796-9. " Plutarch
– Life of Alexander (Part 1 of 7)". penelope.uchicago.edu. Loeb Classical Library. 1919. Retrieved 31 January 2019. "Predicate Logic" (PDF). University of Texas. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2018. Retrieved 29 March 2018. Rhodes, Frank Harold Trevor (1974). Evolution. Golden Press. ISBN 978-0-307-64360-5. Robbins, Lionel (2000). Medema, Steven G.; Samuels, Warren J. (eds.). A History of Economic Thought: The LSE Lectures. Princeton University Press. Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg (1996). Rorty, Amélie Oksenberg (ed.). Structuring Rhetoric. Essays on Aristotle's Rhetoric. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20227-6. Rovelli, Carlo (2015). "Aristotle's Physics: A Physicist's Look". Journal of the American Philosophical Association. 1 (1): 23–40. arXiv:1312.4057. doi:10.1017/apa.2014.11. Russell, Bertrand (1972). A history of western philosophy. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-31400-2. Sedley, David (2007). Creationism and Its Critics in Antiquity. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25364-3. Shields, Christopher (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Aristotle. OUP USA. ISBN 978-0-19-518748-9. Shields, Christopher (2016). "Aristotle's Psychology". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
(Winter 2016 ed.). Shute, Clarence (1941). The Psychology
of Aristotle: An Analysis of the Living Being. Columbia University Press. OCLC 936606202. Sikka, Sonya (1997). Forms of Transcendence: Heidegger and Medieval Mystical Theology. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3345-4. Smith, Robin (2017). "Aristotle's Logic". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Smith, William George (2007) [1869]. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. J. Walton. Retrieved 30 January 2019 – via Internet Archive. Sorabji, Richard (1990). Aristotle
Transformed. Duckworth. ISBN 978-0-7156-2254-4. Staley, Kevin (1989). "Al-Kindi on Creation: Aristotle's Challenge to Islam". Journal of the History of Ideas. 50 (3): 355–370. doi:10.2307/2709566. JSTOR 2709566. Susskind, Leonard (3 October 2011). "Classical Mechanics, Lectures 2, 3". The Theoretical Minimum. Retrieved 11 May 2018. Taylor, Henry Osborn (1922). "Chapter 3: Aristotle's Biology". Greek Biology
and Medicine. Archived from the original on 27 March 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2017. "The School of Athens
by Raphael". Visual Arts Cork. Retrieved 22 March 2018. Stewart, Jessica (2019). "The Story Behind Raphael's Masterpiece 'The School of Athens'". My Modern Met. Retrieved 29 March 2019. Plato's gesture toward the sky is thought to indicate his Theory of Forms. ... Conversely, Aristotle’s hand is a visual representation of his belief that knowledge comes from experience. Empiricism, as it is known, theorizes that humans must have concrete evidence to support their ideas Thompson, D'Arcy (1910). Ross, W. D.; Smith, J. A. (eds.). Historia animalium. The works of Aristotle
translated into English. Clarendon Press. OCLC 39273217. Warren, Howard C. (1921). A History of the Association of Psychology. OCLC 21010604. Webb, Wilse (1990). Dreamtime and dreamwork: Decoding the language of the night. Jeremy P. Tarcher. ISBN 978-0-87477-594-5. "When libraries were on a roll". Telegraph Media Group. 19 May 2001. Retrieved 29 June 2017. Wildberg (2016). "John Philoponus". In Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Zalta, Edward N., ed. (2018). "Aristotle's Influence". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2018 ed.).

Further reading The secondary literature on Aristotle
is vast. The following is only a small selection.

Ackrill, J. L. (1997). Essays on Plato
and Aristotle, Oxford University Press. Ackrill, J.L. (1981). Aristotle
the Philosopher. Oxford University Press. Adler, Mortimer J. (1978). Aristotle
for Everybody. Macmillan. Ammonius (1991). Cohen, S. Marc; Matthews, Gareth B (eds.). On Aristotle's Categories. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2688-9. Aristotle
(1908–1952). The Works of Aristotle
Translated into English Under the Editorship of W.D. Ross, 12 vols. Clarendon Press. These translations are available in several places online; see External links. Bakalis, Nikolaos. (2005). Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford PublishingISBN 978-1412048439 Bocheński, I. M. (1951). Ancient Formal Logic. North-Holland. Bolotin, David (1998). An Approach to Aristotle's Physics: With Particular Attention to the Role of His Manner of Writing. Albany: SUNY Press. A contribution to our understanding of how to read Aristotle's scientific works. Burnyeat, Myles F. et al. (1979). Notes on Book Zeta of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford: Sub-faculty of Philosophy. Cantor, Norman F.; Klein, Peter L., eds. (1969). Ancient Thought: Plato
and Aristotle. Monuments of Western Thought. 1. Blaisdell. Chappell, V. (1973). "Aristotle's Conception of Matter". Journal of Philosophy. 70 (19): 679–96. doi:10.2307/2025076. JSTOR 2025076. Code, Alan (1995). Potentiality in Aristotle's Science and Metaphysics, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76. Ferguson, John (1972). Aristotle. Twayne Publishers. De Groot, Jean (2014). Aristotle's Empiricism: Experience and Mechanics in the 4th Century BC, Parmenides Publishing,ISBN 978-1930972834 Frede, Michael (1987). Essays in Ancient Philosophy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Fuller, B.A.G. (1923). Aristotle. History of Greek Philosophy. 3. Cape. Gendlin, Eugene T. (2012). Line by Line Commentary on Aristotle's De Anima, Volume 1: Books I & II; Volume 2: Book III. The Focusing Institute. Gill, Mary Louise (1989). Aristotle
on Substance: The Paradox of Unity. Princeton University Press. Guthrie, W.K.C. (1981). A History of Greek Philosophy. 6. Cambridge University Press. Halper, Edward C. (2009). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 1: Books Alpha – Delta, Parmenides Publishing,ISBN 978-1930972216. Halper, Edward C. (2005). One and Many in Aristotle's Metaphysics, Volume 2: The Central Books, Parmenides Publishing,ISBN 978-1930972056. Irwin, Terence H. (1988). Aristotle's First Principles. Oxford: Clarendon Press,ISBN 0198242905. Jaeger, Werner (1948). Robinson, Richard (ed.). Aristotle: Fundamentals of the History of His Development (2nd ed.). Clarendon Press. Jori, Alberto (2003). Aristotele, Bruno Mondadori (Prize 2003 of the "International Academy of the History of Science")ISBN 978-8842497370. Kiernan, Thomas P., ed. (1962). Aristotle
Dictionary. Philosophical Library. Knight, Kelvin (2007). Aristotelian Philosophy: Ethics
and Politics from Aristotle
to MacIntyre, Polity Press. Lewis, Frank A. (1991). Substance and Predication in Aristotle. Cambridge University Press. Lord, Carnes (1984). Introduction to The Politics, by Aristotle. Chicago University Press. Loux, Michael J. (1991). Primary Ousia: An Essay on Aristotle's Metaphysics
Ζ and Η. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Maso, Stefano (Ed.), Natali, Carlo (Ed.), Seel, Gerhard (Ed.) (2012) Reading Aristotle: Physics
VII. 3: What is Alteration? Proceedings of the International ESAP-HYELE Conference, Parmenides Publishing.ISBN 978-1930972735 McKeon, Richard (1973). Introduction to Aristotle
(2nd ed.). University of Chicago Press. Owen, G. E. L. (1965c). "The Platonism
of Aristotle". Proceedings of the British Academy. 50: 125–50. [Reprinted in J. Barnes, M. Schofield, and R.R.K. Sorabji, eds.(1975). Articles on Aristotle
Vol 1. Science. London: Duckworth 14–34.] Pangle, Lorraine Smith (2003). Aristotle
and the Philosophy of Friendship. Cambridge University Press. Plato
(1979). Allen, Harold Joseph; Wilbur, James B (eds.). The Worlds of Plato
and Aristotle. Prometheus Books. Reeve, C. D. C. (2000). Substantial Knowledge: Aristotle's Metaphysics. Hackett. Rose, Lynn E. (1968). Aristotle's Syllogistic. Charles C Thomas. Ross, Sir David (1995). Aristotle
(6th ed.). Routledge. Scaltsas, T. (1994). Substances and Universals in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Cornell University Press. Strauss, Leo (1964). "On Aristotle's Politics", in The City and Man, Rand McNally. Swanson, Judith (1992). The Public and the Private in Aristotle's Political Philosophy. Cornell University Press. Veatch, Henry B. (1974). Aristotle: A Contemporary Appreciation. Indiana University Press. Woods, M. J. (1991b). " Universals and Particular Forms in Aristotle's Metaphysics". Aristotle
and the Later Tradition. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Suppl. pp. 41–56.

External links

Aristotleat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Resources from Wikiversity

Greek Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ἀριστοτέλης Library resources about Aristotle
Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

By Aristotle Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

34560 Aristotle
at Encyclopædia Britannica Aristotle
at PhilPapers 2553 Aristotle
at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology
Project At the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle
(general article)BiologyEthicsLogicMetaphysicsMotion and its Place in NaturePoeticsPolitics From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Aristotle
(general article) Aristotle
in the RenaissanceBiologyCausalityCommentators on AristotleEthicsLogicMathematicsMetaphysicsNatural philosophyNon-contradictionPolitical theoryPsychologyRhetoric  Turner, William (1907). "Aristotle" . Catholic Encyclopedia. 1.  Laërtius, Diogenes
(1925). "The Peripatetics: Aristotle" . Lives of the Eminent Philosophers. 1:5. Translated by Hicks, Robert Drew (Two volume ed.). Loeb Classical Library. Collections of works At Massachusetts Institute of Technology Works by Aristotle
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Aristotle
at Internet Archive Works by Aristotle
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Works by Aristotle
at Open Library (in English)(in Greek) Perseus Project at Tufts University At the University of Adelaide (in Greek)(in French) P. Remacle The 11-volume 1837 Bekker edition of Aristotle's Works in Greek (PDF · DJVU) Links to related articles vtePeripatetic philosophersGreek era Aristotle Eudemus Theophrastus Aristoxenus Chamaeleon Phaenias Praxiphanes Dicaearchus Nicomachus Demetrius of Phalerum Strato of Lampsacus Clearchus Hieronymus of Rhodes Lyco of Troas Aristo of Ceos Satyrus Critolaus Diodorus of Tyre Roman era Cratippus Andronicus of Rhodes Boethus of Sidon Aristocles of Messene Aspasius Adrastus Alexander of Aphrodisias Themistius Olympiodorus the Elder

vteMetaphysicsMetaphysicians Parmenides Plato Aristotle Plotinus Duns Scotus Thomas Aquinas Francisco Suárez Nicolas Malebranche René Descartes John Locke David Hume Thomas Reid Immanuel Kant Isaac Newton Arthur Schopenhauer Baruch Spinoza Georg W. F. Hegel George Berkeley Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Henri Bergson Friedrich Nietzsche Charles Sanders Peirce Joseph Maréchal Ludwig Wittgenstein Martin Heidegger Alfred N. Whitehead Bertrand Russell Dorothy Emmet G. E. Moore Jean-Paul Sartre Gilbert Ryle Hilary Putnam P. F. Strawson R. G. Collingwood Adolph Stöhr Rudolf Carnap Saul Kripke Willard V. O. Quine G. E. M. Anscombe Donald Davidson Michael Dummett David Malet Armstrong David Lewis Alvin Plantinga Peter van Inwagen Derek Parfit more ... Theories Abstract object theory Action theory Anti-realism Determinism Dualism Enactivism Essentialism Existentialism Free will Idealism Libertarianism Liberty Materialism Meaning of life Monism Naturalism Nihilism Phenomenalism Realism Physicalism Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality Platonic idealism Relativism Scientific realism Solipsism Subjectivism Substance theory Truthmaker theory Type theory Concepts Abstract object Anima mundi Being Category of being Causality Causal closure Choice Cogito, ergo sum Concept Embodied cognition Entity Essence Existence Experience Hypostatic abstraction Idea Identity Information Insight Intelligence Intention Linguistic modality Matter Meaning Memetics Mental representation Mind Motion Nature Necessity Notion Object Pattern Perception Physical body Principle Property Qualia Quality Reality Soul Subject Substantial form Thought Time Truth Type–token distinction Universal Unobservable Value more ... Related topics Axiology Cosmology Epistemology Feminist metaphysics Interpretations of quantum mechanics Meta- Ontology Philosophy of mind Philosophy of psychology Philosophy of self Philosophy of space and time Teleology Theoretical physics

Category Portal

vteEthicsTheories Casuistry Consequentialism Deontology Kantian ethics Emotivism Ethics
of care Existentialist ethics Meta-ethics Particularism Pragmatic ethics Role ethics Virtue
ethics Concepts Autonomy Axiology Belief Conscience Consent Equality Care Free will Good and evil Happiness Ideal Immorality Justice Morality Norm Freedom Principles Suffering
or Pain Stewardship Sympathy Trust Value Virtue World view Wrong full index... Philosophers Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more... Applied ethics Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics
of eating meat Ethics
of technology Related articles Christian ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics
in religion Evolutionary ethics Feminist ethics History of ethics Ideology Islamic ethics Jewish ethics Moral psychology Normative ethics Philosophy of law Political philosophy Population ethics Social philosophy

Portal Category

vteNatural historyPioneeringnaturalistsClassical antiquity Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica) Renaissance Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes) Enlightenment Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Marcello Malpighi Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique) 19th century George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds
of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History) 20th century Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal
Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen
Niko Tinbergen
(The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters) Topics Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

vteHistory of biologyFields,disciplines Agricultural science Anatomy Biochemistry Biotechnology Botany Ecology Evolutionary thought Genetics Geology Immunology Medicine Model organisms Molecular biology Molecular evolution Paleontology Phycology Plant
systematics RNA biology Zoology
(since 1859) Zoology
(through 1859) Institutions Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Laboratory of Molecular Biology Marine Biological Laboratory Max Planck Society Pasteur Institute Rockefeller University Rothamsted Experimental Station Stazione Zoologica Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Theories,concepts Germ theory of disease Central dogma of molecular biology Darwinism Great chain of being Hierarchy of life Lamarckism One gene–one enzyme hypothesis Protocell RNA world hypothesis Sequence hypothesis Spontaneous generation HistoryClassicalantiquity Aristotle Aristotle's biology On Generation and Corruption History of Animals Theophrastus Historia Plantarum Dioscorides De Materia Medica Galen Renaissance,Early Modern Conrad Gessner Historia animalium Andreas Vesalius De humani corporis fabrica William Harvey De Motu Cordis Frederik Ruysch Jan Swammerdam Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Marcello Malpighi Robert Hooke Micrographia Francesco Redi Evolution19thcentury Linnaeus Systema Naturae Buffon Histoire Naturelle Lamarck Philosophie Zoologique Humboldt Charles Lyell Principles of Geology Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species The Descent of Man Gregor Mendel Alfred Russel Wallace Martinus Beijerinck Henry Walter Bates Modernsynthesis William Bateson Theodosius Dobzhansky Genetics
and the Origin of Species R. A. Fisher E. B. Ford J. B. S. Haldane Ernst Mayr Thomas Hunt Morgan George Gaylord Simpson Hugo de Vries Sewall Wright Recent Stephen Jay Gould W. D. Hamilton Lynn Margulis Aleksandr Oparin George C. Williams Carl Woese Microbiology Ferdinand Cohn Alexander Fleming Felix d'Herelle Robert Koch Louis Pasteur Lazzaro Spallanzani Sergei Winogradsky Develop. biol.,Evo-devo Karl Ernst von Baer Gavin de Beer Sean B. Carroll Scott F. Gilbert Walter Gehring Ernst Haeckel François Jacob Edward B. Lewis Jacques Monod Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Eric Wieschaus E. B. Wilson Genetics,MolecularbiologyExperiments Griffith's (1928) Luria–Delbrück (1943) Avery–MacLeod–McCarty (1944) Miller–Urey (1952) Hershey–Chase (1952) Meselson–Stahl (1958) Crick, Brenner et al. (1961) Nirenberg–Matthaei (1961) Nirenberg–Leder (1964) People Barbara McClintock George Beadle Seymour Benzer Rosalind Franklin Photo 51 James D. Watson
James D. Watson
and Francis Crick "Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids" Linus Pauling "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease" Fred Sanger Max Perutz John Kendrew Sydney Brenner Joshua Lederberg Walter Gilbert Kary Mullis Emmanuelle Charpentier Jennifer Doudna Ecology Rachel Carson Frederic Clements Charles Elton Henry Gleason Arthur Tansley Eugenius Warming Ethology Niko Tinbergen Karl von Frisch Konrad Lorenz Frans de Waal Jane Goodall Ivan Pavlov Related History of science Philosophy of biology Teleology Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry


vtePhilosophy of scienceConcepts Analysis Analytic–synthetic distinction A priori and a posteriori Causality Commensurability Consilience Construct Creative synthesis Demarcation problem Empirical evidence Explanatory power Fact Falsifiability Feminist method Functional contextualism Ignoramus et ignorabimus Inductive reasoning Intertheoretic reduction Inquiry Nature Objectivity Observation Paradigm Problem of induction Scientific law Scientific method Scientific revolution Scientific theory Testability Theory choice Theory-ladenness Underdetermination Unity of science Metatheoryof science Coherentism Confirmation holism Constructive empiricism Constructive realism Constructivist epistemology Contextualism Conventionalism Deductive-nomological model Hypothetico-deductive model Inductionism Epistemological anarchism Evolutionism Fallibilism Foundationalism Instrumentalism Pragmatism Model-dependent realism Naturalism Physicalism Positivism / Reductionism / Determinism Rationalism / Empiricism Received view / Semantic view of theories Scientific realism / Anti-realism Scientific essentialism Scientific formalism Scientific skepticism Scientism Structuralism Uniformitarianism Vitalism Philosophy of Physics thermal and statistical Motion Chemistry Biology Environment Geography Social science Technology Engineering Artificial intelligence Computer science Information Mind Psychiatry Psychology Perception Space and time Related topics Alchemy Criticism of science Epistemology Faith and rationality History and philosophy of science History of science History of evolutionary thought Logic Metaphysics Pseudoscience Relationship between religion and science Rhetoric
of science Sociology of scientific knowledge Sociology of scientific ignorance Philosophers of science by eraAncient Plato Aristotle Stoicism Epicureans Medieval Averroes Avicenna Roger Bacon William of Ockham Hugh of Saint Victor Dominicus Gundissalinus Robert Kilwardby Early modern Francis Bacon Thomas Hobbes René Descartes Galileo Galilei Pierre Gassendi Isaac Newton David Hume Late modern Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson Contemporary Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

Portal Category

vtePhilosophy of languageIndex of language articlesPhilosophers Plato
(Cratylus) Gorgias Confucius Xunzi Aristotle Stoics Pyrrhonists Scholasticism Ibn Rushd Ibn Khaldun Thomas Hobbes Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Johann Herder Ludwig Noiré Wilhelm von Humboldt Fritz Mauthner Paul Ricœur Ferdinand de Saussure Gottlob Frege Franz Boas Paul Tillich Edward Sapir Leonard Bloomfield Zhuangzi Henri Bergson Lev Vygotsky Ludwig Wittgenstein Philosophical Investigations Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Bertrand Russell Rudolf Carnap Jacques Derrida Of Grammatology Limited Inc Benjamin Lee Whorf Gustav Bergmann J. L. Austin Noam Chomsky Hans-Georg Gadamer Saul Kripke A. J. Ayer G. E. M. Anscombe Jaakko Hintikka Michael Dummett Donald Davidson Roger Gibson Paul Grice Gilbert Ryle P. F. Strawson Willard Van Orman Quine Hilary Putnam David Lewis John Searle Joxe Azurmendi Scott Soames Stephen Yablo John Hawthorne Stephen Neale Paul Watzlawick Theories Causal theory of reference Contrast theory of meaning Contrastivism Conventionalism Cratylism Deconstruction Descriptivism Direct reference theory Dramatism Expressivism Linguistic determinism Mediated reference theory Nominalism Non-cognitivism Phallogocentrism Relevance theory Semantic externalism Semantic holism Structuralism Supposition theory Symbiosism Theological noncognitivism Theory of descriptions
Theory of descriptions
(Definite description) Verification theory Concepts Ambiguity Linguistic relativity Meaning Language Truth-bearer Proposition Use–mention distinction Concept Categories Set Class Family resemblance Intension Logical form Metalanguage Mental representation Presupposition Principle
of compositionality Property Sign Sense and reference Speech act Symbol Entity Sentence Statement more... Related articles Analytic philosophy Philosophy of information Philosophical logic Linguistics Pragmatics Rhetoric Semantics Formal semantics Semiotics

Category Task Force Discussion

vteJurisprudenceLegal theory Critical legal studies Comparative law Economic analysis International legal theory Legal history Philosophy of law Sociology of law Philosophers Alexy Allan Aquinas Aristotle Austin Beccaria Bentham Betti Bickel Blackstone Bobbio Bork Brożek Cardozo Castanheira Neves Chafee Coleman Del Vecchio Durkheim Dworkin Ehrlich Feinberg Fineman Finnis Frank Fuller Gardner George Green Grisez Grotius Gurvitch Habermas Han Hart Hegel Hobbes Hohfeld Hägerström Jellinek Jhering Kant Kelsen Köchler Kramer Llewellyn Lombardía Luhmann Lundstedt Lyons MacCormick Marx Nussbaum Olivecrona Pashukanis Perelman Petrazycki Pontes de Miranda Posner Pound Puchta Pufendorf Radbruch Rawls Raz Reale Reinach Renner Ross Rumi Savigny Scaevola Schauer Schmitt Shang Simmonds Somló Suárez Tribe Unger Voegelin Waldron Walzer Weber Theories Analytical jurisprudence Deontological ethics Interpretivism Legalism Legal moralism Legal positivism Legal realism Libertarian theories of law Natural law Paternalism Utilitarianism Virtue
jurisprudence Concepts Dharma Fa Judicial interpretation Justice Legal system Li Rational-legal authority Usul al-Fiqh Related articles Law Political philosophy more...

Category Law
portal Philosophy portal WikiProject Law WikiProject Philosophy changes

vteAncient Greece Timeline HistoryGeographyPeriods Cycladic civilization Minoan civilization Mycenaean civilization Greek Dark Ages Archaic period Classical Greece Hellenistic Greece Roman Greece Geography Aegean Sea Aeolis Alexandria Antioch Cappadocia Crete Cyprus Doris Ephesus Epirus Hellespont Ionia Ionian Sea Macedonia Magna Graecia Miletus Peloponnesus Pergamon Pontus Taurica Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
colonies City statesPoliticsMilitaryCity states Argos Athens Byzantion Chalcis Corinth Eretria Kerkyra Larissa Megalopolis Megara Rhodes Samos Sparta Syracuse Thebes Politics Boule Koinon Proxeny Strategos Tagus Tyrant Amphictyonic League Athenian Agora Areopagus Ecclesia Graphe paranomon Heliaia Ostracism Spartan Apella Ephor Gerousia Macedon Synedrion Koinon Military Wars Athenian military Scythian archers Antigonid Macedonian army Army of Macedon Ballista Cretan archers Hellenistic armies Hippeis Hoplite Hetairoi Macedonian phalanx Phalanx Peltast Pezhetairos Sarissa Sacred Band of Thebes Sciritae Seleucid army Spartan army Toxotai Xiphos Xyston PeopleList of ancient GreeksRulers Kings of Argos Archons of Athens Kings of Athens Kings of Commagene Diadochi Kings of Lydia Kings of Macedonia Kings of Paionia Attalid kings of Pergamon Kings of Pontus Kings of Sparta Tyrants of Syracuse Philosophers Anaxagoras Anaximander Anaximenes Antisthenes Aristotle Democritus Diogenes
of Sinope Empedocles Epicurus Gorgias Heraclitus Hypatia Leucippus Parmenides Plato Protagoras Pythagoras Socrates Thales Zeno Authors Aeschylus Aesop Alcaeus Archilochus Aristophanes Bacchylides Euripides Herodotus Hesiod Hipponax Homer Ibycus Lucian Menander Mimnermus Panyassis Philocles Pindar Plutarch Polybius Sappho Simonides Sophocles Stesichorus Theognis Thucydides Timocreon Tyrtaeus Xenophon Others Agesilaus II Agis II Alcibiades Alexander the Great Aratus Archimedes Aspasia Demosthenes Epaminondas Euclid Hipparchus Hippocrates Leonidas Lycurgus Lysander Milo of Croton Miltiades Pausanias Pericles Philip of Macedon Philopoemen Praxiteles Ptolemy Pyrrhus Solon Themistocles Groups Philosophers Playwrights Poets Tyrants By culture Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
tribes Thracian Greeks Ancient Macedonians SocietyCultureSociety Agriculture Calendar Clothing Coinage Cuisine Economy Education Festivals Funeral and burial practices Homosexuality Law Olympic Games Pederasty Philosophy Prostitution Religion Slavery Warfare Wedding customs Wine Arts and science Architecture Greek Revival architecture Astronomy Literature Mathematics Medicine Music Musical system Pottery Sculpture Technology Theatre Religion Funeral and burial practices Mythology mythological figures Temple Twelve Olympians Underworld Sacred places Eleusis Delphi Delos Dodona Mount Olympus Olympia Structures Athenian Treasury Lion Gate Long Walls Philippeion Theatre of Dionysus Tunnel of Eupalinos Temples Aphaea Artemis Athena Nike Erechtheion Hephaestus Hera, Olympia Parthenon Samothrace Zeus, Olympia Language Proto-Greek Mycenaean Homeric Dialects Aeolic Arcadocypriot Attic Doric Ionic Locrian Macedonian Pamphylian Koine Writing Linear A Linear B Cypriot syllabary Greek alphabet Greek numerals Attic numerals Greek colonisationSouth Italy Alision Brentesion Caulonia Chone Croton Cumae Elea Heraclea Lucania Hipponion Hydrus Krimisa Laüs Locri Medma Metapontion Neápolis Pandosia (Lucania) Poseidonia Pixous Rhegion Scylletium Siris Sybaris Sybaris
on the Traeis Taras Terina Thurii Sicily Akragas Akrai Akrillai Apollonia Calacte Casmenae Catana Gela Helorus Henna Heraclea Minoa Himera Hybla Gereatis Hybla Heraea Kamarina Leontinoi Megara
Hyblaea Messana Naxos Segesta Selinous Syracuse Tauromenion Thermae Tyndaris Aeolian Islands Didyme Euonymos Ereikousa Hycesia Lipara/Meligounis Phoenicusa Strongyle Therassía Sardinia Olbia Cyrenaica Balagrae Barca Berenice Cyrene (Apollonia) Ptolemais Iberian Peninsula Akra Leuke Alonis Emporion Hemeroscopion Kalathousa Kypsela Mainake Menestheus's Limin Illicitanus Limin/Portus Illicitanus Rhode Salauris Zakynthos Black Sea north coast Borysthenes Charax Chersonesus Dioscurias Eupatoria Gorgippia Hermonassa Kepoi Kimmerikon Myrmekion Nikonion Nymphaion Olbia Panticapaion Phanagoria Pityus Tanais Theodosia Tyras Tyritake Black Sea south coast Dionysopolis Odessos Anchialos Mesambria Apollonia Salmydessus Heraclea Tium Sesamus Cytorus Abonoteichos Sinope Zaliche Amisos Oinòe Polemonion Thèrmae Cotyora Kerasous Tripolis Trapezous Rhizos Athina Bathus Phasis Lists Cities in Epirus People Place names Stoae Temples Theatres

Category Portal Outline

vteAristotelianismOverview Peripatetic school Physics Biology Ethics Logic Theology (unmoved mover) Ideas and interests Correspondence theory of truth Hexis Virtue
ethics (golden mean) Four causes Telos Phronesis Eudaimonia Arete Ignoratio elenchi Temporal finitism Antiperistasis Philosophy of nature (sublunary sphere) Potentiality and actuality Aristotle's theory of universals (substantial form) Moderate realism Hylomorphism To ti en einai/to ti esti Law
of identity Syllogism reductio ad absurdum Mimesis Catharsis Substance theory (hypokeimenon, ousia, transcendentals) Essence–accident Category of being Minima naturalia Magnanimity Philia Sensus communis Rational animal Genus–differentia Mythos Active intellect Use value/exchange value Problem of future contingents Plenism Corpus Aristotelicum Physics Organon Nicomachean Ethics Politics Metaphysics On the Soul Rhetoric Poetics Followers Alexander the Great Theophrastus Avicenna Averroes Maimonides Thomas Aquinas Mortimer Adler Alasdair MacIntyre Martha Nussbaum Related topics Platonism Commentaries on Aristotle Recovery of Aristotle Scholasticism Conimbricenses Pseudo-Aristotle Views on women Aristotle's wheel paradox Aristotle's razor Philosophy portal Authority control BIBSYS: 90052251 BNE: XX4874856 BNF: cb13091331s (data) CiNii: DA00161622 GND: 118650130 ISNI: 0000 0001 2374 8095 LCCN: n79004182 LNB: 000035536 MusicBrainz: 2f96bf3c-ca56-4c20-a374-4b846056c5e6 NDL: 00431694 NKC: jn19981000140 NLA: 36246937 NSK: 000100644 RSL: 000078930 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV09389 SELIBR: 174754 SNAC: w60k6ff5 SUDOC: 026690276 ULAN: 500259120 VIAF: 7524651 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities