George Boole
George Boole (; 2 November 1815 – 8 December 1864) was a largely selftaught English mathematician, philosopher, and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, and is best known as the author of ''The Laws of Thought'' (1854) which contains Boolean algebra. Boolean logic is credited with laying the foundations for the Information Age. Early life Boole was born in 1815 in Lincoln, Lincolnshire, England, the son of John Boole senior (1779–1848), a shoemaker and Mary Ann Joyce. He had a primary school education, and received lessons from his father, but due to a serious decline in business, he had little further formal and academic teaching. William Brooke, a bookseller in Lincoln, may have helped him with Latin, which he may also have learned at the school of Thomas Bainbridge. He was selftaught in modern languages.H ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Western Philosophy
Western philosophy encompasses the philosophical thought and work of the Western world. Historically, the term refers to the philosophical thinking of Western culture, beginning with the ancient Greek philosophy of the preSocratics. The word ''philosophy'' itself originated from the Ancient Greek (φιλοσοφία), literally, "the love of wisdom" grc, φιλεῖν , "to love" and σοφία '' sophía'', "wisdom"). History Ancient The scope of ancient Western philosophy included the problems of philosophy as they are understood today; but it also included many other disciplines, such as pure mathematics and natural sciences such as physics, astronomy, and biology ( Aristotle, for example, wrote on all of these topics). PreSocratics The preSocratic philosophers were interested in cosmology; the nature and origin of the universe, while rejecting mythical answers to such questions. They were specifically interested in the (the cause or first principle) of ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author (described in his time as a "natural philosopher"), widely recognised as one of the greatest mathematicians and physicists and among the most influential scientists of all time. He was a key figure in the philosophical revolution known as the Enlightenment. His book (''Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy''), first published in 1687, established classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics, and shares credit with German mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz for developing infinitesimal calculus. In the , Newton formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that formed the dominant scientific viewpoint for centuries until it was superseded by the theory of relativity. Newton used his mathematical description of gravity to derive Kepler's laws of planetary motion, account for ti ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Ring
In mathematics, a Boolean ring ''R'' is a ring for which ''x''2 = ''x'' for all ''x'' in ''R'', that is, a ring that consists only of idempotent elements. An example is the ring of integers modulo 2. Every Boolean ring gives rise to a Boolean algebra, with ring multiplication corresponding to conjunction or meet ∧, and ring addition to exclusive disjunction or symmetric difference (not disjunction ∨, which would constitute a semiring). Conversely, every Boolean algebra gives rise to a Boolean ring. Boolean rings are named after the founder of Boolean algebra, George Boole. Notations There are at least four different and incompatible systems of notation for Boolean rings and algebras: *In commutative algebra the standard notation is to use ''x'' + ''y'' = (''x'' ∧ ¬ ''y'') ∨ (¬ ''x'' ∧ ''y'') for the ring sum of ''x'' and ''y'', and use ''xy'' = ''x'' ∧ ''y'' for their product. *In logic, a common notatio ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Vector Logic
Vector logicMizraji, E. (1992)Vector logics: the matrixvector representation of logical calculus.Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 50, 179–185Mizraji, E. (2008Vector logic: a natural algebraic representation of the fundamental logical gates.Journal of Logic and Computation, 18, 97–121 is an algebraic model of elementary logic based on matrix algebra. Vector logic assumes that the truth values map on vectors, and that the monadic and dyadic operations are executed by matrix operators. "Vector logic" has also been used to refer to the representation of classical propositional logic as a vector space, in which the unit vectors are propositional variables. Predicate logic can be represented as a vector space of the same type in which the axes represent the predicate letters S and P. In the vector space for propositional logic the origin represents the false, F, and the infinite periphery represents the true, T, whereas in the space for predicate logic the origin represents "nothing" and th ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Function
In mathematics, a Boolean function is a function whose arguments and result assume values from a twoelement set (usually , or ). Alternative names are switching function, used especially in older computer science literature, and truth function (or logical function), used in logic. Boolean functions are the subject of Boolean algebra and switching theory. A Boolean function takes the form f:\^k \to \, where \ is known as the Boolean domain and k is a nonnegative integer called the arity of the function. In the case where k=0, the function is a constant element of \. A Boolean function with multiple outputs, f:\^k \to \^m with m>1 is a ''vectorial'' or ''vectorvalued'' Boolean function (an Sbox in symmetric cryptography). There are 2^ different Boolean functions with k arguments; equal to the number of different truth tables with 2^k entries. Every kary Boolean function can be expressed as a propositional formula in k variables x_1,...,x_k, and two propositional formulas ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Boolean Algebra
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is a branch of algebra. It differs from elementary algebra in two ways. First, the values of the variables are the truth values ''true'' and ''false'', usually denoted 1 and 0, whereas in elementary algebra the values of the variables are numbers. Second, Boolean algebra uses logical operators such as conjunction (''and'') denoted as ∧, disjunction (''or'') denoted as ∨, and the negation (''not'') denoted as ¬. Elementary algebra, on the other hand, uses arithmetic operators such as addition, multiplication, subtraction and division. So Boolean algebra is a formal way of describing logical operations, in the same way that elementary algebra describes numerical operations. Boolean algebra was introduced by George Boole in his first book ''The Mathematical Analysis of Logic'' (1847), and set forth more fully in his '' An Investigation of the Laws of Thought'' (1854). According to Huntington, the term "Boolean algebra" ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Abstract Algebraic Logic
In mathematical logic, abstract algebraic logic is the study of the algebraization of deductive systems arising as an abstraction of the wellknown Lindenbaum–Tarski algebra, and how the resulting algebras are related to logical systems.Font, 2003. History The archetypal association of this kind, one fundamental to the historical origins of algebraic logic and lying at the heart of all subsequently developed subtheories, is the association between the class of Boolean algebras and classical propositional calculus. This association was discovered by George Boole in the 1850s, and then further developed and refined by others, especially C. S. Peirce and Ernst Schröder, from the 1870s to the 1890s. This work culminated in Lindenbaum–Tarski algebras, devised by Alfred Tarski and his student Adolf Lindenbaum in the 1930s. Later, Tarski and his American students (whose ranks include Don Pigozzi) went on to discover cylindric algebra, whose representable instances algebraize all o ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Victor Shestakov
Victor Ivanovich Shestakov (Russian: ) (1907–1987) was a Russian/Soviet logician and theoretician of electrical engineering. In 1935 he discovered the possible interpretation of Boolean algebra of logic in electromechanical relay circuits. He graduated from Moscow State University (1934) and worked there in the General Physics Department almost until his death. Shestakov proposed a theory of electric switches based on Boolean logic earlier than Claude Shannon (according to certification of Soviet logicians and mathematicians Sofya Yanovskaya, M. G. GaazeRapoport, Roland Dobrushin, Oleg Lupanov, Yu. A. Gastev, Yu. T. Medvedev, and Vladimir Andreevich Uspensky), though Shestakov and Shannon defended Theses the same year (1938) and the first publication of Shestakov's result took place only in 1941 (in Russian). In the early 20th century, relay circuits began to be more widely used in automatics, defense of electric and communications systems. Every relay circuit schema for p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Claude Shannon
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as a "father of information theory". As a 21yearold master's degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical numerical relationship. Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense of the United States during World War II, including his fundamental work on codebreaking and secure telecommunications. Biography Childhood The Shannon family lived in Gaylord, Michigan, and Claude was born in a hospital in nearby Petoskey. His father, Claude Sr. (1862–1934), was a businessman and for a while, a judge of probate in Gaylord. His mother, Mabel Wolf Shannon (1890–1945), was a language teacher, who also served as the principal of Gaylord High School. Claude Sr. was a descendant of New Jerse ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

William Ernest Johnson
William Ernest Johnson, FBA (23 June 1858 – 14 January 1931), usually cited as W. E. Johnson, was a British philosopher, logician and economic theorist.Zabell, S.L. (2008"Johnson, William Ernest (1858–1931)"In: Durlauf S.N., Blume L.E. (eds) ''The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics.''(2nd ed, 2008.) Palgrave Macmillan, Londoalso online/ref> He is mainly remembered for his 3 volume ''Logic'' which introduced the concept of exchangeability. Life and career Johnson was born in Cambridge on 23 June 1858 to William Henry Farthing Johnson and his wife, Harriet (''née'' Brimley). He was their fifth child. The family were Baptists and political liberals. He attended the Llandaff House School, Cambridge where his father was the proprietor and headteacher, then the Perse School, Cambridge, and the Liverpool Royal Institution School. At the age of around eight he became seriously ill and developed severe asthma and lifelong ill health. Due to this his education was frequently d ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce ( ; September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". Educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for thirty years, Peirce made major contributions to logic, a subject that, for him, encompassed much of what is now called epistemology and the philosophy of science. He saw logic as the formal branch of semiotics, of which he is a founder, which foreshadowed the debate among logical positivists and proponents of philosophy of language that dominated 20thcentury Western philosophy. Additionally, he defined the concept of abductive reasoning, as well as rigorously formulated mathematical induction and deductive reasoning. As early as 1886, he saw that logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits. The same idea was used decades later to produce digital computers. See Also In 1934, the philosopher Paul Weiss cal ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, ( ; 5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was an English economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. Originally trained in mathematics, he built on and greatly refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles. One of the most influential economists of the 20th century, he produced writings that are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, and its various offshoots. His ideas, reformulated as New Keynesianism, are fundamental to mainstream macroeconomics. Keynes's intellect was evident early in life; in 1902, he gained admittance to the competitive mathematics program at King's College at the University of Cambridge. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, challenging the ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, auto ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 