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Phronesis
''Phronesis'' ( grc, φρόνησῐς, phrónēsis), translated into English by terms such as prudence, practical virtue and practical wisdom is an ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence relevant to practical action. It implies both good judgment and excellence of Moral character, character and habits, and was a common topic of discussion in ancient Greek philosophy, in ways which are still influential today. In Aristotelian ethics, for example in the ''Nicomachean Ethics'', the concept is distinguished from other words for wisdom and intellectual virtues – such as ''episteme'' and ''techne'' – because of its practical character. The traditional Latin translation was , the source of the English word "prudence". Among other proposals, Thomas McEvilley has proposed that the best translation is "mindfulness". Ancient Greek philosophy Plato In some of Plato's dialogues, Socrates proposes that ''phronēsis'' is a necessary condition for all virtue. Being good, i ...
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φρόνησις
''Phronesis'' ( grc, wikt:φρόνησις, φρόνησῐς, phrónēsis), translated into English by terms such as prudence, practical virtue and practical wisdom is an ancient Greek word for a type of wisdom or intelligence relevant to practical action. It implies both good judgment and excellence of Moral character, character and habits, and was a common topic of discussion in ancient Greek philosophy, in ways which are still influential today. In Aristotelian ethics, for example in the ''Nicomachean Ethics'', the concept is distinguished from other words for wisdom and intellectual virtues – such as ''episteme'' and ''techne'' – because of its practical character. The traditional Latin translation was , the source of the English word "prudence". Among other proposals, Thomas McEvilley has proposed that the best translation is "mindfulness". Ancient Greek philosophy Plato In some of Plato's dialogues, Socrates proposes that ''phronēsis'' is a necessary condition for all ...
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Nicomachean Ethics
The ''Nicomachean Ethics'' (; grc, Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια, ) is the name normally given to Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...'s best-known work on ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, .... The work, which plays a pre-eminent role in defining Aristotelian ethics Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, ..., consists of ten b ...
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Prudentia
Prudence ( la, prudentia, contracted from meaning "seeing ahead, sagacity") is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic Logic is an interdisciplinary field which studies truth and reasoning Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek .... It is classically considered to be a virtue Virtue ( la, virtus ''Virtus'' () was a specific virtue in Ancient Rome. It carries connotations of valor, manliness, excellence, courage, character, and worth, perceived as masculine strengths (from Latin ''vir'', "man"). It was thus a fr ..., and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues Cardinal virtues are four virtues Virtue ( la, virtus) is morality, moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is Value (ethics), valued as a foundation of principle and good moral bein ...
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Eudaimonia
Eudaimonia (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...: εὐδαιμονία ; sometimes anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in . The term commonly refers ... as eudaemonia or eudemonia, ) is a Greek word literally translating to the state or condition of 'good spirit', and which is commonly translated as 'happiness The term ''happiness'' is used in the context of mental Mental may refer to: * of or relating to the mind Films * Mental (2012 film), ''Mental'' (2012 film), an Australian comedy-drama * Mental (2016 film), ''Mental'' (2016 film), a Bangla ...' or 'welf ...
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Sophia (wisdom)
Sophia ( grc-koi, σοφία ''sophía'' "wisdom") is a central idea in Hellenistic philosophy and Hellenistic religion, religion, Platonism, Sophia (Gnosticism) , Gnosticism and Christian theology. Originally carrying a meaning of "cleverness, skill", the later meaning of the term, close to the meaning of ''Phronesis'' ("wisdom, intelligence"), was significantly shaped by the term ''philosophy'' ("love of wisdom") as used by Plato. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church, the feminine wisdom (personification), personification of divine wisdom as Holy Wisdom ( ''Hagía Sophía'') can refer either to Jesus, Jesus Christ the Logos (Christianity), Word of God (as in the dedication of the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople) or to the Holy Spirit. References to ''Sophia'' in Koine Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible translate to the Biblical Hebrew, Hebrew term ''Chokhmah''. Greek and Hellenistic tradition The Ancient Greek word ''Sophia'' ...
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Ethos
Ethos ( or ) is a Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ... word meaning "character" that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks also used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions, behaviors, and even morals. Early Greek stories of Orpheus Orpheus (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancie ... exhibit this idea in a compelling way. The word's use in rhetoric Rhetoric () is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapie ...
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Nous
''Nous'' (, ), sometimes equated to intellect In the study of the human mind, intellect refers to, describes, and identifies the ability of the human mind to reach correct conclusions about what is true True most commonly refers to truth Truth is the property of being in accord with fa ... or intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction, logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, critical thinking, and problem-solving. More generally, it can be des ..., is a term from classical philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, language. Such questio ... for the faculty Faculty may refer to: * Faculty (academic staff), the academic staff of a university (North American usage) * Faculty ...
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Intellectual Virtue
Intellectual virtues are qualities of mind and character that promote intellectual flourishing, critical thinking, and the pursuit of truth. They include: intellectual responsibility, wikt:perseverance, perseverance, open-mindedness, empathy, integrity, intellectual courage, confidence in reason, love of truth, intellectual humility, imaginativeness, curiosity, fair-mindedness, and autonomy. So-called virtue responsibilists conceive of intellectual virtues primarily as acquired character traits, such as intellectual conscientiousness and love of knowledge. Virtue reliabilists, by contrast, think of intellectual virtues more in terms of well-functioning mental faculties such as perception, memory, and intuition. Intellectual virtues are studied extensively in both critical thinking and virtue epistemology. Aristotle Aristotle analyzed virtues into and virtues. In the ''Posterior Analytics'' and ''Nicomachean Ethics'' he identified five intellectual virtues as the five ways the s ...
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Wisdom
Wisdom, sapience, or sagacity is the ability to contemplate and act using knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ..., experience Experience refers to conscious , an English Paracelsian physician Consciousness, at its simplest, is " sentience or awareness of internal and external existence". Despite millennia of analyses, definitions, explanations and debates by philosoph ..., understanding Understanding is a psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic disc ..., common sense Common sense (often just known as sense) is sound, practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or ...
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Aristotle
Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mi ... and polymath A polymath ( el, πολυμαθής, , "having learned much"; la, homo universalis, "universal human") is an individual whose knowledge spans a substantial number of subjects, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific prob ... during the Classical periodClassical period may refer to: *Classical Greece, specifically of the 5th and 4th centuries BC *Classical antiquity, in the Greco-Roman world *Classical India, an historic period of India (c. 322 BC - c. 550 CE) *Classical period (music), in music ... in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civi ...
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Aristotelian Ethics
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ... first used the term ethics Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about Metaphysics, existence, reason, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, ... to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates Socrates (; ; –399 BC) was a Greek philosopher from Athens Athens ( ; el, Αθήνα, Athína ; grc, Ἀθῆναι, Athênai (pl.) ) is the capital city, capital and List of cities in Greece, largest city of Greece. Athens domi ... and Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athens, Athenian philosopher ...
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Techne
Techne (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...: ; , ) is a term in philosophy that refers to making or doing, which in turn is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root "Teks-" meaning "to weave," also "to fabricate". As an activity, technē is concrete, variable, and context-dependent. The term resembles the concept of '' epistēmē'' in the implication of knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ... of principles, in that "both words are names for knowledge in the widest sense." However, the two are distinct. As a system of knowledge The term resemb ...
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