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The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
(Italian: Il nome della rosa [il ˈnoːme della ˈrɔːza]) is the 1980 debut novel by Italian author Umberto Eco. It is a historical murder mystery set in an Italian monastery, in the year 1327, an intellectual mystery combining semiotics in fiction, biblical analysis, medieval studies and literary theory. It was translated into English by William Weaver in 1983. The novel has sold over 50 million copies worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling books ever published.[1] It has received many international awards and accolades, such as the Strega Prize in 1981 and Prix Medicis Étrangère in 1982, and was ranked 14th on Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century list.

Contents

1 Plot summary 2 Characters 3 Major themes 4 The aedificium's labyrinth 5 Title 6 Allusions

6.1 To other works 6.2 To actual history and geography

7 Adaptations

7.1 Film 7.2 Television 7.3 Dramatic works 7.4 Games 7.5 Music

8 See also 9 Notes 10 Sources 11 External links

Plot summary[edit] In 1327, Franciscan
Franciscan
friar William of Baskerville
William of Baskerville
and Adso of Melk, a Benedictine
Benedictine
novice travelling under his protection, arrive at a Benedictine
Benedictine
monastery in Northern Italy
Italy
to attend a theological disputation. Upon their coming, the monastery is disturbed by a suicide. As the story unfolds, several other monks die under mysterious circumstances. William is tasked by the monastery's abbot to investigate the deaths, and fresh clues with each murder victim lead William to dead ends and new clues. The protagonists explore a labyrinthine medieval library, discuss the subversive power of laughter, and come face to face with the Inquisition, a path that William had previously forsworn. William's innate curiosity and highly developed powers of logic and deduction provide the keys to unravelling the abbey's mysteries. Characters[edit]

Primary characters

William of Baskerville
William of Baskerville
– main protagonist, a Franciscan
Franciscan
friar Adso of Melk
Melk
– narrator, Benedictine
Benedictine
novice accompanying William

At the monastery

Abo of Fossanova – the abbot of the Benedictine
Benedictine
monastery Severinus of Sankt Wendel
Sankt Wendel
– herbalist who helps William Malachi of Hildesheim
Hildesheim
– librarian Berengar of Arundel
Arundel
– assistant librarian Adelmo of Otranto
Otranto
– illuminator, novice Venantius of Salvemec – translator of manuscripts Benno of Uppsala
Uppsala
– student of rhetoric Alinardo of Grottaferrata
Grottaferrata
– eldest monk Jorge of Burgos
Burgos
– elderly blind monk Remigio of Varagine – cellarer Salvatore of Montferrat
Montferrat
– monk, associate of Remigio Nicholas of Morimondo
Morimondo
– glazier Aymaro of Alessandria
Alessandria
– gossipy, sneering monk Pacificus of Tivoli Peter of Sant’Albano Waldo of Hereford Magnus of Iona Patrick of Clonmacnois Rabano of Toledo

Outsiders

Ubertino of Casale
Ubertino of Casale
Franciscan
Franciscan
friar in exile, friend of William Michael of Cesena
Michael of Cesena
– Minister General of the Franciscans Bernard Gui
Bernard Gui
– Inquisitor Bertrand del Poggetto – Cardinal and leader of the Papal legation Jerome of Kaffa – Bishop of Kaffa Peasant girl from the village below the monastery

Major themes[edit]

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Eco was a professor of semiotics, and employs techniques of metanarrative, partial fictionalization, and linguistic ambiguity to create a world enriched by layers of meaning. The solution to the central murder mystery hinges on the contents of Aristotle's book on Comedy, which has been lost. In spite of this, Eco speculates on the content and has the characters react to it. Through the motif of this lost and possibly suppressed book which might have aestheticized the farcical, the unheroic and the skeptical, Eco also makes an ironically slanted plea for tolerance and against dogmatic or self-sufficient metaphysical truths—an angle which reaches the surface in the final chapters.[2] The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
has been described as a work of postmodernism.[3] The quote in the novel, "books always speak of other books, and every story tells a story that has already been told", refers to a postmodern idea that all texts perpetually refer to other texts, rather than external reality, while also harkening back to the medieval notion that citation and quotation of books was inherently necessary to write new stories. The novel ends with irony: as Eco explains in his Postscript to the Name of the Rose, "very little is discovered and the detective is defeated."[4] After unraveling the central mystery in part through coincidence and error, William of Baskerville concludes in fatigue that there "was no pattern." Thus Eco turns the modernist quest for finality, certainty and meaning on its head, leaving the overall plot partly the result of accident and arguably without meaning.[3] The aedificium's labyrinth[edit] The mystery revolves around the abbey library, situated in a fortified tower—the aedificium. This structure has three floors—the ground floor contains the kitchen and refectory, the first floor a scriptorium, and the top floor is occupied by the library.[5] The two lower floors are open to all, while only the librarian may enter the last. A catalogue of books is kept in the scriptorium, where manuscripts are read and copied. A monk who wishes to read a book would send a request to the librarian, who, if he thought the request justified, would bring it to the scriptorium. Finally, the library is in the form of a labyrinth, whose secret only the librarian and the assistant librarian know.[6] The aedificium has four towers at the four cardinal points, and the top floor of each has seven rooms on the outside, surrounding a central room. There are another eight rooms on the outer walls, and sixteen rooms in the centre of the maze. Thus, the library has a total of fifty-six rooms.[7] Each room has a scroll containing a verse from the Book of Revelation. The first letter of the verse is the letter corresponding to that room.[8] The letters of adjacent rooms, read together, give the name of a region (e.g. Hibernia
Hibernia
in the West tower), and those rooms contain books from that region. The geographical regions are:

The aedificium's labyrinth

Fons Adae, 'The earthly paradise' contains Bibles and commentaries, East Tower Acaia, Greece, Northeast Iudaia, Judea, East Aegyptus, Egypt, Southeast Leones, 'South' contains books from Africa, South Tower Yspania, Spain, Southwest outer Roma, Italy, Southwest inner Hibernia, Ireland, West Tower Gallia, France, Northwest Germania, Germany, North Anglia, England, North Tower

Two rooms have no lettering - the easternmost room, which has an altar, and the central room on the south tower, the so-called finis Africae, which contains the most heavily guarded books, and can only be entered through a secret door. The entrance to the library is in the central room of the east tower, which is connected to the scriptorium by a staircase.[9] Title[edit] Much attention has been paid to the mystery the book's title refers to. In fact, Eco has stated that his intention was to find a "totally neutral title".[4] In one version of the story, when he had finished writing the novel, Eco hurriedly suggested some ten names for it and asked a few of his friends to choose one. They chose The Name of the Rose.[10] In another version of the story, Eco had wanted the neutral title Adso of Melk, but that was vetoed by his publisher, and then the title The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
"came to me virtually by chance." In the Postscript to the Name of the Rose, Eco claims to have chosen the title "because the rose is a symbolic figure so rich in meanings that by now it hardly has any meaning left".[4] The book's last line, "Stat rosa pristina nomine, nomina nuda tenemus" translates as: "the rose of old remains only in its name; we possess naked names." The general sense, as Eco pointed out,[11] was that from the beauty of the past, now disappeared, we hold only the name. In this novel, the lost "rose" could be seen as Aristotle's book on comedy (now forever lost), the exquisite library now destroyed, or the beautiful peasant girl now dead. This text has also been translated as "Yesterday's rose stands only in name, we hold only empty names." This line is a verse by twelfth century monk Bernard of Cluny (also known as Bernard of Morlaix). Medieval manuscripts of this line are not in agreement (but the best read "Roma" instead of "rosa")[citation needed]. Roma here introduces a "false" quantity, with a long-o for the Classical short-o; thus, a scribe may have written the "classically impeccable" rosa, which betrays the overall context and flexible prosody of Bernard. Eco quotes one Medieval variant verbatim,[12] but Eco was not aware at the time of the text more commonly printed in modern editions, in which the reference is to Rome
Rome
(Roma), not to a rose (rosa).[13] The alternative text, with its context, runs: Nunc ubi Regulus aut ubi Romulus aut ubi Remus? / Stat Roma pristina nomine, nomina nuda tenemus. This translates as "Where now is Regulus, or Romulus, or Remus? / Primordial Rome
Rome
abides only in its name; we hold only naked names." See the new excellent source edition of 2009: Bernard of Cluny, De contemptu mundi: Une vision du monde vers 1144, ed. and trans. A. Cresson, Témoins de notre histoire (Turnhout, 2009), p. 126 (bk. 1, 952), and note thereto p. 257. Also the title of the book may be related to a poem by the Mexican poet and mystic Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
Juana Inés de la Cruz
(1651–1695):

Rosa que al prado, encarnada, te ostentas presuntuosa de grana y carmín bañada: campa lozana y gustosa; pero no, que siendo hermosa también serás desdichada.

which appears in Eco's Postscript to the Name of the Rose, and is translated into English in "Note 1" of that book as:

Red rose growing in the meadow, you vaunt yourself bravely bathed in crimson and carmine: a rich and fragrant show. But no: Being fair, You will be unhappy soon.[4]

Allusions[edit]

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To other works[edit] The name of the central character, William of Baskerville, alludes both to the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
(compare The Hound of the Baskervilles – also, Adso's description of William in the beginning of the book resembles, almost word for word, Dr. Watson's description of Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
when he first makes his acquaintance in A Study in Scarlet) and to William of Ockham
William of Ockham
(see the next section). The name of the narrator, his apprentice Adso of Melk
Melk
is among other things a pun on Simplicio from Galileo Galilei's Dialogue; Adso deriving from "ad Simplicio" ("to Simplicio"). Adso's putative place of origin, Melk, is the site of a famous medieval library, at Melk Abbey. And his name echoes the narrator of the Sherlock Holmes stories, Watson (omitting the first and last latters, with "t" and "d" being phonetically similar).[14] The blind librarian Jorge from Burgos
Burgos
is a nod to Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges, a major influence on Eco. Borges was blind during his later years and was also director of Argentina's national library; his short story "The Library of Babel" is an inspiration for the secret library in Eco's book.[15] Another of Borges's stories, "The Secret Miracle", features a blind librarian. In addition, a number of other themes drawn from various of Borges's works are used throughout The Name of the Rose: labyrinths, mirrors, sects and obscure manuscripts and books. The ending also owes a debt to Borges' short story "Death and the Compass", in which a detective proposes a theory for the behavior of a murderer. The murderer learns of the theory and uses it to trap the detective. In The Name of the Rose, the librarian Jorge uses William's belief that the murders are based on the Revelation of John
Revelation of John
to misdirect William, though in Eco's tale, the detective succeeds in solving the crime. The "poisoned page" motif may have been inspired by Alexandre Dumas' novel La Reine Margot (1845). It was also used in the film Il giovedì (1963) by Italian director Dino Risi.[16] Eco seems also to have been aware of Rudyard Kipling's short story "The Eye of Allah", which touches on many of the same themes, like optics, manuscript illumination, music, medicine, priestly authority and the Church's attitude to scientific discovery and independent thought, and which also includes a character named John of Burgos. Eco was also inspired by the 19th century Italian novelist Alessandro Manzoni, citing The Betrothed as an example of the specific type of historical novel he purposed to create, in which some of the characters may be made up, but their motivations and actions remain authentic to the period and render history more comprehensible.[17] Throughout the book, there are Latin
Latin
quotes, authentic and apocryphal. There are also discussions of the philosophy of Aristotle
Aristotle
and of a variety of millenarist heresies, especially those associated with the fraticelli. Numerous other philosophers are referenced throughout the book, often anachronistically, including Wittgenstein. To actual history and geography[edit]

Saint Michael's Abbey, in the Susa Valley, Piedmont

William of Ockham, who lived during the time at which the novel is set, first put forward the principle known as Ockham's Razor, often summarised as the dictum that one should always accept as most likely the simplest explanation that accounts for all the facts (a method used by William of Baskerville
William of Baskerville
in the novel). The book describes monastic life in the 14th century. The action takes place at a Benedictine
Benedictine
abbey during the controversy surrounding the Apostolic poverty between branches of Franciscans
Franciscans
and Dominicans; (see renewed controversy on the question of poverty). The setting was inspired by monumental Saint Michael's Abbey in Susa Valley, Piedmont and visited by Umberto Eco.[18][not in citation given] The Spirituals abhor wealth, bordering on the Apostolics or Dulcinian heresy. The book highlights this tension that existed within Christianity
Christianity
during the medieval era: the Spirituals, one faction within the Franciscan order, demanded that the Church should abandon all wealth, and some heretical sects began killing the well-to-do, while the majority of the Franciscans
Franciscans
and the clergy took to a broader interpretation of the gospel. Also in the background is the conflict between Louis IV and Pope John XXII, with the Emperor supporting the Spirituals and the Pope condemning them. A number of the characters, such as the Inquisitor
Inquisitor
Bernard Gui
Bernard Gui
(as Bernardo Gui), Ubertino of Casale
Ubertino of Casale
and the Minorite
Minorite
Michael of Cesena (as Michele da Cesena), are historical figures, though the novel's characterization of them is not always historically accurate. Dante Alighieri and his Comedy are mentioned once in passing. However, Eco notes in a companion book that he had to situate the monastery in mountains so it would experience early frosts, in order for that action to take place at a time when the historical Bernard Gui
Bernard Gui
could have been in the area. For the purposes of the plot, Eco needed a quantity of pig blood, but at that time pigs were not usually slaughtered until a frost had arrived. Later in the year, Gui was known to have been away from Italy
Italy
and could not have participated in the events at the monastery. Part of the dialogue in the inquisition scene of the novel is lifted bodily from the historical Gui's own Manual for Inquisitors, the Practica Inquisitionis Heretice Pravitatis, for example the dialogue: "What do you believe?" "What do you believe, my Lord?" "I believe in all that the Creed teaches." "So I believe, My Lord." Bernardo then points out that what Remigius the cellarer is saying is not that Remigius believes in the Creed, but that Remigius believes that Bernardo believes in the Creed. This is an example given by the historical Gui in his book to warn inquisitors against the slipperiness and manipulation of words by heretics. This use of Gui's own book by Eco is self-consciously of a piece with his perspective that "books always speak of other books". In this case, the author integrates the historical Bernard Gui's text into his own through the fictional character of Bernardo. Adso's description of the portal of the monastery is recognizably that of the portal of the church at Moissac, France.[19] There is also a quick reference to a famous "Umberto of Bologna"—Umberto Eco himself. Adaptations[edit] Film[edit]

A film adaptation, eponymously titled The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
(1986), was directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud, and starred Sean Connery
Sean Connery
as William of Baskerville and Christian Slater
Christian Slater
as Adso.[20]

Television[edit]

An 8-part miniseries based on the novel is set to begin production in Italy
Italy
in January, 2018, with plans to release in early 2019.[21] The series will be directed by Giacomo Battiato, and star John Turturro
John Turturro
as William of Baskerville, Rupert Everett
Rupert Everett
as Gui, and newcomer Damian Hardung as Adso.[22]

Dramatic works[edit]

A play adaptation by Grigore Gonţa had premiered at National Theatre Bucharest in 1998, starring Radu Beligan, Gheorghe Dinică, and Ion Cojar. A two-part radio drama based on the novel and adapted by Chris Dolan was broadcast on BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
on June 16 and 23, 2006. A radio parody inspired by the film adaptation was made as part of the Crème de la Crime series by Punt and Dennis, also on BBC Radio 4.[when?][citation needed]

Games[edit]

A Spanish video game adaptation was released in 1987 under the title La Abadía del Crimen
La Abadía del Crimen
(The Abbey of the Crime). Nomen Rosae (1988), a Spanish ZX Spectrum
ZX Spectrum
maze video game developed by Cocasoft and published by MicroHobby. It only depicts the abbey's library of the novel.[23] Il Noma della Rosa (1993), a Slovak ZX Spectrum
ZX Spectrum
adventure video game developed by Orion Software and published by Perpetum.[24] Ravensburger
Ravensburger
published an eponymous boardgame in 2008, designed by Stefan Feld
Stefan Feld
and is based on the events of the book. Murder in the Abbey (2008), an adventure video game loosely based upon the novel. Developed by Alcachofa Soft and published by DreamCatcher Interactive. La Abadía del Crimen
La Abadía del Crimen
Extensum (The Abbey of Crime Extensum), a free remake of La Abadía del Crimen
La Abadía del Crimen
written in Java was released on Steam in 2016 with English, French, Italian and Spanish-language versions. This remake greatly enhances the gameplay of the original, while also expanding the story and the cast of characters, borrowing elements from the movie and book. The game is dedicated to Umberto Eco, recently deceased, and Paco Menéndez, the programmer of the original game, who committed suicide in 1999.[25]

Music[edit]

The British rock band Ten released the album The Name of the Rose (1996), whose eponymous track is loosely based around some of the philosophical concepts of the novel. The British metal band Iron Maiden
Iron Maiden
released the song "Sign of the Cross" in 1995, part of their X Factor album. The song refers to the novel.

See also[edit]

Novels portal

Historical whodunnit Le Monde's 100 Books of the Century The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
film

Notes[edit]

^ Library Journal Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. (no date) ^ Lars Gustafsson, postscript to Swedish edition The Name of the Rose ^ a b Christopher Butler. Postmodernism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP, 2002. ISBN 978-0-19-280239-2 — see pages 32 and 126 for discussion of the novel. ^ a b c d "Postscript to the Name of the Rose", printed in The Name of the Rose (Harcourt, Inc., 1984), p. 506. ^ First Day, Terce, paragraph 37 ^ First Day, Terce, paragraph 67 ^ Third Day, Vespers, paragraphs 50-56 ^ Third Day, Vespers, paragraphs 64-68 ^ Fourth Day, After Compline ^ Umberto Eco. On Literature. Secker & Warburg, 2005, p. 129-130. ISBN 0-436-21017-7. ^ "Name of the Rose: Title and Last Line". Archived from the original on 2007-01-21. Retrieved 2007-03-15.  ^ Eco would have found this reading in, for example, the standard text edited by H.C. Hoskier (London 1929); only the Hiersemann manuscript preserves "Roma". For the verse quoted in this form before Eco, see e.g. Alexander Cooke, An essay on the origin, progress, and decline of rhyming Latin
Latin
verse (1828), p. 59, and Hermann Adalbert Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus sive hymnorum canticorum sequentiarum (1855), p. 290. See further Pepin, Ronald E. "Adso's closing line in The Name of the Rose." American notes and queries (May–June 1986): 151–152. ^ As Eco wrote in "The Author and his Interpreters" "Thus the title of my novel, had I come across another version of Morlay's poem, could have been The Name of Rome
Rome
(thus acquiring fascist overtones)". ^ Capozzi, Rocco, ed. (February 22, 1997). Reading Eco: An Anthology. Indiana University Press. ISBN 9780253112828.  ^ 1899-1986., Borges, Jorge Luis, (2000). The library of Babel. Desmazières, Erik, 1948-, Hurley, Andrew, 1944-, Giral, Angela. Boston: David R. Godine. ISBN 156792123X. OCLC 44089369.  ^ notes to Daniele Luttazzi. Lolito. pp. 514–15.  ^ Umberto., Eco, (1984). Postscript to The name of the rose. Eco, Umberto. (1st ed.). San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 9780151731565. OCLC 10996520.  ^ "AVOSacra - Associazione volontari Sacra di San Michele".  ^ Petersen, Nils Holger; Clüver, Claus; Bell, Nicolas (2004). Signs of Change: Transformations of Christian Traditions and Their Representation in the Arts, 1000-2000. Rodopi. ISBN 9042009993.  ^ Canby, Vincent (September 24, 1986). " The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
(1986) FILM: MEDIEVAL MYSTERY IN 'NAME OF THE ROSE'". The New York Times.  ^ Roxborough, Scott (November 2, 2017). "John Turturro, Rupert Everett to Star in TV Version of 'The Name of the Rose'". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 14, 2017.  ^ Vivarelli, Nick (October 16, 2017). " John Turturro
John Turturro
to Play Monk William of Baskerville
William of Baskerville
in 'Name of The Rose' TV Adaptation (EXCLUSIVE)". Variety. Retrieved November 14, 2017.  ^ "Nomen Rosae - World of Spectrum".  ^ "Noma della Rosa, Il - World of Spectrum".  ^ "La abadía del crimen Extensum". 

Sources[edit]

Eco, Umberto (1983). The Name of the Rose. Harcourt.  Coletti, Theresa (1988). Naming the Rose. Cornell University Press.  Haft, Adele (1999). The Key to The Name of the Rose. University of Michigan Press.  ISBN 978-0-472-08621-4 Ketzan, Erik. "Borges and The Name of the Rose". Retrieved 2007-08-18.  Wischermann, Heinfried (1997). Romanesque. Konemann. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Umberto Eco

Umberto Eco
Umberto Eco
discusses The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
on the BBC World Book Club IMDb.com Listing: The Name of the Rose Filming location Kloster Eberbach, Germany The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
by Umberto Eco, reviewed by Ted Gioia (Postmodern Mystery) New York Times Review

v t e

Umberto Eco

Bibliography

Novels

The Name of the Rose Foucault's Pendulum The Island of the Day Before Baudolino The Mysterious Flame of Queen Loana The Prague Cemetery Numero Zero

Non-fiction

The Open Work Faith in Fakes The Search for the Perfect Language Six Walks in the Fictional Woods Belief or Nonbelief? Kant and the Platypus Serendipities The Infinity of Lists

Related

Versus: Quaderni di studi semiotici The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
(film)

v t e

Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose
The Name of the Rose
(1980)

Characters

Fictional

William of Baskerville

Historical

Ubertino of Casale Michael of Cesena Bernard Gui Bertrand du Pouget

Films

The Name of the Rose

TV series

The Name of the Rose

Related video games

La Abadía del Crimen Murder in the Abbey

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 190478995 LCCN: n85153703 GND: 4099176-3 SUDOC: 027715698 BNF: cb119698772 (data) NLA: 35341

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