Public broadcasting includes radio, television and other electronic
media outlets whose primary mission is public service. In much of the
world, funding comes from the government, especially via annual fees
charged on receivers. In the United States, public broadcasters may
receive some funding from both federal and state sources, but
generally most financial support comes from underwriting by
foundations and businesses ranging from small shops to corporations,
along with audience contributions via pledge drives. The great
majority are operated as private not-for-profit corporations.
Public broadcasting may be nationally or locally operated, depending
on the country and the station. In some countries, public broadcasting
is run by a single organization. Other countries have multiple public
broadcasting organizations operating regionally or in different
languages. Historically, public broadcasting was once the dominant or
only form of broadcasting in many countries (with the notable
exception of the United States).
Commercial broadcasting now also
exists in most of these countries; the number of countries with only
public broadcasting declined substantially during the latter part of
the 20th century.
1 Defining public broadcasting
1.2 Cultural policy
2 Implementation of public broadcasting around the world
2.1.3 Hong Kong
2.1.12 South Korea
2.2.5 Czech Republic
2.2.7 Faroe Islands
2.2.25 Nordic countries
2.2.30 United Kingdom
2.3 North America
2.3.2 United States
2.4.2 New Zealand
2.5 South America
3 List of public broadcasters
4 See also
8 External links
Defining public broadcasting
The primary mission of public broadcasting that of public service,
speaking to and engaging as a citizen. The British model has been
widely accepted as a universal definition. The model embodies
the following principles:
Universal geographic accessibility
Attention to minorities
Contribution to national identity and sense of community
Distance from vested interests
Direct funding and universality of payment
Competition in good programming rather than numbers
Guidelines that liberate rather than restrict
While application of certain principles may be straightforward, as in
the case of accessibility, some of the principles may be poorly
defined or difficult to implement. In the context of a shifting
national identity, the role of public broadcasting may be unclear.
Likewise, the subjective nature of good programming may raise the
question of individual or public taste.
Within public broadcasting there are two different views regarding
commercial activity. One is that public broadcasting is incompatible
with commercial objectives. The other is that public broadcasting can
and should compete in the marketplace with commercial broadcasters.
This dichotomy is highlighted by the public service aspects of
traditional commercial broadcasters.
Public broadcasters in each jurisdiction may or may not be synonymous
with government controlled broadcasters. In some countries like the UK
public broadcasters are not sanctioned by government departments and
have independent means of funding, and thus enjoy editorial
Public broadcasters may receive their funding from an obligatory
television licence fee, individual contributions, government funding
or commercial sources. Public broadcasters do not rely on advertising
to the same degree as commercial broadcasters, or at all; this allows
public broadcasters to transmit programmes that are not commercially
viable to the mass market, such as public affairs shows, radio and
television documentaries, and educational programmes.
One of the principles of public broadcasting is to provide coverage of
interests for which there are missing or small markets. Public
broadcasting attempts to supply topics of social benefit that are
otherwise not provided by commercial broadcasters. Typically, such
underprovision is argued to exist when the benefits to viewers are
relatively high in comparison to the benefits to advertisers from
contacting viewers. This frequently is the case in undeveloped
countries that normally have low benefits to advertising.
Additionally, public broadcasting may facilitate the implementation of
a cultural policy (an industrial policy and investment policy for
culture). Examples include:
The Canadian government is committed to official bilingualism (English
and French). As a result, the public broadcaster, the CBC employs
translators and journalists who speak both official languages and it
encourages production of cross-cultural material.
argue that this is also a policy of cultural imperialism and
In the UK, the
BBC supports multiculturalism and diversity, in part by
using on-screen commentators and hosts of different ethnic origins.
There are also Welsh, Irish and Scottish Gaelic language programmes
for the home nations, an Asian Network broadcasting in English and
five major languages of South Asia, and the
BBC World Service
broadcasts in 31 international languages, also funded independently of
In New Zealand, the public broadcasting system provides support to
Māori broadcasting, with the stated intention of improving their
opportunities, maintaining their cultural heritage and promoting their
In Australia, the
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation is legally
required to 'encourage and promote the musical, dramatic and other
performing arts in Australia' and 'broadcasting programs that
contribute to a sense of national identity' with specific emphasis on
regional and rural Australia'. Furthermore, the Special
Broadcasting Service (SBS) is intended to reflect the spirit and sense
of multicultural richness and the unique international cultural values
within Australian society.
Implementation of public broadcasting around the world
The model, established in the 1920s, of the British Broadcasting
Corporation—an organization widely trusted, even by citizens of the
Axis Powers during World War II—was widely emulated throughout
Europe, the British Empire, and later the Commonwealth. The public
broadcasters in a number of countries are basically an application of
the model used in Britain.
Modern public broadcasting is often a mixed commercial model. For
example, the CBC is funded by advertising revenue supplemented by a
government subsidy to support its television service.
Radio Television Afghanistan
Radio Television Afghanistan (RTA) is the public broadcaster of
Afghanistan and dates back to 1925.
The Bengali primary state television broadcaster is Bangladesh
Television which also broadcasts worldwide through its satellite based
branch, BTV World. There are also terrestrial state run TV channels:
Sangsad TV owned and operated by
Bengali parliament that covers the
proceedings of the Parliament. The
Bangladesh Betar (BB) is the
country's sole state radio broadcaster.
Radio transmission in the
region now forming Bangladesh started in Dhaka on December 16, 1939.
The Ministry of Information is responsible for the administration of
all government TV channels and Radio.
Broadcasting House, the longtime headquarters of RTHK
In Hong Kong, the
Television Hong Kong (RTHK) is the sole public
service broadcaster. Although a government department under
administrative hierarchy, it enjoys editorial independence. It
operates seven radio channels, and produces television programmes and
broadcast on commercial television channels, as these channels are
required by law to provide time slot for
RTHK television programmes.
RTHK would be assigned a digital terrestrial television channel within
2013 to 2015.
Prasar Bharati is India's public broadcaster. However it
does have commercial advertising on it. It is an autonomous
corporation of the Ministry of Information and
Government of India and comprises the
Doordarshan television network
and All India Radio.
Prasar Bharati was established on 23 November
1997, following a demand that the government owned broadcasters in
India should be given autonomy like those in many other countries. The
Parliament of India passed an Act to grant this autonomy in 1990, but
it was not enacted until 15 September 1997.
In Israel, the Israeli
Broadcasting Authority was the country's main
public broadcasting service until 2017.
As of May 15, 2017, it was replaced by KAN (Hebrew for "here"), the
In Arabic, the IPBC is known by the name MAKAN (Arabic for "place").
KAN has inherited the two main public TV channels in Israel:
Channel 1, as of 2017 "KAN 11" - Main TV channel
Channel 33 (Israel), as of 2017 "MAKAN 33" - Arabic language TV
KAN also includes the following 8 public radio stations, taken from
Reshet Alef (Network A), as of 2017 "KAN Tarbut" - Podcasts and talk
programs related to culture
Reshet Bet (Network B), as of 2017 "KAN Bet" - News and current
Reshet Gimel (Network C), as of 2017 "KAN Gimel" - Israeli music
Reshet Dalet (Network D), as of 2017 "MAKAN Radio" - Arabic language
Reshet Hey (Network E), as of 2017 "KAN Farsi" - Persian language
station, internet only
88FM, as of 2017 "KAN 88" - Alternative music
Kol Hamusika ("The Sound of Music"), as of 2017 "KAN Kol Hamusika" -
Classical music, jazz
REKA - Reshet Klitat
Aliyah integration network), as of 2017
"KAN Reka" - Multilingual, mostly Russian language station
Reshet Moreshet, as of 2017 "KAN Moreshet" - Jewish-related news and
Israeli Defense Forces
Israeli Defense Forces owns its own broadcasting network known as
IDF Waves which includes 2 radio stations:
IDF Waves (Galey Tzahal) - broadcasting news and current affairs
Galgalatz - broadcasting music and traffic reports
In addition, the ministry of education owns the Israeli Educational
Television, known as Hinuchit, the first Israeli television channel.
It was created by the Rothschild fund to aid the ministry's work in
teaching children from kindergarten to high school and to promote the
television's use in Israel at a time the government considered the
device a "cultural decadence". It is funded and operated by the
ministry, and since the 1980s it has widened its orientation to adults
as well as children. In August 2018, the Educational
be shut down and replaced by KAN Hinuchit.
In Japan, the main public broadcaster is the
NHK (Japan Broadcasting
Corporation). The broadcaster was set up in 1926 and was modelled on
Broadcasting Company, the precursor to the British
Broadcasting Corporation created in 1927. Much like the BBC,
funded by a "receiving fee" from every Japanese household, with no
commercial advertising and the maintenance of a position of strict
political impartiality. However, rampant non-payment by a large amount
of households has led the receiving fee to become something of a
NHK runs two national terrestrial TV stations (NHK
NHK Educational) and two satellite only services (
NHK BS Premium services).
NHK also runs 3 national radio services
and a number of international radio and television services, akin to
BBC World Service.
NHK has also been an innovator in television,
developing the world's first high definition television technology in
1964 and launching high definition services in Japan in 1981.
In Macau, Teledifusão de
Macau TDM is the public service broadcasting
company. The firm was established in January 1982 and was modelled on
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
Rádio e Televisão de Portugal RTP. TDM has two independent editorial
arms: the Chinese news channel and the Portuguese news channel, each
of which may have different information sources, points of view, and
priorities of news. TDM runs both television and radio services. In
addition, the Chinese national anthem is not played on TDM Portuguese
channel, despite the fact that the entire company is a subject of the
Macau SAR government.
The public broadcaster in Malaysia is the state-owned
Malaysia (RTM). RTM was previously funded publicly through money
obtained from television licensing, however it is currently
state-subsidised, as television licences have been abolished.
As of 2017[update] RTM operates 8 national, 16 state and 7 district
radio stations as well as 2 national terrestrial television channels
called TV1 and TV2. RTM has also done test transmissions on a new
digital television channel called RTMi. Tests involving 2000
residential homes in the
Klang Valley began in September 2006 and
ended in March 2007.
History of public broadcasting in Nepal started from 1951.
In Pakistan, the public broadcasters are the state-owned Pakistan
Broadcasting Corporation (PBC), also known as
Radio Pakistan and
Pakistan Television. In the past
Radio Pakistan was partly funded
through money obtained from License fees. In 1999, the Nawaz Sharif
government abolished license fees for
Radio Pakistan and also
abolished its tax exempt status protected under PBC Act 1973. The
license fees for Pakistan
Television continued. The license fees
collection for PTV was given to WAPDA during Musharraf government.
Currently WAPDA collects Rs. 35 per house hold on electricity bills as
PTV license fees.
Broadcasting started in Pakistan with a
small pilot TV Station established at Lahore
Radio from where
transmission was first beamed in Black & White with effect from 26
Television centres were established in Dhaka, Karachi
and Rawalpindi/Islamabad in 1967 and in Peshawar and Quetta in 1974.
PTV has various channels transmitting throughout the world including
PTV National, PTV World, PTV 2, PTV Global, PTV Bolan etc. Radio
Pakistan has stations covering all the major cities, it covers 80% of
the country serving 95.5 Million listeners. It has world service in
eleven languages daily.
The Philippines' primary state television broadcaster is People's
Television Network (PTV). Created in 1974 as Government Television
(GTV), PTV is no longer state subsidised except for a one-time equity
funding for capital outlay in 1992. Aside from PTV, the other public
broadcaster is the
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation
Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation (IBC),
which the government has already put up for sale. The government no
longer holds a controlling interest in the former state broadcaster,
Radio Philippines Network
Radio Philippines Network (RPN).
Philippine Broadcasting Service
Philippine Broadcasting Service (PBS) is the country's sole state
radio broadcaster. Established in 1933 as KZFM by the American
colonial Insular Government, the radio station was passed to the
Philippine government after the country became independent in 1946.
PBS broadcasts its flagship network Radyo Pilipinas
(formerly Radyo ng Bayan) thru its 32 stations and selected affiliates
The government is currently planning to propose the creation of a law
that will merge and integrate PTV and
PBS into a single entity, to be
called the People's
Broadcasting Corporation (PBC).
South Korea's representative public broadcasting television network is
said to be Korean
Broadcasting System, or KBS. Originally a
government-controlled channel, it is now an independent broadcasting
system. KBS began broadcasting radio in 1947 and opened up to
television industry in 1961, and officially founded its own identity
by 1973. Another public broadcasting channel is the Munhwa
Broadcasting Corporation, or MBC. Known to be the second channel of
the country, it also shares the roles of being national television
with the KBS.
South Korea also has another public broadcasting channel called
Broadcasting System, or EBS. Originally considered to be
an extension channel of the KBS, it was spun-off as an educational
channel but retained its public broadcasting tasks. KBS and EBS mainly
are funded by the commercials that they provide in their channels, but
due to growing competitions, this is becoming a problem for them as
Television Service, also called Taiwan Public Television
Service Foundation, is the first independent public broadcasting
institution in Taiwan, which broadcasts the Public
Taiwan. Since its creation in 1998, PTS has produced several
critically acclaimed dramatic programs and mini-series despite
experiencing funding difficulties. PTS is bound up in speaking for the
minorities, including the promotion of Hakka Chinese and
Formosan-language programming, an effort that has contributed much to
the "Taiwanization" movement.
See also: European
Inter-European cooperation of public TV
In most countries in Europe, state broadcasters are funded through a
mix of advertising and public finance, either through a licence fee or
directly from the government.
Radio Televizioni Shqiptar
Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH) is the public broadcaster in
Televizioni Shqiptar (TVSH) is the name of the first public channel of
Albania. The domestic TV program is distributed analogically
throughout the country and digitally in Tirana through RTSH HD.
TVSH 2 is the second public TV channel dedicated mainly to sports and
live events launched in 2003.
RTSH HD a digital channel launched in 2012 broadcasts TVSH shows in
TVSH Sat, is the international version of the domestic program
broadcast to Europe free to air via satellite.
Radio Tirana (also,
Radio Tirana 1) is the name of Albania's first
radio program, concentrating on news, talk, and features
Radio Tirana 2 is the name of the second radio program, broadcasting
chiefly music and targeted at youth
Radio Tirana 3 (Programi i Tretë,
Radio Tirana International) is the
name of the third program, broadcasting the international service on
short wave radio in Albanian, English, French. Greek, German, Italian,
Serbian, and Turkish
Radio Televizioni Gjirokastra is the local version of RTSH in
Radio Televizioni Korça is the local version of RTSH in Korçë
Radio Kukësi is the local version of RT in Kukës
Radio Shkodra is the local version of RT in Shkodër
Belgium has three networks, one for each linguistic community:
RTBF, French-language, with 4 TV channels (La Une, La Deux, La Trois
Arte Belgique) and 6 radios.
VRT, Dutch-language, with 3 TV channels and 10 radios.
BRF, German-language, with 1 TV channel and 2 radios.
Originally named INR—Institut national belge de radiodiffusion
(Dutch: NIR—Belgisch Nationaal Instituut voor de Radio-omroep)—the
state-owned broadcasting organization was established by law on 18
Television broadcasting from Brussels began in 1953, with
two hours of programming each day. In 1960 the INR was subsumed into
RTB (French: Radio-Télévision Belge) and BRT (Dutch: Belgische
Radio- en Televisieomroep).
On 1 October 1945 INR-NIR began to broadcast some programmes in
German. In 1961 RTB-BRT began a German-language radio channel,
broadcasting from Liège.
In 1977, following Belgian federalization and the establishment of
separate language communities, the French-language section of RTB-BRT
RTBF (French: Radio-Télévision Belge de la Communauté
française), German-language section became BRF (German: Belgischer
Rundfunk) and Dutch-language stays BRT.
BRT was renamed in 1991 to BRTN (Dutch: Belgische Radio- en
Televisieomroep Nederlandstalige Uitzendingen) and again in 1998 to
VRT (Dutch: Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie).
There are two public media in Bulgaria - the Bulgarian National
Television (BNT) and the
Bulgarian National Radio
Bulgarian National Radio (BNR). Bulgarian
Television was founded in 1959 and the Bulgarian National
Radio was founded in 1935. BNT broadcasts 4 national programs (BNT 1,
BNT 2, BNT HD, BNT World). The BNR broadcasts 2 national programs
(Horizont and Hristo Botev Program), 9 regional programs and Internet
Croatian Radiotelevision (Croatian: Hrvatska radiotelevizija, HRT) is
a Croatian public broadcasting company. It operates several radio and
television channels, over a domestic transmitter network as well as
satellite. As of 2002[update], 70% of HRT's funding comes from
broadcast user fees with each house in
Croatia required to pay 79 HRK,
kuna, per month for a single television (radio device, computer or
smartphone), with the remainder being made up from advertising.
Czech Television and
Czech Radio are national public broadcasting
companies in the Czech Republic.
Czech Television broadcasts from
three studios in Prague,
Ostrava and operates six TV channels
ČT1, ČT2, ČT24, ČTSport, ČT :D and ČT Art. Czech television
is funded through monthly fee 135
CZK which every household that owns
a TV or a radio has to pay. Since October 2011 advertising on Czech TV
was restricted from four to two channels, namely ČT2 and
Czech Radio broadcasts four nationwide stations
Radiožurnál, Dvojka, Vltava and Plus, several regional and
specialised digital stations.
Czech Radio 7 –
broadcasts abroad in six languages.
Czech Radio is funded throung
monthly fee 45 CZK. In the Czech Republic, there is also Czech News
Agency (ČTK), a public corporation established by law. The state is
not responsible for any ČTK obligations and ČTK is not responsible
for any state obligations.
DR is the national public service broadcaster. The organisation was
founded in 1925, on principles similar to those of the
BBC in the
United Kingdom. DR runs six nationwide television channels and eight
radio channels. Financing comes primarily from a yearly licence fee,
that everyone who owns either a television set, a computer or other
devices that can access the internet, has to pay.
Kringvarp Føroya is the organisation in Faroe Islands with public
service obligations. Formed in 1957 as a radio broadcaster Útvarp
Føroya. Merged with Sjónvarp Føroya TV station on 1 January 2007 to
form Kringvarp Føroya. Funded by licence fees.
Broadcasting (ERR) organises the public radio and
television stations of Estonia.
Eesti Televisioon (ETV), the public
television station, made its first broadcast in 1955, and together
with its sister channel
ETV2 has about 20% audience share.
Broadcasting Company, or Yleisradio (in Finnish) and
Rundradion (in Swedish), abbreviated to
Yle (pronounced /yle/), is
Finland's national public-broadcasting company. Founded in 1926, it is
a public limited company majority owned by the Finnish state,
employing around 3,200 people.
Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (RTF – French
television and radio broadcasting) was created to take over from the
Radiodiffusion Française responsibility for the operation of
the country's three public radio networks and the introduction of a
public television service. A fourth radio network was added in 1954
and a second television channel in 1963.
RTF was transformed into the Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision
Française (ORTF), a more independent structure, in 1964. ORTF oversaw
the birth of a third television channel in 1972, two years before the
dissolution of the structure in 1974. Between this date and 2000, each
channel had its own direction structure. The first channel (TF1) was
sold to the private sector in 1987. (At the time, the channel with the
largest audience was the other public channel Antenne 2).
In 1986 a French/German public channel was created, ARTE, originally
broadcast on cable and satellite. Later, the fall of the private
La Cinq freed some frequencies that it had used each day after
19.00. In 1994 a new public channel, La cinquième was created to use
the remaining time on the same frequencies. La cinquième and ARTE
subsequently shared the same channels with the exception of satellite,
cable, and internet channels where both could be broadcast all day
long. In 2000 all the public channels were united into one structure,
See also: Beitragsservice von ARD, ZDF und Deutschlandradio
After World War II, when regional broadcasters had been merged into
one national network by the
Nazis to create a powerful means of
propaganda, the Allies insisted on a de-centralised, independent
structure for German public broadcasting and created regional public
broadcasting agencies that, by and large, still exist today.
Map of ARD-members
NDR (Northern Germany), split from former NWDR
WDR (North Rhine-Westphalia), split from former NWDR
RBB (Berlin and vicinity), merged from SFB and ORB
SWR (Germany's south west), merged from SDR and SWF
MDR (Germany's south east), established in 1991
and the smaller hr (Hesse), SR (Saar) and RB (Land Bremen)
In addition to these nine regional radio and TV broadcasters, which
cooperate within ARD, a second national television service—actually
called Second German
Television (German: Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen,
ZDF)—was later created in 1961 and a national radio service with two
networks (Deutschlandradio) emerged from the remains of Cold War
propaganda stations in 1994. All services are mainly financed through
licence fees paid by every household and are governed by councils of
representatives of the "societally relevant groups". Public TV and
radio stations spend about 60% of the ≈10bn € spent
altogether for broadcasting in Germany per year, making it the most
expensive public broadcasting system in the world.
The Hans-Bredow-Institut, or Hans-Bredow-Institute for Media Research
at the University of Hamburg (HBI) is an independent non-profit
foundation with the mission on media research on public communication,
particularly for radio and television broadcasting (including public
service media providers) and other electronic media, in an
In Germany foreign public broadcasters also exist. These are AFN for
US-military staff in Germany,
BFBS for British military staff, Voice
of Russia, RFE and
Broadcasting Corporation (Greek: Ελληνική
Ραδιοφωνία Τηλεόραση ή ERT) is the state-owned
public broadcaster in Greece. It broadcasts four television channels,
ERT1, ERT2, ERT3, ERT HD, as well as five national (ERA 1, ERA 2, ERA
3, Kosmos, ERA Sport), and 18 local radio stations. All national
television and radio stations are broadcast through ERT digital
multiplexes across the country.
Ríkisútvarpið (RÚV) ("The Icelandic National Broadcasting
Service") is Iceland's national public-service broadcasting
RÚV began radio broadcasting in 1930 and its first
television transmissions were made in 1966. In both cases coverage
quickly reached nearly every household in Iceland.
RÚV is funded by a
television licence fee collected from every income taxpayer, as well
as advertising revenue.
RÚV has been a full active member of the
European Broadcasting Union
European Broadcasting Union since 1956.
RÚV—which by the terms of its charter is obliged to "promote the
Icelandic language, Icelandic history, and Iceland's cultural
heritage" and "honour basic democratic rules, human rights, and the
freedom of speech and opinion"—carries a substantial amount of
arts, media, and current affairs programming, in addition to which it
also supplies general entertainment in the form of feature films and
such internationally popular television drama series as Lost and
Desperate Housewives. RÚV's lineup also includes sports coverage,
documentaries, domestically produced entertainment shows, and
In Ireland there are two state owned public service broadcasters, RTÉ
and TG4. RTÉ was established in 1960 with the merger of Raidió
Éireann (1926) and Teilifís Éireann (1960).
TG4 was formed as a
subsidiary of RTÉ in 1996 as Teilifís na Gaeilge (TnaG), it was
TG4 in 1999, and was made independent of RTÉ in 2007.
Both Irish public service broadcasters receive part of the licence
fee, with RTÉ taking the lion's share of the funding. Advertising
makes up 50% of RTÉ's income and just 6% of TG4's income. 7% of the
licence fee is provided to the
Broadcasting Authority of Ireland since
2006. Up to 2006 the licence fee was given entirely to RTÉ.
RTÉ offers a range of free to air services on television; RTÉ 1,
RTÉ 2, RTÉjr, and RTÉ News Now. On radio; RTÉ
Radio 1, RTÉ 2FM,
RTÉ Lyric FM, and RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta, as well as a number of
channels on DAB.
The Sound and Vision Fund is operated by the
Broadcasting Authority of
Ireland, this fund receives 7% of the licence fee. The fund is used to
assist broadcasters to commission public service broadcast
programming. It is open to all independent producers provided they get
a free to air or community broadcaster's backing, including TV3, Today
BBC Northern Ireland, RTÉ, Channel 4, UTV etc. Pay TV broadcaster
Setanta Sports have also received funding for programming through the
sound and vision fund provided they provide those shows on a
TG4 is an independent
Irish language public service broadcaster that
is funded by the government through subsidy, the licence fee and
through advertising revenue.
TV3 is the only independent broadcaster that has public service
Main article: MTVA (Hungary)
Magyar Televízió (MTV) and
Magyar Rádió (MR, also known
Radio Budapest) is a nationwide public broadcasting
organization in Hungary. Headquartered in Budapest, it is the oldest
Hungary and airs five TV channels (M1 HD, M2 HD, M3, M4
Sport and M5), well as six
Radio networks(Kossuth Rádió, Petőfi
Rádió, Dankó Rádió, Nemzetiségi Adások and Parlamenti adások)
Both MTV And MR is managed and primarily funded by the Media Service
Support and Asset Management Fund (Hungarian:
Médiaszolgáltatás-támogató és Vagyonkezelő Alap, abbreviated
MTVA). This government organization, formed in 2011, also manages
the public service broadcasters
Magyar Rádió and Duna Televízió as
well as the Hungarian news agency Magyar Távirati Iroda.
On 1 July 2015,
Magyar Rádió and
Magyar Televízió were among
several public media organizations managed by the MTVA that were
merged into a single organization called Duna Media Service
(Hungarian: Duna Médiaszolgáltató). [a]
Like other countries, But Unlike some Countries,
Hungary has another
public broadcaster called Duna, which airs 2 TV channels(
Duna TV (as
of 2015, It Broadcasts former M1 prgrammes before M1 became the
24-hour News Channel) ,
Duna World (Which acts as it's Sister
brodcaster's international channel)), and only one radio network
called Duna Világrádió.
The Italian national broadcasting company is
RAI – Radiotelevisione
Italiana, founded as URI in 1924.
RAI transmits thirteen channels: Rai
1, Rai 2, Rai 3, Rai 4, Rai 5, Rai News 24, Rai Premium, Rai Movie,
Rai Sport, Rai Storia, Rai Gulp, Rai Yoyo,
Rai Scuola (all available
also in high definition).
RAI also broadcasts via satellite and is
involved in radio, publishing and cinema.
RAI has the largest audience
share (45%) of any Italian television network. Proceeds derive from a
periodical standing charge (90 euros for each household in 2017)
and from advertising. The main competitors of
RAI are Mediaset, the
biggest national private broadcaster, divided in twelve channels (two
of which are both SD and HD),
La7 and La7d, owned by Cairo Editore;
other competitors are Sky Italia (with three FTA channels) and
Discovery Italia (with seven FTA channels).
Lithuanian National Radio and Television
Lithuanian National Radio and Television (LRT) is the national
broadcaster of Lithuania. It was founded in 1926 as radio broadcaster,
and opened a television broadcasting subdivision in 1957. LRT
broadcasts three radio stations (LRT Radijas,
LRT Klasika and LRT
Opus), and four TV channels (LRT televizija, LRT Kultūra, LRT
Lituanica and LRT HD).
Broadcasting Services (PBS) is the national broadcaster of
Malta. It operates three television services (TVM, TVM2, and
Parliament TV) and three radio services (Radju Malta, Radju Malta 2,
and Magic Malta).
Teleradio-Moldova (TRM) is the public funded radio-TV broadcaster in
Moldova. It owns the TV channels
Moldova 1 and TVMI, and the radio
Radio Moldova and
Radio Moldova Internaţional.
Television of Montenegro) is the public broadcaster in
Main article: Netherlands Public Broadcasting
The Netherlands uses a rather unusual system of public broadcasting.
Public-broadcasting associations are allocated money and time to
broadcast their programmes on the publicly owned television and radio
channels. The time and money is allocated in proportion to their
membership numbers. The system is intended to reflect the diversity of
all the groups composing the nation.
Main article: Polish Public Broadcasting
The public broadcasters are
Telewizja Polska (TVP) television and
Polskie Radio. TVP operates three main channels: TVP 1,
TVP 2 and TVP
Regionalna. It also broadcasts several digital channels (including
TVP 1, TVP1 HD, TVP 2, TVP2 HD, TVP Info, TVP Kultura, TVP
Historia, TVP HD, TVP Polonia, TVP Sport, TVP Seriale) via satellite
and digital terrestrial television system, and 16 regional affiliates
(known as TVP Regionalna, regional channels cooperate when creating
most of materials). TVP also runs services with news, a video
streaming (video on demand) service as well as live streaming of all
Polskie Radio operates four nationwide radio channels
(which are also available via the broadcaster's website). There are
also 17 state-owned radio stations broadcasting in particular regions.
TVP and Polish
Radio are funded from several sources: state funding,
advertising, obligatory tax on all TV and radio receivers, and money
from authors/copyright associations. The public broadcasters offer a
mix of commercial shows and programmes they are, by law, required to
broadcast (i.e., non-commercial, niche programmes; programmes for
children; programmes promoting different points of view and diversity;
programmes for different religious and national groups; live coverage
of the parliament's session on its dedicated channel: TVP Parlament;
etc.). It has to be politically neutral, although in the past there
have been cases of political pressure on TVP and
Polskie Radio from
the governing party. Recently, a new law has been passed by the ruling
Law & Justice party, that in public perception allowed the party
to take a much larger control over the media that has been possible
before. The party states this law to be the first step to a complete
public media overdo. Many worry no such improvements are actually
coming and that these recent laws are only another step in taking
control over the whole country by the Law & Justice party.
There is an ongoing debate in Poland about the semi-commercial nature
of TVP and PR. Many people fear that making them into totally
non-commercial broadcasters would result in the licence fee payable by
households being increased, and fewer people being interested in
programmes they offer; others say that TVP in particular is too
profit-driven and should concentrate on programming that benefits the
society. Some say that state contributions should be programme-based,
rather than channel/broadcaster-based, so as all the broadcasters can
get them (in this scenario TVP would be privatised and equal to the
private TV channels).
Main article: Rádio e Televisão de Portugal
In Portugal, the national public broadcaster is Rádio e Televisão de
Portugal (RTP), which in 1957 began regular broadcasts of its first
channel, now RTP1. In 1968 its second channel appeared, then called
"segundo programa", now RTP2. In the 1970s, TV arrived in the
Portuguese islands of
Madeira and the Azores, with the creation of two
regional channels: RTP
Madeira in 1972 and
RTP Açores in 1976.
Until the 1990s the state had a monopoly on TV broadcasting, so RTP1
RTP2 were the only Portuguese channels, both with similar
generalist programmes. In 1990,
RTP1 was renamed "Canal 1", and
RTP2 was renamed "TV2". With the creation of the two private
channels, SIC in 1992 and
Televisão Independente in 1993, the
philosophy of the public service changed: in 1995, TV2 was again
RTP2 and became an alternative channel dedicated to culture,
science, arts, documentaries, sports (except football), minorities and
children. Since then,
RTP2 has carried no advertising. Canal 1,
RTP1 also in 1995, remained the commercial channel of RTP
group, focused on entertainment, information and major sport
competitions. In 2004, after a great restructuring period, RTP started
its current branding. That year the two thematic channels of the group
were also created—RTPN, a 24 hour-news channel which became RTP
Informação in 2011 and
RTP3 in 2015; and RTP Memória, dedicated to
classic RTP programming. In 2014 the headquarters of
Lisbon to Porto.
The group also has two international channels: RTP Internacional,
founded in 1992 and dedicated to Europe, Asia and Americas, and RTP
África, founded in 1998 focused on Africa, mainly the
of Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau,
Mozambique and São Tomé and
The RTP group is financed by the advertising revenues from RTP1, RTP
Informação, RTP Memória, RTP África, and RTP Internacional, and
also by the taxa de contribuição audiovisual (broadcasting
contribution tax), which is incorporated in electricity bills. Funding
from the government budget ceased in 2014, during the Portuguese
Romanian Television (TVR) is the national public TV broadcaster in
Romania. It operates five channels: TVR1, TVR2, TVR3, TVRi, and TVR
HD, along with six regional studios in Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Iași,
Timișoara, Craiova, and Târgu Mureș.
The public radio broadcaster is Romanian
Radio Romania). It operates FM and AM, and internet national,
regional, and local radio channels. The regional and local stations
are branded as
Radio România Regional.
Broadcasting in 12 languages,
Radio Romania International is the company's international radio
Radio Romania are funded through a hybrid financing system,
drawing from the state budget, a special tax (incorporated in
electricity bills), and advertising too.
National public broadcasters in The Nordic countries were modeled
BBC and established a decade later: Radioordningen (now DR)
in Denmark, Kringkastingselskapet (now NRK) in Norway, and
Sveriges Radio and Sveriges Television) in Sweden
(all in 1925). In 1926 Yleisradio (Swedish: Rundradion) now
founded in Finland. All four are funded from television licence fees
costing (in 2007) around €230 (US$300) per household per year.
Radio Television of Serbia
Radio Television of Serbia (RTS) is the national public broadcaster in
Serbia. It operates a total of five television channels (RTS1, RTS2,
RTS Digital, RTS HD and RTS SAT) and five radio stations (Radio
Radio Belgrade 2,
Radio Belgrade 3, Radio
Belgrade 202, and Stereorama). RTS is primarily funded through public
television licence fees bundled with electricity bills paid monthly,
as well as advertising.
Radio and Television Slovakia (RTVS) is the national public
broadcaster in Slovakia, with headquarters in Bratislava. This
organisation was created in 2011 by merger of Slovak
Slovak Radio. RTVS broadcasts two television channels (STV1, STV2),
five FM radio stations (Rádio Slovensko, Rádio Devín, Rádio
Regina, Rádio_FM and Rádio Patria), one satellite radio channel
Slovakia International) and three digital only radio stations
(Rádio Klasika, Rádio Litera and Rádio Junior). RTVS is funded
through monthly fee of €4.64, which every household with electricity
connection must pay. The director of RTVS is Václav Mika. RTVS is a
full member of European broadcasting union.
In Spain, being a highly decentralised country, two public
broadcasting systems coexist: a national broadcasting television,
Radio y Televisión Española (RTVE), that can be watched all around
Spain, and many autonomic TV channels, only broadcast within their
respective Autonomous Community. Televisión Española was founded in
1956, during Franco's dictatorship. It broadcasts two different
TVE1 (a.k.a. La Primera or La uno), that is a wide-range
audience general channel; and TVE2, (a.k.a. La dos), that tends to
offer cultural programing, as well as sport competitions. Till 2008,
RTVE was funded both from public sources and private advertising;
however, the Spanish government has recently decreed that, starting in
September 2009, RTVE's channels shall be funded with taxpayer's money
and with private founding raised from the rest of Spain's private TV
stations, thus removing advertising from the broadcaster. A TV licence
fee has been suggested, but with little popular success. The ladder
was invented in Spain.
Moreover, each of the autonomous communities of Spain have their own
public broadcaster, all of them members of FORTA, usually consisting
in either one or two public channels that tend to reproduce the model
set up by Televisión Española: a general channel and a more cultural
related one. In the Autonomous Communities that have their own
official language besides Spanish, those channels may broadcast not in
Spanish, but in the other co-official language. For example, this
occurs in Catalonia, where
Televisió de Catalunya
Televisió de Catalunya broadcasts mainly
in Catalan. In the Basque Country,
Euskal Telebista (ETB) has three
channels, two of which broadcast only in basque (
ETB 1 and ETB 3),
whereas the other (ETB 2) broadcasts in Spanish. In Galicia, the
Television de Galicia
Television de Galicia and the G2. All the autonomic networks are
publicly funded, and also admit private advertising.
The logo of SVT
The logo of Sveriges Radio
Sweden has three public service broadcasters, namely Sveriges
Sveriges Utbildningsradio (UR), and Sveriges Radio
(SR), having previously had government monopoly. SVT is the national
public television broadcaster with 4 channels (SVT 1, SVT 2, SVT
Barnkanalen, and SVT 24). The aim is to make programs for everybody.
For example, Sweden has their original population called the Sami
people and SVT make programs in their language for them to watch.
There are also Finnish people in Sweden, thus SVT sometimes show the
news in Finnish in a program called SVT Uutiset. SR is the radio
equivalent of SVT, with channels P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, and the Finnish
channel SR Sisuradio.
Public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has a strong tradition of public service
broadcasting. In addition to the BBC, established in 1922, there is
also Channel 4, a publicly owned, commercially funded public service
broadcaster, and S4C, a Welsh-language broadcaster in Wales.
Furthermore, the two commercial broadcasters ITV and Channel 5 also
have significant public service obligations imposed as part of their
licence to broadcast.
In the UK there are also small community broadcasters. There are now
228 stations with FM broadcast licences (licensed by Ofcom). Community
radio stations typically cover a small geographical area with a
coverage radius of up to 5 km and run on a nonprofit basis. They
can cater for whole communities or for different areas of
interest—such as a particular ethnic group, age group or interest
Community radio stations reflect a diverse mix of cultures and
interests. For example, you can listen to stations catering to urban
or experimental music, while others are aimed at younger people,
religious communities or the armed forces and their families.
See also: Canadian
In Canada, the main public broadcaster is the national Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation (CBC; French: Société Radio-Canada), a
crown corporation – which originated as a radio network in November
1936. It is the successor to the Canadian
Commission (CRBC), which was established by the administration of
R.B. Bennett in 1932, modeled on recommendations made
in 1929 by the Royal Commission on
Broadcasting and stemming
from lobbying efforts by the Canadian
Radio League. The Canadian
Broadcasting Corporation took over operation of the CRBC's nine radio
stations (which were largely concentrated in major cities across
Canada, including Toronto, Vancouver,
Montreal and Ottawa). The CBC
eventually expanded to television in September 1952 with the sign-on
of CBFT in Montreal, the first television station in Canada to
initiate full-time broadcasts, which initially served as a primary
affiliate of the
French language Télévision de Radio-Canada and a
secondary affiliate of the English language CBC Television
CBC operates two national television networks (
CBC Television and Ici
Radio-Canada Télé), four radio networks (CBC
Radio One, CBC
Ici Radio-Canada Première
Ici Radio-Canada Première and Ici Musique) and several cable
television channels including two 24-hour news channels (CBC News
Network and Ici RDI) in both of Canada's official languages –
English and French – and the French-language science channel Ici
Explora. CBC's national television operations and some radio
operations are funded partly by advertisements, in addition to the
subsidy provided by the federal government. The cable channels are
commercial entities owned and operated by the CBC and do not receive
any direct public funds, however, they do benefit from synergies with
resources from the other CBC operations. The CBC has frequently dealt
with budget cuts and labour disputes, often resulting in a debate
about whether the service has the resources necessary to properly
fulfill its mandate.
As of 2017[update], all of CBC Television's terrestrial stations are
owned and operated by the CBC directly. The number of privately owned
CBC Television affiliates has gradually declined in recent years, as
the network has moved its programming to stations opened by the
corporation or has purchased certain affiliates from private
broadcasting groups; budgetary issues led the CBC to choose not to
launch new rebroadcast transmitters in markets where the network
disaffiliated from a private station after 2006; the network dropped
its remaining private affiliates in 2016, when CJDC-TV/Dawson Creek
Terrace, British Columbia
Terrace, British Columbia defected from CBC Television
that February and Lloydminster-based
CKSA-DT disaffiliated in August
of that year (to become affiliates of
CTV Two and Global,
respectively). The CBC's decision to disaffiliate from these and other
privately owned stations, as well as the corporation decommissioning
its network of rebroadcasters following Canada's transition to digital
television in August 2011 have significantly reduced the terrestrial
coverage of both
CBC Television and Ici Radio-Canada Télé; the
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)
does require cable, satellite and IPTV providers to carry CBC and
Radio-Canada stations as part of their basic tier, regardless of
terrestrial availability in an individual market. Of the three
major French-language television networks in Canada, Ici Radio-Canada
Télé is the only one that maintains terrestrial owned-and-operated
stations and affiliates in all ten Canadian provinces, although it
maintains only one station (Moncton, New Brunswick-based CBAFT-DT)
that serves the four provinces comprising Atlantic Canada.
In recent years, the CBC has also expanded into new media ventures
including the online radio service CBC
Radio 3, music streaming
service CBC Music, and the launch of online news services, such as CBC
Hamilton, in some markets which are not directly served by their own
CBC television or radio stations.
In addition, several provinces operate public broadcasters; these are
not CBC subentities, but distinct networks in their own right. Most of
the provincial services maintain an educational programming format,
differing from the primarily entertainment-based CBC/Radio-Canada
operations, but more closely formatted to (and carrying many of the
same programs as) the U.S.-based Public
Broadcasting Service (PBS),
which itself is available terrestrially and – under a CRTC rule that
requires Canadian cable, satellite and IPTV providers to carry
affiliates of the four major U.S. commercial networks (ABC, NBC, CBS
and Fox) and a
PBS member station – through pay television
providers in Canada via member stations located near the U.S.–Canada
border. These educational public broadcasters include the
TVOntario (TVO) and the French-language
Télé-Québec in Quebec, and
Knowledge Network in British
Columbia. TVO and
Télé-Québec operate through conventional
transmitters and cable, while
Knowledge Network are cable-only
channels. Beyond these and other provincial services, Canada does not
have a national public educational network.
Amherst Island public radio
Canada is also home to a number of former public broadcasting entities
that have gone private.
CTV Two Alberta, which is licensed as an
educational television station in Alberta, was once owned by the
Alberta government as the public broadcaster Access. In 1993, the
provincial government agreed to cease to direct funding of Access
after the 1994 fiscal year; the channel was sold to
CHUM Limited in
1995, which initially acquired the channel through a majority-owned
subsidiary, Learning and Skills
Television of Alberta Limited
(LSTA). To fulfill its license conditions as an educational
station, it broadcasts educational and children's programming during
the daytime hours, while airing entertainment programming favoured by
advertisers and viewers in prime time. The service discontinued its
broadcast transmitters in
Edmonton in August 2011, due to
the expense of transitioning the two stations to digital, and the fact
that the service had mandatory carriage on television providers
serving Albera regardless of whether it ran over-the-air transmitters.
The service has since operated as part of Bell Media's
CTV Two chain
Public radio station CKUA in Alberta was also formerly operated by
Access, before being sold to the non-profit CKUA
which continues to operate it as a community-funded radio network.
Toronto also operated as a public government-owned radio
station for many years; while no longer funded by the provincial
government, it still solicits most of its budget from listener and
corporate donations and is permitted to air only a very small amount
of commercial advertising.
City Saskatchewan originated as the Saskatchewan Communications
Network, a cable-only educational and cultural public broadcaster
owned by the government of Saskatchewan. SCN was sold to Bluepoint
Investment Corporation in 2010, and like
CTV Two Alberta did when it
became privatized, incorporated a limited schedule of entertainment
programming during the late afternoon and nighttime hours, while
retaining educational and children's programs during the morning until
mid-afternoon to fulfill its licensing conditions; Bluepoint later
sold the channel to
Rogers Media in 2012, expanding a relationship it
began with SCN in January of that year, when Rogers began supplying
entertainment programming to the channel through an affiliation
agreement with its English-language broadcast network,
Citytv. One television station, CFTU in Montreal, operates
as an educational station owned by CANAL (French: Corporation pour
l'Avancement de Nouvelles Applications des Langages Ltée,
lit. 'Corporation for the Advancement of New Language
Applications Ltd.'), a private not-for-profit consortium of
educational institutions in the province of Quebec.
Some local community stations also operate non-commercially with
funding from corporate and individual donors. In addition, cable
companies are required to produce a local community channel in each
licensed market. Such channels have traditionally aired community talk
shows, city council meetings and other locally oriented programming,
although it is becoming increasingly common for them to adopt the
format and branding of a local news channel.
Canada also has a large number of campus radio and community radio
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See also: Corporation for Public Broadcasting
The Gregory Hall on the campus of University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign hosted an important meeting of the National
Association of Educational Broadcasters in the 1940s, that spawned
PBS and NPR.
Early public stations were operated by state colleges and
universities, and were often run as part of the schools' cooperative
extension services. Stations in this era were internally funded, and
did not rely on listener contributions to operate; some accepted
advertising. Networks such as Iowa Public Radio, South Dakota Public
Wisconsin Public Radio
Wisconsin Public Radio began under this structure.
The concept of a "non-commercial, educational" station per se did not
show up in U.S. law until 1941, when the
FM band was moved to its
present location; the
Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) reserved
the lower frequencies of the band – between 88.1 and 91.9 MHz –
for such stations, though they are not limited to those
frequencies (for example,
Bloomington, Indiana has its FM
frequency at 103.7 MHz). Houston's
KUHT was the nation's first
public television station, and signed on the air on May 25, 1953 from
the campus of the University of Houston. This phenomenon continued
in other large cities in the 1950s; in rural areas, it was not
uncommon for colleges to operate commercial stations instead (e.g.,
the University of Missouri's KOMU, an NBC-affiliated television
station in Columbia). The FCC had reserved almost 250 broadcast
frequencies for use as educational television stations in 1953, though
by 1960, only 44 stations allocated for educational use had begun
The passage of the Public
Broadcasting Act of 1967 – which was
signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson, and was modeled in part after a
1965 study on educational television by the Carnegie Corporation of
New York – precipitated the development of the current public
broadcasting system in the U.S. The legislation established the
Corporation for Public
Broadcasting (CPB), a private entity that is
charged with facilitating programming diversity among public
broadcasters, the development and expansion of non-commercial
broadcasting, and providing funding to local stations to help them
create programs; the CPB receives funding earmarked by the federal
government as well as through public and private donations. While the
intention of the act was to develop public television and radio, a
revision of the bill had removed all mention of radio from the
Michigan Senator Robert Griffin suggested changing the
name of what was to be called the Public
Television Act, and
last-minute changes were subsequently made to the bill (with
references incorporating radio into the bill being re-added with
Scotch Tape) before the law was passed by Congress and signed by
In the United States, other than a few direct services, public
broadcasting is almost entirely decentralized and is not operated by
the government, but does receive some government support. The U.S.
public broadcasting system differs from such systems in other
countries, in that the principal public television and radio
broadcasters – the Public
Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National
Radio (NPR), respectively – operate as technically separate
entities. Some of the funding comes from community support to hundreds
of public radio and public television stations, each of which is an
individual entity licensed to one of several different non-profit
organizations, municipal or state governments, or universities.
Sources of funding also include on-air and online pledge drives and
the sale of underwriting "spots" (typically running 15–30 seconds)
to sponsors. Individual stations and programs rely on highly
varied proportions of funding. Program-by-program funding creates the
potential for conflict-of-interest situations, which must be weighed
program by program under standards such as the guidelines established
by PBS. Donations are widely dispersed to stations and producers,
giving the system a resilience and broad base of support but diffusing
authority and impeding decisive change and priority-setting. U.S.
federal government support for public radio and television is filtered
through the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, which operates as a
Public broadcasting is sometimes also referred to as public media, in
an effort to capture the expansion of public broadcasting content from
radio and television into digital technologies, in particular the web
and mobile platforms. While some consider public media to be analogous
to public broadcasting, others use the term more broadly to
include all noncommercial media. Public radio and television
stations often produce their own programs as well as purchase
additional programming from national producers and program
distributors such as NPR, PBS,
Public Radio International
Public Radio International (PRI),
American Public Television
American Public Television (APT),
American Public Media
American Public Media (APM), and
Public Radio Exchange
Public Radio Exchange (PRX).
Public television and radio in the U.S. has, from the late 1960s
onward, dealt with severe criticism from conservative politicians and
think-tanks (such as The Heritage Foundation), which allege that its
programming has a leftist bias. Partly because of this belief,
although it accounts for only a small fraction of government spending
overall, some conservatives (including Presidents Richard Nixon,
George W. Bush
George W. Bush and Donald Trump, and former Speaker of
the House Newt Gingrich) have made various efforts to defund or
privatize the Corporation for Public
Broadcasting through federal
budget legislation. Support for continuing CPB funding by liberals,
independents and many conservatives in Congress has led to many of
these efforts being defeated at the federal level, although there have
been successful attempts to reduce – though not eliminate –
funding for public television stations by some state legislatures.
Arts advocates and media observers opposed to defunding the CPB argue
PBS provides educational and arts programming that have limited
availability on American television, even as the advents of cable
television and online streaming have led to the development of similar
content, including to viewers in rural areas where educational funding
is even lower than that of urbanized areas and do not have access to
arts education. Previous estimates by the Corporation for Public
Broadcasting have illustrated that removing federal funding to the CPB
would severely hamstring rural PBS,
NPR and independent public
broadcasting stations, and may result in the gradual collapse of the
public broadcasting system. Comprehensive studies by the Government
Accountability Office and other organizations have concluded that
private financing would not be universally available to public
television and radio stations in less densely populated areas to
sufficiently replace taxpayer funding that makes up 40% to 50% of the
annual budgets of some stations, and ensure universal access to public
In the United States, the Public
Broadcasting Service (PBS) serves as
the nation's main public television provider. When it launched in
PBS assumed many of the functions of its predecessor,
National Educational Television
National Educational Television (NET). NET was shut down by the Ford
Foundation and the Corporation for Public
Broadcasting after the
network refused to stop airing documentaries on varying social issues
that had received critical acclaim for their hard-hitting focus, but
alienated many of the network's affiliates. NET's constant need for
additional funding led the
Ford Foundation to begin withdrawing its
financial support of the network in 1966, shouldering much of the
responsibility for providing revenue for NET onto its affiliated
stations, prior to the foundation of the CPB, which intended to create
its own public television service. PBS' incorporation coincided with
the merger of NET's
New York City
New York City station, Newark, New Jersey-licensed
WNDT (which became WNET), into National Educational Television, the
impetus of which was to continue receiving funding by Ford and the
PBS also took over the rights to certain programs that originated
on NET prior to its disestablishment (such as Mister Rogers'
Washington Week in Review and Sesame Street, the latter
two of which continue to air on
PBS to this day).
PBS would later
Television Stations, an organization founded by
National Association of Educational Broadcasters (NAEB), in
American Public Television
American Public Television (formerly Eastern Educational
Television Network) distribute television programs to a nationwide
system of independently owned and operated television stations (some
having the term "PBS" in their branding) supported largely by state
and federal governments as well as viewer support (including from
pledge drives that many public television outlets carry for two- to
three-week periods at least twice per year, at dates that vary
depending on the station or regional network), with commercial
underwriters donating to specific programs and receiving a short
thanks for their contributions. Such underwriting may only issue
declarative statements (including slogans) and may not include "calls
to action" (i.e., the station cannot give out prices, comparative
statements, or anything that would persuade the listener to patronize
the sponsor). The majority of public television stations are owned by
educational institutions and independent entities (including colleges
and universities, municipal education boards, and nonprofit
organizations); however, some statewide public television networks are
operated as state government agencies, and some standalone public
television stations serving an individual market are run by a
municipal government or a related agency within it. Unlike National
Public Radio, however,
PBS largely does not produce any of the
programs it broadcasts nor has an in-house news division; all PBS
programs are produced by individual member stations and outside
production firms for distribution to its member stations through the
With the exception of a few secondary or tertiary stations in certain
major and mid-sized cities that rely entirely on syndicated content
American Public Television
American Public Television and other distributors, the vast
majority of public television stations in the U.S. are member outlets
of PBS. Of the 354
PBS members currently operating as of 2017[update]
(which account for 97% of the 365 public television stations in the
U.S.), roughly half belong to one of 40 state or regional networks,
which carry programming fed by a parent station to a network of
satellite transmitters throughout the entirety or a sub-region of an
individual state; this model is also used by some public radio station
groups (mainly those co-owned with a
PBS member network). In a
deviation from the affiliation model that began to emerge in
commercial broadcast television in the late 1950s, in which a single
station holds the exclusive local rights to a network's programming
PBS maintains memberships with more than one non-commercial
educational station in select markets (such as
Los Angeles and
Chicago, which both have three
PBS member stations); in these conflict
PBS members which participate in the service's Program
Differentiation Plan (PDP) are allocated a percentage of
PBS-distributed programming for their weekly schedule – the highest
total of which is usually allocated to the market's "primary" PBS
station – often resulting certain programs airing on the PDP outlets
on a delayed basis, unless the primary or an additional member station
holds market exclusivity over a particular program.
As with commercial network affiliates,
PBS member stations are given
the latitude to schedule programs supplied by
PBS for national
broadcast in time slots of their choosing, particularly in the case of
its prime time lineup, or preempt them outright.
typically broadcast children's programming supplied by the service and
through independent distributors like American Public Television
during the morning and afternoon hours, and on many though not all
stations, on weekend mornings; most public independent stations also
carry children's programming, though, they may not as broadly
encompass those stations' daytime schedules as is common with PBS
member outlets. Many member stations have also aired distance
education and other instructional television programs for use in
public and private schools and adult education courses (since the
2000s, many public television stations have relegated these programs
to digital subchannels that the station may maintain or exclusively
via the Internet).
PBS also provides a base prime time programming
schedule, featuring a mix of documentaries, arts and how-to
programming, and scripted dramas. Acquired programming distributed
directly to public television stations – such as imported series,
documentaries and theatrically released feature films, political and
current affairs shows, and home improvement, gardening and cooking
programs – fill the remainder of the station's broadcast day. PBS
and public independent stations also produce programs of local
interest, including local newscasts and/or newsmagazines, public
affairs shows, documentaries, and in some areas, gavel-to-gavel
coverage of state legislative proceedings.
With the advent of digital television, additional public television
networks – most of which have direct or indirect association with
PBS – have also launched, to provide additional cultural,
entertainment and instructional programming.
PBS operates three such
PBS Kids, a network featuring children's programs aired on
PBS feed's daytime schedule;
PBS HD Channel, a dedicated feed
consisting of high-definition content; and the
a full-time alternate feed of programming selected from the main PBS
service, which is also carried on some member stations as an overnight
programming feed. Independent services include Create, an American
Public Television-operated network featuring how-to, home and garden,
cooking and travel programs; MHz Worldview, a network owned by MHz
Networks, which carries international dramatic series (particularly
crime drama), news programs and documentaries; and World, a joint
venture of American Public Television, WNET, the WGBH Educational
Foundation and the National Educational Telecommunications Association
that broadcasts science, nature, news, public affairs and documentary
Most communities also have public-access television channels on local
cable television systems, which are generally paid for by cable
television franchise fees and sometimes supported in part through
citizen donations.
The U.S. government produces one channel for domestic citizen
consumption: NASA TV, a suite of channels covering the country's space
program and a collection of science education programs. Until shutdown
operations in 2014, the U.S. government – through an arm of the
United States Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense – also operated the DoD News
Channel, which distributed news regarding the country's military
NASA TV and the DoD News channel were distributed solely
by satellite and the Internet, and thus do not have the extensive
reach of other countries' national broadcasters.
The first public radio network in the United States was founded in
1949 in Berkeley, California as station KPFA, which became and remains
the flagship station for a national network called Pacifica Radio.
From the beginning, the network has refused corporate funding of any
kind, and has relied mainly on listener support.
KPFA gave away free
FM radios to build a listener base and to encourage listeners to
"subscribe" (support the station directly with donations). It is the
world's oldest listener-supported radio network. Since the
creation of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Pacifica has
sometimes received CPB support. Pacifica runs other stations in Los
Angeles, New York City, Washington, DC. and Houston, as well as
repeater stations and a large network of affiliates.
A public radio network, National Public
Radio (NPR), was created in
February 1970, as byproduct of the passage of the Public Broadcasting
Act of 1967. This network – which replaced the Ford
National Educational Radio Network – is
colloquially though inaccurately conflated with public radio as a
whole, when in fact "public radio" includes many organizations. Some
independent local public radio stations buy their programming from
distributors such as NPR;
Public Radio International
Public Radio International (PRI); American
Public Media (APM);
Public Radio Exchange
Public Radio Exchange (PRX); and Pacifica Radio,
most often distributed through the Public
(PRSS). Around these distributed programs, stations fill in varying
amounts of local and other programming. A number of public stations
are completely independent of these programming services, producing
all or most of their content themselves. Public radio stations in the
United States tend to broadcast a mixture of news and talk programs
along with music and arts/cultural programming. Some of the larger
operations split off these formats into separate stations or networks.
Music stations are probably best known for playing classical music,
although other formats are offered, including the time-honored
"eclectic" music format that is rather freeform in nature common among
college radio stations.
Jazz is another traditional, but declining,
public radio programming staple. Cultural Native American and
Mexican American music and programming are also featured regionally.
The U.S. government operates some limited direct broadcasting
services, but all are either highly specialized (and, since the dawn
of the millennium, automated) information services (WWV/
service, NOAA Weather Radio) or targeted at foreign audiences like
Voice of America. From 1948 to 2013, foreign-targeted broadcasts, many
of which were intended as propaganda, were barred from U.S. audiences
because of the Smith–Mundt Act, a restriction that has since been
NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio has individual terrestrial repeaters
across the United States (albeit on a special band reserved for such
broadcasts), WWV, VOA and others operate from single shortwave
facilities; none of these services can be heard on the AM or FM bands
most common on U.S. radio. In early 2016,
KIOF-LP (97.9 FM) in Las
Vegas, Nevada began airing VOA News hourly, and is the only known
public radio station in the United States to broadcast the VOA news
service since the
Smith–Mundt Act restrictions were lifted.
Local stations derive some of the funding for their operations through
regular pledge drives seeking individual and corporate donations, and
corporate underwriting. Some stations also derive a portion of their
funding from federal, state and local governments and
government-funded colleges and universities, in addition to receiving
free use of the public radio spectrum. The local stations then
contract with program distributors and also provide some programming
NPR produces its own programming (PBS, by contrast, does
not create its own content, which is instead produced by select member
stations and independent program distributors).
NPR also receives some
direct funding from private donors, foundations, and from the
Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
In Australia, the
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is owned
by the Australian Government and is 100% taxpayer funded. The
Special Broadcasting Service
Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), another public
broadcaster, now accepts limited sponsorship and advertising.
In addition, there is a large Australian community radio sector,
funded in part by federal grants via the Community Broadcasting
Foundation, but largely sustained via subscriptions, donations and
business sponsorship. As of June 2005, there were 442 fully licensed
community radio stations (including remote Indigenous services) and a
number of community television stations (most operating as Channel 31
despite being unrelated across different states). They are organised
NPR stations in the United States, and take on
the role that public access television stations have in the US.
In New Zealand all broadcasters are given a small slice of public
broadcasting responsibility, because of the state-funded agency NZ On
Air. This is because of NZ On Air's requirement for public-service
programmes across all channels and stations, instead of being put into
one single network. The former public broadcaster BCNZ (formerly NZBC
– New Zealand
Broadcasting Corporation) was broken up into separate
Television New Zealand
Television New Zealand (TVNZ) and
Zealand (RNZ). While RNZ remains commercial-free, about 90% of funding
for TVNZ comes from selling advertising during programmes on their two
stations. TVNZ continues to be a public broadcaster; however like
CBC Television in Canada it is essentially a fully commercial network
in continuous ratings battles with other stations, which continues to
be a controversial issue within New Zealand. With the shutdown of
TVNZ 7, the only fully non-commercial public-service network in
New Zealand is
Radio New Zealand.
Aside from television, New Zealand has a rich public radio culture,
Radio New Zealand
Radio New Zealand being the main provider, with a varied network
Radio New Zealand
Radio New Zealand National) and a classical musical network (Radio
New Zealand Concert). RNZ also provides the Pacific with its
Zealand International. Aside from RNZ almost all of New Zealand's 16
regions has an "access radio" network. All these networks are
State presence in television had a strong history, not in the way of
European style public service radio or television. The private sector
has taken an active role in the development of television in Buenos
Aires. In opposition, state broadcasters tend to be federal and
technical innovative, such as the Televisión Pública Argentina, the
first national TV station, 60 years old.
In Brazil, the two main public broadcasters are the EBC (Empresa
Brasil de Comunicação) and the Fundação Padre Anchieta. The EBC
was created in 2007 to manage the Brazilian federal government's radio
and television stations. EBC owns broadcast networks such as TV Brasil
(launched in 2007, being the merger of Rio de Janeiro's TV Educativa
(1975–2007) and Brasília's TV Nacional (1960–2007)), the Nacional
and MEC radios. The Padre Anchieta Foundation was created by the
government of the state of
São Paulo in 1967 and includes a
television station (TV Cultura, launched in 1969 in São Paulo), and a
radio station (Rádio Cultura). The Padre Anchieta Foundation is a
privately held company which maintains autonomy.
Chilean television was founded through universities, in an attempt to
bring public television without the state having to pay directly and
control content. The University of Chile (owner of the former
Channels 9 and 11 until 1993), the Catholic University of Chile
on channels 2 and 13 until 2010, and the Pontifical Catholic
Valparaíso on channels 8 and 4. Channel 8, in
Valparaíso, is the first and oldest station on Chile, transmitting
since October 5, 1957. As soon as 1961 universities began transmitting
advertisements between their programs, the first of them being the
channel 9, showing a Motorola TV set. This kind of disguised
advertising took the name of "Payola". This situation, added to the
fact that TV was only reaching
Santiago and Valparaíso, led to the
creation of a state network that should serve the whole country. This
network, created in 1964 and in operation since October 24, 1969, is
known as "Televisión Nacional de Chile". After the military
government of Augusto Pinochet, television was mostly deregulated.
Thus, two new commercial channels were born: Megavisión
(Channel 9, on October 23, 1990) and La Red (Channel 4, on
May 12, 1991). The University of Chile's channel 11 also was
rented to a private operator on October 1, 1993 and is today known
today as "Chilevisión".
Televisión Nacional, popularly known as channel 7 because of its
Santiago frequency, is governed by a seven-member board appointed by
both the President and the Senate. It is meant to be independent of
political pressures, although accusations of bias have been made,
especially during election campaigns.
Ecuador TV is the public service channel of Ecuador, established in
October 2007. The channel was established at the same time as the
installation of the
Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly so that the
sessions could be transmitted live to all the country.
Recently, under the initiative of the Venezuelan government of
president Hugo Chávez, and with the sponsorship of the governments of
Argentina, Bolivia, Cuba, Ecuador and Nicaragua, the news and
documentary network teleSUR was created with the intended to be an
instrument toward the "concretizing of the Bolivarian idea" through
the integration of America, and as a counterweight to what the
governments that funds it consider a "distorted view of Latin American
reality by privately run networks that broadcast to the region".
There is an ongoing debate on whether teleSUR will be able become a
neutral and fair news channel able to counter the huge influence of
global media outlets, or whether it will end up as a propaganda tool
of the Venezuelan government, which owns a 51 percent share of said
List of public broadcasters
Main article: List of public broadcasters by country
Public, educational, and government access
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Ontario firm, CBC News, 2010-06-21,
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^ "Federal Regulations Title 47, Part 73, §73.513 Noncommercial
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Legislative and Political Origins of the Public
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Its Way Into Public
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^ "Public TV Faces Fund Struggles". The Morning Record. Retrieved
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Quad-City Times. Lee Enterprises.
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^ Meikle, Graham (2002). Future Active: Media Activism and the
Internet. Psychology Press. p. 71.
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Radio (Columbia University Press, 2005)
^ "The TVNZ Charter". Retrieved 2011-02-20.
^ "Latin leader rebels against US-centric news", Christian Science
Monitor (Retrieved on January 8, 2009)
^ Bruce, Iain (28 June 2005). "Venezuela sets up 'CNN rival'". BBC
^ This organization is the legal successor to
Magyar Rádió and
Magyar Televízió and is an active member of the European
Banerjee, Indrajit; Seneviratne, Kalinga, eds. (2006), Public service
broadcasting in the age of globalization, Asian Media Information and
Communication Centre, ISBN 981-4136-01-8
Raboy, Marc (1995),
Public broadcasting for the 21st century, Acamedia
research monographs, 17, Indiana University Press,
Linke, Benjamin (2016), Public Financing of Public Service
Broadcasting and its Qualification as State Aid, Peter Lang,
Price, Monroe Edwin; Raboy, Marc (2003),
Public service broadcasting
in transition: a documentary reader (PDF), Kluwer Law International,
The 100th Anniversary of Public Broadcasting
Radio Map (in Portuguese)
A Model Public Service
Broadcasting Law, by ARTICLE 19
AIR, the Association for Independents in Radio
Current, the newspaper about public TV and radio in the United States
Radio Exchange, non-profit distribution, peer review and
Radio Fan website, Public
Radio Fan is a listing of public
radio programs and stations worldwide.
Internet Resources for
Radio Journalists and Producers
Transom, A Showcase and Workshop for New Public Radio
Interview with public radio guru Jay Allison on the purpose of public
media, on ThoughtCast.
Comparative Advantage – Some Considerations Regarding the Future of
Access to the Airwaves: Principles on Freedom of Expression and
The Association of Public
Radio Program Directors Association
Ray Fitzwalter on public service broadcasting in Britain London
Frontline Club, May 2008.
PSB-Digital: Research project about the adaptation of Public Service
Broadcasting to new technologies.
The Public Polish
Radio Program Directors Association
Internet television and radio (Webcast
BitTorrent television and movies)
Pirate radio / Pirate television
Adult television channels
Children's interest channel / Children's television series
Men's interest channel
Movie television channels
Music radio / Music television
Sports television channels
Women's interest channel
Broadcast television systems
Digital on-screen graphic
Television news screen layout
Oil & gas
Public water system
Single-payer health care
National health insurance
Cable protection system
Prepay mobile phone
Timeline of communication technology
Undersea telegraph line
Edwin Howard Armstrong
John Logie Baird
Alexander Graham Bell
Jagadish Chandra Bose
Lee de Forest
Erna Schneider Hoover
Charles K. Kao
Alexander Stepanovich Popov
Johann Philipp Reis
Vladimir K. Zworykin
Free-space optical communication
Network switching (circuit
Public Switched Telephone
World Wide Web