The Info List - Mangrove

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S. The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and territories.[1] Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic) conditions of waterlogged mud. The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or mangal,[2][page needed] for which the terms mangrove forest biome, and mangrove swamp are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, and (3) narrowly to refer to the mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.[citation needed] The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments, where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water, through pure seawater (3 to 4%), to water concentrated by evaporation to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9%).[3][4]


1 Etymology 2 Ecology 3 Biology

3.1 Adaptations to low oxygen 3.2 Limiting salt intake 3.3 Limiting water loss 3.4 Nutrient uptake 3.5 Increasing survival of offspring

4 Taxonomy and evolution

4.1 Major components 4.2 Minor components

5 Geographical regions

5.1 Top 20 mangrove habitat nations 5.2 Africa 5.3 Americas

5.3.1 Continental United States 5.3.2 Mexico 5.3.3 Central America and Caribbean Belize

5.3.4 South America

5.4 Asia

5.4.1 Sundarban Mangroves ( India
& Bangladesh) 5.4.2 India Bhitarkanika
mangroves Godavari-Krishna mangroves Pichavaram
mangroves Mumbai
mangroves Baratang Island
Baratang Island

5.4.3 Indo-Malaya Ecozone Indonesia

5.4.4 Pakistan 5.4.5 Middle East

5.5 Oceania

5.5.1 Australia
and New Guinea 5.5.2 New Zealand 5.5.3 Pacific islands

6 Mangroves around the world 7 Exploitation and conservation 8 Reforestation 9 National studies 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Etymology[edit] The term "mangrove" comes to English from Spanish (perhaps by way of Portuguese), and is likely to originate from Guarani. It was earlier "mangrow" (from Portuguese mangue or Spanish mangle), but this word was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word "grove". Ecology[edit]

The world's mangrove forests in 2000

swamps are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangal occurs include estuaries and marine shorelines.[4] The intertidal existence to which these trees are adapted represents the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their habitat. High tide brings in salt water, and when the tide recedes, solar evaporation of the seawater in the soil leads to further increases in salinity. The return of tide can flush out these soils, bringing them back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater. At low tide, organisms are also exposed to increases in temperature and desiccation, and are then cooled and flooded by the tide. Thus, for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad ranges of salinity, temperature, and moisture, as well as a number of other key environmental factors—thus only a select few species make up the mangrove tree community. About 110 species are considered "mangroves", in the sense of being a tree that grows in such a saline swamp,[4] though only a few are from the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp typically features only a small number of tree species. It is not uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome contains thousands of tree species, but this is not to say mangrove forests lack diversity. Though the trees themselves are few in species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home (habitat) for a great variety of other species. Mangrove
plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal inundation. Each species has its own solutions to these problems; this may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree species show distinct zonation. Small environmental variations within a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods for coping with the environment. Therefore, the mix of species is partly determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as tidal inundation and salinity, but may also be influenced by other factors, such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs. Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is already occurring. The fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as sinks for a variety of heavy (trace) metals which colloidal particles in the sediments have scavenged from the water. Mangrove
removal disturbs these underlying sediments, often creating problems of trace metal contamination of seawater and biota. Mangrove
swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge (especially during hurricanes), and tsunamis.[5][6][7] The mangroves' massive root systems are efficient at dissipating wave energy.[8] Likewise, they slow down tidal water enough so its sediment is deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when the tide ebbs.[9] In this way, mangroves build their own environments.[5] Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and the protection against erosion they provide, they are often the object of conservation programs, including national biodiversity action plans.[6] Mangrove
swamps' effectiveness in terms of erosion control can sometimes be overstated. Wave energy is typically low in areas where mangroves grow,[10] so their effect on erosion is measured over long periods.[8] Their capacity to limit high-energy wave erosion is in relation to events such as storm surges and tsunamis.[11] The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots offers a quiet marine region for young organisms.[12] In areas where roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges, and bryozoans, which all require a hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home.[13] Mangrove
crabs munch on the mangrove leaves, adding nutrients to the mangal muds for other bottom feeders.[14] In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in mangroves is important in coastal food webs. Mangrove
plantations in Vietnam, Thailand, Philippines
and India
host several commercially important species of fishes and crustaceans. Despite restoration efforts, developers and others have removed over half of the world's mangroves in recent times. Mangrove
forests can decay into peat deposits because of fungal and bacterial processes as well as by the action of termites. It becomes peat in good geochemical, sedimentary and tectonic conditions.[15] The nature of these deposits depends on the environment and the types of mangrove involved. In Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
the red ( Rhizophora
mangle), white ( Laguncularia
racemosa) and black ( Avicennia
germinans) mangroves occupy different ecological niches and have slightly different chemical compositions so the carbon content varies between the species as well between the different tissues of the plant e.g. leaf matter vs roots.[15] In Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
there is a clear succession of these three trees from the lower elevations which are dominated by red mangroves to farther inland with a higher concentration of white mangroves.[15] Mangrove forests are an important part of the cycling and storage of carbon in tropical coastal ecosystems.[15] Using this it is possible to attempt to reconstruct the environment and investigate changes to the coastal ecosystem for thousands of years by using sediment cores.[16] However, an additional complication is the imported marine organic matter that also gets deposited in the sediment due to tidal flushing of mangrove forests.[15] In order to understand peat formation by mangroves, it is important to understand the conditions they grew in, and how they decayed. Termites are an important part of this decay, and so an understanding of their action on the organic matter is crucial to the chemical stabilization of mangrove peats.[15] Biology[edit] Of the recognized 110 mangrove species, only about 54 species in 20 genera from 16 families constitute the "true mangroves", species that occur almost exclusively in mangrove habitats.[2] Demonstrating convergent evolution, many of these species found similar solutions to the tropical conditions of variable salinity, tidal range (inundation), anaerobic soils and intense sunlight. Plant biodiversity is generally low in a given mangal.[4] The greatest biodiversity occurs in the mangal of New Guinea, Indonesia
and Malaysia.[17] Adaptations to low oxygen[edit]

A red mangrove, Rhizophora

Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal.

Red mangroves, which can survive in the most inundated areas, prop themselves above the water level with stilt roots and can then absorb air through pores in their bark (lenticels). Black mangroves live on higher ground and make many pneumatophores (specialised root-like structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for breathing) which are also covered in lenticels. These "breathing tubes" typically reach heights of up to 30 cm, and in some species, over 3 m. The four types of pneumatophores are stilt or prop type, snorkel or peg type, knee type, and ribbon or plank type. Knee and ribbon types may be combined with buttress roots at the base of the tree. The roots also contain wide aerenchyma to facilitate transport within the plants. Limiting salt intake[edit]

Salt crystals formed on grey mangrove leaf.

Red mangroves exclude salt by having significantly impermeable roots which are highly suberised (impregnated with suberin), acting as an ultra-filtration mechanism to exclude sodium salts from the rest of the plant. Analysis of water inside mangroves has shown 90% to 97% of salt has been excluded at the roots. In a frequently cited concept that has become known as the "sacrificial leaf", salt which does accumulate in the shoot (sprout) then concentrates in old leaves, which the plant then sheds. However, recent research suggests the older, yellowing leaves have no more measurable salt content than the other, greener leaves.[18] Red mangroves can also store salt in cell vacuoles. As seen in the photograph on the right, white or grey mangroves can secrete salts directly; they have two salt glands at each leaf base (correlating with their name—they are covered in white salt crystals). Limiting water loss[edit] Because of the limited fresh water available in salty intertidal soils, mangroves limit the amount of water they lose through their leaves. They can restrict the opening of their stomata (pores on the leaf surfaces, which exchange carbon dioxide gas and water vapour during photosynthesis). They also vary the orientation of their leaves to avoid the harsh midday sun and so reduce evaporation from the leaves. Anthony Calfo, a noted aquarium author, observed anecdotally a red mangrove in captivity only grows if its leaves are misted with fresh water several times a week, simulating frequent tropical rainstorms.[19] Nutrient uptake[edit] Because the soil is perpetually waterlogged, little free oxygen is available. Anaerobic bacteria liberate nitrogen gas, soluble ferrum (iron), inorganic phosphates, sulfides and methane, which make the soil much less nutritious.[citation needed] Pneumatophores (aerial roots) allow mangroves to absorb gases directly from the atmosphere, and other nutrients such as iron, from the inhospitable soil. Mangroves store gases directly inside the roots, processing them even when the roots are submerged during high tide. Increasing survival of offspring[edit]

Red mangrove seeds germinate while still on the parent tree.

In this harsh environment, mangroves have evolved a special mechanism to help their offspring survive. Mangrove
seeds are buoyant and are therefore suited to water dispersal. Unlike most plants, whose seeds germinate in soil, many mangroves (e.g. red mangrove) are viviparous, whose seeds germinate while still attached to the parent tree. Once germinated, the seedling grows either within the fruit (e.g. Aegialitis, Avicennia
and Aegiceras), or out through the fruit (e.g. Rhizophora, Ceriops, Bruguiera
and Nypa) to form a propagule (a ready-to-go seedling) which can produce its own food via photosynthesis. The mature propagule then drops into the water, which can transport it great distances. Propagules can survive desiccation and remain dormant for over a year before arriving in a suitable environment. Once a propagule is ready to root, its density changes so the elongated shape now floats vertically rather than horizontally. In this position, it is more likely to lodge in the mud and root. If it does not root, it can alter its density and drift again in search of more favorable conditions. Taxonomy and evolution[edit] The following listing (modified from Tomlinson, 1986) gives the number of species of mangroves in each listed plant genus and family. Mangrove
environments in the Eastern Hemisphere harbor six times as many species of trees and shrubs as do mangroves in the New World. Genetic divergence of mangrove lineages from terrestrial relatives, in combination with fossil evidence, suggests mangrove diversity is limited by evolutionary transition into the stressful marine environment, and the number of mangrove lineages has increased steadily over the Tertiary with little global extinction.[20] Major components[edit]

Family Genus, number of species Common name

Acanthaceae, Avicenniaceae or Verbenaceae (family allocation disputed) Avicennia, 9 Black mangrove

Combretaceae Conocarpus, 1; Laguncularia, 1; Lumnitzera, 3 Buttonwood, white mangrove

Arecaceae Nypa, 1 Mangrove

Rhizophoraceae Bruguiera, 7; Ceriops, 5; Kandelia, 2; Rhizophora, 8 Red mangrove

Lythraceae Sonneratia, 5 Mangrove

Minor components[edit]

Family Genus, number of species

Acanthaceae Acanthus, 2; Bravaisia, 2

Arecaceae Phoenix, 1

Bombacaceae Camptostemon, 2

Cyperaceae Fimbristylis, 1

Euphorbiaceae Excoecaria, 2

Lecythidaceae Barringtonia, 6

Lythraceae Pemphis, 2

Meliaceae Xylocarpus, 2

Myrtaceae Osbornia, 1

Pellicieraceae Pelliciera, 1

Plumbaginaceae Aegialitis, 2

Primulaceae Aegiceras, 2

Pteridaceae Acrostichum, 3

Rubiaceae Scyphiphora, 1

Sterculiaceae Heritiera, 3

Geographical regions[edit] Main article: Mangrove
tree distribution Further information: List of mangrove ecoregions Mangroves can be found in over 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The largest percentage of mangroves is found between the 5° N and 5° S latitudes. Approximately 75% of world’s mangroves are found in just 15 countries. Asia has the largest amount (42%) of the world’s mangroves, followed by Africa (21%), North/Central America (15%), Oceania (12%) and South America
South America
(11%).[1] Top 20 mangrove habitat nations[edit]

Part of Ao Phang Nga National Park
Ao Phang Nga National Park
- the largest area of native mangrove forest in Thailand.[21]

Top 20 mangrove habitat nations in 2014[22]

Rank Country Tree cover (km2) in mangrove forests Tree cover (km2) in mangrove biome

1 Indonesia 23,143 42,278

2 Brazil 7,663 17,287

3 Malaysia 4,691 7,616

4 Papua New Guinea 4,169 6,236

5 Australia 3,315 3,314

6 Mexico 2,985 6,036

7 Nigeria 2,653 6,908

8 Myanmar 2,508 3,783

9 Venezuela 2,401 7,516

10 Philippines 2,060 2,084

11 Thailand 1,876 3,936

12 Bangladesh 1,773 2,314

13 Colombia 1,672 6,236

14 Cuba 1,624 2,407

15 United States 1,553 1,554

16 Panama 1,323 2,673

17 Mozambique 1,223 2,658

18 Cameroon 1,113 1,323

19 Gabon 1,081 3,864

20 Ecuador 935 1,906

Africa[edit] There are important mangrove swamps in Kenya, Tanzania, République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) and Madagascar, with the latter even admixing at the coastal verge with dry deciduous forests. Nigeria has Africa's largest mangrove concentration, spanning 36,000 km2. Oil spills and leaks have destroyed many in the last 50 years, damaging the local fishing economy and water quality.[23] Along the coast of the Red Sea, both on the Egyptian side and in the Gulf of Aqaba, mangroves composed primarily of Avicennia
marina and Rhizophora
mucronata[24] grow in about 28 stands that cover about 525 hectares.[citation needed] Almost all Egyptian mangrove stands are now protected.[citation needed] There are mangroves off the east coast of South Africa
South Africa
extending as far south as the Tylomnqa River (33°13'26.1"S 27°34'50.2"E). Some mangrove stands exist in the St Lucia estuary within iSimangaliso Wetland
Park.[citation needed] Americas[edit] Mangroves live in many parts of the tropical and subtropical coastal zones of North and South America. Continental United States[edit] Because of their sensitivity to subfreezing temperatures, mangroves in the continental United States
United States
are very limited to the Florida peninsula (see Florida
mangroves) and some isolated growths[25] of black mangrove ( Avicennia
germinans) at the southmost coast of Louisiana[26] and South Texas.[27] Mexico[edit] In Mexico four species of mangrove predominate: Rhizophora
mangle, Laguncularia
racemosa, Avicennia germinans
Avicennia germinans
and Conocarpus
erectus.[28] During an inventory conducted by CONABIO between 2006 and 2008, 770,057 hectares of mangrove were counted.[29] Of this total, 55% are located in the Yucatán Peninsula.[29] Significant mangals include the Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves found in Sinaloa
and Nayarit. Central America and Caribbean[edit]

The same area in Honduras
shown in 1987 (bottom) and 1999 showing the corresponding removal of mangrove swamps for shrimp farming.

Mangroves occur on the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Mangroves can also be found in many of the Antilles
including Puerto Rico,[30] Cuba, and Hispaniola,[31] as well as other islands in the West Indies
West Indies
such as the Bahamas. Belize[edit] The nation of Belize
has the highest overall percentage of forest cover of any of the Central American countries.[32] In terms of Belize's mangrove cover—which assumes the form not only of mangrove 'forest', but also of scrubs and savannas, among others[33]—a 2010 satellite-based study of Belize's mangroves by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and the Water Center for the Humid Tropics
of Latin America and the Caribbean found, in 2010, mangroves covered some 184,548 acres (74,684 hectares) or 3.4% of Belize's territory.[34] In 1980, by contrast, mangrove cover stood at 188,417 acres (76,250 hectares)—also 3.4% of Belize's territory, although based on the work of mangrove researcher Simon Zisman,[35] Belize's mangrove cover in 1980 was estimated to represent 98.7% of the precolonial extent of those ecosystems. Belize's mangrove cover in 2010 was thus estimated to represent 96.7% of the precolonial cover.[34] Assessing changes in Belize's mangrove cover over a 30-year period was possible because of Belize's participation in the Regional Visualization and Monitoring System, a regional observatory jointly implemented by CATHALAC, RCMRD, ICIMOD, NASA, USAID, and other partners.[36] South America[edit] Brazil
contains approximately 26,000 km2 of mangals, 15% of the world's total. Ecuador has substantial remaining mangrove forests in the provinces of El Oro, Guayas, Manabi and Esmeraldas with limited forest remaining in Santa Elena.[37] The northern portion of Esmeraldas province has a large pristine mangrove forest that is preserved as the Reserva Ecológica Cayapas-Mataje (REMACAN) and is an original Ramsar site.[38] This forest is the most preserved within Ecuador and likely the most pristine forest along the Pacific Coast of the Americas.[39]

in Brazil, nicknamed the "Manguetown", has the largest urban mangrove forest in the world.[40]

The only other major mangrove holding in Esmeraldas is in-and-around the community of Muisne and the Rio Muisne Estuary
Swampland Wildlife Refuges.[41] The mangroves in-and-around the estuaries of Muisne have decreased in area from 3222 ha in 1971 to 1065 ha as of 2005, during this time commercial shrimp aquaculture has become the dominant land-cover within this estuary environment.[42] On the border of Esmeraldas province and Manabí province is a formerly large area of mangrove within Cojimies Estuary. The mangroves in this estuary are some of the most degraded in Ecuador with only 19% of 1971 mangrove area remaining as of 1998, although mangrove has recovered since this date.[39] Within Manabí the major mangrove holding estuary is the Chone estuary situated near the city of Bahía de Caráquez. Again, Chone has undergone substantial mangrove deforestation since the advent of commercial aquaculture in Ecuador.[42] Although mangrove loss appears to have halted in this estuary and mangrove regrowth driven by local fisherman is now occurring.[43] Peru has a very small region of mangrove located in the north-west of the country on the Ecuadorian Border.[1] Venezuela's northern Caribbean island, Margarita, possesses mangrove forests in the Parque nacional Laguna de La Restinga. Venezuela
has 4% of the world's mangroves, with an extension of 6735 km2.[44] Colombia
possesses large mangrove forests on both its Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Mangrove
forests of Suriname
have a height of 20–25 m and are found mainly in the coastal area. There are six types of mangroves, namely two types of parwa or black mangroves, three types of red mangroves (mangro) and a small mangrove species (white mangrove, akira or tjila).[45] Asia[edit]

Sundarban Mangroves ( India
& Bangladesh)[edit] Main article: Sundarbans


The Great Sundarbans, the largest mangroves region in the world and a UNESCO
World Heritage Site, is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, covering parts of Bangladesh's Khulna Division
Khulna Division
and the Indian state of West Bengal. In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, Sundari trees are found, which provide durable hard timber. Palm, Coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some parts of the delta. India's mangrove forests are known to serve as a habitat for turtles, crocodiles, gharials, and snakes. This region is part of the Great Sundarbans
and covers a National Park, Tiger reserve and a Biosphere Reserve.[46][47] The Sundarbans
National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve. It is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. A third of this area is covered by water and marshes. Since 1966 it has been considered a sanctuary for wildlife with an estimated 400 Royal Bengal tigers and more than 30,000 deer. The forest lies at the foot of the Ganges
The seasonally-flooded Sundarbans
freshwater swamp forests lie inland from the mangrove forests. The forest covers 10,000 square kilometres (3,900 sq mi) of which about 6,000 square kilometres (2,300 sq mi) are in Bangladesh. It was inscribed as a UNESCO
world heritage site in 1997, but while the Bangladeshi and Indian portions constitute the same continuous ecotope, they are separately listed in the UNESCO
world heritage list as the Sundarbans and Sundarbans
National Park, respectively. The Sundarbans
is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for the eponymous Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), as well as numerous fauna including species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles and snakes. Sundarbans
was designated a Ramsar site on May 21, 1992. The fertile soils of the delta have been subject to intensive human use for centuries, and the ecoregion has been mostly converted to intensive agriculture, with few enclaves of forest remaining. The remaining forests, together with the Sundarbans
mangroves, are important habitat for the endangered tiger. Additionally, the Sundarbans
serves a crucial function as a protective flood barrier for the millions of inhabitants in and around Kolkata (Calcutta) against the result of cyclone activity. Sundarbans
is home to many different species of birds, mammals, insects, reptiles and fish. It is estimated that there may be found more than 120 species of fish and over 260 species of birds and more than fifty species of reptiles and eight amphibians. Many tourists go there to see the Bengal tigers, saltwater crocodiles, leopards and snakes cobra. Geographical data of Sundarban Latitude: 25.7667 Longitude: 88.7167 Average Height: 34 Time Zone: Asia / Dhaka Title: Lugar Poblado India[edit] As per the ISFR 2017 report, the total area of mangrove cover of India is 4921 km2, (181 km2 positively changed with respect to 2015 mangrove cover assessment) which contributes 3.3% to the global mangrove cover[48]. The deltas of the Ganges, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and Kaveri
rivers contain mangrove forests. Indian mangroves consist of 46 species (4 of which are natural hybrids) belonging to 22 genera and 14 families, representing about 57% of the world’s mangrove species.[49] The following table shows the prevalence of mangroves in the states of India
and the total area covered by them in square kilometres.[50]

Rank States/UTs with highest mangrove cover in 2017 Total mangrove cover in km2 in 2015 2017 [51][52]

1 West Bengal 2,106 2114

2 Gujarat 1,107 1140

3 Andaman And Nicobar Islands 617 617

4 Andhra Pradesh 367 404

5 Maharashtra 222 304

6 Odisha 231 243

7 Tamil Nadu 47 49

8 Goa 26 26

9 Kerala 9 9

10 Karnataka 3 10

mangroves[edit] The Bhitarkanika
mangroves form India’s second largest forest, located in the state of Odisha. Bhitarkanika
is created by the two river deltas of Brahmani and Baitarani river and one of the important Ramsar Wetland
in India. It is also the home of saltwater crocodiles and nesting olive ridley sea turtles.[46][47] Godavari-Krishna mangroves[edit] The Godavari-Krishna mangroves lie in the delta of the Godavari
and Krishna rivers in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Mangroves ecoregion is under protection for Calimere
Wildlife and Pulicat Lake Bird Sanctuary.[47] Pichavaram
mangroves[edit] The Pichavaram
mangroves are situated at Pichavaram
near Chidambaram in the state of Tamil Nadu. Pichavaram
ranks amongs one of the most exquisite scenic spots in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and has many species of aquatic birds.[47] Mumbai
mangroves[edit] The megacity Mumbai
has mangroves on its coastline along the west coast of India. A total of 10 mangrove species were reported in this area, domiated by Avicennia
marina.[53] These mangroves support a rich diversity of life forms, especially molluscs.[54] The total mangrove area in Mumbai
is 50 km2.[55] Mumbai's single largest mangrove belt is the western bank of Thane Creek. An extensive area of mangroves has been conserved by Soonabai Pirojsha Godrej Marine Ecology Centre, Vikhroli, Mumbai.[56] Baratang Island
Baratang Island
mangroves[edit] The Baratang Island
Baratang Island
mangroves are located within the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The mangrove swamps of Baratang Island
Baratang Island
are situated between Middle and South Andaman Island.[47] Indo-Malaya Ecozone[edit] Mangroves occur on Asia's south coast, throughout the Indian subcontinent, in all Southeast Asian countries, and on islands in the Indian Ocean, Persian gulf, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, South China Sea, East China Sea
East China Sea
and the Pacific. The mangal is particularly prevalent in the deltas of large Asian rivers. The Sundarbans
is the largest mangrove forest in the world, located in the Ganges
River delta
River delta
in Bangladesh
and West Bengal, India. The Pichavaram
mangroves in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
is India's one of the largest mangrove forests. The Bhitarkanika
Mangroves Forest of Odisha, by the Bay of Bengal, is India's second largest mangrove forest.[citation needed] Other major mangals occur on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch
in Gujarat.[57] Mangroves occur in certain muddy swampy islands of the Maldives.[58] On the Malayan Peninsula
Malayan Peninsula
mangroves cover an estimated 1,089.7 square kilometres (420.7 sq mi), while most of the remaining 5,320 square kilometres (2,054 sq mi) mangroves in Malaysia
are on the island of Borneo.[59] In Vietnam, mangrove forests grow along the southern coast, including two forests: the Can Gio Mangrove Forest
Can Gio Mangrove Forest
biosphere reserve and the U Minh mangrove forest in the sea and coastal region of Kiên Giang, Cà Mau and Bạc Liêu provinces. The mangrove forests of Kompong Sammaki in Cambodia
are of major ecological and cultural importance, as the human population relies heavily on the crabs and fish that live in the roots. The three most important mangrove forests of Taiwan
are: Tamsui River in Taipei, Jhonggang River in Miaoli and the Sihcao Wetlands
Sihcao Wetlands
in Tainan. According to research, four types of mangrove exist in Taiwan.[citation needed] Some places have been developed as scenic areas, such as the log raft routes in Sihcao. The most extensive mangrove forests of the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
in East China Sea occur on Iriomote Island
Iriomote Island
of the Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa, Japan.[60] Seven types of mangroves are recognised on Iriomote Island.[61] The northern limit of mangrove forests in the Indo-Malaya ecozone is considered to be Tanegashima Island, Kyushu, Japan.[62] Indonesia[edit] In the Indonesian Archipelago, mangroves occur around much of Papua province, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku and the surrounding islands. Further north, they are found along the coast of the Malay Peninsula. Indonesia
has around 9.36 million hectares of mangrove forests, but 48% is categorized as 'moderately damaged' and 23% as 'badly damaged'.[63] Pakistan[edit]

The Guinness World Record certificate of achievement to Sindh
Forest Department, Govt of Sindh, Pakistan

Pakistani mangroves are located mainly along the delta of the Indus River (the Indus River
Indus River
Delta- Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
mangroves ecoregion). Major mangrove forests are found on the coastline of the provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. In Karachi, land reclamation projects have led to the cutting down of mangrove forests for commercial and urban development. On 22 June 2013, Sindh
Forest Department, Govt. of Sindh, Pakistan, with the help of 300 local coastal volunteer planters set the Guinness World Record by planting 847,250 mangrove saplings at Kharo Chan, Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan in a little over 12 hours. This is the highest number of saplings planted within a day under the Guinness World Record category of "Maximum Number of Trees Planted in a Day". Sindh
Forest Department, Government of Sindh
has played pioneer role for the conservation and protection of the mangroves in the Indus Delta since late 1950s when it was handed over the areas. A breakthrough success is the re-introduction of Rhizophora
mucronata into the Indus Delta, which had become extinct there. More recently, a threatened mangrove shrub, Ceriops
tagal, has also been successfully re-introduced. A third species, Aegiceras
corniculatum, is under trials at the nursery stage. A gigantic initiative is under in the Sindh, Pakistan, to rehabilitate the degraded and blank mangrove mudflats. Since 2010 alone, around 55,000 Hectares of such area has been planted and rehabilitated. During this period, through concerted efforts and a rigorous conservation policy adopted by the Sindh
Forest Department, Govt. of Sindh
and the federal govt. a mangrove resource base of 150,000 plus Hectares has been created, with the support of local coastal communities. International organizations like IUCN and WWF are also playing critical role to support this initiative of the government. Other achievements include: (1) Declaring all the mangrove forests in the Indus Delta as Protected Forests in December 2010; Constitution of a Mangrove
Conservation Committee at the provincial level which includes all stakeholders as members and overall awareness of the importance of mangroves and its ecosystem.[64]

Shah Bundar, Sujawal, Pakistan, new mangrove plantation

A young mangrove plantation in the Indus Delta

Flourishing mangroves along Karachi
coast, Pakistan

Glowing mangrove plantation at Keti Bundar, Thatta, Pakistan

Middle East[edit] Oman, near Muscat, supports large areas of mangroves, in particular at Shinas, Qurm Park and Mahout Island. In Arabic, mangrove trees are known as qurm, thus the mangrove area in Oman is known as Qurm Park. A small mangrove area is present in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Mangroves are also present extensively in neighbouring Yemen.[65] Iranian mangrove forests occur between 25°11′N to 27°52′N. These forests exist in the north part of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Sea of Oman, along three maritime provinces in the south of Iran. These provinces, respectively, from southwest to southeast of Iran, include Bushehr, Hormozgan, and Sistan and Balouchestan. Mangrove
is also widely seen in Tarut Island, east of Qatif in Saudi Arabia. In addition, large forest of mangrove surround the coast to the south of Qatif (Siahat Beach). Nonetheless, because of sea land re-claiming the mangrove is being cut down which makes lots of sea fish losses their natural habitats. The mangrove forests that cover thousands of hectares of land along the UAE shoreline form an integral part of its coastal ecosystem. The Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD) is currently working on rehabilitation, conservation and protection of mangrove forests in seven key sites in Abu Dhabi including: Saadiyat Island, Jubail Island, Marawah Marine Biosphere Reserve (which also comprises famous Bu Tinah Island), Bu Syayeef Protected Area, Ras Gharab, the Eastern Corniche and Ras Ghanada. Oceania[edit] Australia
and New Guinea[edit] Main article: Australian mangroves More than 5 species of Rhizophoraceae
grow in Australasia[66] with particularly high biodiversity on the island of New Guinea
New Guinea
and northern Australia.[66] Australia
has about 11,500 km2 of mangroves, primarily on the northern and eastern coasts of the continent, with occurrences as far south as Millers Landing in Wilsons Promontory, Victoria[67] (38°54′S),[68] Barker Inlet
Barker Inlet
in Adelaide, South Australia[69] and Koombana Park in Bunbury, Western Australia.[70] New Zealand[edit] New Zealand
New Zealand
also has mangrove forests extending to around 38°S (similar to Australia's southernmost mangrove incidence): the furthest geographical extent on the west coast is Raglan Harbour (37°48′S); on the east coast, Ohiwa Harbour (near Opotiki) is the furthest south mangroves are found (38°00′S). Pacific islands[edit] Twenty-five species of mangrove are found on various Pacific islands, with extensive mangals on some islands. Mangals on Guam, Palau, Kosrae and Yap
have been badly affected by development.[71] Mangroves are not native to Hawaii, but the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, and Oriental mangrove, Bruguiera
sexangula, have been introduced and are now naturalized.[72] Both species are considered invasive species and classified as pests by the University of Hawaii Botany Department.[73] Mangroves around the world[edit]

Park in Kannur, India

Sihcao, Tainan, Taiwan

Yap, Micronesia

Pichavaram, India

Iriomote Island, Japan

Exploitation and conservation[edit]

Mangroves in West Bali National Park, Indonesia.

Adequate data are only available for about half of the global area of mangroves. However, of those areas for which data has been collected, it appears that 35% of the mangroves have been destroyed.[74] The United Nations Environment Program
United Nations Environment Program
& Hamilton (2013), estimate that shrimp farming causes approximately a quarter of the destruction of mangrove forests.[75][76] Likewise, the 2010 update of the World Mangrove
Atlas indicated that approximately one fifth of the world's mangrove ecosystems have been lost since 1980,[77] although this rapid loss rate appears to have decreased since 2000 with global losses estimated at between 0.16% and 0.39% annually between 2000 and 2012.[22] Despite global loss rates decreasing since 2000, Southeast Asia remains an area of concern with loss rates between 3.58% and 8.08% between 2000 and 2012.[22] Grassroots efforts to save mangroves from development are becoming more popular as their benefits become more widely known. In the Bahamas, for example, active efforts to save mangroves are occurring on the islands of Bimini
and Great Guana Cay. In Trinidad and Tobago as well, efforts are underway to protect a mangrove threatened by the construction of a steelmill and a port.[citation needed] In Thailand, community management has been effective in restoring damaged mangroves.[78] Within northern Ecuador mangrove regrowth is reported in almost all estuaries and stems primarily from local actors responding to earlier periods of deforestation in the Esmeraldas region.[43] Mangroves have been reported to be able to help buffer against tsunami, cyclones, and other storms. One village in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
was protected from tsunami destruction—the villagers in Naluvedapathy planted 80,244 saplings to get into the Guinness Book of World Records. This created a kilometre-wide belt of trees of various varieties. When the tsunami struck, much of the land around the village was flooded, but the village itself suffered minimal damage.[79] Reforestation[edit]

Mangroves in Bohol, Philippines.

In some areas, mangrove reforestation and mangrove restoration is also underway. Red mangroves are the most common choice for cultivation, used particularly in marine aquariums in a sump to reduce nitrates and other nutrients in the water. Mangroves also appear in home aquariums, and as ornamental plants, such as in Japan. In Senegal, Haïdar El Ali
Haïdar El Ali
has started the fr project, which (amongst others) focuses on reforesting several areas with mangroves.[80] The Manzanar Mangrove
Initiative is an ongoing experiment in Arkiko, Eritrea, part of the Manzanar Project founded by Gordon H. Sato, establishing new mangrove plantations on the coastal mudflats. Initial plantings failed, but observation of the areas where mangroves did survive by themselves led to the conclusion that nutrients in water flow from inland were important to the health of the mangroves. Trials with the Eritrean Ministry of Fisheries followed, and a planting system was designed to provide the nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron missing from seawater.[81][82] The propagules are planted inside a reused galvanized steel can with the bottom knocked out; a small piece of iron and a pierced plastic bag with fertilizer containing nitrogen and phosphorus are buried with the propagule. As of 2007[update], after six years of planting, 700,000 mangroves are growing; providing stock feed for sheep and habitat for oysters, crabs, other bivalves, and fish.[81][82] National studies[edit] In terms of local and national studies of mangrove loss, the case of Belize's mangroves is illustrative in its contrast to the global picture. A recent, satellite-based study[34]—funded by the World Wildlife Fund and conducted by the Water Center for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean (CATHALAC)—indicates Belize's mangrove cover declined by a mere 2% over a 30-year period. The study was born out of the need to verify the popular conception that mangrove clearing in Belize
was rampant.[83] Instead, the assessment showed, between 1980 and 2010, under 4,000 acres (16 km2) of mangroves had been cleared, although clearing of mangroves near Belize's main coastal settlements (e.g. Belize
City and San Pedro) was relatively high. The rate of loss of Belize's mangroves—at 0.07% per year between 1980 and 2010—was much lower than Belize's overall rate of forest clearing (0.6% per year in the same period).[84] These findings can also be interpreted to indicate Belize's mangrove regulations (under the nation's)[85] have largely been effective. Nevertheless, the need to protect Belize's mangroves is imperative, as a 2009 study by the World Resources Institute (WRI) indicates the ecosystems contribute US$174–249 million per year to Belize's national economy.[86] See also[edit]

Wetlands portal

swamp Blue carbon Ecological values of mangrove Mangrove
restoration Salt marsh


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Further reading[edit]

Saenger, Peter (2002). Mangrove
Ecology, Silviculture, and Conservation. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht. ISBN 1-4020-0686-1. Thanikaimoni, Ganapathi (1986). Mangrove
Palynology UNDP/ UNESCO
and the French Institute of Pondicherry, ISSN 0073-8336 (E). Tomlinson, Philip B. (1986). The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, ISBN 0-521-25567-8. Teas, H. J. (1983). Biology and Ecology of Mangroves. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. ISBN 90-6193-948-8. Plaziat, Jean-Claude; Cavagnetto, Carla; Koeniguer, Jean-Claude; Baltzer, Frédéric (2001). Wetlands Ecology and Management. 9 (3): 161. doi:10.1023/A:1011118204434.  Missing or empty title= (help) Jayatissa, L. P.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.; Koedam, N. (2002). "A review of the floral composition and distribution of mangroves in Sri Lanka". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 138: 29–43. doi:10.1046/j.1095-8339.2002.00002.x.  Ellison, Aaron M. (2000). " Mangrove
Restoration: Do We Know Enough?". Restoration Ecology. 8 (3): 219–229. doi:10.1046/j.1526-100x.2000.80033.x.  Agrawala, Shardul; Hagestad; Marca; Koshy, Kayathu; Ota, Tomoko; Prasad, Biman; Risbey, James; Smith, Joel; Van Aalst, Maarten. 2003. Development and Climate Change in Fiji: Focus on Coastal Mangroves. Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development, Paris, Cedex 16, France. Barbier, E.B., Sathirathai, S., 2001. Valuing Mangrove
Conservation in Southern Thailand. Contemporary Economic Policy. 19 (2) 109–122. Bosire, J.O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Jayatissa, L.P., Koedam, N., Lo Seen, D., Nitto, Di D. 2005. How Effective were Mangroves as a Defense Against the Recent Tsunami? Current Biology Vol. 15 R443-R447. Bowen, Jennifer L., Valiela, Ivan, York, Joanna K. 2001. Mangrove Forests: One of the World's Threatened Major Tropical Environments. Bio Science 51:10, 807–815. Jin-Eong, Ong. 2004. The Ecology of Mangrove
Conservation and Management. Hydrobiologia. 295:1–3, 343–351. Glenn, C. R. 2006. "Earth's Endangered Creatures" Lewis, Roy R. III. 2004. Ecological Engineering for Successful Management and Restoration of Mangrove
Forest. Ecological Engineering. 24:4, 403–418. Kuenzer, C.; Bluemel, A.; Gebhardt, S.; Vo Quoc, T. & Dech, S. (2011). "Remote Sensing of Mangrove
Ecosystems: A Review". Remote Sensing. 3 (5): 878–928. Bibcode:2011RemS....3..878K. doi:10.3390/rs3050878.  Lucien-Brun H. 1997. Evolution of world shrimp production: Fisheries and aquaculture. World Aquaculture. 28:21–33. Twilley, R. R., V.H. Rivera-Monroy, E. Medina, A. Nyman, J. Foret, T. Mallach, and L. Botero. 2000. Patterns of forest development in mangroves along the San Juan River estuary, Venezuela. Forest Ecology and Management. Murray, M.R.; Zisman, S.A.; Furley, P.A.; Munro, D.M.; Gibson, J.; Ratter, J.; Bridgewater, S.; Mity, C.D.; Place, C.J. (2003). "The Mangroves of Belize: Part 1. Distribution, Composition and Classification". Forest Ecology and Management. 174: 265–279. doi:10.1016/s0378-1127(02)00036-1.  Vo Quoc, T.; Kuenzer, C.; Vo Quang, M.; Moder, F. & Oppelt, N. (December 2012). "Review of Valuation Methods for Mangrove
Ecosystem Services". Ecological Indicators. 23: 431–446. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.04.022.  Spalding, Mark; Kainuma, Mami and Collins, Lorna (2010) World Atlas of Mangroves Earthscan, London, ISBN 978-1-84407-657-4; 60 maps showing worldwide mangrove distribution Massó i Alemán, S., C. Bourgeois, W. Appeltans, B. Vanhoorne, N. De Hauwere, P. Stoffelen, A. Heaghebaert & F. Dahdouh-Guebas, 2010. The ‘ Mangrove
Reference Database and Herbarium’. Plant Ecology and Evolution 143(2): 225–232. Vo Quoc, T.; Oppelt, N.; Leinenkugel, P. & Kuenzer, C. (2013). "Remote Sensing in Mapping Mangrove
Ecosystems – An Object-Based Approach". Remote Sensing. 5 (1): 183–201. Bibcode:2013RemS....5..183V. doi:10.3390/rs5010183. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mangrove.

" Mangrove
Factsheet". Waitt Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-08.  Mangroves- At the Smithsonian Ocean Portal Fisheries Western Australia
– Mangroves Fact Sheet Rhizophoraceae
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Mangrove
forests at Curlie (based on DMOZ) In May 2011, the VOA Special
English service of the Voice of America broadcast a 15-minute program on mangrove forests. A transcript and MP3 of the program, intended for English learners, can be found at Mangrove
Forests Could Be a Big Player in Carbon Trading Water Center for the Humid Tropics
of Latin America and the Caribbean (CATHALAC)

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Aquatic ecosystem
Aquatic ecosystem

Aquatic ecosystems – general and freshwater components


Acoustic ecology Adaptation Agent-based models Algal bloom Anoxic waters Aquatic animals (Insects Mammals) Aquatic plants Aquatic science Benthos Biodiversity research Bioluminescence Biomass Biomonitoring Cascade effect Colored dissolved organic matter Camouflage and mimicry Dead zone Ecohydrology Ecosystems Eutrophication Fisheries science Food chain Food web GIS and aquatic science Hydrobiology Hypoxia Isotope analysis Microbial ecology Microbial food web Microbial loop Nekton Neuston Particle Pelagic zone Photic zone Phytoplankton Plankton Pleuston Predation Productivity Ramsar Convention Respiration Schooling Sediment trap Siltation Spawning Substrate Thermal pollution Toxicology Trophic level Water column Zooplankton More...


Biology Biomes Ecosystems

freshwater lake river

Fish Hyporheic zone Limnology Lake stratification Macrophyte Pond


Rheotaxis Stream bed Stream pool Trophic state index Upland and lowland Water garden Wetland

brackish marsh freshwater marsh swamp bog fen

Environmental quality More...


Freshwater (List) Marine (List) The Everglades Maharashtra The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre The San Francisco Estuary

Aquatic ecosystems – marine components


Marine biology Marine chemistry Deep scattering layer Diel vertical migration Ecosystems

large marine marine)

f-ratio Iron
fertilization Marine snow Ocean nourishment Oceanic physical-biological process Ocean turbidity Photophore Thorson's rule Upwelling Whale fall More...

Marine life

Bacteriophages Census Fish

coastal coral reef deep sea demersal pelagic

Deep sea communities Deep sea creature Deep-water coral Invertebrates Larvae Mammals Marine life Microorganisms Paradox of the plankton Reptiles Seabirds Seashore wildlife Vertebrates Wild fisheries

Marine habitats

Bay mud Coastal biogeomorphology Cold seeps Coral reefs Davidson Seamount Estuaries Intertidal
ecology Intertidal
wetlands Kelp forests Hydrothermal vents Lagoons Mangroves Marine biomes Marine habitats Mudflats Rocky shores Salt marshes Salt pannes and pools Seagrass
meadows Sponge grounds Sponge reefs Tide pools


Ecological values of mangroves Fisheries and climate change HERMIONE Marine conservation Marine conservation
Marine conservation
activism Marine pollution Marine Protected Area

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Biogeographic regionalisations


Terrestrial biomes


Tundra Taiga Montane grasslands and shrublands


Coniferous forests Broadleaf and mixed forests Deciduous forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands

Tropical and subtropical

Coniferous forests Moist broadleaf forests Dry broadleaf forests Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands


Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub Deserts and xeric shrublands


Flooded grasslands and savannas Riparian Wetland

Aquatic biomes

Pond Littoral Intertidal Mangroves Kelp forests Coral reefs Neritic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Hydrothermal vents Cold seeps Demersal zone

Other biomes

Endolithic zone

Biogeographic realms


Afrotropical Antarctic Australasian Nearctic Palearctic Indomalayan Neotropical Oceanian


Arctic Temperate Northern Pacific Tropical Atlantic Western Indo-Pacific Central Indo-Pacific Tropical Eastern Pacific


Biogeographic provinces Bioregions Ecoregions

List of ecoregions Global 200
Global 200

See also

Ecological land classification Floristic kingdoms Vegetation
classifications Zoogeographic regions

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Acrotelm A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia Aquatic ecosystem Aquatic plants Atchafalaya Basin Backswamp Bayou Beach meadow Blackwater river Blanket bog Bog Bog
garden Brackish marsh Callows Carr Cataract bog Ciénega Clean Water Act Clearwater river Coastal bog Coniferous swamp Constructed wetland Delta Waterfowl Foundation Dambo Drainage basin Ducks Unlimited Estuary Fen Flark Flood-meadow Flooded grasslands and savannas Freshwater marsh Freshwater swamp forest Grass valley Guelta Halosere Hydrosere Igapó Ings Interdunal wetland Intertidal
wetland Karst Kermi bog Kettle Lagg Mangrove Marsh Marsh
gas Mere Mire Misse Moorland Muck Mudflat Muskeg Oasis Palsa bog Paludification Palustrine wetland Plateau bog Pocosin Polygonal bog Pond Peat swamp forest Poor fen Pothole Ramsar Convention Raised bog Reed bed Rich fen Riparian zone River delta Salt marsh Salt pannes and pools Shrub swamp Slough String bog Swamp Telmatology Tidal
marsh Upland bog Wet meadow Wetlands International Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust Will-o'-the-wisp Várzea forest Vernal pool Whitewater river Yaéré

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Sources of tannins

Sources of condensed tannins

Areca catechu
Areca catechu


Broad bean

Vicia faba


Vitis vinifera

Mimosa bark

Acacia mollissima

Myrtan or black marlock

Eucalyptus redunca

Quebracho wood

Sources of hydrolysable tannins

wood Dhawa

Anogeissus latifolia

Myrobalan fruit

Terminalia chebula

bark Oak
wood Valonia oak

Quercus macrolepis


Tanner's sumach leaves - Rhus coriaria
Rhus coriaria
or Chinese gall on Rhus chinensis

Tara pod

Tara spinosa

Other sources by organ


General : Tanbark Acacias (most notably Acacia pycnantha
Acacia pycnantha
and Acacia decurrens) Alder

Alnus sp


Senna auriculata


Acacia nilotica


Betula sp

Button mangrove





Larix sp

Mangrove Pine

Pinus sp


Picea sp


Myracrodruon urundeuva


Salix caprea



Bergenia crassifolia


Uncaria gambir


Coriaria myrtifolia



Rumex hymenosepalus


Quercus coccifera

Sea lavender




Senegalia catechu


Divi-divi pod

Libidibia coriaria

Sant pod

Acacia nilotica

Teri pod

Moullava digyna



Quercus lusitanica Quercus infectoria

Whole plant

sp. bark and wood

humilis Prosopis



Tizra heartwood and root

Rhus pentaphylla

Undetermined organ

Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina

Authority control

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