A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or
brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation
consisting of such species. Mangroves occur worldwide in the tropics
and subtropics, mainly between latitudes 25° N and 25° S.
The total mangrove forest area of the world in 2000 was 137,800 square
kilometres (53,200 sq mi), spanning 118 countries and
Mangroves are salt-tolerant trees, also called halophytes, and are
adapted to life in harsh coastal conditions. They contain a complex
salt filtration system and complex root system to cope with salt water
immersion and wave action. They are adapted to the low oxygen (anoxic)
conditions of waterlogged mud.
The word is used in at least three senses: (1) most broadly to refer
to the habitat and entire plant assemblage or
mangal,[page needed] for which the terms mangrove forest
biome, and mangrove swamp are also used, (2) to refer to all trees and
large shrubs in the mangrove swamp, and (3) narrowly to refer to the
mangrove family of plants, the Rhizophoraceae, or even more
specifically just to mangrove trees of the genus Rhizophora.[citation
The mangrove biome, or mangal, is a distinct saline woodland or
shrubland habitat characterized by depositional coastal environments,
where fine sediments (often with high organic content) collect in
areas protected from high-energy wave action. The saline conditions
tolerated by various mangrove species range from brackish water,
through pure seawater (3 to 4%), to water concentrated by evaporation
to over twice the salinity of ocean seawater (up to 9%).
3.1 Adaptations to low oxygen
3.2 Limiting salt intake
3.3 Limiting water loss
3.4 Nutrient uptake
3.5 Increasing survival of offspring
4 Taxonomy and evolution
4.1 Major components
4.2 Minor components
5 Geographical regions
5.1 Top 20 mangrove habitat nations
5.3.1 Continental United States
5.3.3 Central America and Caribbean
5.3.4 South America
5.4.1 Sundarban Mangroves (
India & Bangladesh)
220.127.116.11 Godavari-Krishna mangroves
Baratang Island mangroves
5.4.3 Indo-Malaya Ecozone
5.4.5 Middle East
Australia and New Guinea
5.5.2 New Zealand
5.5.3 Pacific islands
6 Mangroves around the world
7 Exploitation and conservation
9 National studies
10 See also
12 Further reading
13 External links
The term "mangrove" comes to English from Spanish (perhaps by way of
Portuguese), and is likely to originate from Guarani. It was earlier
"mangrow" (from Portuguese mangue or Spanish mangle), but this word
was corrupted via folk etymology influence of the word "grove".
The world's mangrove forests in 2000
Mangrove swamps are found in tropical and subtropical tidal areas.
Areas where mangal occurs include estuaries and marine shorelines.
The intertidal existence to which these trees are adapted represents
the major limitation to the number of species able to thrive in their
habitat. High tide brings in salt water, and when the tide recedes,
solar evaporation of the seawater in the soil leads to further
increases in salinity. The return of tide can flush out these soils,
bringing them back to salinity levels comparable to that of seawater.
At low tide, organisms are also exposed to increases in temperature
and desiccation, and are then cooled and flooded by the tide. Thus,
for a plant to survive in this environment, it must tolerate broad
ranges of salinity, temperature, and moisture, as well as a number of
other key environmental factors—thus only a select few species make
up the mangrove tree community.
About 110 species are considered "mangroves", in the sense of being a
tree that grows in such a saline swamp, though only a few are from
the mangrove plant genus, Rhizophora. However, a given mangrove swamp
typically features only a small number of tree species. It is not
uncommon for a mangrove forest in the Caribbean to feature only three
or four tree species. For comparison, the tropical rainforest biome
contains thousands of tree species, but this is not to say mangrove
forests lack diversity. Though the trees themselves are few in
species, the ecosystem that these trees create provides a home
(habitat) for a great variety of other species.
Mangrove plants require a number of physiological adaptations to
overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent tidal
inundation. Each species has its own solutions to these problems; this
may be the primary reason why, on some shorelines, mangrove tree
species show distinct zonation. Small environmental variations within
a mangal may lead to greatly differing methods for coping with the
environment. Therefore, the mix of species is partly determined by the
tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as tidal
inundation and salinity, but may also be influenced by other factors,
such as predation of plant seedlings by crabs.
Once established, mangrove roots provide an oyster habitat and slow
water flow, thereby enhancing sediment deposition in areas where it is
already occurring. The fine, anoxic sediments under mangroves act as
sinks for a variety of heavy (trace) metals which colloidal particles
in the sediments have scavenged from the water.
disturbs these underlying sediments, often creating problems of trace
metal contamination of seawater and biota.
Mangrove swamps protect coastal areas from erosion, storm surge
(especially during hurricanes), and tsunamis. The mangroves'
massive root systems are efficient at dissipating wave energy.
Likewise, they slow down tidal water enough so its sediment is
deposited as the tide comes in, leaving all except fine particles when
the tide ebbs. In this way, mangroves build their own
environments. Because of the uniqueness of mangrove ecosystems and
the protection against erosion they provide, they are often the object
of conservation programs, including national biodiversity action
Mangrove swamps' effectiveness in terms of erosion control can
sometimes be overstated. Wave energy is typically low in areas where
mangroves grow, so their effect on erosion is measured over long
periods. Their capacity to limit high-energy wave erosion is in
relation to events such as storm surges and tsunamis.
The unique ecosystem found in the intricate mesh of mangrove roots
offers a quiet marine region for young organisms. In areas where
roots are permanently submerged, the organisms they host include
algae, barnacles, oysters, sponges, and bryozoans, which all require a
hard surface for anchoring while they filter feed. Shrimps and mud
lobsters use the muddy bottoms as their home.
Mangrove crabs munch
on the mangrove leaves, adding nutrients to the mangal muds for other
bottom feeders. In at least some cases, export of carbon fixed in
mangroves is important in coastal food webs.
Mangrove plantations in Vietnam, Thailand,
several commercially important species of fishes and crustaceans.
Despite restoration efforts, developers and others have removed over
half of the world's mangroves in recent times.
Mangrove forests can decay into peat deposits because of fungal and
bacterial processes as well as by the action of termites. It becomes
peat in good geochemical, sedimentary and tectonic conditions. The
nature of these deposits depends on the environment and the types of
mangrove involved. In
Puerto Rico the red (
Rhizophora mangle), white
Laguncularia racemosa) and black (
Avicennia germinans) mangroves
occupy different ecological niches and have slightly different
chemical compositions so the carbon content varies between the species
as well between the different tissues of the plant e.g. leaf matter vs
Puerto Rico there is a clear succession of these three trees from
the lower elevations which are dominated by red mangroves to farther
inland with a higher concentration of white mangroves. Mangrove
forests are an important part of the cycling and storage of carbon in
tropical coastal ecosystems. Using this it is possible to attempt
to reconstruct the environment and investigate changes to the coastal
ecosystem for thousands of years by using sediment cores. However,
an additional complication is the imported marine organic matter that
also gets deposited in the sediment due to tidal flushing of mangrove
In order to understand peat formation by mangroves, it is important to
understand the conditions they grew in, and how they decayed. Termites
are an important part of this decay, and so an understanding of their
action on the organic matter is crucial to the chemical stabilization
of mangrove peats.
Of the recognized 110 mangrove species, only about 54 species in 20
genera from 16 families constitute the "true mangroves", species that
occur almost exclusively in mangrove habitats. Demonstrating
convergent evolution, many of these species found similar solutions to
the tropical conditions of variable salinity, tidal range
(inundation), anaerobic soils and intense sunlight. Plant biodiversity
is generally low in a given mangal. The greatest biodiversity
occurs in the mangal of New Guinea,
Indonesia and Malaysia.
Adaptations to low oxygen
A red mangrove,
Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal.
Red mangroves, which can survive in the most inundated areas, prop
themselves above the water level with stilt roots and can then absorb
air through pores in their bark (lenticels). Black mangroves live on
higher ground and make many pneumatophores (specialised root-like
structures which stick up out of the soil like straws for breathing)
which are also covered in lenticels.
These "breathing tubes" typically reach heights of up to 30 cm,
and in some species, over 3 m. The four types of pneumatophores are
stilt or prop type, snorkel or peg type, knee type, and ribbon or
plank type. Knee and ribbon types may be combined with buttress roots
at the base of the tree. The roots also contain wide aerenchyma to
facilitate transport within the plants.
Limiting salt intake
Salt crystals formed on grey mangrove leaf.
Red mangroves exclude salt by having significantly impermeable roots
which are highly suberised (impregnated with suberin), acting as an
ultra-filtration mechanism to exclude sodium salts from the rest of
the plant. Analysis of water inside mangroves has shown 90% to 97% of
salt has been excluded at the roots. In a frequently cited concept
that has become known as the "sacrificial leaf", salt which does
accumulate in the shoot (sprout) then concentrates in old leaves,
which the plant then sheds. However, recent research suggests the
older, yellowing leaves have no more measurable salt content than the
other, greener leaves. Red mangroves can also store salt in cell
vacuoles. As seen in the photograph on the right, white or grey
mangroves can secrete salts directly; they have two salt glands at
each leaf base (correlating with their name—they are covered in
white salt crystals).
Limiting water loss
Because of the limited fresh water available in salty intertidal
soils, mangroves limit the amount of water they lose through their
leaves. They can restrict the opening of their stomata (pores on the
leaf surfaces, which exchange carbon dioxide gas and water vapour
during photosynthesis). They also vary the orientation of their leaves
to avoid the harsh midday sun and so reduce evaporation from the
leaves. Anthony Calfo, a noted aquarium author, observed anecdotally a
red mangrove in captivity only grows if its leaves are misted with
fresh water several times a week, simulating frequent tropical
Because the soil is perpetually waterlogged, little free oxygen is
available. Anaerobic bacteria liberate nitrogen gas, soluble ferrum
(iron), inorganic phosphates, sulfides and methane, which make the
soil much less nutritious. Pneumatophores (aerial
roots) allow mangroves to absorb gases directly from the atmosphere,
and other nutrients such as iron, from the inhospitable soil.
Mangroves store gases directly inside the roots, processing them even
when the roots are submerged during high tide.
Increasing survival of offspring
Red mangrove seeds germinate while still on the parent tree.
In this harsh environment, mangroves have evolved a special mechanism
to help their offspring survive.
Mangrove seeds are buoyant and are
therefore suited to water dispersal. Unlike most plants, whose seeds
germinate in soil, many mangroves (e.g. red mangrove) are viviparous,
whose seeds germinate while still attached to the parent tree. Once
germinated, the seedling grows either within the fruit (e.g.
Avicennia and Aegiceras), or out through the fruit (e.g.
Bruguiera and Nypa) to form a propagule (a
ready-to-go seedling) which can produce its own food via
The mature propagule then drops into the water, which can transport it
great distances. Propagules can survive desiccation and remain dormant
for over a year before arriving in a suitable environment. Once a
propagule is ready to root, its density changes so the elongated shape
now floats vertically rather than horizontally. In this position, it
is more likely to lodge in the mud and root. If it does not root, it
can alter its density and drift again in search of more favorable
Taxonomy and evolution
The following listing (modified from Tomlinson, 1986) gives the number
of species of mangroves in each listed plant genus and family.
Mangrove environments in the Eastern Hemisphere harbor six times as
many species of trees and shrubs as do mangroves in the New World.
Genetic divergence of mangrove lineages from terrestrial relatives, in
combination with fossil evidence, suggests mangrove diversity is
limited by evolutionary transition into the stressful marine
environment, and the number of mangrove lineages has increased
steadily over the Tertiary with little global extinction.
Genus, number of species
Acanthaceae, Avicenniaceae or Verbenaceae
(family allocation disputed)
Conocarpus, 1; Laguncularia, 1; Lumnitzera, 3
Buttonwood, white mangrove
Bruguiera, 7; Ceriops, 5; Kandelia, 2; Rhizophora, 8
Genus, number of species
Acanthus, 2; Bravaisia, 2
Mangrove tree distribution
Further information: List of mangrove ecoregions
Mangroves can be found in over 118 countries and territories in the
tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The largest percentage
of mangroves is found between the 5° N and 5° S latitudes.
Approximately 75% of world’s mangroves are found in just 15
countries. Asia has the largest amount (42%) of the world’s
mangroves, followed by Africa (21%), North/Central America (15%),
Oceania (12%) and
South America (11%).
Top 20 mangrove habitat nations
Ao Phang Nga National Park
Ao Phang Nga National Park - the largest area of native
mangrove forest in Thailand.
Top 20 mangrove habitat nations in 2014
Tree cover (km2)
in mangrove forests
Tree cover (km2)
in mangrove biome
Papua New Guinea
There are important mangrove swamps in Kenya, Tanzania, République
Démocratique du Congo (RDC) and Madagascar, with the latter even
admixing at the coastal verge with dry deciduous forests.
Nigeria has Africa's largest mangrove concentration, spanning
36,000 km2. Oil spills and leaks have destroyed many in the last
50 years, damaging the local fishing economy and water quality.
Along the coast of the Red Sea, both on the Egyptian side and in the
Gulf of Aqaba, mangroves composed primarily of
Avicennia marina and
Rhizophora mucronata grow in about 28 stands that cover about 525
hectares. Almost all Egyptian mangrove stands are now
There are mangroves off the east coast of
South Africa extending as
far south as the Tylomnqa River (33°13'26.1"S 27°34'50.2"E). Some
mangrove stands exist in the St Lucia estuary within iSimangaliso
Wetland Park.
Mangroves live in many parts of the tropical and subtropical coastal
zones of North and South America.
Continental United States
Because of their sensitivity to subfreezing temperatures, mangroves in
United States are very limited to the Florida
Florida mangroves) and some isolated growths of
black mangrove (
Avicennia germinans) at the southmost coast of
Louisiana and South Texas.
In Mexico four species of mangrove predominate:
Avicennia germinans and
During an inventory conducted by
CONABIO between 2006 and 2008,
770,057 hectares of mangrove were counted. Of this total, 55% are
located in the Yucatán Peninsula.
Significant mangals include the Marismas Nacionales-San Blas mangroves
Sinaloa and Nayarit.
Central America and Caribbean
The same area in
Honduras shown in 1987 (bottom) and 1999 showing the
corresponding removal of mangrove swamps for shrimp farming.
Mangroves occur on the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Belize, Costa
Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama.
Mangroves can also be found in many of the
Antilles including Puerto
Rico, Cuba, and Hispaniola, as well as other islands in the
West Indies such as the Bahamas.
The nation of
Belize has the highest overall percentage of forest
cover of any of the Central American countries. In terms of
Belize's mangrove cover—which assumes the form not only of mangrove
'forest', but also of scrubs and savannas, among others—a 2010
satellite-based study of Belize's mangroves by the World Wildlife Fund
(WWF) and the Water Center for the Humid
Tropics of Latin America and
the Caribbean found, in 2010, mangroves covered some 184,548 acres
(74,684 hectares) or 3.4% of Belize's territory.
In 1980, by contrast, mangrove cover stood at 188,417 acres (76,250
hectares)—also 3.4% of Belize's territory, although based on the
work of mangrove researcher Simon Zisman, Belize's mangrove cover
in 1980 was estimated to represent 98.7% of the precolonial extent of
those ecosystems. Belize's mangrove cover in 2010 was thus estimated
to represent 96.7% of the precolonial cover. Assessing changes in
Belize's mangrove cover over a 30-year period was possible because of
Belize's participation in the Regional Visualization and Monitoring
System, a regional observatory jointly implemented by CATHALAC, RCMRD,
ICIMOD, NASA, USAID, and other partners.
Brazil contains approximately 26,000 km2 of mangals, 15% of the
Ecuador has substantial remaining mangrove forests in the provinces of
El Oro, Guayas, Manabi and Esmeraldas with limited forest remaining in
Santa Elena. The northern portion of Esmeraldas province has a
large pristine mangrove forest that is preserved as the Reserva
Ecológica Cayapas-Mataje (REMACAN) and is an original Ramsar
site. This forest is the most preserved within Ecuador and likely
the most pristine forest along the Pacific Coast of the Americas.
Recife in Brazil, nicknamed the "Manguetown", has the largest urban
mangrove forest in the world.
The only other major mangrove holding in Esmeraldas is in-and-around
the community of Muisne and the Rio Muisne
Estuary Swampland Wildlife
Refuges. The mangroves in-and-around the estuaries of Muisne have
decreased in area from 3222 ha in 1971 to 1065 ha as of 2005, during
this time commercial shrimp aquaculture has become the dominant
land-cover within this estuary environment.
On the border of Esmeraldas province and Manabí province is a
formerly large area of mangrove within Cojimies Estuary. The mangroves
in this estuary are some of the most degraded in Ecuador with only 19%
of 1971 mangrove area remaining as of 1998, although mangrove has
recovered since this date. Within Manabí the major mangrove
holding estuary is the Chone estuary situated near the city of Bahía
de Caráquez. Again, Chone has undergone substantial mangrove
deforestation since the advent of commercial aquaculture in
Ecuador. Although mangrove loss appears to have halted in this
estuary and mangrove regrowth driven by local fisherman is now
Peru has a very small region of mangrove located in the north-west of
the country on the Ecuadorian Border.
Venezuela's northern Caribbean island, Margarita, possesses mangrove
forests in the Parque nacional Laguna de La Restinga.
Venezuela has 4%
of the world's mangroves, with an extension of 6735 km2.
Colombia possesses large mangrove forests on both its Caribbean and
Mangrove forests of
Suriname have a height of 20–25 m and are
found mainly in the coastal area. There are six types of mangroves,
namely two types of parwa or black mangroves, three types of red
mangroves (mangro) and a small mangrove species (white mangrove, akira
Sundarban Mangroves (
India & Bangladesh)
Main article: Sundarbans
The Great Sundarbans, the largest mangroves region in the world and a
UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the largest single block of tidal
halophytic mangrove forest in the world, covering parts of
Khulna Division and the Indian state of West Bengal.
In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, Sundari trees are found, which provide
durable hard timber. Palm, Coconut, keora, agar, also grow in some
parts of the delta. India's mangrove forests are known to serve as a
habitat for turtles, crocodiles, gharials, and snakes. This region is
part of the Great
Sundarbans and covers a National Park, Tiger reserve
and a Biosphere Reserve.
Sundarbans National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a
Biosphere Reserve. It is one of the largest reserves for the Bengal
A third of this area is covered by water and marshes. Since 1966 it
has been considered a sanctuary for wildlife with an estimated 400
Royal Bengal tigers and more than 30,000 deer.
The forest lies at the foot of the
Ganges The seasonally-flooded
Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests lie inland from the mangrove
forests. The forest covers 10,000 square kilometres
(3,900 sq mi) of which about 6,000 square kilometres
(2,300 sq mi) are in Bangladesh. It was inscribed as a
UNESCO world heritage site in 1997, but while the Bangladeshi and
Indian portions constitute the same continuous ecotope, they are
separately listed in the
UNESCO world heritage list as the Sundarbans
Sundarbans National Park, respectively. The
intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and
small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The area is known for
the eponymous Royal Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), as well as
numerous fauna including species of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles
Sundarbans was designated a Ramsar site on May 21, 1992.
The fertile soils of the delta have been subject to intensive human
use for centuries, and the ecoregion has been mostly converted to
intensive agriculture, with few enclaves of forest remaining. The
remaining forests, together with the
Sundarbans mangroves, are
important habitat for the endangered tiger. Additionally, the
Sundarbans serves a crucial function as a protective flood barrier for
the millions of inhabitants in and around Kolkata (Calcutta) against
the result of cyclone activity.
Sundarbans is home to many different
species of birds, mammals, insects, reptiles and fish. It is estimated
that there may be found more than 120 species of fish and over 260
species of birds and more than fifty species of reptiles and eight
amphibians. Many tourists go there to see the Bengal tigers, saltwater
crocodiles, leopards and snakes cobra. Geographical data of Sundarban
Latitude: 25.7667 Longitude: 88.7167 Average Height: 34 Time Zone:
Asia / Dhaka Title: Lugar Poblado
As per the ISFR 2017 report, the total area of mangrove cover of India
is 4921 km2, (181 km2 positively changed with respect to 2015 mangrove
cover assessment) which contributes 3.3% to the global mangrove
cover. The deltas of the Ganges, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and
Kaveri rivers contain mangrove forests. Indian mangroves consist of 46
species (4 of which are natural hybrids) belonging to 22 genera and 14
families, representing about 57% of the world’s mangrove
The following table shows the prevalence of mangroves in the states of
India and the total area covered by them in square kilometres.
States/UTs with highest mangrove cover in 2017
Total mangrove cover in km2 in 2015
Andaman And Nicobar Islands
Bhitarkanika mangroves form India’s second largest forest,
located in the state of Odisha.
Bhitarkanika is created by the two
river deltas of Brahmani and Baitarani river and one of the important
Wetland in India. It is also the home of saltwater crocodiles
and nesting olive ridley sea turtles.
The Godavari-Krishna mangroves lie in the delta of the
Krishna rivers in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Mangroves ecoregion is
under protection for
Calimere Wildlife and Pulicat Lake Bird
Pichavaram mangroves are situated at
Pichavaram near Chidambaram
in the state of Tamil Nadu.
Pichavaram ranks amongs one of the most
exquisite scenic spots in
Tamil Nadu and has many species of aquatic
Mumbai has mangroves on its coastline along the west
coast of India. A total of 10 mangrove species were reported in this
area, domiated by
Avicennia marina. These mangroves support a rich
diversity of life forms, especially molluscs. The total mangrove
Mumbai is 50 km2. Mumbai's single largest mangrove belt is
the western bank of Thane Creek. An extensive area of mangroves has
been conserved by Soonabai Pirojsha Godrej Marine Ecology Centre,
Baratang Island mangroves
Baratang Island mangroves are located within the Andaman and
Nicobar Islands. The mangrove swamps of
Baratang Island are situated
between Middle and South Andaman Island.
Mangroves occur on Asia's south coast, throughout the Indian
subcontinent, in all Southeast Asian countries, and on islands in the
Indian Ocean, Persian gulf, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, South China
East China Sea
East China Sea and the Pacific.
The mangal is particularly prevalent in the deltas of large Asian
Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world,
located in the
River delta in
Bangladesh and West Bengal,
Pichavaram mangroves in
Tamil Nadu is India's one of the largest
mangrove forests. The
Bhitarkanika Mangroves Forest of Odisha, by the
Bay of Bengal, is India's second largest mangrove forest.[citation
needed] Other major mangals occur on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Gulf of Kutch
Gulf of Kutch in Gujarat.
Mangroves occur in certain muddy swampy islands of the Maldives.
Malayan Peninsula mangroves cover an estimated 1,089.7 square
kilometres (420.7 sq mi), while most of the remaining 5,320
square kilometres (2,054 sq mi) mangroves in
Malaysia are on
the island of Borneo.
In Vietnam, mangrove forests grow along the southern coast, including
two forests: the
Can Gio Mangrove Forest
Can Gio Mangrove Forest biosphere reserve and the U
Minh mangrove forest in the sea and coastal region of Kiên Giang, Cà
Mau and Bạc Liêu provinces.
The mangrove forests of Kompong Sammaki in
Cambodia are of major
ecological and cultural importance, as the human population relies
heavily on the crabs and fish that live in the roots.
The three most important mangrove forests of
Taiwan are: Tamsui River
in Taipei, Jhonggang River in Miaoli and the
Sihcao Wetlands in
Tainan. According to research, four types of mangrove exist in
Taiwan. Some places have been developed as scenic
areas, such as the log raft routes in Sihcao.
The most extensive mangrove forests of the
Ryukyu Islands in East
China Sea occur on
Iriomote Island of the Yaeyama Islands, Okinawa,
Japan. Seven types of mangroves are recognised on Iriomote
The northern limit of mangrove forests in the Indo-Malaya ecozone is
considered to be Tanegashima Island, Kyushu, Japan.
In the Indonesian Archipelago, mangroves occur around much of Papua
province, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku and the surrounding
islands. Further north, they are found along the coast of the Malay
Indonesia has around 9.36 million hectares of mangrove
forests, but 48% is categorized as 'moderately damaged' and 23% as
The Guinness World Record certificate of achievement to
Department, Govt of Sindh, Pakistan
Pakistani mangroves are located mainly along the delta of the Indus
Indus River Delta-
Arabian Sea mangroves ecoregion). Major
mangrove forests are found on the coastline of the provinces of Sindh
In Karachi, land reclamation projects have led to the cutting down of
mangrove forests for commercial and urban development. On 22 June
Sindh Forest Department, Govt. of Sindh, Pakistan, with the help
of 300 local coastal volunteer planters set the Guinness World Record
by planting 847,250 mangrove saplings at Kharo Chan, Thatta, Sindh,
Pakistan in a little over 12 hours. This is the highest number of
saplings planted within a day under the Guinness World Record category
of "Maximum Number of Trees Planted in a Day".
Sindh Forest Department, Government of
Mangrove has played
pioneer role for the conservation and protection of the mangroves in
the Indus Delta since late 1950s when it was handed over the areas. A
breakthrough success is the re-introduction of
into the Indus Delta, which had become extinct there. More recently, a
threatened mangrove shrub,
Ceriops tagal, has also been successfully
re-introduced. A third species,
Aegiceras corniculatum, is under
trials at the nursery stage.
A gigantic initiative is under in the Sindh, Pakistan, to rehabilitate
the degraded and blank mangrove mudflats. Since 2010 alone, around
55,000 Hectares of such area has been planted and rehabilitated.
During this period, through concerted efforts and a rigorous
conservation policy adopted by the
Sindh Forest Department, Govt. of
Sindh and the federal govt. a mangrove resource base of 150,000 plus
Hectares has been created, with the support of local coastal
communities. International organizations like IUCN and WWF are also
playing critical role to support this initiative of the government.
Other achievements include: (1) Declaring all the mangrove forests in
the Indus Delta as Protected Forests in December 2010; Constitution of
Mangrove Conservation Committee at the provincial level which
includes all stakeholders as members and overall awareness of the
importance of mangroves and its ecosystem.
Shah Bundar, Sujawal, Pakistan, new mangrove plantation
A young mangrove plantation in the Indus Delta
Flourishing mangroves along
Karachi coast, Pakistan
Glowing mangrove plantation at Keti Bundar, Thatta, Pakistan
Oman, near Muscat, supports large areas of mangroves, in particular at
Shinas, Qurm Park and Mahout Island. In Arabic, mangrove trees are
known as qurm, thus the mangrove area in Oman is known as Qurm Park. A
small mangrove area is present in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Mangroves
are also present extensively in neighbouring Yemen.
Iranian mangrove forests occur between 25°11′N to 27°52′N. These
forests exist in the north part of the
Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman,
along three maritime provinces in the south of Iran. These provinces,
respectively, from southwest to southeast of Iran, include Bushehr,
Hormozgan, and Sistan and Balouchestan.
Mangrove is also widely seen in Tarut Island, east of Qatif in Saudi
Arabia. In addition, large forest of mangrove surround the coast to
the south of Qatif (Siahat Beach). Nonetheless, because of sea land
re-claiming the mangrove is being cut down which makes lots of sea
fish losses their natural habitats.
The mangrove forests that cover thousands of hectares of land along
the UAE shoreline form an integral part of its coastal ecosystem. The
Environment Agency – Abu Dhabi (EAD) is currently working on
rehabilitation, conservation and protection of mangrove forests in
seven key sites in Abu Dhabi including: Saadiyat Island, Jubail
Island, Marawah Marine Biosphere Reserve (which also comprises famous
Bu Tinah Island), Bu Syayeef Protected Area, Ras Gharab, the Eastern
Corniche and Ras Ghanada.
Australia and New Guinea
Main article: Australian mangroves
More than 5 species of
Rhizophoraceae grow in Australasia with
particularly high biodiversity on the island of
New Guinea and
Australia has about 11,500 km2 of mangroves, primarily on the
northern and eastern coasts of the continent, with occurrences as far
south as Millers Landing in Wilsons Promontory, Victoria
Barker Inlet in Adelaide, South Australia and
Koombana Park in Bunbury, Western Australia.
New Zealand also has mangrove forests extending to around 38°S
(similar to Australia's southernmost mangrove incidence): the furthest
geographical extent on the west coast is Raglan Harbour (37°48′S);
on the east coast, Ohiwa Harbour (near Opotiki) is the furthest south
mangroves are found (38°00′S).
Twenty-five species of mangrove are found on various Pacific islands,
with extensive mangals on some islands. Mangals on Guam, Palau, Kosrae
Yap have been badly affected by development.
Mangroves are not native to Hawaii, but the red mangrove, Rhizophora
mangle, and Oriental mangrove,
Bruguiera sexangula, have been
introduced and are now naturalized. Both species are considered
invasive species and classified as pests by the University of Hawaii
Mangroves around the world
Mangrove Park in Kannur, India
Sihcao, Tainan, Taiwan
Iriomote Island, Japan
Exploitation and conservation
Mangroves in West Bali National Park, Indonesia.
Adequate data are only available for about half of the global area of
mangroves. However, of those areas for which data has been collected,
it appears that 35% of the mangroves have been destroyed. The
United Nations Environment Program
United Nations Environment Program & Hamilton (2013), estimate
that shrimp farming causes approximately a quarter of the destruction
of mangrove forests. Likewise, the 2010 update of the World
Mangrove Atlas indicated that approximately one fifth of the world's
mangrove ecosystems have been lost since 1980, although this rapid
loss rate appears to have decreased since 2000 with global losses
estimated at between 0.16% and 0.39% annually between 2000 and
2012. Despite global loss rates decreasing since 2000, Southeast
Asia remains an area of concern with loss rates between 3.58% and
8.08% between 2000 and 2012.
Grassroots efforts to save mangroves from development are becoming
more popular as their benefits become more widely known. In the
Bahamas, for example, active efforts to save mangroves are occurring
on the islands of
Bimini and Great Guana Cay. In Trinidad and Tobago
as well, efforts are underway to protect a mangrove threatened by the
construction of a steelmill and a port. In Thailand,
community management has been effective in restoring damaged
mangroves. Within northern Ecuador mangrove regrowth is reported
in almost all estuaries and stems primarily from local actors
responding to earlier periods of deforestation in the Esmeraldas
Mangroves have been reported to be able to help buffer against
tsunami, cyclones, and other storms. One village in
Tamil Nadu was
protected from tsunami destruction—the villagers in Naluvedapathy
planted 80,244 saplings to get into the Guinness Book of World
Records. This created a kilometre-wide belt of trees of various
varieties. When the tsunami struck, much of the land around the
village was flooded, but the village itself suffered minimal
Mangroves in Bohol, Philippines.
In some areas, mangrove reforestation and mangrove restoration is also
underway. Red mangroves are the most common choice for cultivation,
used particularly in marine aquariums in a sump to reduce nitrates and
other nutrients in the water. Mangroves also appear in home aquariums,
and as ornamental plants, such as in Japan.
Haïdar El Ali
Haïdar El Ali has started the fr project, which (amongst
others) focuses on reforesting several areas with mangroves.
Mangrove Initiative is an ongoing experiment in Arkiko,
Eritrea, part of the Manzanar Project founded by Gordon H. Sato,
establishing new mangrove plantations on the coastal mudflats. Initial
plantings failed, but observation of the areas where mangroves did
survive by themselves led to the conclusion that nutrients in water
flow from inland were important to the health of the mangroves. Trials
with the Eritrean Ministry of Fisheries followed, and a planting
system was designed to provide the nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron
missing from seawater.
The propagules are planted inside a reused galvanized steel can with
the bottom knocked out; a small piece of iron and a pierced plastic
bag with fertilizer containing nitrogen and phosphorus are buried with
the propagule. As of 2007[update], after six years of planting,
700,000 mangroves are growing; providing stock feed for sheep and
habitat for oysters, crabs, other bivalves, and fish.
In terms of local and national studies of mangrove loss, the case of
Belize's mangroves is illustrative in its contrast to the global
picture. A recent, satellite-based study—funded by the World
Wildlife Fund and conducted by the Water Center for the Humid Tropics
of Latin America and the Caribbean (CATHALAC)—indicates Belize's
mangrove cover declined by a mere 2% over a 30-year period. The study
was born out of the need to verify the popular conception that
mangrove clearing in
Belize was rampant.
Instead, the assessment showed, between 1980 and 2010, under 4,000
acres (16 km2) of mangroves had been cleared, although clearing
of mangroves near Belize's main coastal settlements (e.g.
and San Pedro) was relatively high. The rate of loss of Belize's
mangroves—at 0.07% per year between 1980 and 2010—was much lower
than Belize's overall rate of forest clearing (0.6% per year in the
same period). These findings can also be interpreted to indicate
Belize's mangrove regulations (under the nation's) have largely
been effective. Nevertheless, the need to protect Belize's mangroves
is imperative, as a 2009 study by the World Resources Institute (WRI)
indicates the ecosystems contribute US$174–249 million per year to
Belize's national economy.
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Mangrove Ecosystems – An Object-Based
Approach". Remote Sensing. 5 (1): 183–201.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mangrove.
Mangrove Factsheet". Waitt Institute. Retrieved 2015-06-08.
Mangroves- At the Smithsonian Ocean Portal
Australia – Mangroves Fact Sheet
Rhizophoraceae at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
Mangrove forests at Curlie (based on DMOZ)
In May 2011, the VOA
Special English service of the Voice of America
broadcast a 15-minute program on mangrove forests. A transcript and
MP3 of the program, intended for English learners, can be found at
Mangrove Forests Could Be a Big Player in Carbon Trading
Water Center for the Humid
Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean
Aquatic ecosystem topics
Aquatic ecosystems – general and freshwater components
Aquatic animals (Insects
Colored dissolved organic matter
Camouflage and mimicry
GIS and aquatic science
Microbial food web
Trophic state index
Upland and lowland
The North Pacific Subtropical Gyre
The San Francisco Estuary
Aquatic ecosystems – marine components
Deep scattering layer
Diel vertical migration
Oceanic physical-biological process
Deep sea communities
Deep sea creature
Paradox of the plankton
Salt pannes and pools
Ecological values of mangroves
Fisheries and climate change
Marine conservation activism
Marine Protected Area
Montane grasslands and shrublands
Broadleaf and mixed forests
Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Moist broadleaf forests
Dry broadleaf forests
Grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub
Deserts and xeric shrublands
Flooded grasslands and savannas
Temperate Northern Pacific
Tropical Eastern Pacific
List of ecoregions
Global 200 ecoregions
Ecological land classification
A Directory of Important Wetlands in Australia
Clean Water Act
Delta Waterfowl Foundation
Flooded grasslands and savannas
Freshwater swamp forest
Peat swamp forest
Salt pannes and pools
Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust
Sources of tannins
Areca catechu seed
Myrtan or black marlock
Tanner's sumach leaves -
Rhus coriaria or Chinese gall on Rhus
General : Tanbark
Acacias (most notably
Acacia pycnantha and Acacia decurrens)
Prosopis sp. bark and wood
Tizra heartwood and root
Anadenanthera colubrina (vilca)