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Leipzig
Leipzig
(/ˈlaɪpsɪɡ/; German: [ˈlaɪptsɪç]) is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 582,277 inhabitants[3] (1.1 million[4] residents in the larger urban zone)[1] it is Germany's tenth most populous city.[5][6] Leipzig
Leipzig
is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin
Berlin
at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleisse, and Parthe
Parthe
rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig
Leipzig
has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire.[7] The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes. Leipzig
Leipzig
was once one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing.[8] Leipzig
Leipzig
became a major urban centre within the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
(East Germany) after the Second World War, but its cultural and economic importance declined.[8] Leipzig
Leipzig
later played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, through events which took place in and around St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig
Leipzig
has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure.[9] Leipzig
Leipzig
today is an economic centre, the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK
GfK
marketing research institution and has the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, according to HWWI and Berenberg Bank.[10][11] Leipzig
Leipzig
Zoo is one of the most modern zoos in Europe and ranks first in Germany
Germany
and second in Europe according to Anthony Sheridan.[12][13] Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel
Leipzig City Tunnel
in 2013, Leipzig
Leipzig
forms the centrepiece of the S-Bahn
S-Bahn
Mitteldeutschland public transit system.[14] Leipzig
Leipzig
is currently listed as Gamma World City[15] and Germany's "Boomtown".[16] Oper Leipzig
Oper Leipzig
has become one of the most prominent opera houses in Germany, and traces its establishment to the year 1693, making it the third oldest opera venue in Europe after La Fenice
La Fenice
(Venice, Italy) and the Hamburg State Opera
Hamburg State Opera
(Hamburg, Germany). Leipzig
Leipzig
is also home to the University of Music and Theatre " Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
Bartholdy". It was during a stay in this city that Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
wrote his "Ode to Joy". Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra
Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra
established in 1743 is one of the oldest symphony orchestra in the world.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Name 1.2 Origins 1.3 19th century 1.4 20th century 1.5 21st century

2 Geography

2.1 Location 2.2 Subdivision 2.3 Neighbouring communities 2.4 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Culture, sights and cityscape

4.1 Architecture 4.2 Tallest buildings and structures 4.3 Museums and arts 4.4 Main sights 4.5 Churches 4.6 Parks and lakes 4.7 Music 4.8 Annual events 4.9 Sports

4.9.1 Football 4.9.2 Ice hockey 4.9.3 Handball 4.9.4 Other sports

4.10 Food and drink

5 Education

5.1 University 5.2 Visual arts and theatre 5.3 University of Applied Science 5.4 Leipzig
Leipzig
Graduate School 5.5 Others

6 Economy 7 Media 8 Quality of life 9 Transport

9.1 Road 9.2 Rail 9.3 Air 9.4 Water 9.5 Public transport

10 Quotations 11 International relations 12 Notable residents

12.1 17th century 12.2 18th century 12.3 19th century

12.3.1 1801–1850 12.3.2 1851–1900

12.4 20th century

12.4.1 1901–1950 12.4.2 1951–present

13 See also 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Leipzig Name[edit]

Leipzig
Leipzig
in the 17th century

Leipzig
Leipzig
is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means "settlement where the linden trees (British English: lime trees; U.S. English: basswood trees) stand".[17] An older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin
Latin
name Lipsia was also used.[18] The name is cognate with Lipetsk
Lipetsk
(Липецк) in Russia and Liepāja
Liepāja
in Latvia.[19] In 1937 the Nazi
Nazi
government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig
Leipzig
(Imperial Trade Fair City Leipzig).[20] Since 1989 Leipzig
Leipzig
has been informally dubbed "Hero City" (Heldenstadt), in recognition of the role that the Monday demonstrations there played in the fall of the East German regime – the formulation alludes to the honorary title awarded in the former Soviet Union to certain cities that played a key role in the victory of the Allies during the Second World War.[21] The common usage of this nickname for Leipzig
Leipzig
up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt.de.[22] More recently, the city is sometimes nicknamed "Boomtown of eastern Germany", "Hypezig" or "The better Berlin" for being celebrated by the media as a hip urban centre for the vital lifestyle and creative scene with many startups.[23][24][25][26] Origins[edit] See also: Margraviate of Meissen
Margraviate of Meissen
and Electorate of Saxony

A map from Meyers Konversations-Lexikon
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon
depicting the Battle of Leipzig
Leipzig
on 18 October 1813

Battle of Leipzig, 1813

Leipzig
Leipzig
was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg
Thietmar of Merseburg
as urbs Libzi (Chronikon VII, 25) and endowed with city and market privileges in 1165 by Otto the Rich. Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. There are records of commercial fishing operations on the river Pleisse
Pleisse
in Leipzig
Leipzig
dating back to 1305, when the Margrave
Margrave
Dietrich the Younger granted the fishing rights to the church and convent of St Thomas.[27] There were a number of monasteries in and around the city, including a Franciscan monastery after which the Barfußgäßchen (Barefoot Alley) is named and a monastery of Irish monks (Jacobskirche, destroyed in 1544) near the present day Ranstädter Steinweg (the old Via Regia). The foundation of the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
in 1409 initiated the city's development into a centre of German law and the publishing industry, and towards being the location of the Reichsgericht (Imperial Court of Justice) and the German National Library
German National Library
(founded in 1912). During the Thirty Years' War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres (5.0 miles) outside Leipzig
Leipzig
city walls. The first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642. Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side. On 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a specific schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. 19th century[edit]

New City Hall of Leipzig, built in 1905

The Leipzig
Leipzig
region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
between Napoleonic France
Napoleonic France
and an allied coalition of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War and the coalition victory ended Napoleon's presence in Germany
Germany
and would ultimately lead to his first exile on Elba. In 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations
Monument to the Battle of the Nations
celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. A terminus of the first German long distance railway to Dresden
Dresden
(the capital of Saxony) in 1839, Leipzig
Leipzig
became a hub of Central European railway traffic, with Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
the largest terminal station by area in Europe. The railway station has two grand entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways
Royal Saxon State Railways
and the western one for the Prussian state railways. Leipzig
Leipzig
became a centre of the German and Saxon liberal movements. The first German labor party, the General German Workers' Association (Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) was founded in Leipzig
Leipzig
on 23 May 1863 by Ferdinand Lassalle; about 600 workers from across Germany
Germany
travelled to the foundation on the new railway line. Leipzig expanded rapidly to more than 700.000 inhabitants. Huge Gründerzeit areas were built, which mostly survived both war and post-war demolition.

Augustusplatz
Augustusplatz
with Leipzig Opera
Leipzig Opera
House, around 1900

20th century[edit] See also: Bombing of Leipzig
Leipzig
in World War II With the opening of a fifth production hall in 1907, the Leipziger Baumwollspinnerei became the largest cotton mill company on the continent, housing over 240,000 spindles. Daily production surpassed 5 million kilograms of yarn.[28] The city's mayor from 1930 to 1937, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler, was a noted opponent of the Nazi
Nazi
regime in Germany. He resigned in 1937 when, in his absence, his Nazi
Nazi
deputy ordered the destruction of the city's statue of Felix Mendelssohn. On Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
in 1938, the 1855 Moorish Revival
Moorish Revival
Leipzig
Leipzig
synagogue, one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, was deliberately destroyed.

Leipzig
Leipzig
after bombing in the Second World War

Several thousand forced labourers were stationed in Leipzig
Leipzig
during Second World War. The city was also heavily damaged by Allied bombing during the Second World War. Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden, this was largely conventional bombing with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless extensive. The Allied ground advance into Germany
Germany
reached Leipzig
Leipzig
in late April 1945. The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and U.S. 69th Infantry Division fought into the city on 18 April and completed its capture after fierce urban action, in which fighting was often house-to-house and block-to-block, on 19 April 1945.[29] In April 1945 the Deputy Mayor of Leipzig, Ernest Lisso, his wife, daughter and a Volkssturm
Volkssturm
Major Walter Dönicke committed suicide in Leipzig
Leipzig
City Hall. The United States
United States
turned the city over to the Red Army
Red Army
as it pulled back from the line of contact with Soviet forces in July 1945 to the predesignated occupation zone boundaries. Leipzig
Leipzig
became one of the major cities of the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
(East Germany). In the mid-20th century, the city's trade fair assumed renewed importance as a point of contact with the Comecon
Comecon
Eastern Europe economic bloc, of which East Germany
Germany
was a member. At this time, trade fairs were held at a site in the south of the city, near the Monument to the Battle of the Nations. In October 1989, after prayers for peace at St. Nicholas Church, established in 1983 as part of the peace movement, the Monday demonstrations started as the most prominent mass protest against the East German government.[30][31] Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig
Leipzig
has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure. 21st century[edit]

Federal Administrative Court of Germany

Monument to the Battle of the Nations

The 153-metre-high City-Hochhaus Leipzig
City-Hochhaus Leipzig
and the Augusteum of the University of Leipzig

Nowadays, Leipzig
Leipzig
is an economic center in Germany. Since the 2010s, Leipzig
Leipzig
is being celebrated by the media as a hip urban center with a very high quality of living.[32][33][34] It is often called "The new Berlin".[35] Leipzig
Leipzig
is also Germany's fastest growing city.[36] Leipzig
Leipzig
was the German candidate for the 2012 Summer Olympics, but was unsuccessful. After ten years of construction, the Leipzig
Leipzig
City Tunnel opened on 14 December 2013.[37] Leipzig
Leipzig
forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland
S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland
public transit system, which operates in the four German states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia
Thuringia
and Brandenburg. Geography[edit]

White Elster
White Elster
in the Plagwitz district of Leipzig

Leipzig
Leipzig
Riverside Forest

Location[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
lies at the confluence of the rivers White Elster, Pleisse
Pleisse
and Parthe, in the Leipzig
Leipzig
Bay, on the most southerly part of the North German Plain, which is the part of the North European Plain
North European Plain
in Germany. The site is characterized by swampy areas such as the Leipzig Riverside Forest, though there are also some limestone areas to the north of the city. The landscape is mostly flat though there is also some evidence of moraine and drumlins. Although there are some forest parks within the city limits, the area surrounding Leipzig
Leipzig
is relatively unforested. During the 20th century, there were several open-cast mines in the region, many of which are being converted to use as lakes.[38] Also see: Neuseenland Leipzig
Leipzig
is also situated at the intersection of the ancient roads known as the Via Regia
Via Regia
(King's highway), which traversed Germanic lands in an east-west direction, and Via Imperii
Via Imperii
(Imperial Highway), a north-south road. Leipzig
Leipzig
was a walled city in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the current "ring" road around the historic center of the city corresponds to the old city walls. Subdivision[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
has been divided administratively since 1992 into ten districts, which in turn contain a total of 63 subdistricts. Some of these correspond to outlying villages which were annexed by Leipzig.

Stadtteile and regions

Stadtteile of Leipzig[39]

District Pop. Area km² Pop. per km2

Center 49,562 13,88 3,570

Northeast 41,186 26.29 1.566

East 69,666 40.74 1,710

Southeast 51,139 34.65 1,476

South 57,434 16.92 3,394

Southwest 45,886 46.67 983

West 51,276 14.69 3,491

Old West 46,009 26.09 1,764

Northwest 28,036 39.09 717

North 57,559 38.35 1,501

Neighbouring communities[edit]

Delitzsch Jesewitz

Schkeuditz Rackwitz Taucha

Borsdorf Brandis

Markranstädt Markkleeberg Naunhof

Kitzen Zwenkau Grosspoesna

Climate[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
has an oceanic climate (Cfb in the Köppen climate classification). Winters are variably mild to cold, with an average of around 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are generally warm, averaging at 19 °C (66 °F) with daytime temperatures of 24 °C (75 °F). Precipitation
Precipitation
is around twice as small in winter than summer, however, winters aren't dry. The amount of sunshine differs quite between winter and summer, with around 51 hours of sunshine in December (1.7 hours a day) on average and 229 hours of sunshine in July (7.4 hours a day).

Climate data for Leipzig/Halle, Germany
Germany
for 1981–2010, temperature records for 1973–2013 (Source: DWD)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 15.9 (60.6) 18.6 (65.5) 23.0 (73.4) 29.5 (85.1) 31.9 (89.4) 34.8 (94.6) 36.6 (97.9) 37.2 (99) 32.9 (91.2) 28.2 (82.8) 18.7 (65.7) 16.5 (61.7) 37.2 (99)

Average high °C (°F) 3.2 (37.8) 4.3 (39.7) 8.7 (47.7) 13.9 (57) 19.0 (66.2) 21.7 (71.1) 24.5 (76.1) 24.1 (75.4) 19.3 (66.7) 14.0 (57.2) 7.6 (45.7) 3.6 (38.5) 13.67 (56.61)

Daily mean °C (°F) 0.5 (32.9) 1.1 (34) 4.7 (40.5) 8.9 (48) 13.8 (56.8) 16.5 (61.7) 19.0 (66.2) 18.6 (65.5) 14.4 (57.9) 9.8 (49.6) 4.7 (40.5) 1.3 (34.3) 9.45 (49.01)

Average low °C (°F) −2.2 (28) −2.0 (28.4) 1.1 (34) 4.1 (39.4) 8.5 (47.3) 11.5 (52.7) 13.8 (56.8) 13.6 (56.5) 10.1 (50.2) 6.2 (43.2) 2.0 (35.6) −1.2 (29.8) 5.47 (41.85)

Record low °C (°F) −27.6 (−17.7) −21.6 (−6.9) −16.6 (2.1) −6.5 (20.3) −2.6 (27.3) 1.8 (35.2) 5.7 (42.3) 5.5 (41.9) 0.5 (32.9) −6.7 (19.9) −12.9 (8.8) −20.2 (−4.4) −27.6 (−17.7)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 31.9 (1.256) 26.3 (1.035) 38.8 (1.528) 39.6 (1.559) 46.9 (1.846) 54.8 (2.157) 68.9 (2.713) 63.1 (2.484) 49.9 (1.965) 31.0 (1.22) 43.4 (1.709) 39.8 (1.567) 534.10 (21.0276)

Mean monthly sunshine hours 62.8 77.8 124.5 181.7 227.4 224.8 229.0 213.1 160.9 122.9 61.5 51.1 1,737.3

Source: Data derived from Deutscher Wetterdienst, note: sunshine hours are from 1991–2013[40]

Demographics[edit]

Population development since 1200

Typically dense cityscape of Leipzig
Leipzig
old town (2013)

Leipzig
Leipzig
has a population of about 570,000. In 1930 the population reached its historical peak of over 700,000. It decreased steadily from 1950 until 1989 to about 530,000. In the 1990s the population decreased rather rapidly to 437,000 in 1998. This reduction was mostly due to outward migration and suburbanization. After almost doubling the city area by incorporation of surrounding towns in 1999, the number stabilized and started to rise again with an increase of 1,000 in 2000.[41] As of 2015[update], Leipzig
Leipzig
is the fastest-growing city in Germany
Germany
with over 500,000 inhabitants.[42] The growth of the past 10–15 years has mostly been due to inward migration. In recent years inward migration accelerated, reaching an increase of 12,917 in 2014.[43] In the years following German reunification many people of working age took the opportunity to move to the states of the former West Germany to seek work. This was a contributory factor to falling birth rates. Births dropped from 7,000 in 1988 to less than 3,000 in 1994.[44] However, the number of children born in Leipzig
Leipzig
has risen since the late 1990s. In 2011 it reached 5,490 newborns resulting in a RNI of -17.7 (-393.7 in 1995).[45] The unemployment rate decreased from 18.2% in 2003 to 9.8% in 2014 and 7.6% in June 2017.[46][47][48] The percentage of the population with an immigrant background is quite low compared with other German cities. As of 2012[update], only 5.6% of the population were foreigners, compared to the German overall average of 7.7%.[49] The number of people with an immigrant background (immigrants and their children) grew from 49323 in 2012 to 77559 in 2016 making it 13.3% of the city's population( Leipzig
Leipzig
population 579530 in 2016).[50] The top twelve minorities (first- and second-generation) in Leipzig
Leipzig
by country of origin in 2016 are:[51]

Rank Ancestry Total Foreigners Germans

1  Russia 8,136 3,016 5,122

2  Syria 7,254 6,778 476

3  Poland 4,308 2,624 1,684

4  Vietnam 3,345 2,414 931

5  Ukraine 3,331 2,194 1,137

6  Romania 3,143 2,726 417

7  Iraq 2,392 1,771 621

8  Kazakhstan 2,177 228 1,949

9  Turkey 2,174 1,388 786

10  Italy 1,817 1,469 348

11  Afghanistan 1,814 1,610 205

12  Hungary 1,564 1,169 395

Culture, sights and cityscape[edit] Architecture[edit]

Palais Roßbach, one of the many Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
buildings in Leipzig

Mädler Passage, one of 24 covered passages in Leipzig
Leipzig
city centre

The historic central area of Leipzig
Leipzig
features a Renaissance-style ensemble of buildings from the 16th century, including the old city hall in the market place. There are also several baroque period trading houses and former residences of rich merchants. As Leipzig grew considerably during the economic boom of the late 19th century, the town has many buildings in the historicist style representative of the Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
era. Approximately 35% of Leipzig's flats are in buildings of this type. The new city hall, completed in 1905, displays the same style. Some 64,000 apartments in Leipzig
Leipzig
were built in Plattenbau
Plattenbau
buildings during the Communist rule in East Germany.[52] and although some of these have been demolished and the numbers living in this type of accommodation have declined in recent years, at least 10% of Leipzig's population (50,000 people) are still living in Plattenbau accommodation.[53] Grünau, for example, has approximately 40,000 people living in this sort of accommodation.[54] The building of the St. Paul's Church was destroyed by the communists in 1968 to make room for a new main building of the university. After some debate, the city decided to establish a new, mainly secular building at the same location, called Paulinum, which was completed in 2012. Its architecture alludes to the look of the former church and it includes a room for religious use. Many commercial buildings were built in the 1990s as a result of tax breaks after German reunification. Tallest buildings and structures[edit] The tallest structure in Leipzig
Leipzig
is the chimney of the Stahl- und Hartgusswerk Bösdorf GmbH with 205 metres (673 feet). With 142 metres (466 feet), the City-Hochhaus Leipzig
City-Hochhaus Leipzig
is the tallest high rise-building in Leipzig. From 1972 to 1973 it was Germany's tallest building.

Buildings and structures Image Height in metres Year Notes

Chimney of Stahl- und Hartgusswerk Bösdorf GmbH

205 1984

Funkturm Leipzig

191 2015

DVB-T-Sendeturm

190 1986

City-Hochhaus Leipzig

142 1972 Total height 153 m, tallest building in Germany
Germany
1972–1973. Headquarter of European Energy Exchange.

Fernmeldeturm Leipzig

132 1995

Tower of New Town Hall

115 1905 Tallest Town Hall in Germany

Wintergartenhochhaus

106,8 1972 Used as residential tower

Hotel The Westin Leipzig

95 1972 Hotel with skybar and restaurant

Monument to the Battle of the Nations

91 1913 Tallest monument in Europe.

St. Peters'

88,5 1885 Leipzig's tallest church.

MDR-Hochhaus

65 2000 MDR is one of Germany's public broadcasters.

Hochhaus Löhr's Carree

65 1997 Headquarters of Sachsen Bank and Sparkasse Leipzig.

Center Torgauer Platz

63 1995

Europahaus

56 1929 Headquarters of Stadtwerke Leipzig

Museums and arts[edit] The city's contemporary arts highlight was the Neo Rauch
Neo Rauch
retrospective opening in April 2010 at the Leipzig
Leipzig
Museum of Fine Arts. This is a show devoted to the father of the New Leipzig
Leipzig
School[55][56] of artists. According to The New York Times,[57] this scene "has been the toast of the contemporary art world" in the past decade. Furthermore, there are eleven galleries in the so-called Spinnerei.[58] The building complex of the Grassi Museum
Grassi Museum
contains three more of Leipzig's major collections:[59] the Ethnography Museum, Applied Arts Museum and Musical Instrument Museum (the last of which is run by the University of Leipzig). The university also runs the Museum of Antiquities.[60] Founded in March 2015, the G2 Kunsthalle houses the Hildebrand Collection.[61] The private collection focuses on the so-called New Leipzig
Leipzig
School. Leipzig´s first private museum dedicated to contemporary art in Leipzig
Leipzig
after the turn of the millennium is located in the city centre close to the famous St. Thomas Church in the third floor of the former GDR processing centre.[62] Examples for other museums in Leipzig:

The German Museum of Books and Writing
German Museum of Books and Writing
is the world's oldest museum of its kind, founded in 1884. The Egyptian Museum of the University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
comprises a collection of about 7,000 artefacts from several millennia. The Schillerhouse is the house where Schiller lived in summer 1785. The Zeitgeschichtliches Forum Leipzig
Zeitgeschichtliches Forum Leipzig
(Forum of Contemporary History) shows the history of the German division and the everyday life in the communist dictatorship of East Germany. Naturkundemuseum Leipzig
Naturkundemuseum Leipzig
is the natural history museum of the city. The Leipzig Panometer
Leipzig Panometer
is a visual panorama displayed inside a former gasometer, accompanied by a thematic exhibition. The "Museum in der Runden Ecke" is the best known museum in the city. It deals with the operation of the Stasi
Stasi
State Security of former East Germany. Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
lived from 1723 until his death in Leipzig. The Bach Archive
Bach Archive
is an institution for the documentation and research of the life and work.

German Museum of Books and Writing

Exhibits of the Egyptian Museum

Grassi Museum

Inside Gasometer, next to the Panometer

Museum in der Runden Ecke

Museum of Fine Arts

Baumwollspinnerei

Main sights[edit]

Leipzig Zoological Garden
Leipzig Zoological Garden
is one of the most modern zoos in Europe with approximately 850 different species. It houses the world's largest zoological facilities for primates (Pongoland). Gondwanaland is the world's largest indoor rainforest hall. Monument to the Battle of the Nations
Monument to the Battle of the Nations
(Völkerschlachtdenkmal) (Battle of the Nations Monument): one of the largest monuments in Europe, built to commemorate the victorious battle against Napoleonic troops. Bundesverwaltungsgericht: Germany's federal administrative court was the site of the Reichsgericht, the highest state court between 1888 and 1945. New City Hall: the city's administrative building was built upon the remains of the Pleissenburg, a castle that was the site of the 1519 debate between Johann Eck
Johann Eck
and Martin Luther. It is also Germany's tallest town hall. Old City Hall on Marktplatz: the old city hall was built in 1556 and houses a museum of the city's history. City-Hochhaus Leipzig: built in 1972, the city's tallest building is one of the top 25 tallest buildings in Germany.[63] The Augusteum and Paulinum form the new main campus of the University of Leipzig. international trade fair centre in the north of the city is home to the world's largest levitated glass hall.[64] Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
is the world's largest railway station by floor area and a shopping destination. Auerbach's Cellar: a young Goethe ate and drank in this basement-level restaurant while studying in Leipzig; it is the venue of a scene from his play Faust. The Old Leipzig
Leipzig
bourse at Naschmarkt with a monument of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. South Cemetery (Südfriedhof) is, with an area of 82 hectares, the largest cemetery in Leipzig. The German National Library
German National Library
has two locations, one of them in Leipzig. Leipzig Bayerischer Bahnhof
Leipzig Bayerischer Bahnhof
is Germany's oldest preserved railway station. Gohliser Schlösschen Leipzig Synagogue
Leipzig Synagogue
was destroyed in 1938. Now a memorial stands on the same spot. Where the pews once were, 140 bronze chairs take their place.

Inside Gondwanaland at Leipzig
Leipzig
Zoological Garden

Monument to the Battle of the Nations

Federal Administrative Court of Germany

New city hall

Old city hall at market square

City-Hochhaus

New Augusteum of the University of Leipzig

Leipzig
Leipzig
Trade Fair

Leipzig
Leipzig
main station

Auerbachs Keller
Auerbachs Keller
in the Mädlerpassage

Old Leipzig
Leipzig
bourse

Südfriedhof

German National Library

Leipzig
Leipzig
Bayerischer Bahnhof

Gohliser Schlösschen

Leipzig Synagogue
Leipzig Synagogue
Memorial

Churches[edit]

St. Thomas's Church (Thomaskirche): Most famous as the place where Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
worked as a cantor and home to the renowned boys choir Thomanerchor. A monument to Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
stands in front of this church. Destroyed by the Nazis in 1936, the statue was re-erected on 18 October 2008. St. Nicholas's Church (Nikolaikirche), for which Bach was also responsible. The weekly Montagsgebet (Monday prayer) held here became the starting point of peaceful Monday demonstrations against the DDR regime in the 1980s. St. Peter's has the highest tower of any church in Leipzig, at 87 metres (285 feet). The new Propsteikirche, opened in 2015. The Continental Reformed Church of Leipzig
Leipzig
(Evangelisch-reformierte Kirche) is one of the most prominent buildings on the Leipzig Innercity ring. The Russian Church of Leipzig
Leipzig
is the Russian-Orthodox church of Leipzig. St. Michael's Church is one of the landmarks of Gohlis district

St. Nicholas Church.

St. Thomas Church.

St. Peter.

Propsteikirche in May 2015, New Town Hall in the background

Continental Reformed church of Leipzig.

Russian Church of Leipzig.

St. Michael's Church with the headquarters of Stadtwerke Leipzig
Leipzig
to the right.

Parks and lakes[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
is well known for its large parks. The Leipziger Auwald (riparian forest) lies mostly within the city limits. Neuseenland
Neuseenland
is an area south of Leipzig
Leipzig
where old open-cast mines are being converted into a huge lake district. It is planned to be finished in 2060.

Leipzig Botanical Garden
Leipzig Botanical Garden
is the oldest of its kind in Germany. It contains a total of some 7,000 species, of which nearly 3,000 species comprise ten special collections. Johannapark and Clara-Zetkin-Park are the most prominent parks in the Leipzig
Leipzig
city centre. Leipziger Auwald covers a total area of approx. 2,500 hectares. The Rosental is a park in the north of the forest and borders Leipzig
Leipzig
Zoo. Wildpark in Connewitz, showing 25 species.

Inside Leipzig
Leipzig
Botanical Garden

Johannapark

Leipziger Auwald

Rosental in the morning

Friedenspark

Markkleeberger See

Cospudener See

Music[edit] Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
worked in Leipzig
Leipzig
from 1723 to 1750, conducting the Thomanerchor
Thomanerchor
(St. Thomas Church Choir), at the St. Thomas Church, the St. Nicholas Church and the Paulinerkirche, the university church of Leipzig
Leipzig
(destroyed in 1968). The composer Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
was born in Leipzig
Leipzig
in 1813, in the Brühl. Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
was also active in Leipzig
Leipzig
music, having been invited by Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn
when the latter established Germany's first musical conservatoire in the city in 1843. Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
was second conductor (working under Artur Nikisch) at the Leipzig Opera
Leipzig Opera
from June 1886 until May 1888, and achieved his first great recognition while there by completing and publishing Carl Maria von Weber's opera Die Drei Pintos, and Mahler also completed his own 1st Symphony while living there. This conservatory is today the University of Music and Theatre Leipzig[65] A broad range of subjects are taught, including artistic and teacher training in all orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition in various musical styles. The drama departments teach acting and scriptwriting. The Bach-Archiv Leipzig, an institution for the documentation and research of the life and work of Bach (and also of the Bach family), was founded in Leipzig
Leipzig
in 1950 by Werner Neumann. The Bach-Archiv organizes the prestigious International Johann Sebastian Bach Competition, initiated in 1950 as part of a music festival marking the bicentennial of Bach's death. The competition is now held every two years in three changing categories. The Bach-Archiv also organizes performances, especially the international festival Bachfest Leipzig (de) and runs the Bach-Museum. The city's musical tradition is also reflected in the worldwide fame of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra
Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra
under the baton of chief conductor Riccardo Chailly
Riccardo Chailly
and the Thomanerchor. The MDR Leipzig
Leipzig
Radio Symphony Orchestra
Orchestra
is Leipzig's second large symphony orchestra. Its current chief conductor is Kristjan Järvi. Both the Gewandhausorchester
Gewandhausorchester
and the MDR Leipzig
Leipzig
Radio Symphony Orchestra
Orchestra
reside in the Gewandhaus
Gewandhaus
concert hall. For over 60 years Leipzig
Leipzig
has been offering a "school concert[66] programme for children in Germany, with over 140 concerts every year in venues such as the Gewandhaus
Gewandhaus
and over 40,000 children attending. As for contemporary music, Leipzig
Leipzig
is known for its independent music scene and subcultural events. Leipzig
Leipzig
has for 20 years been home to the world's largest Gothic festival, the annual Wave-Gotik-Treffen (WGT), where thousands of fans of gothic and dark styled music from across Europe gather in the early summer. The first Wave Gotik Treffen was held at the Eiskeller club, today known as Conne Island, in the Connewitz district. Mayhem's notorious album Live in Leipzig
Live in Leipzig
was also recorded at the Eiskeller club.[67] Leipzig
Leipzig
Pop Up is an annual music trade fair for the independent music scene as well as a music festival taking place on Pentecost
Pentecost
weekend.[68] Its most famous indie-labels are Moon Harbour Recordings (House) and Kann Records (House/Techno/Psychedelic). Several venues offer live music on a daily basis, including the Moritzbastei[69] which was once part of the city's fortifications, and is one of the oldest student clubs in Europe with concerts in various styles. For over 15 years "Tonelli's"[70] has been offering free weekly concerts every day of the week, though door charges may apply Saturdays. The cover photo for Beirut's 2005 album Gulag Orkestar
Gulag Orkestar
was, according to the sleeve notes, stolen from a Leipzig
Leipzig
library by Zach Condon. The city of Leipzig
Leipzig
is also the birthplace of Till Lindemann, best known as the lead vocalist of Rammstein, a band formed in 1994.

Leipzig
Leipzig
Opera

View over Augustusplatz
Augustusplatz
with the Gewandhaus.

Moritzbastei
Moritzbastei
is the largest student club in Germany
Germany
and is famous for its atmosphere and large number of cultural and music events.

Monument of Johann Sebastian Bach

Haus Auensee, a concert hall

Annual events[edit]

Auto Mobil International (AMI) motor show[71] AMITEC, trade fair for vehicle maintenance, care, servicing and repairs in Germany
Germany
and Central Europe[72] A cappella: vocal music festival, organized by the Ensemble amarcord Bach-Fest: Johann Sebastian Bach-festival Christmas market (since 1767) Dok Leipzig: international festival for documentary and animated film Jazztage,[73] contemporary jazz festival Ladyfest Leipzig[74] (August) Emancipatoric, feminist punk and electro festival Leipzig
Leipzig
Book Fair: the second largest German book fair after Frankfurt Lichtfest Leipzig (de), festival celebrating the demonstrations leading up to the collapse of the East German regime OPER unplugged with Music Dance Theatre by Heike Hennig & Co[75] Stadtfest: city festival Wave-Gotik-Treffen
Wave-Gotik-Treffen
at Pentecost: world's largest goth or "dark culture" festival Leipzig
Leipzig
Pop Up[76]

Leipzig
Leipzig
Trade Fair

Leipzig Book Fair
Leipzig Book Fair
2015

Wave-Gotik-Treffen
Wave-Gotik-Treffen
2016, Belantis park in the background

Leipzig
Leipzig
Christmas market entrance

DOK Leipzig

Sports[edit] More than 300 sport clubs in the city represent 78 different disciplines. Over 400 athletic facilities are available to citizens and club members.[77] Football[edit]

The Red Bull
Red Bull
Arena from above. Home of RB Leipzig.

Bruno-Plache-Stadion
Bruno-Plache-Stadion
is the home stadion of 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig.

The German Football Association
German Football Association
(DFB) was founded in Leipzig
Leipzig
in 1900. The city was the venue for the 2006 FIFA World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
draw, and hosted four first-round matches and one match in the round of 16 in the central stadium. VfB Leipzig, now 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, won the first national Association football
Association football
championship in 1903. The club was reformed as 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig
Leipzig
in 1966 and has had a glorious past in international competition as well, having been champions of the 1965–66 Intertoto Cup, semi-finalists in the 1973–74 UEFA Cup, and runners-up in the 1986–87 European Cup Winners' Cup. In May 2009 Red Bull
Red Bull
entered the local market after being denied the right to buy into FC Sachsen Leipzig
FC Sachsen Leipzig
in 2006. The newly founded RB Leipzig
Leipzig
declared the intention to come up through the ranks of German football to bring Bundesliga
Bundesliga
football back to the region.[78] RB Leipzig
Leipzig
was finally promoted to the top level of the Bundesliga
Bundesliga
after finishing the 2015–16 2. Bundesliga
Bundesliga
season as runners-up. List of Leipzig
Leipzig
men and women's football clubs playing at state level and above:

Club Founded League Level Home ground Capacity

RB Leipzig 2009 Bundesliga 1 Red Bull
Red Bull
Arena 42,959

RB Leipzig
RB Leipzig
(women) 20161 Regionalliga (women) 3 Sportanlage Gontardweg 1,300

1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig 2003 Regionalliga Nordost 4 Bruno-Plache-Stadion 7,000

BSG Chemie Leipzig 19972 Regionalliga Nordost 4 Alfred-Kunze-Sportpark 4,999

FC International Leipzig 2013 NOFV-Oberliga Süd 5 Sportpark Tresenwald 1,500

Roter Stern Leipzig
Leipzig
(de) 1999 Landesklasse
Landesklasse
Sachsen Nord 7 Sportpark Dölitz 1,200

Note 1: The RB Leipzig
RB Leipzig
women's football team was formed in 2016 and began play in the 2016-17 season. Note 2: The club began play in the 2008-09 season. Ice hockey[edit] Since the beginning of the 20th century Ice hockey
Ice hockey
gained popularity and several local clubs established departments dedicated to that sport.[79] Handball[edit] SC DHfK Leipzig is the men's handball club in Leipzig
Leipzig
and were six times (1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1965 and 1966) the champion of East Germany
Germany
handball league and was winner of EHF Champions League in 1966. They finally promoted to Handball- Bundesliga
Bundesliga
as champions of 2. Bundesliga
Bundesliga
in 2014–15 season. They play in the Arena Leipzig
Arena Leipzig
witch have a capacity of 6,327 spectators in HBL games but can take up to 7,532 spectators for handball in maximum capacity. Handball-Club Leipzig
Leipzig
is one of the most successful women's handball clubs in Germany, winning 20 domestic championships since 1956 and 3 Champions League titles. The team was however relegated to the third tier league in 2017 due to failing to achieve the economic standard demanded by the league licence. Other sports[edit]

The artificial whitewater course Kanupark Markkleeberg
Markkleeberg
at Markkleeberger See.

From 1950 to 1990 Leipzig
Leipzig
was host of the Deutsche Hochschule für Körperkultur (DHfK, German College of Physical Culture), the national sports college of the GDR. Leipzig
Leipzig
also hosted the Fencing
Fencing
World Cup in 2005 and hosts a number of international competitions in a variety of sports each year. Leipzig
Leipzig
made a bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympic Games. The bid did not make the shortlist after the International Olympic Committee pared the bids down to 5. Markkleeberger See
Markkleeberger See
is a new lake next to Markkleeberg, a suburb on the south side of Leipzig. A former open-pit coal mine, it was flooded in 1999 with groundwater and developed in 2006 as a tourist area. On its southeastern shore is Germany's only pump-powered artificial whitewater slalom course, Markkleeberg
Markkleeberg
Canoe Park (Kanupark Markkleeberg), a venue which rivals the Eiskanal
Eiskanal
in Augsburg
Augsburg
for training and international canoe/kayak competition. Leipzig
Leipzig
Rugby Club competes in the German Rugby Bundesliga
Bundesliga
but finished at the bottom of their group in 2013.[80] Food and drink[edit]

An all-season local dish is Leipziger Allerlei, a stew consisting of seasonal vegetables and crayfish. Leipziger Lerche is a shortcrust pastry dish filled with crushed almonds, nuts and strawberry jam; the name (" Leipzig
Leipzig
lark") comes from a lark pâté which was a Leipzig
Leipzig
speciality until the banning of songbird hunting in Saxony
Saxony
in 1876. Gose
Gose
is a locally brewed top-fermenting sour beer that originated in the Goslar
Goslar
region and in the 18th century became popular in Leipzig.

Leipziger Lerchen

Historical Gose
Gose
bottle (ca. 1900)

Education[edit]

Campus of Leipzig
Leipzig
University

Atrium of the Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst
Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst
Leipzig

University[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
University, founded 1409, is one of Europe's oldest universities. The philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig
Leipzig
in 1646, and attended the university from 1661 to 1666. Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureate Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
worked here as a physics professor (from 1927 to 1942), as did Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
laureates Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
(physics), Wilhelm Ostwald
Wilhelm Ostwald
(chemistry) and Theodor Mommsen ( Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in literature). Other former staff of faculty include mineralogist Georg Agricola, writer Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, philosopher Ernst Bloch, eccentric founder of psychophysics Gustav Theodor Fechner, and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt. Among the university's many noteworthy students were writers Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Erich Kästner, and philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, political activist Karl Liebknecht, and composer Richard Wagner. Germany's chancellor since 2006, Angela Merkel, studied physics at Leipzig
Leipzig
University.[81] The university has about 30,000 students. A part of Leipzig University
Leipzig University
is the German Institute for Literature which was founded in 1955 under the name "Johannes R. Becher-Institut". Many noted writers have graduated from this school, including Heinz Czechowski, Kurt Drawert, Adolf Endler, Ralph Giordano, Kerstin Hensel, Sarah and Rainer Kirsch, Angela Krauß, Erich Loest, Fred Wander. After its closure in 1990 the institute was refounded in 1995 with new teachers. Visual arts and theatre[edit] The Academy of Visual Arts (Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst) was established in 1764. Its 530 students (as of 2006[update]) are enrolled in courses in painting and graphics, book design/graphic design, photography and media art. The school also houses an Institute for Theory. The University of Music and Theatre offers a broad range of subjects ranging from training in orchestral instruments, voice, interpretation, coaching, piano chamber music, orchestral conducting, choir conducting and musical composition to acting and scriptwriting. University of Applied Science[edit] The Leipzig University
Leipzig University
of Applied Sciences (HTWK)[82] has approximately 6,200 students (as of 2007[update]) and is (as of 2007[update]) the second biggest institution of higher education in Leipzig. It was founded in 1992, merging several older schools. As a university of applied sciences (German: Fachhochschule) its status is slightly below that of a university, with more emphasis on the practical part of the education. The HTWK offers many engineering courses, as well as courses in computer science, mathematics, business administration, librarianship, museum studies and social work. It is mainly located in the south of the city. Leipzig
Leipzig
Graduate School[edit] The private Leipzig
Leipzig
Graduate School of Management, (in German Handelshochschule Leipzig
Leipzig
(HHL)), is the oldest business school in Germany. According to The Economist, HHL is one of the best schools in the world, rankend at number six overall.[83][84] Others[edit]

The Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences

Among the research institutes located in Leipzig, three belong to the Max Planck Society. These are the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, and Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Two more are Fraunhofer Society
Fraunhofer Society
institutes. Others are the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, and the Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research. Leipzig
Leipzig
is home to one of the world's oldest schools Thomasschule zu Leipzig
Leipzig
(St. Thomas' School, Leipzig), which gained fame for its long association with the Bach family
Bach family
of musicians and composers. The Lutheran Theological Seminary is a seminary of the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church in Leipzig.[85][86] The seminary trains students to become pastors for the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church or for member church bodies of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference.[87] Economy[edit] The city is a location for automobile manufacturing by BMW
BMW
and Porsche in large plants north of the city. In 2011 and 2012 DHL transferred the bulk of its European air operations from Brussels Airport
Brussels Airport
to Leipzig/Halle Airport. Kirow Ardelt AG, the world market leader in breakdown cranes, is based in Leipzig. The city also houses the European Energy Exchange, the leading energy exchange in Central Europe. Some of the largest employers in the area (outside of manufacturing) include software companies such as Spreadshirt
Spreadshirt
and the various schools and universities in and around the Leipzig/Halle region. The University of Leipzig
University of Leipzig
attracts millions of euros of investment yearly and is in the middle of a massive construction and refurbishment to celebrate its 600th anniversary. Leipzig
Leipzig
also benefits from world leading medical research (Leipzig Heart Centre) and a growing biotechnology industry.[88] Many bars, restaurants and stores found in the downtown area are patronized by German and foreign tourists. Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
itself is the location of a shopping mall.[89] Leipzig
Leipzig
is one of Germany's most visited cities with over 3 million overnight stays in 2017.[90] In 2010, Leipzig
Leipzig
was included in the top 10 cities to visit by The New York Times,[57] and ranked 39th globally out of 289 cities for innovation in the 4th Innovation Cities Index published by Australian agency 2thinknow.[91] In 2015, Leipzig
Leipzig
have among the 30 largest German cities the third best prospects for the future.[92] In recent years Leipzig
Leipzig
has often been nicknamed the "Boomtown of eastern Germany" or "Hypezig".[24] As of 2013[update] it had the highest rate of population growth of any German city.[25] Companies with operations in or around Leipzig
Leipzig
include:

Amazon Blüthner: piano-manufacturing BMW DHL Porsche Siemens Future Electronics

Porsche
Porsche
Diamond, the customer center building of Porsche
Porsche
Leipzig

BMW
BMW
production facility in Leipzig

Amazon in Leipzig

Leipzig
Leipzig
is the hub of DHL

Headquarters of the Sparkasse Leipzig
Sparkasse Leipzig
bank

Tourism in and around Leipzig
Leipzig
plays a significant role, the photo shows the Markkleeberger See

Leipzig
Leipzig
is a well known shopping destination (picture shows the Höfe am Brühl)

Media[edit]

MDR, one of Germany's public broadcasters

MDR, one of Germany's public broadcasters, has its headquarters and main television studios in the city. It provides programmes to various TV and radio networks and has its own symphony orchestra, choir and a ballet. Leipziger Volkszeitung (LVZ) is the city's only daily newspaper. Founded in 1894, it has published under several different forms of government. The monthly magazine Kreuzer specializes in culture, festivities and the arts in Leipzig. Leipzig
Leipzig
was also home to the world's first daily newspaper in modern times. The "Einkommende Zeitungen" were first published in 1650.[93] Leipzig
Leipzig
has one daily or semi-daily English-language publication, "The Leipzig
Leipzig
Glocal." It is an online-based magazine and blog that caters to an international as well as local audience.[94] Besides publishing pages on jobs, doctors and movies available in English and other languages, the site's team of authors writes articles about lifestyle, arts & culture, politics, entertainment, Leipzig
Leipzig
events, etc.[95] Once known for its large number of publishing houses, Leipzig
Leipzig
had been called Buch-Stadt (book city).,[96] the most notable of them being branches of Brockhaus and Insel Verlag. Few are left after the years of economic decline during the German Democratic Republic, during which time Frankfurt
Frankfurt
developed as a much more important publishing center. Reclam, founded in 1828, was one of the large publishing houses to move away. Leipzig
Leipzig
still has a book fair, but Frankfurt's is far bigger. The German Library (Deutsche Bücherei) in Leipzig
Leipzig
is part of Germany's National Library. Its task is to collect a copy of every book published in German.[97]

Quality of life[edit] In December 2013, according to a study by Marktforschungsinstituts GfK, Leipzig
Leipzig
was ranked as the most livable city in Germany[11][98] and is one of the three European cities with the highest quality of living (after Groningen
Groningen
and Kraków).[99] In 2015/2016, Leipzig
Leipzig
is the second-best city for students in Germany
Germany
(after Munich).[100] In a 2017 study, the Leipzig
Leipzig
inner city ranks first of all large cities in Germany
Germany
due to its urban aesthetics, gastronomy and shopping opportunities.[101][102] It has also the second-best future prospects of all cities in Germany, only surpassed by Munich.[10] Transport[edit] Road[edit]

Leipzig's road network

Leipzig/Halle Airport, hub of DHL

Founded at the crossing of Via Regia
Via Regia
and Via Imperii, Leipzig
Leipzig
has been a major interchange of inter-European traffic and commerce since medieval times. After the Reunification of Germany, immense efforts to restore and expand the traffic network have been undertaken and left the city area with an excellent infrastructure. Since 1936, Leipzig
Leipzig
has been connected to the A 9 and A 14 autobahns via the Schkeuditzer Kreuz ( Schkeuditz
Schkeuditz
Cross) interchange and several exits. The A 38 completed the autobahn beltway around Leipzig
Leipzig
in 2006. Like most German cities, Leipzig
Leipzig
has a traffic layout designed to be bicycle-friendly. There is an extensive cycle network. In most of the one-way central streets, cyclists are explicitly allowed to cycle both ways. A few cycle paths have been built or declared since 1990. Rail[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
Hauptbahnhof, opened in 1915, is at a junction of important north-to-south and west-to-east railway lines. The ICE train between Berlin
Berlin
and Munich
Munich
stops in Leipzig
Leipzig
and it takes approximately one hour from Berlin Hauptbahnhof
Berlin Hauptbahnhof
and three hours from München Hauptbahnhof.[103] Air[edit] Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
is the main airport in the vicinity of the city. Leipzig/Halle Airport
Leipzig/Halle Airport
offers a number of seasonal vacation charter flights as well as regular scheduled services. The former military airport near Altenburg, Thuringia
Thuringia
called Leipzig- Altenburg
Altenburg
Airport about a half-hour drive from Leipzig
Leipzig
was served by Ryanair
Ryanair
until 2010. Water[edit]

Boats at the Elsterflutbett

In the first half of the 20th century, the construction of the Elster- Saale
Saale
canal, White Elster
White Elster
and Saale
Saale
was started in Leipzig
Leipzig
in order to connect to the network of waterways. The outbreak of the Second World War stopped most of the work, though some may have continued through the use of forced labor. The Lindenauer port was almost completed but not yet connected to the Elster- Saale
Saale
and Karl-Heine canal respectively. The Leipzig
Leipzig
rivers (White Elster, New Luppe, Pleisse, and Parthe) in the city have largely artificial river beds and are supplemented by some channels. These waterways are suitable only for small leisure boat traffic. Through the renovation and reconstruction of existing mill races and watercourses in the south of the city and flooded disused open cast mines, the city's navigable water network is being expanded. The city commissioned planning for a link between Karl Heine Canal and the disused Lindenauer port in 2008. Still more work was still scheduled to complete the Elster- Saale
Saale
canal. Such a move would allow small boats to reach the Elbe
Elbe
from Leipzig. The intended completion date has been postponed because of an unacceptable cost-benefit ratio. Public transport[edit] Leipzig
Leipzig
has an extensive local public transport network. The city's tram and bus network is operated by the Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe. Leipzig's tram network, at a length of 148.3 kilometres (92 mi), is the second biggest in Germany. Leipzig City Tunnel
Leipzig City Tunnel
forms the centerpiece of an extensive S-Bahn
S-Bahn
network serving 1.2 million people in the Leipzig/Halle metropolitan area. The tunnel links the main station in the north with the Bayrische Bahnhof in the south.

Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
Leipzig Hauptbahnhof
is the main hub of tram and rail network and the world's largest railway station by floor area

Tram
Tram
of Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe

Tramsystem at the Georg-Schumann-Straße

Leipzig
Leipzig
City Tunnel, part of Leipzig's new S-Bahn
S-Bahn
network

A new train of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland
S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland
at Leipzig Wilhelm-Leuschner-Platz railway station, August 2016

Inside the S-Bahn
S-Bahn
train

Quotations[edit] Mein Leipzig
Leipzig
lob' ich mir! Es ist ein klein Paris und bildet seine Leute. (I praise my Leipzig! It is a small Paris and educates its people.) – Frosch, a university student in Goethe's Faust, Part One Ich komme nach Leipzig, an den Ort, wo man die ganze Welt im Kleinen sehen kann. (I'm coming to Leipzig, to the place where one can see the whole world in miniature.) – Gotthold Ephraim Lessing Extra Lipsiam vivere est miserrime vivere. (To live outside Leipzig
Leipzig
is to live miserably.) – Benedikt Carpzov
Carpzov
the Younger Das angenehme Pleis-Athen, Behält den Ruhm vor allen, Auch allen zu gefallen, Denn es ist wunderschön. (The pleasurable Pleiss-Athens, earns its fame above all, appealing to every one, too, for it is mightily beauteous.) – Johann Sigismund Scholze International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany

Plaque on Leipzig
Leipzig
Street in Kiev, one of Leipzig's twin towns

Leipzig
Leipzig
is twinned with:[104]

Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, since 2004 Birmingham, UK, since 1992[105] Bologna, Italy, since 1962, renewed in 1997 Brno, Czech Republic, since 1973, renewed in 1999[106] Frankfurt
Frankfurt
am Main, Germany, since 1990[107] Hanover, Germany, since 1987[108] Herzliya, Israel, since 2010 Houston, United States, since 1993 Kiev, Ukraine, since 1961, renewed in 1992 Kraków, Poland, since 1973, renewed in 1995[104][109][110] Lyon, France, since 1981[111] Nanjing, China, since 1988 Thessaloniki, Greece, since 1984[112] Travnik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 2003

Notable residents[edit] 17th century[edit]

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
(c. 1695)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz; (1646–1716), philosopher and scientist, mathematician, diplomat Johann Friedrich Mayer; (1650–1712), Lutheran theologian Augustus Quirinus Rivinus, origin. Bachmann ; (1652–1723), physician and botanist Johann Sebastian Bach; (1685–1750), composer

18th century[edit]

Johann Christian Bach; (1735–1782), youngest son of Johann Sebastian Bach, composer Christian Gottfried Körner; (1756–1831), jurist and writer Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus; (1772–1823), publisher, originator of the Brockhaus encyclopedia Carl Gustav Carus; (1789–1869), doctor, painter and natural philosopher

19th century[edit] 1801–1850[edit]

Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
(c. 1862)

Christian Hermann Weisse; (1801–1866), Protestant theologian and philosopher Felix Mendelssohn; (1809–1847), composer, pianist, organist and conductor Robert Schumann; (1810–1856), composer and music critic Richard Wagner; (1813–1883), composer, theatre director and conductor (among others opera The Flying Dutchman ) Louise Otto-Peters; (1819–1895), suffragette, author, founder of the General German Women's Association

Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
(1838)

Clara Schumann; (1819–1896), pianist and composer Carl Reinecke; (1824–1910), composer, conductor, and pianist August Bebel; (1840–1913), socialist politician, co-founder of Germany's Social Democratic Party Karl Wittgenstein; (1847–1913), entrepreneur

1851–1900[edit]

Karl Liebknecht
Karl Liebknecht
(c. 1911)

Hans Meyer; (1858–1929), geographer, Africanist and mountaineer, first European to reach the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro Wilhelm Souchon; (1864–1946), Vice Admiral of the Imperial Navy, commander of the Ottoman and Bulgarian Navy Karl Liebknecht; (1871–1919), socialist politician (co-founder of the Communist Party of Germany)

Carl Friedrich Goerdeler; (1884–1945), mayor, one of the leaders of conservative resistance against Hitler Max Beckmann; (1884–1950), Expressionist painter, professor at art academies and schools Wilhelm Backhaus; (1884–1969), pianist Paul Frölich; (1884–1953), politician (KPD co-founder), executor and biographer of Rosa Luxemburg Walter Ulbricht; (1893–1973), Communist politician (SED), GDR Chairman of the Council of State from 1960 to 1973 Ruth Fischer; (1895–1961), communist politician and journalist, co-founder of the CPA Hanns Eisler; (1898–1962), composer (inter alia of the national anthem of the GDR.) Bruno Apitz; (1900–1979), writer (Naked among wolves)

20th century[edit] 1901–1950[edit]

Karl Eberhard Schöngarth; (1903–1946), SS officer and war criminal, executed in Hamelin, commander of the state police (Security Office) and the Security Service (SD) Hans Mayer; (1907–2001), literary scholar Annemarie Renger; (1919–2008), politician (SPD), President of the Bundestag from 1972 to 1976 Elfriede Rinkel; (born 1922), former warden of a concentration camp during the Nazi
Nazi
dictatorship

Martin Broszat, (1926–1989), historian, head of Institut für Zeitgeschichte in Munich Kurt Masur, (1927–2015), conductor of the Gewandhaus
Gewandhaus
orchestra Herbert Blomstedt, (born 1927), conductor of the Gewandhaus
Gewandhaus
orchestra Werner Tübke, (1929–2004), painter Rita Wilden, (born 1947), athlete (sprinter) Ruth Pfau, (1929–2017), nun, physician, writer( "Pakistan's Mother Teresa")

1951–present[edit]

Neo Rauch
Neo Rauch
(2017)

Riccardo Chailly, (born 1953), conductor of the Gewandhaus
Gewandhaus
orchestra René Müller, (born 1959), footballer for Lokomotive Leipzig
Leipzig
and the East German national team Neo Rauch, (born 1960), painter Simone Thomalla, (born 1965), actress Kristin Otto, (born 1966), swimmer, 6-time Olympic gold medalist, sports journalist and TV presenter (ZDF) Matthias Weischer (born 1973), painter Till Lindemann
Till Lindemann
(born 1963) , vocalist

See also[edit]

Saxony
Saxony
portal

Ubiquity Theatre Company – English speaking theatre projects in Leipzig. Leipzig
Leipzig
Human Rights Award List of mayors of Leipzig Hugo Schneider AG Leipzig University
Leipzig University
Library Leipzig
Leipzig
Jewish community Battle of Breitenfeld (1642)

References[edit]

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113. Leipzig: One Thousand Years of German History. Bach, Luther, Faust: The City of Books and Music. By Sebastian Ringel. Berlinica, 2015 Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Leipzig External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Leipzig.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Leipzig.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Leipzig.

The city's official website Leipzig
Leipzig
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Leipzig
Leipzig
as virtual city 408 Points of Interest – English The Leipzig
Leipzig
Glocal, English language webzine and blog publishing regularly Ubiquity Theatre Company, – English language theatre projects in Leipzig Leipzig
Leipzig
Zeitgeist, an English magazine about Leipzig This is Leipzig, an English web site for Leipzig LostInLeipzig, Get lost in Germany's best city Events in Leipzig
Leipzig
Music Festivals in Leipzig  "Leipsic". The American Cyclopædia. 1879. 

Places adjacent to Leipzig

Halle Delitzsch, Dessau Berlin

Kassel

Leipzig

Dresden

Jena, Weimar, Erfurt Gera, Zwickau Chemnitz

v t e

Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Saxony
Saxony
in Germany
Germany

Urban districts

Chemnitz Dresden Leipzig

Rural districts

Bautzen Erzgebirgskreis Görlitz Leipzig Meißen Mittelsachsen Nordsachsen Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge Vogtlandkreis Zwickau

Former urban districts

Görlitz Hoyerswerda Plauen Zwickau

Former rural districts

Annaberg Aue-Schwarzenberg Chemnitzer Land Delitzsch Döbeln Freiberg Kamenz Leipziger Land Löbau-Zittau Mittlerer Erzgebirgskreis Mittweida Muldentalkreis Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis Riesa-Großenhain Sächsische Schweiz Stollberg Torgau-Oschatz Weißeritzkreis Zwickauer Land

v t e

Cities in Germany
Germany
by population

1,000,000+

Berlin Cologne Hamburg Munich

500,000+

Bremen Dortmund Dresden Düsseldorf Essen Frankfurt Hanover Leipzig Nuremberg Stuttgart

200,000+

Aachen Augsburg Bielefeld Bochum Bonn Braunschweig Chemnitz Duisburg Erfurt Freiburg im Breisgau Gelsenkirchen Halle (Saale) Karlsruhe Kiel Krefeld Lübeck Magdeburg Mainz Mannheim Münster Mönchengladbach Oberhausen Rostock Wiesbaden Wuppertal

100,000+

Bergisch Gladbach Bottrop Bremerhaven Cottbus Darmstadt Erlangen Fürth Göttingen Hagen Hamm Heidelberg Heilbronn Herne Hildesheim Ingolstadt Jena Kassel Koblenz Leverkusen Ludwigshafen Moers Mülheim
Mülheim
an der Ruhr Neuss Offenbach am Main Oldenburg Osnabrück Paderborn Pforzheim Potsdam Recklinghausen Regensburg Remscheid Reutlingen Saarbrücken Salzgitter Siegen Solingen Trier Ulm Wolfsburg Würzburg

complete list municipalities metropolitan regions cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants

v t e

Capitals of the former East German Bezirke

East Berlin Cottbus Dresden Erfurt Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(Oder) Gera Halle Karl-Marx-Stadt (Chemnitz) Leipzig Magdeburg Neubrandenburg Potsdam Rostock Schwerin Suhl

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 155929994 LCCN: n79125883 GND: 4035206-7 SUDOC: 026391023 BNF: cb119455426 (data) HDS:

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