Jan Mayen
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Jan Mayen () is a
Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the ...

Norwegian
volcanic island Geologically, a high island or volcanic island is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land featu ...
in the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
, with no permanent population. It is long (southwest-northeast) and in area, partly covered by
glacier A glacier (; ) is a persistent body of dense ice Ice is into a state. Depending on the presence of such as particles of soil or bubbles of air, it can appear transparent or a more or less bluish-white color. In the , ice is abunda ...

glacier
s n_area_of__around_the_Beerenberg_volcano.html" ;"title="Beerenberg.html" ;"title="n area of around the Beerenberg">n area of around the Beerenberg volcano">Beerenberg.html" ;"title="n area of around the Beerenberg">n area of around the Beerenberg volcano. It has two parts: larger northeast Nord-Jan and smaller Sør-Jan, linked by a wide isthmus. It lies northeast of
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
(495 km [305 mi] NE of Kolbeinsey), east of central Greenland and west of the North Cape, Norway. The island is mountainous, the highest summit being the Beerenberg volcano in the north. The isthmus is the location of the two largest lakes of the island, Sørlaguna (South Lagoon), and
Nordlaguna Nordlaguna is a lagoon on the island of Jan Mayen. It is the second largest lake of Jan Mayen, after Sørlaguna, and is located in the central part of the island, near the bay of Stasjonsbukta. It was possibly formed by an eruption of Beerenberg vo ...
(North Lagoon). A third lake is called Ullerenglaguna (Ullereng Lagoon). Jan Mayen was formed by the
Jan Mayen hotspotImage:Hotspots.jpg, 450px, The Jan Mayen hotspot is marked 15 on the map. The Jan Mayen hotspot is a proposed volcano, volcanic hotspot (geology), hotspot responsible for the volcanic activity that has formed the island of Jan Mayen in the northern A ...
. Although administered separately, in the
ISO 3166-1 ISO 3166-1 (''Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country codes'') is a standard defining codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest. It ...
standard Jan Mayen and
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
are collectively designated as ''
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Svalbard and Jan Mayen ( no, Svalbard og Jan Mayen, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: SJ, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: SJM, ISO 3166-1 numeric: 744) is a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1 for a collective grouping of two remote jurisdictions of Norway: Sv ...
'', with the two-letter country code "SJ". The island and the circa 1960s NATO base is frequently referenced in the
Kathryn Bigelow Kathryn Ann Bigelow (; born November 28, 1951) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. Covering a wide range of genres, her films include ''Near Dark ''Near Dark'' is a 1987 American Western film#Subgenres, neo-Western horror f ...
film '' K-19: The Widowmaker''.


Natural resources

Jan Mayen Island has one exploitable natural resource,
gravel Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel occurs naturally throughout the world as a result of sedimentary and erosive geologic processes; it is also produced in large quantities commercially as crushed stone Crushed may refer to ...

gravel
, from the site at Trongskaret. Other than this, economic activity is limited to providing services for employees of
Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language Norwegian (Norwegian: ''norsk'') is a Nort ...

Norway
's
radio communications Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio wave Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light. Radio waves have frequencies as hig ...
and
meteorological Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the ...
stations located on the island. Jan Mayen has one unpaved
airstrip An aerodrome (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English) or airdrome (American English) is a location from which aircraft flight operations take place, regardless of whether they involve air cargo, passengers, or neither. A ...
,
Jan Mayensfield Jan Mayensfield is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...
, which is about long. The coast has no
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...

port
s or
harbour A harbor (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. C ...

harbour
s, only offshore anchorages. There are important
fishing Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct related groups. Around 99% of living fish species are ...

fishing
resources, and the existence of Jan Mayen establishes a large exclusive economic zone around it. A dispute between Norway and
Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics ( physical geography), hu ...

Denmark
regarding the fishing exclusion zone between Jan Mayen and Greenland was settled in 1988 granting Denmark the greater area of sovereignty. Geologists suspect significant deposits of petroleum and natural gas lie below Jan Mayen's surrounding
seafloors
seafloors
.


Status

Jan Mayen Island is an integral part of the Kingdom of Norway. Since 1995, Jan Mayen has been administered by the County Governor (''fylkesmann'') of the northern Norwegian county of
Nordland Nordland (; smj, Nordlánnda, sma, Nordlaante, sme, Nordlánda, en, Northland) is a Counties of Norway, county in Norway in the Northern Norway region, bordering Troms og Finnmark in the north, Trøndelag in the south, Norrbotten County in ...

Nordland
, to which it is closest. However, some authority over Jan Mayen has been assigned to the station commander of the Norwegian Defence Logistics Organisation, a branch of the
Norwegian Armed Forces The Norwegian Armed Forces ( no, Forsvaret, "The Defence") is the military organisation Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer such military capability as a national ...
.


Society


Demography

The only inhabitants on the island are personnel working for the Norwegian Armed Forces and the
Norwegian Meteorological Institute The Norwegian Meteorological Institute ( no, Meteorologisk institutt), also known internationally as MET Norway, is Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; lit ...
. Eighteen people spend the winter on the island, but the
population Population typically refers the number of people in a single area whether it be a city or town, region, country, or the world. Governments typically quantify the size of the resident population within their jurisdiction by a process called a ...

population
may roughly double (35) during the summer, when heavy maintenance is performed. Personnel serve either six months or one year, and are exchanged twice a year in April and October. The support crew, including mechanics, cooks, and a nurse, are among the military personnel. The military personnel operated a
Loran-C Loran-C is a ''hyperbolic Hyperbolic is an adjective describing something that resembles or pertains to a hyperbola (a curve), to hyperbole (an overstatement or exaggeration), or to hyperbolic geometry. The following phenomena are described ...
base Base or BASE may refer to: Brands and enterprises *Base (mobile telephony provider) Base (stylized as BASE) is the third largest of Belgium Belgium ( nl, België ; french: Belgique ; german: Belgien ), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, ...
, until it closed at the end of 2015. Both the LORAN transmitter and the
meteorological station A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmosphere of Earth, atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasting, weather forecasts and to study the weather and climat ...
are located a few kilometres away from the settlement
Olonkinbyen Olonkinbyen (literally ''The Olonkin Town'') is the only settlement on the Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethn ...
(Olonkin Town), where all personnel live.


Transport

Transport to the island is provided by
C-130 Hercules The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop A turboprop engine is a turbine engine A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous Continuity or continuous may refer to: Mathematics * Co ...

C-130 Hercules
military transport planes operated by the
Royal Norwegian Air Force The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) ( no, Luftforsvaret) is the air force of Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") is an offici ...
that land at
Jan Mayensfield Jan Mayensfield is an aerodrome An aerodrome (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval En ...
's gravel runway. The planes fly in from
Bodø Main Air Station Bodø Air Station (; no, Bodø hovedflystasjon) is a military airbase of the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) located in the Bodø (town), town of Bodø in Bodø Municipality, Nordland county, Norway. It is home to the General Dynamics F-16 Fight ...
eight times a year. Since the airport does not have any instrument landing capabilities, good visibility is required, and it is not uncommon for the planes to have to return to
Bodø Bodø (; smj, Bådåddjo, sv, Bodö) is a List of municipalities of Norway, municipality in Nordland Counties of Norway, county, Norway. It is part of the Districts of Norway, traditional region of Salten. The administrative centre of the mu ...

Bodø
, two hours away, without landing. For heavy goods, freight ships visit during the summer, but since there are no harbours, the ships must anchor.


Communication

The island has no indigenous population, but is assigned the
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code In communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from ...
country code Country codes are short alphabetic or numeric geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country lo ...
SJ (together with
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
). It uses the
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of networks'' that consist ...

Internet
country code
top-level domain A top-level domain (TLD) is one of the domains at the highest level in the hierarchical Domain Name System The Domain Name System (DNS) is the hierarchical and Decentralised system, decentralized naming system used to identify computers, ...
(
ccTLD A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It ...
)
.no .no is the Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a ''internetworking, network of ...
(
.sj is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) reserved for the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen. The domain name registry is Norid, but is not open for registration. The issuing of the domain was based on the ISO 3166 designation of S ...
is allocated but not used) and data code JN. Jan Mayen has telephone and internet connection over satellite, using Norwegian telephone numbers (country code 47). Its
amateur radio Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, is the use of radio frequency Radio frequency (RF) is the oscillation Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibri ...
call sign In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign (also known as a call name or call letters—and historically as a call signal—or abbreviated as a call) is a Identifier, unique designation for a transmitter station. In the United States o ...
prefix is JX. It has a postal code, NO-8099 JAN MAYEN, but delivery time varies, especially during the winter.


History


Unverified "discoveries" of a ''terra nullius''

Between the fifth and ninth centuries (400–900 AD), numerous communities of monks originating in Ireland (
Papar The Papar (; from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repub ...
) navigated throughout the north Atlantic in leather boats, exploring and sometimes settling in distant islands where their monastic communities could be separated from close contact with others. Strong indicators exist of their presence in the
Faroe Islands The Faroe Islands ( ), or simply the Faroes or Faeroes ( fo, Føroyar ; da, Færøerne ), are a North Atlantic archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of is ...

Faroe Islands
and
Iceland Iceland ( is, Ísland; ) is a Nordic Nordic most commonly refers to: * Nordic countries, written in plural as Nordics, the northwestern European countries, including Scandinavia, Fennoscandia and the List of islands in the Atlantic Ocean#N ...

Iceland
before the arrival of the
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami Places * Sápmi, a cultural region in Northern Europe * Sami, Burkina Faso, a district of the Banwa Pro ...

Viking
s, and medieval Gaelic chronicles such as the famous '' Voyage of Saint Brendan the Abbot'' testify to the extensive interest in exploration at the time. A modern-day trans-Atlantic journey proved the ability of the early navigators to reach all lands of the north Atlantic even further from Ireland than Jan Mayen – and, given favorable winds, at a speed roughly equal to that of modern yachts. Though quite feasible, there is nevertheless no direct physical trace of medieval landings or settlement on Jan Mayen. The land named ''Svalbarð'' ("cold coast") by the Vikings in the early medieval book
Landnámabók ''Landnámabók'' (, "Book of Settlements"), often shortened to ''Landnáma'', is a medieval Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icela ...
may have been Jan Mayen (instead of
Spitsbergen Spitsbergen (; formerly known as West Spitsbergen; Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway ...

Spitsbergen
, renamed
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
by the Norwegians in modern times); the distance from Iceland to ''Svalbarð'' mentioned in this book is two days' sailing (with favorable winds), consistent with the approximate to Jan Mayen and not with the minimum to Spitsbergen.J. M. Wordie (1922), "Jan Mayen Island", ''The Geographical Journal'' Vol 59 (3), pp. 180–194 However much Jan Mayen may have been known in Europe at that time, it was subsequently forgotten for some centuries. In the 17th century, many claims of the island's rediscovery were made, spurred by the rivalry on the Arctic whaling grounds, and the island received many names. According to
Thomas Edge Thomas Edge (1587/88 – 29 December 1624) was an English merchant, whaler, and sealer who worked for the Muscovy Company in the first quarter of the 17th century. The son of Ellis Edge, Thomas Edge was born in the parish of Blackburn in Lancash ...
, an early 17th-century whaling captain who was often inaccurate, "William Hudson" discovered the island in 1608 and named it "Hudson's Touches" (or "Tutches"). However, the well-known explorer
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( 1565 – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator A navigator is the person on board a ship or aircraft responsible for its navigation Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the pro ...
could only have come by on his voyage in 1607 (if he had made an illogical detour) and he made no mention of it in his journal. According to
William Scoresby William Scoresby (5 October 178921 March 1857), was an English whaler A whaler or whaling ship is a specialized vessel, designed or adapted for : the catching or processing of s. Terminology The term ''whaler'' is mostly historic. A h ...

William Scoresby
(1820: p.154), referring to the mistaken belief that the Dutch had discovered the island in 1611,
Hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
whalers discovered the island "about the same time" and named it "Trinity Island". Muller (1874: pp.190–191) took this to mean they had come upon Jan Mayen in 1611 or 1612, which was repeated by many subsequent authors. There were, in fact, no Hull whalers in either of these years, the first Hull whaling expedition having been sent to the island only in 1616 (see below). As with the previous claim made by Edge, there is no cartographical or written proof for this supposed discovery.


During the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery (c. 1590s–1720s)


First verified discoveries: mapping and naming

The first verified discoveries of Jan Mayen, by three separate expeditions, occurred in the summer of 1614, probably within one month of each other. The Dutchman Fopp Gerritsz, whilst in command of a whaling expedition sent out by the Englishman John Clarke, of
Dunkirk Dunkirk ( , ; french: Dunkerque ; vls, label=French Flemish French Flemish (French Flemish: , Dutch language, Standard Dutch: , french: flamand français) is a West Flemish dialect spoken in the north of contemporary France. Place names at ...

Dunkirk
, claimed (in 1631) to have discovered the island on June 28 and named it "Isabella".Louwrens Hacquebord, "The Jan Mayen Whaling Industry" in ''Jan Mayen Island in Scientific Focus'', Stig Skreslet, editor, Springer Verlag 2004 In January the ''
Noordsche Compagnie The Noordsche Compagnie ( en, Northern Company) was a Dutch cartel in the whaling trade, founded by several cities in the Netherlands in 1614 and operating until 1642. Soon after its founding, it became entangled in territorial conflicts with Eng ...
'' (Northern Company), modelled on the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
, had been established to support Dutch whaling in the Arctic. Two of its ships, financed by merchants from
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the Capital of the Netherlands, capital and Municipalities of the Netherlands, most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the City Region of Amsterdam, urban ar ...

Amsterdam
and
Enkhuizen Enkhuizen () is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands locatio ...

Enkhuizen
, reached Jan Mayen in July 1614. The captains of these ships—
Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout () was a Dutch seafarer and exploration, explorer. Family May was born in the small village of Schellinkhout, just east of the town of Hoorn in North Holland. He appears to be the brother of Cornelis Jacobsz Ma ...
(after whom the island was ultimately named) on the ''Gouden Cath'' (Golden Cat), and Jacob de Gouwenaer on the ''Orangienboom'' (Orange Tree)—named it ''Mr. Joris Eylant'' after the Dutch cartographer
Joris Carolus Joris Carolus (–) was a Dutch cartographer and explorer who was employed by the Noordsche Compagnie and the Dutch East India Company. Career Carolus apparently was a native of Enkhuizen. After he lost a leg at the Siege of Ostend (1601–04) he ...
who was on board and mapped the island. The captains acknowledged that a third Dutch ship, the ''Cleyn Swaentgen'' (Little Swan) captained by Jan Jansz Kerckhoff and financed by ''Noordsche Compagnie'' shareholders from
Delft Delft () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. ...

Delft
, had already been at the island when they arrived. They had assumed the latter, who named the island ''Maurits Eylandt'' (or Mauritius) after
Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange Maurice of Orange ( nl, Maurits van Oranje; german: Moritz von Oranien; 14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was ''stadtholder In the Low Countries The term Low Countries, also known as the Low Lands ( nl, de Lage Landen, french: les P ...
, would report their discovery to the States General. However, the Delft merchants had decided to keep the discovery secret and returned in 1615 to hunt for their own profit. The ensuing dispute was only settled in 1617, though both companies were allowed to whale at Jan Mayen in the meantime. In 1615, the English whaler
Robert Fotherby Robert Fotherby (died 1646) was an early 17th-century England, English explorer and whaler. From 1613 to 1615 he worked for the Muscovy Company, and from 1615 until his death for the Honourable East India Company, East India Company. Family ties ...
went ashore. Apparently thinking he had made a new discovery, he named the island "Sir Thomas Smith's Island" and the volcano "Mount Hakluyt". On a map of c. 1634, Jean Vrolicq renamed the island ''Île de Richelieu''. Jan Mayen first appeared on
Willem Jansz Blaeu Willem Janszoon Blaeu (; 157121 October 1638), also abbreviated to Willem Jansz. Blaeu, was a Netherlands, Dutch cartographer, Atlas (cartography), atlas maker and publisher. Along with his son Johannes Blaeu, Willem is considered one of the no ...

Willem Jansz Blaeu
's 1620 edition map of Europe, originally published by Cornelis Doedz in 1606. Blaeu, who lived in Amsterdam, named it "Jan Mayen" after captain
Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout Jan Jacobszoon May van Schellinkhout () was a Dutch seafarer and exploration, explorer. Family May was born in the small village of Schellinkhout, just east of the town of Hoorn in North Holland. He appears to be the brother of Cornelis Jacobsz Ma ...
of the Amsterdam-financed ''Gouden Cath''. Blaeu made the first detailed map of the island in his famous "Zeespiegel" atlas of 1623, establishing its current name.


Dutch whaling base

From 1615 to 1638, Jan Mayen was used as a whaling base by the Dutch ''Noordsche Compagnie'', which had been given a monopoly on whaling in the Arctic regions by the States General in 1614. Only two ships, one from the ''Noordsche Compagnie'', and the other from the Delft merchants, were off Jan Mayen in 1615. The following year a score of vessels were sent to the island. The ''Noordsche Compagnie'' sent eight ships escorted by three warships under Jan Jacobsz. Schrobop; while the Delft merchants sent up five ships under Adriaen Dircksz. Leversteyn, son of one of the above merchants.Samuel Muller. 1874. ''Geschiedenis van de Noordsche Compagnie.'' Gebr van der Post. There were also two ships from Dunkirk sent by John Clarke, as well as a ship each from London and Hull. Heertje Jansz, master of the ''Hope'', of Enkhuizen, wrote a day-by-day account of the season. The ships took two weeks to reach Jan Mayen, arriving early in June. On 15 June they met the two English ships, which Schrobop allowed to remain, on condition they gave half their catch to the Dutch.Sune Dalgård. 1962. ''Dansk-Norsk Hvalfangst 1615-1660: En Studie over Danmark-Norges Stilling i Europæisk Merkantil Expansion''. G.E.C Gads Forlag. The ships from Dunkirk were given the same conditions. By late July the first ship had left with a full cargo of
whale oil Whale oil is oil An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume. All ev ...
; the rest left early in August, several filled with oil. That year 200 men were seasonally living and working on the island at six temporary whaling stations (spread along the northwest coast). During the first decade of whaling, more than ten ships visited Jan Mayen each year, while in the second period (1624 and later) five to ten ships were sent. With the exception of a few ships from Dunkirk, which came to the island in 1617 and were either driven away or forced to give a third of their catch to the Dutch, only the Dutch and merchants from Hull sent up ships to Jan Mayen from 1616 onward. In 1624 ten wooden houses were built in South Bay. About this time the Dutch appear to have abandoned the temporary stations consisting of tents of sail and crude furnaces, replacing them with two semi-permanent stations with wooden storehouses and dwellings and large brick furnaces, one in the above-mentioned South Bay and the other in the North Bay. In 1628 two forts were built to protect the stations. Among the sailors active at Jan Mayen was the later admiral Michiel Adriaensz de Ruyter. In 1633, at the age of 26, he was for the first time listed as an officer aboard ''de Groene Leeuw'' (The Green Lion). He again went to Jan Mayen in 1635, aboard the same ship. In 1632 the ''Noordsche Compagnie'' expelled the Danish-employed Basque whalers from Spitsbergen. In revenge, the latter sailed to Jan Mayen, where the Dutch had left for the winter, to plunder the Dutch equipment and burn down the settlements and factories. Captain Outger Jacobsz of
Grootebroek Grootebroek is a town in the Netherlands, Dutch province of North Holland. It is located in the municipality of Stede Broec. Grootebroek was a separate municipality until 1979. The town is called Grootebroek after a large swamp in the area; in Du ...

Grootebroek
was asked to stay the next winter (1633/34) on Jan Mayen with six shipmates to defend the island. While a group with the same task survived the winter on Spitsbergen, all seven on Jan Mayen died of
scurvy Scurvy is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of ...
or
trichinosis Trichinosis, also known as trichinellosis, is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes, roundworms of the ''Trichinella'' type. During the initial infection, invasion of the intestines can result in diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Migrati ...
(from eating raw polar bear meat) combined with the harsh conditions. During the first phase of whaling the hauls were generally good, some exceptional. For example, Mathijs Jansz. Hoepstock caught 44 whales in Hoepstockbukta in 1619, which produced 2,300 casks of whale oil. During the second phase the hauls were much lower. While 1631 turned out to be a very good season, the following year, due to the weather and ice, only eight whales were caught. In 1633 eleven ships managed to catch just 47 whales; while a meager 42 were caught by the same number in 1635. The bowhead whale was locally hunted to near-extinction around 1640 (approximately 1000 had been killed and processed on the island), at which time Jan Mayen was abandoned and stayed uninhabited for two and a half centuries.


19th and 20th centuries

During the International Polar Year 1882–1883 the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition stayed one year at Jan Mayen. The expedition performed extensive mapping of the area, their maps being of such quality that they were used until the 1950s. The Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austrian polar station on Jan Mayen Island was built and equipped in 1882 fully at Count Johann Nepomuk Wilczek, Count Wilczek's own expense. Polar bears appear on Jan Mayen, although in diminished numbers compared with earlier times. Between 1900 and 1920, there were a number of Norwegian trappers spending winters on Jan Mayen, hunting Arctic foxes in addition to some polar bears. But the exploitation soon made the profits decline, and the hunting ended. Polar bears in this region of the Arctic are genetically distinguishable from those living elsewhere. The League of Nations gave Norway jurisdiction over the island, and in 1921 Norway opened the first meteorological station.Rigge, Simon (1980), ''War in the Outposts'', pp. 24–25. Alexandria, Virginia: Time-Life Books. The Norwegian Meteorological Institute annexed the middle part of the island for Norway in 1922 and the whole island in 1926 when Hallvard Devold was head of the weather observations base on the island. On 27 February 1930, the island was made ''de jure'' a part of the Kingdom of Norway. During World War II, continental Norway was Invasion of Norway, invaded and occupied by Germany in spring 1940. The four-man team on Jan Mayen stayed at their posts and in an act of defiance began sending their weather reports to the United Kingdom instead of Norway. The British codenamed Jan Mayen 'Island X' and attempted to reinforce it with troops to counteract any Nazi Germany, German attack. The Norwegian patrol boat ran aground on Nansenflua, one of the islands' many uncharted lava reefs and the 68-man crew abandoned ship and joined the Norwegian team on shore. The British expedition commander, prompted by the loss of the gunboat, decided to abandon Jan Mayen until the following spring and radioed for a rescue ship. Within a few days a ship arrived and evacuated the four Norwegians and their would-be reinforcements, after demolishing the weather station to prevent it from falling into German hands. The Germans attempted to land a weather team on the island on 16 November 1940; the German naval trawler carrying the team crashed on the rocks just off Jan Mayen after a patrolling British destroyer had picked them up on radar. The detection was not by chance, as the German plan had been compromised from the beginning with British wireless interceptors of the Radio Security Service following the communications of the Abwehr (the German Intelligence service) concerning the operation, and the destroyer had been waiting. Most of the crew struggled ashore and were taken prisoner by a landing party from the destroyer. Allies of World War II, The Allies returned to the island on 10 March 1941, when the Norwegian ship ''Veslekari'', escorted by the patrol boat ''Honningsvaag'', dropped 12 Norwegian weathermen on the island. The team's radio transmissions soon betrayed its presence to the Axis Powers, Axis, and German planes from Norway began to bomb and strafe Jan Mayen whenever weather permitted, but did little damage. Soon supplies and reinforcements arrived, and even some anti-aircraft guns, giving the island a garrison of a few dozen weathermen and soldiers. By 1941, Germany had given up hope of evicting the Allies from the island and the constant air raids stopped. On 7 August 1942, a German Focke-Wulf Fw 200 "Condor", probably on a mission to bomb the station, crashed into the nearby mountainside of Danielssenkrateret in fog, killing its crew of nine. In 1950, the wreck of another German plane with four crew members was discovered on the southwest side of the island. In 1943, the Americans established a radio locating station named Atlantic City in the north to try to locate Greenland in World War II, German radio bases in Greenland. After the war, the meteorological station was located at Atlantic City, but moved in 1949 to a new location. Radio Jan Mayen also served as an important radio station for ship traffic in the
Arctic Ocean The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major s. It spans an area of approximately and is also known as the coldest of all the oceans. The (IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some call it the Arctic Medit ...

Arctic Ocean
. In 1959 NATO started building the LORAN-C network in sites on the Atlantic Ocean; one of the transmitters was to be on Jan Mayen. By 1961 the new military installations, including a new airfield, were operational. For some time scientists doubted that the Beerenberg volcano would become active, but in 1970 it erupted for about three weeks, adding another of land mass to the island. It also erupted in 1973 and 1985. During an eruption, the sea temperature around the island may increase from just above freezing to about . Historic stations and huts on the island are Hoyberg, Vera, Olsbu, Puppebu (cabin), Gamlemetten or Gamlestasjonen (the old weather station), Jan Mayen Radio, Helenehytta, Margarethhytta, and Ulla (a cabin at the foot of the Beerenberg).


Environment


Nature reserve

A regulation dating from 2010 renders the island a nature reserve under Norwegian jurisdiction. The aim of this regulation is to ensure the preservation of a pristine Arctic island and the marine life nearby, including the ocean floor. Landings at Jan Mayen can be done by boat. However, this is permitted only at a small part of the island, named Båtvika (Boat Bay). As there is no commercial airline operating at the island, one cannot get there by plane except by Air charter, chartering one. Permission for landings by a charter plane has to be obtained in advance. Permission to stay on the island has to be obtained in advance, and is generally limited to a few days (or even hours). Putting up a tent or setting up camp is prohibited. There is a separate regulation for the stay of foreigners.


Geography and geology

Jan Mayen consists of two geographically distinct parts. Nord-Jan has a round shape and is dominated by the high Beerenberg volcano with its large ice cap (), which can be divided into twenty individual outlet glaciers. The largest of those is Sørbreen, with an area of and a length of . South-Jan is narrow, comparatively flat and unglaciated. Its highest elevation is Rudolftoppen at . The station and living quarters are located on South-Jan. The island lies at the northern end of the Jan Mayen Microcontinent. The Continental fragment, microcontinent was originally part of the Greenland Plate, but now forms part of the Eurasian Plate.


Important Bird Area

The island was identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by BirdLife International because it is a breeding site for large numbers of seabirds, supporting populations of northern fulmars (78,000–160,000 pairs), little auks (10,000–100,000 pairs), thick-billed guillemot (74,000–147,000 pairs) and black guillemots (100–1,000 pairs).


Climate

Jan Mayen has a hyperoceanic Climate of the Arctic, polar climate with a Köppen climate classification, Köppen classification of ''ET''. The Gulf Stream's powerful influence makes seasonal temperature variations extremely small considering the latitude of the island, with ranges from around in August to in March, but also makes the island extremely cloudy with little sunshine even during the continuous polar day. The deep snow cover prevents any permafrost from developing. As a result of warming, the 1991-2020 temperature normal shows a mean annual temperature warmer than during 1961-1990, pushing the annual temperature above freezing.


See also

*
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Svalbard and Jan Mayen ( no, Svalbard og Jan Mayen, ISO 3166-1 alpha-2: SJ, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3: SJM, ISO 3166-1 numeric: 744) is a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1 for a collective grouping of two remote jurisdictions of Norway: Sv ...
*
Svalbard Svalbard ( , ), previously known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic ...

Svalbard
* List of islands of Norway * List of islands of Norway by area


References


Notes


Citations


Bibliography

* Ledgard, J. M. (2011) ''Submergence'', Coffee House Press * Umbreit, Andreas (2005) ''Spitsbergen: Svalbard – Franz Josef Land – Jan Mayen'', 3rd ed., Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides,


External links


Jan Mayen
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. *
www.jan-mayen.no

jan.mayen.no

Jan Mayen year round webcam

Jan Mayen at Norwegian Polar Institute

TopoJanMayen
– Interactive map of Jan Mayen by the Norwegian Polar Institute
Photographs and information on Jan Mayen



Glaciers of Jan Mayen

www.janmayen2011.org - a site about JX5O - international ham radio expedition to Jan Mayen island in 2011
*
Weather forecasts for Jan Mayen at yr.no
(Norwegian Meteorological institute and NRK)

uscg spar 403 1966 {{Authority control Jan Mayen, Ridge volcanoes Islands of Norway Islands of the Arctic Ocean Integral overseas territories Seabird colonies Important Bird Areas of Norwegian overseas territories 1614 in the Dutch Empire 17th century in the Dutch Republic Maritime history of the Dutch Republic Mid-Atlantic Ridge Important Bird Areas of Atlantic islands Important Bird Areas of Arctic islands