Intuition
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Intuition is the ability to acquire
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to exp ...
without recourse to conscious
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philoso ...
ing. Different fields use the word "intuition" in very different ways, including but not limited to: direct access to unconscious knowledge; unconscious cognition; inner sensing; inner insight to unconscious pattern-recognition; and the ability to understand something instinctively, without any need for conscious reasoning.Intuition and consciousness – Rosenblatt AD, Thickstun JT. Psychoanal Q. 1994 Oct;63(4):696-714. The word ''intuition'' comes from the Latin verb ''intueri'' translated as "consider" or from the
late middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century. English language underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old English period. Scholarl ...
word ''intuit'', "to contemplate".


Colloquial usage

Intuition, as a gut feeling based on experience, has been found to be useful for business leaders for making judgement about people, culture and strategy. Such an example likens intuition to " gut feelings" and when viable illustrate
preconscious In psychoanalysis Psychoanalysis (from Greek language, Greek: + ) is a set of Theory, theories and Therapy, therapeutic techniques"What is psychoanalysis? Of course, one is supposed to answer that it is many things — a theory, a research metho ...
activity.


Psychology


Freud

According to
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( , ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist Neurology (from el, νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine Me ...

Sigmund Freud
, knowledge could only be attained through the intellectual manipulation of carefully made observations and rejected any other means of acquiring knowledge such as intuition, and his findings could have been an analytic turn of his mind towards the subject.


Jung

In
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung ( ; born Karl Gustav Jung, ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961), was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Jung's work has been influential in the fields of psychiatry, anthropology, archaeo ...

Carl Jung
's theory of the ego, described in 1916 in '''', intuition is an "irrational function", opposed most directly by sensation, and opposed less strongly by the "rational functions" of thinking and feeling. Jung defined intuition as "perception via the unconscious": using sense-perception only as a starting point, to bring forth ideas, images, possibilities, ways out of a blocked situation, by a process that is mostly unconscious. Jung said that a person in whom intuition is dominant, an "intuitive type", acts not on the basis of rational judgment but on sheer intensity of perception. An extraverted intuitive type, "the natural champion of all minorities with a future", orients to new and promising but unproven possibilities, often leaving to chase after a new possibility before old ventures have borne fruit, oblivious to his or her own welfare in the constant pursuit of change. An introverted intuitive type orients by images from the unconscious, ever exploring the psychic world of the
archetypes The concept of an archetype (; from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its popul ...
, seeking to perceive the meaning of events, but often having no interest in playing a role in those events and not seeing any connection between the contents of the psychic world and him- or herself. Jung thought that extraverted intuitive types were likely entrepreneurs, speculators, cultural revolutionaries, often undone by a desire to escape every situation before it becomes settled and constraining—even repeatedly leaving lovers for the sake of new romantic possibilities. His introverted intuitive types were likely mystics, prophets, or cranks, struggling with a tension between protecting their visions from influence by others and making their ideas comprehensible and reasonably persuasive to others—a necessity for those visions to bear real fruit.C.G. Jung. ''Psychological Types''. Bollingen Series XX, Volume 6, Princeton University Press, 1971.


Modern psychology

In more-recent psychology, intuition can encompass the ability to know valid solutions to problems and
decision making In psychology Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of consciousness, conscious and Unconscious mind, unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense s ...

decision making
. For example, the
recognition primed decision Recognition-primed decision (RPD) is a model of how people make quick, effective decisions when faced with complex situations. In this model, the decision maker is assumed to generate a possible course of action, compare it to the constraints impose ...
(RPD) model explains how people can make relatively fast decisions without having to compare options. Gary Klein found that under time pressure, high stakes, and changing parameters, experts used their base of experience to identify similar situations and intuitively choose feasible solutions. Thus, the RPD model is a blend of intuition and analysis. The intuition is the pattern-matching process that quickly suggests feasible courses of action. The
analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complexity, complex topic or Substance theory, substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it. The technique has been applied in the study of mathematics and logic since before Ari ...

analysis
is the mental simulation, a conscious and deliberate review of the courses of action.
Instinct Instinct is the inherent inclination of a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not extinct ...
is often misinterpreted as intuition and its reliability considered to be dependent on past knowledge and occurrences in a specific area. For example, someone who has had more experiences with children will tend to have a better instinct about what they should do in certain situations with them. This is not to say that one with a great amount of experience is always going to have an accurate intuition. Intuitive abilities were quantitatively tested at Yale University in the 1970s. While studying
nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact, facial expressions, gestures, Posture (psychology), posture, and body language. It includes the use of social cues, kinesic ...
, researchers noted that some subjects were able to read nonverbal facial cues before reinforcement occurred. In employing a similar design, they noted that highly intuitive subjects made decisions quickly but could not identify their rationale. Their level of accuracy, however, did not differ from that of non-intuitive subjects. According to the works of
Daniel Kahneman Daniel Kahneman (; he, דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli Americans, Israeli-American psychology, psychologist and economist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral econ ...

Daniel Kahneman
, intuition is the ability to automatically generate solutions without long logical arguments or evidence.


Philosophy

Both
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that ide ...
philosophers have studied the concept in great detail.
Philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology and nature of the mind and its relationship with the body. The mind–body problem is a paradigmatic issue in philosophy of mind, although a number of other issues are address ...

Philosophy of mind
deals with the concept.


Eastern philosophy

In the East intuition is mostly intertwined with
religion Religion is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...

religion
and
spirituality The meaning of spirituality has developed and expanded over time, and various connotations can be found alongside each other. Traditionally, spirituality referred to a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of design ...

spirituality
, and various meanings exist from different religious texts.


Hinduism

In Hinduism various attempts have been made to interpret the
Vedic FIle:Atharva-Veda samhita page 471 illustration.png, upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Comp ...

Vedic
and other esoteric texts. For
Sri Aurobindo Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yogi, maharishi, poet, and Indian nationalist. He joined the Indian movement for independence from British rule, till 1910 was one ...

Sri Aurobindo
, intuition comes under the realms of knowledge by identity; he describes the psychological plane in humans (often referred to as mana in
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...

Sanskrit
) having two arbitrary natures, the first being imprinting of psychological experiences which is constructed through sensory information (mind seeking to become aware of external world). The second nature being the action when it seeks to be aware of itself, resulting in humans being aware of their existence or aware of being angry & aware of other emotions. He terms this second nature as knowledge by identity. He finds that at present as the result of evolution the mind has accustomed itself to depend upon certain physiological functioning and their reactions as its normal means of entering into relations with the outer material world. As a result, when we seek to know about the external world the dominant habit is through arriving at truths about things via what our senses convey to us. However, knowledge by identity, which we currently only give the awareness of human beings' existence, can be extended further to outside of ourselves resulting in intuitive knowledge. He finds this intuitive knowledge was common to older humans (
Vedic FIle:Atharva-Veda samhita page 471 illustration.png, upright=1.2, The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (, , ) are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Comp ...

Vedic
) and later was taken over by
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philoso ...
which currently organises our perception, thoughts and actions resulting from Vedic to metaphysical philosophy and later to experimental science. He finds that this process, which seems to be decent, is actually a circle of progress, as a lower faculty is being pushed to take up as much from a higher way of working. He finds when self-awareness in the mind is applied to one's self and the outer (other) -self, results in luminous self-manifesting identity; the reason also converts itself into the form of the self-luminous intuitional knowledge. believed consciousness of human beings to be in increasing order from basic animal
instinct Instinct is the inherent inclination of a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organisms ** extant taxon, Living species, one that is not extinct ...
s to intelligence and intuition, and humans being constantly living in that conscious state often moving between these states depending on their affinity. He also suggests living in the state of intuition is one of the ultimate aims of humanity.
Advaita ''Advaita Vedānta'' (; sa, अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts ...

Advaita
vedanta (a school of thought) takes intuition to be an experience through which one can come in contact with an experience
Brahman In Hinduism, ''Brahman'' ( sa, ब्रह्म) connotes the highest universal principle, the ultimate reality ''Ultimate reality'' is "something that is the supreme, final, and fundamental power in all reality". Buddhism In Theravada ...

Brahman
.


Buddhism

Buddhism finds intuition to be a faculty in the mind of immediate knowledge and puts the term intuition beyond the mental process of conscious
thinking Thought (or thinking) encompasses an "aim-oriented flow of ideas and associations that can lead to a reality-oriented conclusion". Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the mo ...

thinking
, as the conscious thought cannot necessarily access subconscious information, or render such information into a communicable form. In
Zen Buddhism Zen ( zh, t=禪, p=Chán; ja, text= 禅, translit=zen; ko, text=선, translit=Seon; vi, text=Thiền) is a school A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teach ...
various techniques have been developed to help develop one's intuitive capability, such as
koans (; , ; ko, 화두, ''whadoo''; vi, công án) is a story, dialogue, question, or statement which is used in Zen practice to provoke the "great doubt" and to practice or test a student's progress in Zen. Etymology The Japanese term ''kōa ...
– the resolving of which leads to states of minor enlightenment (
satori is a Japanese Buddhist term for awakening, "comprehension; understanding". It is derived from the Japanese verb satoru. In the Zen Buddhist tradition, ''satori'' refers to the experience of '' kenshō'', "seeing into one's true nature ...

satori
). In parts of Zen Buddhism intuition is deemed a mental state between the Universal mind and one's individual, discriminating mind.


Western philosophy

In the West, intuition does not appear as a separate field of study, but the topic features prominently in the works of many philosophers.


Ancient philosophy

Early mentions and definitions of intuition can be traced back to
Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the ...

Plato
. In his book ''
Republic A republic () is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature ...
'' he tries to define intuition as a fundamental capacity of human
reason Reason is the capacity of consciously applying logic by Logical consequence, drawing conclusions from new or existing information, with the aim of seeking the truth. It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philoso ...
to comprehend the true nature of
reality Reality is the sum or aggregate of all that is real or existent within a system, as opposed to that which is only Object of the mind, imaginary. The term is also used to refer to the ontological status of things, indicating their existence. In p ...

reality
. In his works ''
Meno ''Meno'' (; grc-gre, Μένων, ''Ménōn'') is a Socratic dialogue by Plato Plato ( ; grc-gre, wikt:Πλάτων, Πλάτων ''Plátōn'', in Attic Greek, Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was an Classical Athe ...
'' and ''
Phaedo ''Phædo'' or ''Phaedo'' (; el, wikt:Φαίδων, Φαίδων, ''Phaidōn'' ), also known to ancient readers as ''On The Soul'', is one of the best-known dialogues of Plato's middle period, along with the ''Republic (Plato), Republic'' and the ...
'', he describes intuition as a pre-existing knowledge residing in the "soul of eternity", and a phenomenon by which one becomes conscious of pre-existing knowledge. He provides an example of mathematical truths, and posits that they are not arrived at by reason. He argues that these truths are accessed using a knowledge already present in a dormant form and accessible to our intuitive capacity. This concept by Plato is also sometimes referred to as anamnesis. The study was later continued by his intellectual successors, the
Neoplatonists Neoplatonism is a strand of Platonic philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, m ...
.


Islam

In Islam there are various scholars with varied interpretations of intuition (often termed as hadas (
Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinental region ...

Arabic
: حدس), hitting correctly on a mark), sometimes relating the ability of having intuitive knowledge to
prophet In religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, morals, beliefs, worldviews, religious text, texts, shrine, sanctified places, prophecy, prophecies, et ...
hood. Siháb al Din-al Suhrawadi, in his book ''Philosophy Of Illumination'' (ishraq), from following influences of Plato he finds that intuition is knowledge acquired through illumination, is mystical in nature, and also suggests mystical contemplation ( mushahada) to bring about correct judgment. Also influenced by Platonic ideas, Ibn Sīnā (Avicenna) finds the ability of having intuition as a "prophetic capacity" and describes it as knowledge obtained without intentionally acquiring it. He finds that regular knowledge is based on imitation while intuitive knowledge is based on intellectual certitude.


Early modern philosophy

In his book ''
Meditations on First Philosophy#REDIRECT Meditations on First Philosophy ''Meditations on First Philosophy, in which the existence of God and the immortality of the soul are demonstrated'' ( la, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas de ...
'', refers to an "intuition" (from the
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
verb ''intueor'', which means "to see") as a pre-existing knowledge gained through rational reasoning or discovering truth through contemplation. This definition states that "whatever I clearly and distinctly perceive to be true is true", and it is commonly referred to as rational intuition It deals with a potential mistake called the Cartesian circle. Intuition and deduction are the unique possible sources of knowledge of the human intellect, while the latter is intended as a "connected sequence of intuitions", each of which is singularly intended ''
a priori ''A priori'' and ''a posteriori'' ('from the earlier' and 'from the later', respectively) are Latin phrases used in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaph ...
'' as a
self-evident In epistemology Epistemology (; ) is the Outline of philosophy, branch of philosophy concerned with knowledge. Epistemologists study the nature, origin, and scope of knowledge, epistemic Justification (epistemology), justification, the Reaso ...
, clear and distinct idea, before being connected with the other ideas within a logical demonstration. Later philosophers, such as
Hume Hume most commonly refers to: * David Hume (1711–1776), Scottish philosopher Hume may also refer to: People * Hume (surname) * Hume (given name) * James Hume Nisbet (1849–1923), Scottish-born novelist and artist In fiction * Hume, the ...

Hume
, have more ambiguous interpretations of intuition. Hume claims intuition is a recognition of relationships (relation of time, place, and causation) while he states that "the resemblance" (recognition of relations) "will strike the eye" (which would not require further examination) but goes on to state, "or rather in mind"—attributing intuition to power of mind, contradicting the theory of
empiricism In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existence, Epistemology, knowledge, Ethics, values, Philosophy of mind, mind, and Philosophy of language, ...
.


=Immanuel Kant

=
Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German Philosophy, philosopher and one of the central Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment thinkers. Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethic ...

Immanuel Kant
’s notion of "intuition" differs considerably from the Cartesian notion, and consists of the basic sensory information provided by the
cognitive Cognition () refers to "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses". It encompasses many aspects of intellectual function Intellectual functioning refers to the "general ment ...

cognitive
faculty of sensibility (equivalent to what might loosely be called
perception Perception (from the Latin ''perceptio'', meaning gathering or receiving) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of Sense, sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information or environment. ...

perception
). Kant held that our
mind The mind is the set of faculties responsible for mental Phenomenon, phenomena. Often the term is also identified with the phenomena themselves. These faculties include thought, imagination, memory, Will (philosophy), will and sensation. They are ...

mind
casts all of our external intuitions in the form of
space Space is the boundless three-dimensional Three-dimensional space (also: 3-space or, rarely, tri-dimensional space) is a geometric setting in which three values (called parameter A parameter (from the Ancient Greek language, Ancient Gree ...

space
, and all of our internal intuitions (
memory Memory is the faculty of the brain A brain is an organ (biology), organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. It is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for sense ...

memory
, thought) in the form of time.


Contemporary philosophy

Intuitions are customarily appealed to independently of any particular theory of how intuitions provide evidence for claims, and there are divergent accounts of what sort of mental state intuitions are, ranging from mere spontaneous judgment to a special presentation of a necessary truth. In recent years a number of philosophers, such as George Bealer, have tried to defend appeals to intuition against Quinean doubts about
conceptual analysis Philosophical analysis refers to a set of techniques, typically used by philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wi ...
. A different challenge to appeals to intuition has recently come from , who argue that appeals to intuition must be informed by the methods of social science. The metaphilosophical assumption that philosophy ought to depend on intuitions has recently been challenged by experimental philosophers (e.g., Stephen Stich). One of the main problems adduced by experimental philosophers is that intuitions differ, for instance, from one culture to another, and so it seems problematic to cite them as evidence for a philosophical claim.
Timothy Williamson Timothy Williamson (born 1955) is a British philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term ''philosopher'' comes from the grc, φιλόσοφος, , translit=philosophos, meaning 'lover of wisdom'. The coining of t ...
has responded to such objections against philosophical methodology by arguing that intuition plays no special role in philosophy practice, and that skepticism about intuition cannot be meaningfully separated from a general
skepticism Skepticism (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U. ...

skepticism
about judgment. On this view, there are no qualitative differences between the methods of philosophy and common sense, the sciences or mathematics. Others like Ernest Sosa seek to support intuition by arguing that the objections against intuition merely highlight a verbal disagreement.


=Philosophy of mathematics and logic

=
Intuitionism In the philosophy of mathematics Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason Reason is the capacity of consciously making sense of things, applying logic Logic (from Ancient ...
is a position advanced by
Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (; ; 27 February 1881 – 2 December 1966), usually cited as L. E. J. Brouwer but known to his friends as Bertus, was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics ...
in
philosophy of mathematics The philosophy of mathematics is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a bra ...
derived from Kant's claim that all mathematical knowledge is knowledge of the pure forms of the intuition—that is, intuition that is not empirical.
Intuitionistic logic Intuitionistic logic, sometimes more generally called constructive logic, refers to systems of symbolic logic that differ from the systems used for classical logic by more closely mirroring the notion of constructive proof. In particular, systems of ...
was devised by
Arend Heyting __notoc__ Arend Heyting (; 9 May 1898 – 9 July 1980) was a Dutch mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as ...
to accommodate this position (and has been adopted by other forms of
constructivism Constructivism may refer to: Art and architecture * Constructivism (art), an early 20th-century artistic movement that extols art as a practice for social purposes * Constructivist architecture, an architectural movement in Russia in the 1920s an ...
in general). It is characterized by rejecting the
law of excluded middle In logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, dialectical, argumentative, translit=logikḗ)Also related to (''logos''), "word, thought, idea, argument, ...
: as a consequence it does not in general accept rules such as
double negation elimination Double may refer to: * Look-alike A look-alike, double, or doppelgänger is a person who bears a strong physical resemblance to another person, excluding cases like twins and other instances of Family resemblance (anthropology), family resemblanc ...
and the use of
reductio ad absurdum In logic, (Latin for "reduction to absurdity"), also known as (Latin for "argument to absurdity"), ''apagogical arguments, negation introduction'' or the ''appeal to extremes'', is the form of argument that attempts to establish a claim by showing ...
to prove the existence of something.


Artificial intelligence

Researchers in
artificial intelligence Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for logic Logic (from Ancient Greek, Greek: grc, wikt:λογική, λογική, label=none, lit=possessed of reason, intellectual, ...

artificial intelligence
are trying to add intuition to algorithms; as the "fourth generation of AI", this can be applied to many industries, especially finance. One example of artificial intuition is
AlphaGo Zero AlphaGo Zero is a version of DeepMind's Go software AlphaGo. AlphaGo's team published an article in the journal ''Nature (journal), Nature'' on 19 October 2017, introducing AlphaGo Zero, a version created without using data from human games, and st ...
, which used
neural network Artificial neural networks (ANNs), usually simply called neural networks (NNs), are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brain A brain is an organ (anatomy), organ that serves as the ...

neural network
s and was trained with
reinforcement learning Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that can improve automatically through experience and by the use of data. It is seen as a part of artificial intelligence. M ...
from a blank slate. In another example, ThetaRay partnered with Google Cloud to use artificial intuition for anti-money laundering purposes.


Honours

Intuition Peak Intuition Peak ( bg, връх Интуиция, vrah Intuitsiya, ) is a sharp Antarctic peak of elevation 780 m in Levski Ridge, Tangra Mountains on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. It is surmounting Iskar Glacier ...
in Antarctica is so named "in appreciation of the role of scientific intuition for the advancement of human knowledge."Intuition Peak.
SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica


See also


References


Sources

*


Further reading

* * Deepak Chopra, Chopra, Deepak, and Judith Orloff. ''The Power of Intuition''. Hay House, 2005. (Audio) * Elizabeth Davis (writer), Davis, Elizabeth. ''Women's Intuition''. Celestial Arts, 1989. * Fradet, Pierre-Alexandre, ''Derrida-Bergson. Sur l'immédiateté'', Éditions Hermann, Hermann, Paris, coll. "Hermann Philosophie", 2014. * Hoeflich, Christine. ''What Everyone Believed: A Memoir of Intuition and Awakening''. Between Worlds Publishing, 2008. * Levin, Michal. ''Spiritual Intelligence: Awakening the Power of Your Spirituality and Intuition''. Hodder & Stoughton, 2000. * Mayer, Elizabeth Lloyd. ''Extraordinary Knowing: Science, Skepticism, and the Inexplicable Powers of the Human Mind''. Bantam, 2008. * Lynn McTaggart, McTaggart, Lynn. ''The Intention Experiment''. Free Press, 2008. * Ezechiel Saad, Saad, Ezechiel ''Hasard et Intuition,'' French, preface by zen master Jacques Brosse. Ed. Dervy, París, 1991. * Schulz, Mona Lisa, and Christriane Northrup. ''Awakening Intuition''. Three Rivers Press, 1999. * Stuart Wilde, Wilde, Stuart ''Intuition''. Hay House, 1996. (Audio) * Stuart Wilde, Wilde, Stuart. ''The Sixth Sense: Including the Secrets of the Etheric Subtle Body''. Hay House, 2000.


External links


Nobel prize winner Daniel Kahneman Video on Intuition

Nobel prize winner Daniel Kahneman PDF on Intuition

Ask Philosophers: Question on Intuition and Rationality

A special issue of the journal ''Psychological Inquiry'' dedicated to the topic of intuition
{{Authority control Abstraction Belief Cognitive science Concepts in epistemology Concepts in metaphysics Concepts in the philosophy of mind Consciousness studies Critical thinking Emergence Epistemology of religion Epistemology of science Feeling Innovation Intelligence Knowledge Mental content Metaphysics of mind Ontology Perception Qualia Reasoning Spiritual faculties Subjective experience Thought Truth Virtue