Space
Space is the boundless threedimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction. In classical physics, physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless fourdimensional continuum known as spacetime. The concept of space is considered to be of fundamental importance to an understanding of the physical universe. However, disagreement continues between philosophers over whether it is itself an entity, a relationship between entities, or part of a conceptual framework. Debates concerning the nature, essence and the mode of existence of space date back to antiquity; namely, to treatises like the '' Timaeus'' of Plato, or Socrates in his reflections on what the Greeks called ''khôra'' (i.e. "space"), or in the ''Physics'' of Aristotle (Book IV, Delta) in the definition of ''topos'' (i.e. place), or in the later "geometrical conception of plac ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Spacetime
In physics, spacetime is a mathematical model that combines the three dimensions of space and one dimension of time into a single fourdimensional manifold. Spacetime diagrams can be used to visualize relativistic effects, such as why different observers perceive differently where and when events occur. Until the 20th century, it was assumed that the threedimensional geometry of the universe (its spatial expression in terms of coordinates, distances, and directions) was independent of onedimensional time. The physicist Albert Einstein helped develop the idea of spacetime as part of his theory of relativity. Prior to his pioneering work, scientists had two separate theories to explain physical phenomena: Isaac Newton's laws of physics described the motion of massive objects, while James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic models explained the properties of light. However, in 1905, Einstein based a work on special relativity on two postulates: * The laws of physics are invari ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Universe
The universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the development of the universe. According to this theory, space and time emerged together ago, and the universe has been expanding ever since the Big Bang. While the spatial size of the entire universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the observable universe, which is approximately 93 billion lightyears in diameter at the present day. Some of the earliest cosmological models of the universe were developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers and were geocentric, placing Earth at the center. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System. In developing the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built upon Copernicus' ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Time
Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, through the present, into the future. It is a component quantity of various measurements used to sequence events, to compare the duration of events or the intervals between them, and to quantification (science), quantify derivative, rates of change of physical quantity, quantities in scientific realism, material reality or in the consciousness, conscious qualia, experience. Time is often referred to as a fourth dimension, along with Threedimensional space, three spatial dimensions. Time has long been an important subject of study in religion, philosophy, and science, but defining it in a manner applicable to all fields without circular definition, circularity has consistently eluded scholars. Nevertheless, diverse fields such as business, industry, sports, the sciences, and the performing arts all incorporate som ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Dimension
In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it. Thus, a line has a dimension of one (1D) because only one coordinate is needed to specify a point on itfor example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface, such as the boundary of a cylinder or sphere, has a dimension of two (2D) because two coordinates are needed to specify a point on itfor example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere. A twodimensional Euclidean space is a twodimensional space on the plane. The inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is threedimensional (3D) because three coordinates are needed to locate a point within these spaces. In classical mechanics, space and time are different categories and refer to absolute space and time. That conception of the world is a fourdimensional space but not the one that was ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Renaissance
The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity. It occurred after the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages and was associated with great social change. In addition to the standard periodization, proponents of a "long Renaissance" may put its beginning in the 14th century and its end in the 17th century. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the Middle Ages. However, the beginnings of the period – the early Renaissance of the 15th century and the Italian ProtoRenaissance from around 1250 or 1300 – overlap considerably with the Late Middle Ages, conventiona ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Fourdimensional
A fourdimensional space (4D) is a mathematical extension of the concept of threedimensional or 3D space. Threedimensional space is the simplest possible abstraction of the observation that one only needs three numbers, called '' dimensions'', to describe the sizes or locations of objects in the everyday world. For example, the volume of a rectangular box is found by measuring and multiplying its length, width, and height (often labeled ''x'', ''y'', and ''z''). The idea of adding a fourth dimension began with Jean le Rond d'Alembert's "Dimensions" being published in 1754, was followed by JosephLouis Lagrange in the mid1700s, and culminated in a precise formalization of the concept in 1854 by Bernhard Riemann. In 1880, Charles Howard Hinton popularized these insights in an essay titled " What is the Fourth Dimension?", which explained the concept of a " fourdimensional cube" with a stepbystep generalization of the properties of lines, squares, and cubes. The simplest f ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Alhazen
Ḥasan Ibn alHaytham, Latinized as Alhazen (; full name ; ), was a medieval mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age from presentday Iraq.For the description of his main fields, see e.g. ("He is one of the principal Arab mathematicians and, without any doubt, the best physicist.") , ("Ibn alḤaytam was an eminent eleventhcentury Arab optician, geometer, arithmetician, algebraist, astronomer, and engineer."), ("Ibn alHaytham (d. 1039), known in the West as Alhazan, was a leading Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. His optical compendium, Kitab alManazir, is the greatest medieval work on optics.") Referred to as "the father of modern optics", he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular. His most influential work is titled '' Kitāb alManāẓir'' (Arabic: , "Book of Optics"), written during 1011–1021, which survived in a Latin edition. Ibn alHaytham was an early propo ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the Puritan clergyman John Harvard, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious and highly ranked universities in the world. The university is composed of ten academic faculties plus Harvard Radcliffe Institute. The Faculty of Arts and Sciences offers study in a wide range of undergraduate and graduate academic disciplines, and other faculties offer only graduate degrees, including professional degrees. Harvard has three main campuses: the Cambridge campus centered on Harvard Yard; an adjoining campus immediately across Charles River in the Allston neighborhood of Boston; and the medical campus in Boston's Longwood Medical Area. Harvard's endowment is valued at $50.9 billion, making it the wealthiest academic institution in the world. Endow ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Position (geometry)
In geometry, a position or position vector, also known as location vector or radius vector, is a Euclidean vector that represents the position of a Point (geometry), point ''P'' in space#Classical mechanics, space in relation to an arbitrary reference origin (mathematics), origin ''O''. Usually denoted x, r, or s, it corresponds to the straight line segment from ''O'' to ''P''. In other words, it is the displacement (vector), displacement or translation (geometry), translation that maps the origin to ''P'': :\mathbf=\overrightarrow The term "position vector" is used mostly in the fields of differential geometry, mechanics and occasionally vector calculus. Frequently this is used in twodimensional space, twodimensional or threedimensional space, but can be easily generalized to Euclidean spaces and affine spaces of any dimension.Keller, F. J, Gettys, W. E. et al. (1993), p 28–29 Relative position The relative position of a point ''Q'' with respect to point ''P'' is the Eu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Direction (geometry)
In geometry, the orientation, angular position, attitude, bearing, or direction of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it occupies. More specifically, it refers to the imaginary rotation that is needed to move the object from a reference placement to its current placement. A rotation may not be enough to reach the current placement. It may be necessary to add an imaginary translation, called the object's location (or position, or linear position). The location and orientation together fully describe how the object is placed in space. The abovementioned imaginary rotation and translation may be thought to occur in any order, as the orientation of an object does not change when it translates, and its location does not change when it rotates. Euler's rotation theorem shows that in three dimensions any orientation can be reached with a single rotation around a fixed axis. This gives one common way of represen ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Plato
Plato ( ; grcgre, Πλάτων ; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a Greek philosopher born in Athens during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. He founded the Platonist school of thought and the Academy, the first institution of higher learning on the European continent. Along with his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato is a central figure in the history of Ancient Greek philosophy and the Western and Middle Eastern philosophies descended from it. He has also shaped religion and spirituality. The socalled neoplatonism of his interpreter Plotinus greatly influenced both Christianity (through Church Fathers such as Augustine) and Islamic philosophy (through e.g. AlFarabi). In modern times, Friedrich Nietzsche diagnosed Western culture as growing in the shadow of Plato (famously calling Christianity "Platonism for the masses"), while Alfred North Whitehead famously said: "the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tra ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Aristotle
Aristotle (; grcgre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Peripatetic school of philosophy within the Lyceum and the wider Aristotelian tradition. His writings cover many subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics, meteorology, geology, and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him. It was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion. Little is known about his life. Arist ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 