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Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; : ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; , xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine . The name in means 'place of gold'. Situated on the , Gauteng is the smallest in . Though Gauteng accounts for only 1.5% of the country's land area, it is home to more than a quarter of its population. Highly urbanised, the province contains the country's largest city, , which is also one of the largest cities in the world. It also contains the administrative capital, , and other large areas such as , and the affluent . Gauteng is the most populous province in South Africa with a population of approximately 15 million people according to estimates.


Etymology

The name ''Gauteng'' is derived from the , meaning "gold". There was a thriving gold industry in the province following the . In , the name was used for Johannesburg and surrounding areas long before it was adopted in 1994 as the official name of the province.


History

Gauteng was formed from part of the old after South Africa's first multiracial elections on 27 April 1994. It was initially named –– (PWV) and was renamed "Gauteng" in December 1994. The term "PWV" describing the region existed long before the establishment of the province, with the "V" sometimes standing for "" rather than Vereeniging. At the caves, some of the oldest fossils of hominids have been discovered, such as and . Gauteng's history has only been properly documented since the 19th century and as a result, not much information regarding its history predating the 19th century is available. The recorded history of the area that is now Gauteng can be traced back to the early 19th century when settlers originating from the defeated chief and started establishing villages in the area. The city of Pretoria was founded in as capital of the (ZAR - nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek). After the discovery of gold in 1886, the region became the single largest gold producer in the world and the city of Johannesburg was founded. The older city Pretoria was not subject to the same attention and development. Pretoria grew at a slower rate and was highly regarded due to its role in the . The which is the largest diamond ever mined was mined near Pretoria in a nearby town called in the year 1905. Many crucial events happened in present-day Gauteng with regards to the anti- struggle, such as the of 1955, of 1956, of 1960, the in 1963 and 1964 and the of 1976. Today, the stands testament to these struggles in Johannesburg.


Law and government

Gauteng is governed by the , a 73-person legislature elected by . The legislature elects one of its members as to lead the executive, and the Premier appoints an of up to 10 members of the legislature to serve as heads of the various government departments. The provincial government is responsible for the topics allocated to it in the , including such fields as basic education, health, housing, social services, agriculture and environmental protection. The most recent election of the provincial legislature was , and the (ANC) won 50.19% of the vote and a 37-seat majority in the legislature. The official opposition is the , which won 27.45% of the vote and 20 seats. Other parties represented are the with eleven seats and the with three seats. The and hold one seat each. Premier of the ANC was re-elected as premier on 22 May 2019, at the first meeting of the legislature after the general election. The of the , which has seats in Pretoria and Johannesburg, is a with over the province. Johannesburg is also home to the , South Africa's highest court, and to a branch of the and .


Geography

Gauteng's southern border is the , which separates it from the . It also borders on to the west, to the north, and to the east. Gauteng is the only landlocked province of South Africa without a foreign border. Most of Gauteng is on the , a high-altitude grassland (circa above sea level). Between and , there are low parallel ridges and undulating hills, some part of the Mountains and the . The north of the province is more , due to its lower altitude and is mostly dry habitat.


Witwatersrand area

In the southern half of Gauteng, the Witwatersrand area is an older term describing a 120 km wide oblong-shaped conurbation from in the West to in the East, named after the , a geologically and economically important series of low ridges and their associated plateau that greater Johannesburg developed on. This area is also often referred to simply as "Witwatersrand", "the Rand" or "the Reef" (archaic, after the gold reefs that precipitated the development of the area), and was the "W" in ''PWV'', the initial name for Gauteng. It has traditionally been divided into the three areas of (governed by the ), Central Rand (approximately today's ) and .


Climate

The climate is mostly influenced by altitude. Even though the province is at a latitude, the climate is comparatively cooler, especially in , at above sea level ( is at ). Most precipitation occurs as brief afternoon thunderstorms; however, relative humidity never becomes uncomfortable. Winters are crisp and dry with frost occurring often in the southern areas. Snow is rare, but it has occurred on some occasions in the metropolitan area.  


Cities and towns

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Administrative divisions

The Gauteng Province (as of May 2011) is divided into three and two . The district municipalities are in turn divided into six :


District municipalities

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Metropolitan municipalities

* () * * The former district consisting of and in the North of the province was incorporated into Tshwane in 2011.


Demographics

Gauteng Province is home to 15.7 million (2019 Stats SA Mid-year estimates), with 25.8% of the total South African population. Gauteng Province is also the fastest growing province, experiencing a population growth of over 33% between the and 2011 censuses, thus Gauteng now has the largest population of any province in South Africa, though the smallest area. As of the census of 2011, there are 12,272,263 people and 3,909,022 households residing in Gauteng. The population density is 680/km². The density of households is 155.86/km². About 22.1% of all households are made up of individuals. The average household size is 3.33. The province's age distribution was 23.6% under the age of 15, 19.6% from 15 to 24, 37.9% from 25 to 44, 15.0% from 45 to 64, and 4.0% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 27 years. For every 100 females there are 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 102.3 males. According to the 2011 census, in Gauteng, the most spoken languages at home were: * : 19.8% of residents, * : 13.3%, * : 12.4%, * : 11.6%, * : 10.6%, * : 9.1%, * : 6.6%, * : 6.6%, * : 3.2%, * : 2.3%, * : 1.1%, * : 0.4%, * Other languages: 3.1%. 76.0% of residents are Christian, 18.4% have , 1.7% are Muslim, 0.5% are Jewish, and 0.8% are . 2.6% have other or undetermined beliefs. 8.4% of residents aged 20 and over have received no schooling, 11.2% have had some primary, 5.5% have completed only primary school, 34.3% have had some high education, 28.0% have finished only high school, and 12.6% have an education higher than the high school level. Overall, 40.6% of residents have completed high school. 56.1% of housing units have a telephone and/or in the dwelling, 41.5% have access to a phone nearby, and 2.3% have access that is not nearby or no access. 82.8% of households have a flush or chemical toilet. 84.2% have removed by the municipality at least once a week and 2.6% have no rubbish disposal. 47.2% have inside their dwelling, 83.6% have running water on their property, and 97.5% have access to running water. 73.2% of households use electricity for cooking, 70.4% for heating, and 80.8% for lighting. 77.4% of households have a radio, 65.7% have a television, 15.1% own a computer, 62.1% have a , and 45.1% have a mobile phone. 25.8% of the population aged 15–65 is unemployed. The median annual income of working adults aged 15–65 is R 23 539 ($3,483). Males have a median annual income of R 24 977 ($3,696) versus R 20 838 ($3,083) for females.


Life expectancy

Gauteng is the province with the second highest in the country in 2019 with females having a life expectancy of 69 years and males having a life expectancy of 64 years. At birth, life expectancy for 2013 is approximated at 57 years and 61 years for males and females respectively.
/ref> This marks an improvement of a whole year in the life expectancy of South Africans as a whole.


Urban conurbation, The Gauteng City Region (GCR)

Previously described as the , the urban conurbation of Gauteng, referred to as the Gauteng City Region,http://www.gcro.ac.za/ contains the major urban populations of (7,860,781 ), (1,763,336), (377,922), (605,504) and (728,063), coming to an urban population of over 11 million. Thomas Brinkhoff lists a "Consolidated Urban Area" in Gauteng as having a population of 13.1 million . The future governmental plans for the region indicate the gradual urbanisation and consolidation towards the creation of a megalopolis that connects these metros.


The Gauteng City Region Observatory (GCRO)

The GCRO is a collaboration between the Universities of Johannesburg and Witwatersrand, the city of Johannesburg, Gauteng Provincial Government, and SALGA-Gauteng. The GCRO's purpose is to collect information and create a database on the Gauteng City Region to provide to Government, Lawmakers and civil society an informed understanding of the fastest urbanizing region in Southern Africa.


Economy

Gauteng is considered the hub of and contributes heavily in the financial, manufacturing, transport, technology, and sectors, among others. It also plays host to a large number of overseas companies requiring a commercial base in and gateway to . Gauteng is home to the , the largest stock exchange in Africa. Some of the largest companies in Africa and abroad are based in Gauteng, or have offices and branches there, such as , , , and the largest Centre in the world. Although Gauteng is the smallest of South Africa's nine provinces—it covers a mere 1.5% of the country's total land area, the province is responsible for a third of South Africa's (GDP). Gauteng generates about 10% of the total GDP of and about 7% of total African GDP.


Transport

, a parastatal, is responsible for the maintenance, development and management of all in South Africa. SANRAL is responsible for instituting the Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project, which was met with a lot of opposition due to the tolling of Gauteng motorists. Many important run through Gauteng such as the , , , , and the . Johannesburg is quite dependent on for transport in and around the city. The , , , and all run through Johannesburg while the connects Pretoria Central to Soshanguve. The Gauteng Freeway Improvement Project led to a large decrease in traffic congestion when construction finished 2011–2012. , for the first time in decades, is now the most congested city in South Africa. , the largest commuter bus operator in South Africa, services the Gauteng area extensively. The system also serves to transport people from Johannesburg's southern neighbourhoods into and around the . In an interview, stated that by the year 2040, Johannesburg will be dominated by pedestrians and public transport as opposed to the use of private transport or informal transport, such as minibus taxis. and both service the province's public transport sector where trains are concerned and Gautrain offers a bus service that transports commuters to and from various train stations and predetermined bus stops. Metrorail trains are considered one of the most cost-effective methods of transportation in and around Gauteng. The , , , and are located in Gauteng. There is a large informal transport sector in Gauteng, consisting of thousands of s, which many of the urban and rural population makes use of. However, it is noted that taxis are often unsafe as their drivers ignore the rules of the road and the vehicles are often not . The City of Johannesburg stated that: "major initiatives are under way to completely reform the taxi industry and provide more comfort and safety to customers."


Education

Gauteng is a large center of learning in South Africa, and it has many universities and educational institutions of higher learning. In 2002, the Gauteng Department of Education founded an initiative called ''Gauteng Online'' in an attempt to get the entire province to utilize a wide assortment of electronic and telecommunications systems. In 2007, this initiative was handed over to the Gauteng Department of Finance. In the 2013 national budget speech, it was announced that the Gauteng Department of Education would be granted over 700 million to improve education and to alleviate issues concerning the overcrowding in schools, a shortage in teaching staff and transport for poor pupils. In 2017/2018, the Gauteng Provincial government spent 42.4 billion on education which accounted for 38% the province's total expenditure.


Conservation

Although Gauteng province is dominated by the urban areas of Johannesburg and Pretoria, it has several nature reserves. Gauteng is home to the which includes the caves and the . Johannesburg is home to the largest man-made in the world.


Botanical gardens

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Nature reserves

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Private and municipal reserves

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Provincial reserves

There are 5 provincial reserves managed by the Gauteng Department of Agriculture, Conservation, Environment and Land Affairs: * * * * *


Sport

Gauteng is home to many stadiums and sporting grounds, notably , , , , , , the and . Several teams from Gauteng play in the country's top-level (more commonly referred to as soccer) league, the (PSL), including and . The national squad 's home stadium is Soccer City in Johannesburg. During the , the first ever world cup held by an African nation, Gauteng's stadia hosted many games. The first ever FIFA world cup match on African soil took place at Soccer City on 11 June 2010. Along with Soccer City, Loftus Versfeld Stadium and Ellis Park Stadium hosted matches in Gauteng. , or more accurately , is a popular sport in South Africa, and in Gauteng in particular. Two rugby teams from Gauteng participate in the Southern Hemisphere championship: the -based , and the -based (previously the Cats). Three Gauteng-based teams play in the country's domestic competition, the : the from Pretoria, the from Johannesburg and the from the . In 1995, South Africa hosted the and proceeded to win the tournament at Ellis Park Stadium on 24 June 1995. The events surrounding the world cup formed the basis of the story for the movie . Many South African universities take part in the league. Of these, the Gauteng universities include the University of Pretoria, the University of Johannesburg and the University of the Witwatersrand. is also widely popular among all cultural groups in the country, and is the only sport to feature in the top two among all of South Africa's major ethnic/racial groups. The represent both Gauteng and in the country's three domestic competitions—the , the and the . Many s take place in Gauteng, such as the Gauteng Marathon, the Arwyp Medical Centre 15 km Nite Race and the Trisport Joburg City Triathlon.
Gauteng's favourable weather conditions throughout the year make it an ideal hub for sports and other out door activities. This makes , horse racing and swimming very popular. The facilitates water sports in the forms of jet skiing, water skiing and motor boating. Adventure sports are also quite popular in Gauteng, particularly skydiving, paragliding and hang-gliding. The is situated in Gauteng, as is the and the . Botanical gardens in the province include the and national botanical gardens maintained by the South African National Botanical Institute as well as the and botanical gardens. The and the , which are both popular events and expos venues, are also located within Gauteng. The province also has a racetrack, the . The most recent F1 race at the venue was in 1993.


See also

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References


External links

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Gauteng Provincial GovernmentGauteng Tourism AuthorityMashatile elected to lead Gauteng
{{Authority control 1994 establishments in South Africa