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Darius I
Darius I
(Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: داریوش‎ Dāryuš; Hebrew: דָּרְיָוֶשׁ‬, Modern Darəyaveš, Tiberian Dāreyāwéš; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Also called Darius the Great, he ruled the empire at its peak, when it included much of West Asia, the Caucasus, parts of the Balkans
Balkans
(Thrace-Macedonia and Paeonia), most of the Black Sea
Black Sea
coastal regions, parts of the North Caucasus, Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
in the far east, and portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt
Egypt
(Mudrâya),[4] eastern Libya and coastal Sudan.[5][6] Darius ascended the throne by overthrowing Gaumata, the alleged magus usurper of Bardiya with the assistance of six other Persian noble families; Darius was crowned the following morning. The new king met with rebellions throughout his kingdom and quelled them each time. A major event in Darius's life was his expedition to punish Athens
Athens
and Eretria
Eretria
for their aid in the Ionian Revolt, and subjugate Greece. Although ultimately ending in failure at the Battle of Marathon, Darius succeeded in the re-subjugation of Thrace, expansion of the empire through the conquest of Macedon, the Cyclades, and the island of Naxos, and the sacking of the city of Eretria. Darius organized the empire by dividing it into provinces and placing satraps to govern it. He organized a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic
Aramaic
the official language of the empire. He also put the empire in better standing by building roads and introducing standard weights and measures. Through these changes the empire was centralized and unified.[7] Darius also worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Pasargadae, Persepolis, Babylon
Babylon
and Egypt. He had the cliff-face Behistun Inscription carved to record his conquests, an important testimony of the Old Persian
Old Persian
language. Darius is mentioned in the biblical books of Haggai, Zechariah, and Ezra–Nehemiah.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Primary sources 3 Early life 4 Accession 5 Early reign 6 Military campaigns

6.1 Invasion of Indus
Indus
Valley 6.2 Babylonian revolt 6.3 European Scythian campaign 6.4 Persian invasion of Greece

7 Family 8 Death 9 Government

9.1 Organization 9.2 Economy 9.3 Religion 9.4 Construction

10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

Etymology[edit] Main article: Darius (given name) Dārīus and Dārēus are the Latin
Latin
forms of the Greek Dareîos (Δαρεῖος), itself from Old Persian
Old Persian
Dārayava(h)uš (𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎢𐏁; in Aramaic
Aramaic
dryhwš), which is a shortened form of Dārayava(h)uš (𐎭𐎠𐎼𐎹𐎺𐎢𐏁). The longer form is also seen to have been reflected in the Elamite Da-ri-(y)a-ma-u-iš, Babylonian Da-(a-)ri-ia-(a-)muš, Aramaic drywhwš, and possibly the longer Greek form Dareiaîos (Δαρειαῖος). The name is a nominative form meaning "he who holds firm the good(ness)", which can be seen by the first part dāraya, meaning "holder", and the adverb vau, meaning "goodness".[8] Primary sources[edit] See also: Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
and Herodotus At some time between his coronation and his death, Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount Behistun, which was written in Elamite, Old Persian
Old Persian
and Babylonian. The inscription begins with a brief autobiography including his ancestry and lineage. To aid the presentation of his ancestry, Darius wrote down the sequence of events that occurred after the death of Cyrus the Great.[9][10] Darius mentions several times that he is the rightful king by the grace of Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
god. In addition, further texts and monuments from Persepolis
Persepolis
have been found, as well as a clay tablet containing an Old Persian
Old Persian
cuneiform of Darius from Gherla, Romania (Harmatta) and a letter from Darius to Gadates, preserved in a Greek text of the Roman period.[11][12][13][14] Herodotus, a Greek historian and author of The Histories, provided an account of many Persian kings and the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote extensively on Darius, spanning half of Book 3 along with Books 4, 5 and 6. It begins with the removal of the alleged usurper Gaumata and continues to the end of Darius's reign.[11] In the book of Daniel the king's name changes from 'king of the Chaldeans = Babylonians' to 'king of the Persians' which also occurred between the kingships of Darius I
Darius I
and Xerxes.[15] Additionally the 120 satraps mentioned in Daniel 6:1 can be translated as 20 tribute owing satraps.[16] The Book of Ezra
Book of Ezra
(chapter 6, verses 1 to 11) describes the decree to continue reconstruction of the Temple in Jerusalem, specifying financial support and supplies for the temple services. This decree is dated approximately 519 BCE.[17] Between Cyrus and Darius, an exchange of letters with King Ahasuerus and Artaxerxes is described (chapter 4, verse 7), the grandson of Darius I, during whose reign Ezra and Nehemiah came to Jerusalem. The generous funding of the temple gave Darius and his successors the support of the Jewish priesthood.[18][19] The Elephantine papyri however mention the high priest Johanan of Ezra 10:6 as a contemporary of Darius II. Darius is mentioned in the near-contemporary biblical books of Haggai and Zechariah (two of the Twelve Minor Prophets), whose account is also reflected in the later books of Ezra–Nehemiah. Early life[edit]

Darius as Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt
Egypt
at the Temple of Hibis

Darius was the eldest of five sons[citation needed] to Hystaspes and Rhodugune in 550 BCE. Hystaspes was a leading figure of authority in Persia, which was the homeland of the Persians. Darius's inscription states that his father was satrap of Bactria
Bactria
in 522 BCE. According to Herodotus, Hystaspes was the satrap of Persis, although most historians state that this is an error.[citation needed] Also according to Herodotus
Herodotus
(III.139), Darius, prior to seizing power and "of no consequence at the time", had served as a spearman (doryphoros) in the Egyptian campaign (528–525 BCE) of Cambyses II, then the Persian Great King.[20] Hystaspes was an officer in Cyrus's army and a noble of his court.[21] Before Cyrus and his army crossed the Aras River
Aras River
to battle with the Armenians, he installed his son Cambyses II
Cambyses II
as king in case he should not return from battle.[22] However, once Cyrus had crossed the Aras River, he had a vision in which Darius had wings atop his shoulders and stood upon the confines of Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
(the known world). When Cyrus awoke from the dream, he inferred it as a great danger to the future security of the empire, as it meant that Darius would one day rule the whole world. However, his son Cambyses was the heir to the throne, not Darius, causing Cyrus to wonder if Darius was forming treasonable and ambitious designs. This led Cyrus to order Hystaspes to go back to Persis
Persis
and watch over his son strictly, until Cyrus himself returned.[23] Darius did not seem to have any treasonous thoughts as Cambyses II
Cambyses II
ascended the throne peacefully; and, through promotion, Darius was eventually elevated to be Cambyses's personal lancer. Accession[edit] There are different accounts of the rise of Darius to the throne from both Darius himself and Greek historians. The oldest records report a convoluted sequence of events in which Cambyses II
Cambyses II
lost his mind, murdered his brother Bardiya, and was killed by an infected leg wound. After this, Darius and a group of six nobles traveled to Sikayauvati to kill an usurper, Gaumata, who had taken the throne by pretending to be Bardiya during the true king's absence. Many modern historians believe that Gaumata, in fact, was the true heir Bardiya, with the historical account being altered by Darius to make the coup d'etat appear more legitimate.[24] Darius's account, written at the Behistun Inscription, states that Cambyses II
Cambyses II
killed his own brother Bardiya, but that this murder was not known among the Iranian people. A would-be usurper named Gaumata came and lied to the people, stating he was Bardiya.[25] The Iranians had grown rebellious against Cambyses's rule and on 11 March 522 BCE a revolt against Cambyses broke out in his absence. On 1 July, the Iranian people
Iranian people
chose to be under the leadership of Gaumata, as "Bardiya". No member of the Achaemenid family would rise against Gaumata for the safety of their own life. Darius, who had served Cambyses as his lance-bearer until the deposed ruler's death, prayed for aid and in September 522 BCE, along with Otanes, Intraphrenes, Gobryas, Hydarnes, Megabyzus and Aspathines, killed Gaumata in the fortress of Sikayauvati.[25] Herodotus
Herodotus
provides a dubious account of Darius's ascension: Several days after Gaumata had been assassinated, Darius and the other six nobles discussed the fate of the empire. At first, the seven discussed the form of government; a democratic republic was strongly pushed by Otanes, an oligarchy was pushed by Megabyzus, while Darius pushed for a monarchy. After stating that a republic would lead to corruption and internal fighting, while a monarchy would be led with a single-mindedness not possible in other governments, Darius was able to convince the other nobles. To decide who would become the monarch, six of them decided on a test, with Otanes abstaining, as he had no interest in being king. They were to gather outside the palace, mounted on their horses at sunrise, and the man whose horse neighed first in recognition of the rising sun would become king. According to Herodotus, Darius had a slave, Oebares, who rubbed his hand over the genitals of a mare that Darius favored. When the six gathered, Oebares placed his hands beside the nostrils of Darius's horse, who became excited at the scent and neighed. This was followed by lightning and thunder, leading the others to dismount and kneel before Darius in recognition of his apparent divine providence.[26] In this account, Darius himself favored that he achieved the throne not through fraud, but cunning, even erecting a statue of himself mounted on his neighing horse with the inscription: "Darius, son of Hystaspes, obtained the sovereignty of Persia
Persia
by the sagacity of his horse and the ingenious contrivance of Oebares, his groom."[27] According to the accounts of Greek historians, Cambyses II
Cambyses II
had left Patizeithes in charge of the kingdom when he headed for Egypt. He later sent Prexaspes to murder Bardiya. After the killing, Patizeithes put his brother Gaumata, a Magian
Magian
who resembled Bardiya, on the throne and declared him the Great King. Otanes discovered that Gaumata was an impostor, and along with six other Iranian nobles including Darius, created a plan to oust the pseudo-Bardiya. After killing the impostor along with his brother Patizeithes and other Magians, Darius was crowned king the following morning.[11] Early reign[edit]

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Letter from Darius I
Darius I
to Gadatas, satrap in Ionia, about his management of a paradise (royal garden). Greek copy made during the Roman Era, found near Magnesia ad Mæandrum.

Following his coronation at Pasargadae, Darius moved to Ecbatana. He soon learned that support for Bardiya was strong, and revolts in Elam and Babylonia
Babylonia
had broken out. Darius ended the Elamite
Elamite
revolt when the revolutionary leader Aschina was captured and executed in Susa. After three months the revolt in Babylonia
Babylonia
had ended. While in Babylonia, Darius learned a revolution had broken out in Bactria, a satrapy which had always been in favour of Darius, and had initially volunteered an army of soldiers to quell revolts. Following this, revolts broke out in Persis, the homeland of the Persians and Darius and then in Elam and Babylonia, followed by in Media, Parthia, Assyria, and Egypt. By 522 BCE, there were revolts against Darius in most parts of the Achaemenid Empire
Achaemenid Empire
leaving the empire in turmoil. Even though Darius did not seem to have the support of the populace, Darius had a loyal army, led by close confidants and nobles (including the six nobles who had helped him remove Gaumata). With their support, Darius was able to suppress and quell all revolts within a year. In Darius's words, he had killed a total of eight "lying kings" through the quelling of revolutions. Darius left a detailed account of these revolutions in the Behistun Inscription. One of the significant events of Darius's early reign was the slaying of Intaphernes, one of the seven noblemen who had deposed the previous ruler and installed Darius as the new monarch. The seven had made an agreement that they could all visit the new king whenever they pleased, except when he was with his wife. One evening, Intaphernes went to the palace to meet Darius, but was stopped by two officers who stated that Darius had retired for the night. Becoming enraged and insulted, Intaphernes drew his sword and cut off the ears and noses of the two officers. While leaving the palace, he took the bridle from his horse, and tied the two officers together. The officers went to the king and showed him what Intaphernes had done to them. Darius began to fear for his own safety; he thought that all seven noblemen had banded together to rebel against him and that the attack against his officers was the first sign of revolt. He sent a messenger to each of the noblemen, asking them if they approved of Intaphernes's actions. They denied and disavowed any connection with Intaphernes's actions, stating that they stood by their decision to appoint Darius as King of Kings. Taking precautions against further resistance, Darius sent soldiers to seize Intaphernes, along with his son, family members, relatives and any friends who were capable of arming themselves. Darius believed that Intaphernes was planning a rebellion, but when he was brought to the court, there was no proof of any such plan. Nonetheless, Darius killed Intaphernes's entire family, excluding his wife's brother and son. She was asked to choose between her brother and son. She chose her brother to live. Her reasoning for doing so was that she could have another husband and another son, but she would always have but one brother. Darius was impressed by her response and spared both her brother's and her son's life.[28] Military campaigns[edit] After securing his authority over the entire empire, Darius embarked on a campaign to Egypt
Egypt
where he defeated the armies of the Pharaoh
Pharaoh
and secured the lands that Cambyses had conquered while incorporating a large portion of Egypt
Egypt
into the Achaemenid Empire.[29] Through another series of campaigns, Darius I
Darius I
would eventually reign over the territorial apex of the empire, when it stretched from parts of the Balkans
Balkans
(Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia) in the west, to the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
in the east. Invasion of Indus
Indus
Valley[edit]

Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire

Main article: Achaemenid invasion of the Indus
Indus
Valley In 516 BCE, Darius embarked on a campaign to Central Asia, Aria and Bactria
Bactria
and then marched into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Taxila in modern-day Pakistan. Darius spent the winter of 516–515 BCE in Gandhara, preparing to conquer the Indus
Indus
Valley. Darius conquered the lands surrounding the Indus River
Indus River
in 515 BCE.[30] Darius I
Darius I
controlled the Indus Valley
Indus Valley
from Gandhara
Gandhara
to modern Karachi
Karachi
and appointed the Greek Scylax of Caryanda to explore the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
from the mouth of the Indus
Indus
to Suez. Darius then marched through the Bolan Pass
Bolan Pass
and returned through Arachosia
Arachosia
and Drangiana
Drangiana
back to Persia. Babylonian revolt[edit]

Archers frieze from Darius' palace at Susa. Detail of the beginning of the frieze, left

After Bardiya was murdered, widespread revolts occurred throughout the empire, especially on the eastern side. Darius asserted his position as king by force, taking his armies throughout the empire, suppressing each revolt individually. The most notable of all these revolts was the Babylonian revolt which was led by Nebuchadnezzar III. This revolt occurred when Otanes withdrew much of the army from Babylon
Babylon
to aid Darius in suppressing other revolts. Darius felt that the Babylonian people had taken advantage of him and deceived him, which resulted in Darius gathering a large army and marching to Babylon. At Babylon, Darius was met with closed gates and a series of defences to keep him and his armies out.[31] Darius encountered mockery and taunting from the rebels, including the famous saying "Oh yes, you will capture our city, when mules shall have foals." For a year and a half, Darius and his armies were unable to retake the city, though he attempted many tricks and strategies—even copying that which Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
had employed when he captured Babylon. However, the situation changed in Darius's favour when, according to the story, a mule owned by Zopyrus, a high-ranking soldier, foaled. Following this, a plan was hatched for Zopyrus
Zopyrus
to pretend to be a deserter, enter the Babylonian camp, and gain the trust of the Babylonians. The plan was successful and Darius's army eventually surrounded the city and overcame the rebels.[32] During this revolt, Scythian nomads took advantage of the disorder and chaos and invaded Persia. Darius first finished defeating the rebels in Elam, Assyria, and Babylon
Babylon
and then attacked the Scythian invaders. He pursued the invaders, who led him to a marsh; there he found no known enemies but an enigmatic Scythian tribe.[33] European Scythian campaign[edit] Main article: European Scythian campaign of Darius I The Scythians
Scythians
were a group of north Iranian nomadic tribes, speaking an Iranian language
Iranian language
(Scythian languages) who had invaded Media, killed Cyrus in battle, revolted against Darius and threatened to disrupt trade between Central Asia
Central Asia
and the shores of the Black Sea
Black Sea
as they lived between the Danube
Danube
River, River Don and the Black Sea.[11][34] Darius crossed the Black Sea
Black Sea
at the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
Straits using a bridge of boats. Darius conquered large portions of Eastern Europe, even crossing the Danube
Danube
to wage war on the Scythians. Darius invaded European Scythia
Scythia
in 513 BC,[35] where the Scythians
Scythians
evaded Darius's army, using feints and retreating eastwards while laying waste to the countryside, by blocking wells, intercepting convoys, destroying pastures and continuous skirmishes against Darius's army.[36] Seeking to fight with the Scythians, Darius's army chased the Scythian army deep into Scythian lands, where there were no cities to conquer and no supplies to forage. In frustration Darius sent a letter to the Scythian ruler Idanthyrsus to fight or surrender. The ruler replied that he would not stand and fight with Darius until they found the graves of their fathers and tried to destroy them. Until then, they would continue their strategy as they had no cities or cultivated lands to lose.[37] Despite the evading tactics of the Scythians, Darius' campaign was so far relatively successful.[38] As presented by Herodotus, the tactics used by the Scythians
Scythians
resulted in the loss of their best lands and of damage to their loyal allies.[38] This gave Darius the initiative.[39] As he moved eastwards in the cultivated lands of the Scythians
Scythians
in Eastern Europe
Europe
proper, he remained resupplied by his fleet and lived to an extent off the land.[38] While moving eastwards in the European Scythian lands, he captured the large fortified city of the Budini, one of the allies of the Scythians, and burnt it.[38] Darius eventually ordered a halt at the banks of Oarus, where he built "eight great forts, some eight miles distant from each other", no doubt as a frontier defence.[38] In his Histories, Herodotus
Herodotus
states that the ruins of the forts were still standing in his day.[40] After chasing the Scythians
Scythians
for a month, Darius's army was suffering losses due to fatigue, privation and sickness. Concerned about losing more of his troops, Darius halted the march at the banks of the Volga River and headed towards Thrace.[41] He had conquered enough Scythian territory to force the Scythians
Scythians
to respect the Persian forces.[42][43] Persian invasion of Greece[edit] Main article: First Persian invasion of Greece See also: Ionian Revolt

Map showing key sites during the Persian invasions of Greece

Darius's European expedition was a major event in his reign, which began with the invasion of Thrace. Darius also conquered many cities of the northern Aegean, Paeonia, while Macedonia submitted voluntarily, after the demand of earth and water, becoming a vassal kingdom.[44] He then left Megabyzus to conquer Thrace, returning to Sardis
Sardis
to spend the winter. The Greeks living in Asia
Asia
Minor and some of the Greek islands had submitted to Persian rule already by 510 BCE. Nonetheless, there were certain Greeks who were pro-Persian, although these were largely based in Athens. To improve Greek-Persian relations, Darius opened his court and treasuries to those Greeks who wanted to serve him. These Greeks served as soldiers, artisans, statesmen and mariners for Darius. However, the increasing concerns amongst the Greeks over the strength of Darius's kingdom along with the constant interference by the Greeks in Ionia
Ionia
and Lydia
Lydia
were stepping stones towards the conflict that was yet to come between Persia
Persia
and certain of the leading Greek city states. When Aristagoras
Aristagoras
organized the Ionian Revolt, Eretria
Eretria
and Athens supported him by sending ships and troops to Ionia
Ionia
and by burning Sardis. Persian military and naval operations to quell the revolt ended in the Persian reoccupation of Ionian and Greek islands, as well as the re-subjugation of Thrace
Thrace
and the conquering of Macedonia in 492 BC under Mardonius.[45] Macedon
Macedon
had been a vassal kingdom of the Persians since the late 6th century BC, but retained autonomy. Mardonius' 492 campaign made it a fully subordinate part of the Persian kingdom.[44] These military actions, coming as a direct response to the revolt in Ionia, were the beginning of the First Persian invasion of (mainland) Greece. At the same time, anti-Persian parties gained more power in Athens, and pro-Persian aristocrats were exiled from Athens
Athens
and Sparta. Darius responded by sending troops led by his son-in-law across the Hellespont. However, a violent storm and harassment by the Thracians
Thracians
forced the troops to return to Persia. Seeking revenge on Athens
Athens
and Eretria, Darius assembled another army of 20,000 men under his Admiral, Datis, and his nephew Artaphernes, who met success when they captured Eretria
Eretria
and advanced to Marathon. In 490 BCE, at the Battle of Marathon, the Persian army was defeated by a heavily armed Athenian army, with 9,000 men who were supported by 600 Plataeans and 10,000 lightly armed soldiers led by Miltiades. The defeat at Marathon marked the end of the first Persian invasion of Greece. Darius began preparations for a second force which he would command, instead of his generals; however, before the preparations were complete, Darius died, thus leaving the task to his son Xerxes.[42] Family[edit]

Achamenid Family Tree

Darius was the son of Hystaspes and the grandson of Arsames. Both men belonged to the Achaemenid tribe and were still alive when Darius ascended the throne. Darius justifies his ascension to the throne with his lineage. He claimed he could trace his ancestors back to Achaemenes, even though he was only distantly related. With this in mind, Darius married Atossa, daughter of Cyrus, with whom he had four sons: Xerxes, Achaemenes, Masistes
Masistes
and Hystaspes. He also married Artystone, another daughter of Cyrus, with whom he had two sons, Arsames and Gobryas. Darius married Parmys, the daughter of Bardiya, with whom he had a son, Ariomardus. Furthermore, Darius married Phratagune, with whom he had two sons, Abrokomas and Hyperantes. He also married another woman of the nobility, Phaidyme, the daughter of Otanes. It is unknown if he had any children with her. Before these royal marriages, Darius had married an unknown daughter of his good friend and lance carrier Gobryas from an early marriage, with whom he had three sons, Artobazanes, Ariabignes
Ariabignes
and Arsamenes. Any daughters he had with her are not known. Although Artobazanes was Darius's first-born, Xerxes became heir and the next king through the influence of Atossa; she had great authority in the kingdom as Darius loved her the most of all his wives. Death[edit]

Tomb of Darius the Great, located next to other Achaemenid kings at Naqsh-e Rustam

After becoming aware of the Persian defeat at the Battle of Marathon, Darius began planning another expedition against the Greek-city states; this time, he, not Datis, would command the imperial armies. Darius had spent three years preparing men and ships for war when a revolt broke out in Egypt. This revolt in Egypt
Egypt
worsened his failing health and prevented the possibility of his leading another army. Soon after, Darius died. In October 486 BCE, the body of Darius was embalmed and entombed in the rock-cut sepulchre that had been prepared for him several years earlier. Xerxes, the eldest son of Darius and Atossa, succeeded to the throne as Xerxes I; however, prior to Xerxes's accession, he contested the succession with his elder half-brother Artobarzanes, Darius's eldest son who was born to his commoner first wife before Darius rose to power.[46] In 1923 German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld
Ernst Herzfeld
made casts of the cuneiform inscriptions on Darius's tomb where he records his Parsi ancestry for posterity, “parsa parsahya puthra ariya ariyachitra”, meaning, “a Parsi, the son of a Parsi, an Aryan, of Aryan family (Inscription at Naqsh-i-Rustam, near Persepolis, Iran). They are currently housed in the archives of the Freer Gallery of Art
Freer Gallery of Art
and Arthur M. Sackler Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Government[edit] Organization[edit]

Darius I, imagined by a Greek painter, 4th century BCE

Early in his reign, Darius wanted to reorganize the structure of the empire and reform the system of taxation he inherited from Cyrus and Cambyses. To do this, Darius created twenty provinces called satrapies (or archi) which were each assigned to a satrap (archon) and specified fixed tributes that the satrapies were required to pay. A complete list is preserved in the catalogue of Herodotus, beginning with Ionia and listing the other satrapies from west to east excluding Persis which was the land of the Persians and the only province which was not a conquered land. Tributes were paid in both silver and gold talents. Tributes in silver from each satrap were measured with the Babylonian talent. Those paid in gold were measured with the Euboic talent. The total tribute from the satraps came to an amount less than 15,000 silver talents.[47] The majority of the satraps were of Persian origin and were members of the royal house or the six great noble families. These satraps were personally picked by Darius to monitor these provinces. Each of these provinces were divided into sub-provinces with their own governors which were chosen either by the royal court or by the satrap. To assess tributes, a commission evaluated the expenses and revenues of each satrap. To ensure that one person did not gain too much power, each satrap had a secretary who observed the affairs of the state and communicated with Darius, a treasurer who safeguarded provincial revenues and a garrison commander who was responsible for the troops. Additionally, royal inspectors who were the "eyes and ears" of Darius completed further checks on each satrap.[48] The imperial administration was coordinated by the chancery with headquarters at Persepolis, Susa, and Babylon
Babylon
with Bactria, Ecbatana, Sardis, Dascylium and Memphis having branches. Darius chose Aramaic
Aramaic
as a common language, which soon spread throughout the empire. However, Darius gathered a group of scholars to create a separate language system only used for Persis
Persis
and the Persians, which was called Aryan script which was only used for official inscriptions.[48] Economy[edit]

Gold darics such as this one (with a purity of 95.83%) were only issued by the king himself. (c. 490 BCE).

Darius introduced a new universal currency, the daric, sometime before 500 BCE. Darius used the coinage system as a transnational currency to regulate trade and commerce throughout his empire. The daric was also recognized beyond the borders of the empire, in places such as Celtic Central Europe
Europe
and Eastern Europe. There were two types of darics, a gold daric and a silver daric. Only the king could mint gold darics. Important generals and satraps minted silver darics, the latter usually to recruit Greek mercenaries in Anatolia. The daric was a major boost to international trade. Trade goods such as textiles, carpets, tools and metal objects began to travel throughout Asia, Europe
Europe
and Africa. To further improve trade, Darius built the Royal Road, a postal system and Phoenician-based commercial shipping. The daric also improved government revenues as the introduction of the daric made it easier to collect new taxes on land, livestock and marketplaces. This led to the registration of land which was measured and then taxed. The increased government revenues helped maintain and improve existing infrastructure and helped fund irrigation projects in dry lands. This new tax system also led to the formation of state banking and the creation of banking firms. One of the most famous banking firms was Murashu Sons, based in the Babylonian city of Nippur.[49] These banking firms provided loans and credit to clients.[50] The daric was called dārayaka within the empire and was most likely named after Darius. In an effort to further improve trade, Darius built canals, underground waterways and a powerful navy. He further improved and expanded the network of roads and way stations throughout the empire, so that there was a system of travel authorization for the King, satraps and other high officials, which entitled the traveller to draw provisions at daily stopping places.[51][48] Religion[edit]

By the grace of Ahuramazda am I king; Ahuramazda has granted me the kingdom. — Darius, on the Behistun Inscription

While there is no absolute consensus about the adherence of the kings before Darius, such as Cyrus and Cambyses, it is well established that Darius was an adherent of Zoroastrianism[52] or at least a firm believer in Ahura Mazda. As can be seen at the Behistun Inscription, Darius believed that Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
had appointed him to rule the Achaemenid Empire. Darius had dualistic philosophical convictions and believed that each rebellion in his kingdom was the work of druj, the enemy of Asha. Darius believed that because he lived righteously by Asha, Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
supported him.[53] In many cuneiform inscriptions denoting his achievements, he presents himself as a devout believer, perhaps even convinced that he had a divine right to rule over the world.[54] In the lands that were conquered by his empire, Darius followed the same Achaemenid tolerance that Cyrus had shown and later Achaemenid kings would show. He supported faiths and religions that were "alien" as long as the adherents were submissive and peaceable, sometimes giving them grants from his treasury for their purposes.[55] He had funded the restoration of the Israelite temple which had originally been decreed by Cyrus, was supportive towards Greek cults which can be seen in his letter to Gadatas, and supported Elamite
Elamite
priests. He had also observed Egyptian religious rites related to kingship and had built the temple for the Egyptian god, Amun.[56] Some scholars identify Dhul-Qarnayn, a figure mentioned in Quran, with Darius.[57][self-published source] Construction[edit]

Reconstruction drawing of the Palace of Darius in Susa

The ruins of Tachara
Tachara
palace in Persepolis

During Darius's Greek expedition, he had begun construction projects in Susa, Egypt
Egypt
and Persepolis. He had linked the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the river Nile
Nile
by building a canal (Darius Canal) which ran from modern Zaqāzīq to modern Suez. To open this canal, he travelled to Egypt
Egypt
in 497 BCE, where the inauguration was carried out with great fanfare and celebration. Darius also built a canal to connect the Red Sea
Red Sea
and Mediterranean.[46][58] On this visit to Egypt
Egypt
he erected monuments and executed Aryandes on the charge of treason. When Darius returned to Persis, he found that the codification of Egyptian law had been finished.[42] Additionally, Darius sponsored large construction projects in Susa, Babylon, Egypt, and Persepolis. In Susa, Darius built a new palace complex in the north of the city. An inscription states that the palace was destroyed during the reign of Artaxerxes I, but was rebuilt. Today only glazed bricks of the palace remain, the majority of them in the Louvre. In Pasargadae
Pasargadae
Darius finished all incomplete construction projects from the reign of Cyrus the Great. A palace was also built during the reign of Darius, with an inscription in the name of Cyrus the Great. It was previously believed that Cyrus had constructed this building, however due to the cuneiform script being used, the palace is believed to have been constructed by Darius. In Egypt
Egypt
Darius built many temples and restored those that had previously been destroyed. Even though Darius was a Zoroastrian, he built temples dedicated to the Gods of the Ancient Egyptian religion. Several temples found were dedicated to Ptah
Ptah
and Nekhbet. Darius also created several roads and routes in Egypt. The monuments that Darius built were often inscribed in the official languages of the Persian Empire, Old Persian, Elamite
Elamite
and Babylonian and Egyptian hieroglyphs. To construct these monuments Darius employed a large number of workers and artisans of diverse nationalities. Several of these workers were deportees who had been employed specifically for these projects. These deportees enhanced the empire's economy and improved inter-cultural relations.[48] At the time of Darius's death construction projects were still under way. Xerxes completed these works and in some cases expanded his father's projects by erecting new buildings of his own.[59] See also[edit]

Darius the Mede Tachara Tomb of Darius I

References[edit]

^ Collins, John J.; Manning, J. G. (2016). Revolt and Resistance in the Ancient Classical World and the Near East: In the Crucible of Empire. BRILL. p. 99. ISBN 9789004330184.  ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol 46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. ISBN 3-8053-2310-7, pp. 220–21. ^ Mary Boyce, Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, (Taylor & Francis, 1979), 54–55. ^ The Behistun Inscription ^ "DĀḠESTĀN". Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ "The Making of the Georgian Nation". Retrieved 29 December 2014.  ^ Pollard, Elizabeth (2015). Worlds Together, Worlds Apart concise edition vol.1. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-393-25093-0.  ^ Shahbazi 1996, p. 40. ^ Duncker 1882, p. 192. ^ Egerton 1994, p. 6. ^ a b c d Shahbazi 1996, p. 41. ^ Kuhrt 2013, p. 197. ^ Frye 1984, p. 103. ^ Schmitt 2000, p. 53. ^ Roman Ghirshman, Iran
Iran
(1954), Penguin Books, p 191. ^ Wilhelm Gesenius, Hebräisches und Aramäisches Handwörterbuch über das Alte Testament, 17. Auflage (1962), Springer-Verlag, p 392. ^ Pfandl, Gerhard (2004). Daniel: The Seer of Babylon. Herald Publishing Association. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8280-1829-6.  ^ Tropea 2006, p. 54–55. ^ Bedford 2001, p. 183–184. ^ Cook 1985, p. 217. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 14. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 14–15. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 15–16. ^ Boardman 1988, p. 53. ^ a b Boardman 1988, p. 54. ^ Poolos 2008, p. 17. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 98. ^ Abbott 2009, p. 99–101. ^ Del Testa 2001, p. 47. ^ Darius the Great ^ Abott 2009, p. 129. ^ Sélincourt 2002, p. 234–235. ^ Siliotti 2006, p. 286–287. ^ Woolf 2004, p. 686. ^ Miroslav Ivanov Vasilev. "The Policy of Darius and Xerxes towards Thrace
Thrace
and Macedonia" ISBN 90-04-28215-7 p 70 ^ Ross 2004, p. 291. ^ Beckwith 2009, p. 68–69. ^ a b c d e Boardman 1982, pp. 239–243. ^ Boardman 2012, pp. 239–243. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
2015, pp. 352. ^ Chaliand 2004, p. 16. ^ a b c Shahbazi 1996, p. 45. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9.  ^ a b Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 1-4443-5163-X pp 135–138, p 343 ^ Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington. "A companion to Ancient Macedonia" John Wiley & Sons, 2011. ISBN 1-4443-5163-X pp 135–138 ^ a b Shahbazi. ^ Shahbazi 1996, p. 47. ^ a b c d Shahbazi 1996, p. 48. ^ Farrokh 2007, p. 65. ^ Farrokh 2007, p. 65–66. ^ Verlag 2009, p. 86. ^ Moulton 2005, p. 48. ^ Boyce 1979, p. 55. ^ Boyce 1979, p. 54–55. ^ Boyce 1979, p. 56. ^ Shahbazi 1996, p. 49. ^ Umar, Imam Warith-Deen (2011). Yahvehism: The Religion of Prophet Moses and His People, the Ancient Hebrews. Xlibris Corporation. p. 290. ISBN 9781456818531.  ^ Spielvogel 2009, p. 49. ^ Boardman 1988, p. 76.

Bibliography[edit]

Abott, Jacob (1850), History of Darius the Great, New York: Harper & Bros  Balentine, Samuel (1999), The Torah's vision of worship, Minneapolis: Fortress Press, ISBN 978-0-8006-3155-0  Bedford, Peter (2001), Temple restoration in early Achaemenid Judah (illustrated ed.), Leiden: BRILL, ISBN 978-90-04-11509-5  Bennett, Deb (1998), Conquerors: The Roots of New World horsemanship, Solvang, CA: Amigo Publications, Inc., ISBN 0-9658533-0-6  Boardman, John (1988), The Cambridge ancient history, Volume 4, The Cambridge ancient history, IV (II ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-22804-2  Boardman, John, ed. (1982). The Cambridge Ancient History. 10: Persia, Greece, and the Western Mediterranean. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 239–243. ISBN 978-0-521-22804-6.  Boyce, Mary (1979), Zoroastrians: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, London: Routledge, ISBN 0-7100-0121-5  Cook, J. M. (1985), "The Rise of the Achaemenids and Establishment of their Empire", The Median and Achaemenian Periods, Cambridge History of Iran, 2, London: Cambridge University Press  Herodotus, ed. (2015). The Histories. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 352. ISBN 978-0-375-71271-5.  Safra, Jacob (2002), The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc, ISBN 0-85229-787-4  Sélincourt, Aubrey (2002), The Histories, London: Penguin Classics, ISBN 0-14-044908-6  Shahbazi, Shapur (1996), " Darius I
Darius I
the Great", Encyclopedia Iranica, 7, New York: Columbia University  Siliotti, Alberto (2006), Hidden Treasures of Antiquity, Vercelli, Italy: VMB Publishers, ISBN 88-540-0497-9  Spielvogel, Jackson (2009), Western Civilization: Seventh edition, Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth, ISBN 0-495-50285-5  Tropea, Judith (2006), Classic Biblical Baby Names: Timeless Names for Modern Parents, New York: Bantam Books, ISBN 0-553-38393-0  Van De Mieroop, Marc (2003), A History of the Ancient Near East: Ca. 3000-323 BC, "Blackwell History of the Ancient World" series, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-22552-2  Verlag, Chronik (2008), The Chronicle of World History, Old Saybrook, CT: Konecky and Konecky, ISBN 1-56852-680-6  Duncker, Max (1882), Evelyn Abbott, ed., The history of antiquity (Volume 6 ed.), R. Bentley & son  Egerton, George (1994), Political memoir: essays on the politics of memory, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-7146-3471-5  Moulton, James (2005), Early Zoroastrianism, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4179-7400-9  Del Testa, David (2001), Government leaders, military rulers, and political activists (illustrated ed.), Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1-57356-153-2  Poolos, J (2008), Darius the Great (illustrated ed.), Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7910-9633-8  Kuhrt, A. (2013). The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-01694-3.  Farrokh, Kaveh (2007), Shadows in the desert: ancient Persia
Persia
at war, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 978-1-84603-108-3  Beckwith, Christopher (2009), Empires of the Silk Road: a history of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the present (illustrated ed.), Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2  Chaliand, Gérard (2004), Nomadic empires: from Mongolia to the Danube (illustrated, annotated ed.), Transaction Publishers, ISBN 978-0-7658-0204-0  Woolf, Alex; Steven Maddocks; Richard Balkwill; Thomas McCarthy (2004), Exploring Ancient Civilizations (illustrated ed.), Marshall Cavendish, ISBN 978-0-7614-7456-2  Ross, William; H. G. Wells (2004), The Outline of History: Volume 1 (Barnes & Noble Library of Essential Reading): Prehistory to the Roman Republic (illustrated ed.), Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7607-5866-3, retrieved 28 July 2011  Abbott, Jacob (2009), History of Darius the Great: Makers of History, Cosimo, Inc., ISBN 978-1-60520-835-0 

Further reading[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Darius.

Burn, A.R. (1984). Persia
Persia
and the Greeks : the defence of the West, c. 546-478 B.C. (2nd ed.). Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-1235-2.  Ghirshman, Roman (1964). The Arts of Ancient Iran
Iran
from Its Origins to the Time of Alexander the Great. New York: Golden Press.  Olmstead, Albert T. (1948). History of the Persian Empire, Achaemenid Period. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.  Vogelsang, W.J. (1992). The rise and organisation of the Achaemenid Empire : the eastern Iranian evidence. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-09682-5.  Warner, Arthur G. (1905). The Shahnama of Firdausi. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co.  Wiesehöfer, Josef (1996). Ancient Persia : from 550 BC to 650 AD. Azizeh Azodi, trans. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-999-0.  Wilber, Donald N. (1989). Persepolis : the archaeology of Parsa, seat of the Persian kings (Rev. ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press. ISBN 0-87850-062-6. 

External links[edit]

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Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Learning resources from Wikiversity

Darius I Achaemenid Empire Born: 550 BCE Died: 486 BCE

Preceded by Bardiya King of Kings
King of Kings
of Persia 522 BCE–486 BCE Succeeded by Xerxes I

Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Egypt 522–486 BCE

v t e

Median and Achaemenid kings

Family tree

Median (728–550 BC)

Deioces Phraortes Madius Cyaxares Astyages

Achaemenid (550–330 BC)

Achaemenes Ariaramnes Arsames Teispes Cyrus I Cambyses I Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(Cyrus II) Cambyses II Smerdis Gaumata Darius the Great (Darius I) Xerxes the Great (Xerxes I) Artaxerxes I Xerxes II Sogdianus Darius II
Darius II
Nothus Artaxerxes II Mnemon Artaxerxes III
Artaxerxes III
Ochus Artaxerxes IV Arses Darius III
Darius III
Codomannus Artaxerxes V Bessus

Italics indicate kings not directly attested and so possibly legendary.

v t e

Pharaohs

Protodynastic to First Intermediate Period  (<3150–2040 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Protodynastic (pre-3150 BC)

Lower

Hsekiu Khayu Tiu Thesh Neheb Wazner Mekh Double Falcon

Upper

Scorpion I Crocodile Iry-Hor Ka Scorpion II Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes

Early Dynastic (3150–2686 BC)

I

Narmer
Narmer
/ Menes Hor-Aha Djer Djet Merneith
Merneith
Den Anedjib Semerkhet Qa'a Sneferka Horus Bird

II

Hotepsekhemwy Nebra/Raneb Nynetjer Ba Nubnefer Horus Sa Weneg-Nebty Wadjenes Senedj Seth-Peribsen Sekhemib-Perenmaat Neferkara I Neferkasokar Hudjefa I Khasekhemwy

Old Kingdom (2686–2181 BC)

III

Nebka Djoser Sekhemkhet Sanakht Khaba Qahedjet Huni

IV

Snefru Khufu Djedefre Khafre Bikheris Menkaure Shepseskaf Thamphthis

V

Userkaf Sahure Neferirkare
Neferirkare
Kakai Neferefre Shepseskare Nyuserre Ini Menkauhor Kaiu Djedkare Isesi Unas

VI

Teti Userkare Pepi I Merenre Nemtyemsaf I Pepi II Merenre Nemtyemsaf II Netjerkare Siptah

1st Intermediate (2181–2040 BC)

VIII

Menkare Neferkare II Neferkare III Neby Djedkare Shemai Neferkare IV Khendu Merenhor Neferkamin Nikare Neferkare V Tereru Neferkahor Neferkare VI Pepiseneb Neferkamin
Neferkamin
Anu Qakare Iby Neferkaure Neferkauhor Neferirkare Wadjkare Khuiqer Khui

IX

Meryibre Khety Neferkare VII Nebkaure Khety Setut

X

Meryhathor Neferkare VIII Wahkare Khety Merykare

Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  (2040–1550 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Middle Kingdom (2040–1802 BC)

XI

Mentuhotep I Intef I Intef II Intef III Mentuhotep II Mentuhotep III Mentuhotep IV

Nubia

Segerseni Qakare Ini Iyibkhentre

XII

Amenemhat I Senusret I Amenemhat II Senusret II Senusret III Amenemhat III Amenemhat IV Sobekneferu
Sobekneferu

2nd Intermediate (1802–1550 BC)

XIII

Sekhemrekhutawy Sobekhotep Sonbef Nerikare Sekhemkare
Sekhemkare
Amenemhat V Ameny Qemau Hotepibre Iufni Ameny Antef Amenemhet VI Semenkare Nebnuni Sehetepibre Sewadjkare Nedjemibre Khaankhre Sobekhotep Renseneb Hor Sekhemrekhutawy Khabaw Djedkheperew Sebkay Sedjefakare Wegaf Khendjer Imyremeshaw Sehetepkare Intef Seth Meribre Sobekhotep III Neferhotep I Sihathor Sobekhotep IV Merhotepre Sobekhotep Khahotepre Sobekhotep Wahibre Ibiau Merneferre Ay Merhotepre Ini Sankhenre Sewadjtu Mersekhemre Ined Sewadjkare Hori Merkawre Sobekhotep Mershepsesre Ini II Sewahenre Senebmiu Merkheperre Merkare Sewadjare Mentuhotep Seheqenre Sankhptahi

XIV

Yakbim Sekhaenre Ya'ammu Nubwoserre Qareh Khawoserre 'Ammu Ahotepre Maaibre Sheshi Nehesy Khakherewre Nebefawre Sehebre Merdjefare Sewadjkare III Nebdjefare Webenre Nebsenre Sekheperenre Djedkherewre Bebnum 'Apepi Nuya Wazad Sheneh Shenshek Khamure Yakareb Yaqub-Har

XV

Semqen 'Aper-'Anati Sakir-Har Khyan Apepi Khamudi

XVI

Djehuti Sobekhotep VIII Neferhotep III Mentuhotepi Nebiryraw I Nebiriau II Semenre Bebiankh Sekhemre Shedwast Dedumose I Dedumose II Montuemsaf Merankhre Mentuhotep Senusret IV Pepi III

Abydos

Senebkay Wepwawetemsaf Pantjeny Snaaib

XVII

Rahotep Nebmaatre Sobekemsaf I Sobekemsaf II Sekhemre-Wepmaat Intef Nubkheperre Intef Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef Senakhtenre Ahmose Seqenenre Tao Kamose

New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period  (1550–664 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

New Kingdom (1550–1070 BC)

XVIII

Ahmose I Amenhotep I Thutmose I Thutmose II Thutmose III Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut
Amenhotep II Thutmose IV Amenhotep III Akhenaten Smenkhkare Neferneferuaten
Neferneferuaten
Tutankhamun Ay Horemheb

XIX

Ramesses I Seti I Ramesses II Merneptah Amenmesses Seti II Siptah Twosret
Twosret

XX

Setnakhte Ramesses III Ramesses IV Ramesses V Ramesses VI Ramesses VII Ramesses VIII Ramesses IX Ramesses X Ramesses XI

3rd Intermediate (1069–664 BC)

XXI

Smendes Amenemnisu Psusennes I Amenemope Osorkon the Elder Siamun Psusennes II

XXII

Shoshenq I Osorkon I Shoshenq II Takelot I Osorkon II Shoshenq III Shoshenq IV Pami Shoshenq V Osorkon IV

XXIII

Harsiese A Takelot II Pedubast I Shoshenq VI Osorkon III Takelot III Rudamun Menkheperre Ini

XXIV

Tefnakht Bakenranef

XXV

Piye Shebitku Shabaka Taharqa Tanutamun

Late Period and Hellenistic Period  (664–30 BC)

Period

Dynasty

Pharaohs  (male female ) uncertain

Late (664–332 BC)

XXVI

Necho I Psamtik I Necho II Psamtik II Wahibre Ahmose II Psamtik III

XXVII

Cambyses II Petubastis III Darius I Xerxes Artaxerxes I Darius II

XXVIII

Amyrtaeus

XXIX

Nepherites I Hakor Psammuthes Nepherites II

XXX

Nectanebo I Teos Nectanebo II

XXXI

Artaxerxes III Khabash Arses Darius III

Hellenistic (332–30 BC)

Argead

Alexander the Great Philip III Arrhidaeus Alexander IV

Ptolemaic

Ptolemy I Soter Ptolemy II Philadelphus Ptolemy III Euergetes Ptolemy IV Philopator Ptolemy V Epiphanes Ptolemy VI Philometor Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator Ptolemy VIII Euergetes Ptolemy IX Soter Ptolemy X Alexander I Ptolemy XI Alexander II Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Berenice IV Cleopatra
Cleopatra
Ptolemy XV Caesarion

Dynastic genealogies

1st 4th 11th 12th 18th 19th 20th 21st to 23rd 25th 26th 27th 30th 31st Ptolemaic

List of pharaohs

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 15560660 LCCN: n50066820 ISNI: 0000 0001 2095 6470 GND: 118523791 SUDOC: 050127276 BNF: cb126902644 (dat

.