Algae (/ˈældʒi, ˈælɡi/; singular alga /ˈælɡə/) is an
informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms
that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Included organisms range from unicellular microalgae genera, such as
Chlorella and the diatoms, to multicellular forms, such as the giant
kelp, a large brown alga which may grow up to 50 m in length.
Most are aquatic and autotrophic and lack many of the distinct cell
and tissue types, such as stomata, xylem, and phloem, which are found
in land plants. The largest and most complex marine algae are called
seaweeds, while the most complex freshwater forms are the Charophyta,
a division of green algae which includes, for example,
No definition of algae is generally accepted. One definition is that
algae "have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment and
lack a sterile covering of cells around their reproductive cells".
Some authors exclude all prokaryotes and thus do not consider
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) as algae.
Algae constitute a polyphyletic group since they do not include a
common ancestor, and although their plastids seem to have a single
origin, from cyanobacteria, they were acquired in different ways.
Green algae are examples of algae that have primary chloroplasts
derived from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Diatoms and brown algae are
examples of algae with secondary chloroplasts derived from an
endosymbiotic red alga.
Algae exhibit a wide range of reproductive strategies, from simple
asexual cell division to complex forms of sexual reproduction.
Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such
as the phyllids (leaf-like structures) of bryophytes, rhizoids in
nonvascular plants, and the roots, leaves, and other organs found in
tracheophytes (vascular plants). Most are phototrophic, although some
are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake
of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy.
Some unicellular species of green algae, many golden algae, euglenids,
dinoflagellates, and other algae have become heterotrophs (also called
colorless or apochlorotic algae), sometimes parasitic, relying
entirely on external energy sources and have limited or no
photosynthetic apparatus. Some other heterotrophic
organisms, such as the apicomplexans, are also derived from cells
whose ancestors possessed plastids, but are not traditionally
considered as algae.
Algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately
derived from cyanobacteria that produce oxygen as a by-product of
photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple
and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the
Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years
Etymology and study
3 Relationship to land plants
6 Symbiotic algae
6.3 Sea sponges
11 Cultural associations
12.3 Energy source
12.6 Pollution control
12.10 Stabilizing substances
13 Additional images
14 See also
17 External links
Etymology and study
The singular alga is the Latin word for "seaweed" and retains that
meaning in English. The etymology is obscure. Although some
speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, "be cold", no
reason is known to associate seaweed with temperature. A more likely
source is alliga, "binding, entwining".
Ancient Greek word for seaweed was φῦκος (phŷcos), which
could mean either the seaweed (probably red algae) or a red dye
derived from it. The Latinization, fūcus, meant primarily the
cosmetic rouge. The etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has
long been some word related to the Biblical פוך (pūk), "paint" (if
not that word itself), a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient
Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean. It could
be any color: black, red, green, or blue.
Accordingly, the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called
either phycology or algology, depending on whether the Greek or Latin
root is used. The name Fucus appears in a number of taxa.
Further information: wikispecies:Algae
False-color scanning electron micrograph of the unicellular
The algae contain chloroplasts that are similar in structure to
cyanobacteria. Chloroplasts contain circular
DNA like that in
cyanobacteria and are interpreted as representing reduced
endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. However, the exact origin of the
chloroplasts is different among separate lineages of algae, reflecting
their acquisition during different endosymbiotic events. The table
below describes the composition of the three major groups of algae.
Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper
right. Many of these groups contain some members that are no longer
photosynthetic. Some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts, while
others have lost plastids entirely.
Phylogeny based on plastid not nucleocytoplasmic genealogy:
Land plants (Embryophyta)
These algae have 'primary' chloroplasts, i.e. the chloroplasts are
surrounded by two membranes and probably developed through a single
endosymbiotic event. The chloroplasts of red algae have chlorophylls a
and c (often), and phycobilins, while those of green algae have
chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and b without phycobilins. Land plants
are pigmented similarly to green algae and probably developed from
them, thus the
Chlorophyta is a sister taxon to the plants; sometimes
the Chlorophyta, the Charophyta, and land plants are grouped together
as the Viridiplantae.
Excavata and Rhizaria
These groups have green chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and
b. Their chloroplasts are surrounded by four and three membranes,
respectively, and were probably retained from ingested green algae.
Chlorarachniophytes, which belong to the phylum Cercozoa, contain a
small nucleomorph, which is a relict of the algae's nucleus.
Euglenids, which belong to the phylum Euglenozoa, live primarily in
fresh water and have chloroplasts with only three membranes. The
endosymbiotic green algae may have been acquired through myzocytosis
rather than phagocytosis.
Chromista and Alveolata
These groups have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and c, and
phycobilins. The shape varies from plant to plant; they may be of
discoid, plate-like, reticulate, cup-shaped, spiral, or ribbon shaped.
They have one or more pyrenoids to preserve protein and starch. The
latter chlorophyll type is not known from any prokaryotes or primary
chloroplasts, but genetic similarities with red algae suggest a
In the first three of these groups (Chromista), the chloroplast has
four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in cryptomonads, and they
likely share a common pigmented ancestor, although other evidence
casts doubt on whether the heterokonts, Haptophyta, and cryptomonads
are in fact more closely related to each other than to other
The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but
considerable diversity exists in chloroplasts within the group, and a
number of endosymbiotic events apparently occurred. The
Apicomplexa, a group of closely related parasites, also have plastids
called apicoplasts, which are not photosynthetic, but appear to have a
common origin with dinoflagellate chloroplasts.
Title page of Gmelin's Historia Fucorum, dated 1768
Species Plantarum (1753), the starting point for
modern botanical nomenclature, recognized 14 genera of algae, of which
only four are currently considered among algae. In Systema
Linnaeus described the genera
Volvox and Corallina, and a
Acetabularia (as Madrepora), among the animals.
Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin
Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin (1744–1774) published the Historia
Fucorum, the first work dedicated to marine algae and the first book
on marine biology to use the then new binomial nomenclature of
Linnaeus. It included elaborate illustrations of seaweed and marine
algae on folded leaves.
W.H.Harvey (1811—1866) and
Lamouroux (1813) were the first to
divide macroscopic algae into four divisions based on their
pigmentation. This is the first use of a biochemical criterion in
plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: red algae
(Rhodospermae), brown algae (Melanospermae), green algae
(Chlorospermae), and Diatomaceae.
At this time, microscopic algae were discovered and reported by a
different group of workers (e.g., O. F. Müller and Ehrenberg)
Infusoria (microscopic organisms). Unlike macroalgae,
which were clearly viewed as plants, microalgae were frequently
considered animals because they are often motile. Even the
nonmotile (coccoid) microalgae were sometimes merely seen as stages of
the lifecycle of plants, macroalgae, or animals.
Although used as a taxonomic category in some pre-Darwinian
Linnaeus (1753), de Jussieu (1789), Horaninow
(1843), Agassiz (1859), Wilson & Cassin (1864), in further
classifications, the "algae" are seen as an artificial, polyphyletic
Throughout the 20th century, most classifications treated the
following groups as divisions or classes of algae: cyanophytes,
rhodophytes, chrysophytes, xanthophytes, bacillariophytes,
phaeophytes, pyrrhophytes (cryptophytes and dinophytes),
euglenophytes, and chlorophytes. Later, many new groups were
discovered (e.g., Bolidophyceae), and others were splintered from
older groups: charophytes and glaucophytes (from chlorophytes), many
heterokontophytes (e.g., synurophytes from chrysophytes, or
eustigmatophytes from xanthophytes), haptophytes (from chrysophytes),
and chlorarachniophytes (from xanthophytes).
With the abandonment of plant-animal dichotomous classification, most
groups of algae (sometimes all) were included in Protista, later also
abandoned in favour of Eukaryota. However, as a legacy of the older
plant life scheme, some groups that were also treated as protozoans in
the past still have duplicated classifications (see ambiregnal
Some parasitic algae (e.g., the green algae
Helicosporidium, parasites of metazoans, or Cephaleuros, parasites of
plants) were originally classified as fungi, sporozoans, or protistans
of incertae sedis, while others (e.g., the green algae
Phyllosiphon and Rhodochytrium, parasites of plants, or the red algae
Pterocladiophila and Gelidiocolax mammillatus, parasites of other red
algae, or the dinoflagellates Oodinium, parasites of fish) had their
relationship with algae conjectured early. In other cases, some groups
were originally characterized as parasitic algae (e.g.,
Chlorochytrium), but later were seen as endophytic algae. Some
filamentous bacteria (e.g., Beggiatoa) were originally seen as algae.
Furthermore, groups like the apicomplexans are also parasites derived
from ancestors that possessed plastids, but are not included in any
group traditionally seen as algae.
Relationship to land plants
The first land plants probably evolved from shallow freshwater
charophyte algae much like Chara almost 500 million years ago. These
probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were
probably filamentous. Fossils of isolated land plant spores suggest
land plants may have been around as long as 475 million years
The kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium: A
three-dimensional, multicellular thallus
A range of algal morphologies is exhibited, and convergence of
features in unrelated groups is common. The only groups to exhibit
three-dimensional multicellular thalli are the reds and browns, and
some chlorophytes. Apical growth is constrained to subsets of
these groups: the florideophyte reds, various browns, and the
charophytes. The form of charophytes is quite different from those
of reds and browns, because they have distinct nodes, separated by
internode 'stems'; whorls of branches reminiscent of the horsetails
occur at the nodes. Conceptacles are another polyphyletic trait;
they appear in the coralline algae and the Hildenbrandiales, as well
as the browns.
Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids,
but colonial and nonmotile forms have developed independently among
several of the groups. Some of the more common organizational levels,
more than one of which may occur in the lifecycle of a species, are
Colonial: small, regular groups of motile cells
Capsoid: individual non-motile cells embedded in mucilage
Coccoid: individual non-motile cells with cell walls
Palmelloid: nonmotile cells embedded in mucilage
Filamentous: a string of nonmotile cells connected together, sometimes
Parenchymatous: cells forming a thallus with partial differentiation
In three lines, even higher levels of organization have been reached,
with full tissue differentiation. These are the brown
algae,—some of which may reach 50 m in length
(kelps)—the red algae, and the green algae. The most
complex forms are found among the charophyte algae (see
Charophyta), in a lineage that eventually led to the higher land
plants. The innovation that defines these nonalgal plants is the
presence of female reproductive organs with protective cell layers
that protect the zygote and developing embryo. Hence, the land plants
are referred to as the Embryophytes.
Many algae, particularly members of the Characeae, have served as
model experimental organisms to understand the mechanisms of the water
permeability of membranes, osmoregulation, turgor regulation, salt
tolerance, cytoplasmic streaming, and the generation of action
Phytohormones are found not only in higher plants, but in algae,
Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other
organisms. In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates
(organic substances) to the host organism providing protection to the
algal cells. The host organism derives some or all of its energy
requirements from the algae. Examples are:
Main article: Lichen
Rock lichens in Ireland
Lichens are defined by the International Association for Lichenology
to be "an association of a fungus and a photosynthetic symbiont
resulting in a stable vegetative body having a specific
structure." The fungi, or mycobionts, are mainly from the
Ascomycota with a few from the Basidiomycota. In nature they do not
occur separate from lichens. It is unknown when they began to
associate. One mycobiont associates with the same phycobiont
species, rarely two, from the green algae, except that alternatively,
the mycobiont may associate with a species of cyanobacteria (hence
"photobiont" is the more accurate term). A photobiont may be
associated with many different mycobionts or may live independently;
accordingly, lichens are named and classified as fungal species.
The association is termed a morphogenesis because the lichen has a
form and capabilities not possessed by the symbiont species alone
(they can be experimentally isolated). The photobiont possibly
triggers otherwise latent genes in the mycobiont.
Trentepohlia is an example of a common green alga genus worldwide that
can grow on its own or be lichenised.
Lichen thus share some of the
habitat and often similar appearance with specialized species of algae
(aerophytes) growing on exposed surfaces such as tree trunks and rocks
and sometimes discoloring them.
Main articles: Coral,
Coral reef, and Symbiodinium
Floridian coral reef
Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine
invertebrates of the order
Scleractinia (stony corals). These animals
metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building
processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and
carbon dioxide as byproducts. Dinoflagellates (algal protists) are
often endosymbionts in the cells of the coral-forming marine
invertebrates, where they accelerate host-cell metabolism by
generating sugar and oxygen immediately available through
photosynthesis using incident light and the carbon dioxide produced by
the host. Reef-building stony corals (hermatypic corals) require
endosymbiotic algae from the genus
Symbiodinium to be in a healthy
condition. The loss of
Symbiodinium from the host is known as
coral bleaching, a condition which leads to the deterioration of a
Main article: Sea sponge
Endosymbiontic green algae live close to the surface of some sponges,
for example, breadcrumb sponges (Halichondria panicea). The alga is
thus protected from predators; the sponge is provided with oxygen and
sugars which can account for 50 to 80% of sponge growth in some
Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta, and Heterokontophyta, the three main algal
divisions, have lifecycles which show considerable variation and
complexity. In general, an asexual phase exists where the seaweed's
cells are diploid, a sexual phase where the cells are haploid,
followed by fusion of the male and female gametes. Asexual
reproduction permits efficient population increases, but less
variation is possible. Commonly, in sexual reproduction of unicellular
and colonial algae, two specialized, sexually compatible, haploid
gametes make physical contact and fuse to form a zygote. To ensure a
successful mating, the development and release of gametes is highly
synchronized and regulated; pheromones may play a key role in these
Sexual reproduction allows for more variation and
provides the benefit of efficient recombinational repair of DNA
damages during meiosis, a key stage of the sexual cycle. However,
sexual reproduction is more costly than asexual reproduction.
Meiosis has been shown to occur in many different species of
Further information: Conceptacle
Algae on coastal rocks at Shihtiping in Taiwan
The Algal Collection of the US National
Herbarium (located in the
National Museum of Natural History) consists of approximately 320,500
dried specimens, which, although not exhaustive (no exhaustive
collection exists), gives an idea of the order of magnitude of the
number of algal species (that number remains unknown). Estimates
vary widely. For example, according to one standard textbook, in
British Isles the UK Biodiversity Steering Group Report estimated
there to be 20,000 algal species in the UK. Another checklist reports
only about 5,000 species. Regarding the difference of about 15,000
species, the text concludes: "It will require many detailed field
surveys before it is possible to provide a reliable estimate of the
total number of species ..."
Regional and group estimates have been made, as well:
5,000–5,500 species of red algae worldwide
"some 1,300 in Australian Seas"
400 seaweed species for the western coastline of South Africa, and
212 species from the coast of KwaZulu-Natal. Some of these are
duplicates, as the range extends across both coasts, and the total
recorded is probably about 500 species. Most of these are listed in
List of seaweeds of South Africa. These exclude phytoplankton and
669 marine species from California (US)
642 in the check-list of Britain and Ireland
and so on, but lacking any scientific basis or reliable sources, these
numbers have no more credibility than the British ones mentioned
above. Most estimates also omit microscopic algae, such as
The most recent estimate suggests 72,500 algal species worldwide.
The distribution of algal species has been fairly well studied since
the founding of phytogeography in the mid-19th century. Algae
spread mainly by the dispersal of spores analogously to the dispersal
Plantae by seeds and spores. This dispersal can be accomplished by
air, water, or other organisms. Due to this, spores can be found in a
variety of environments: fresh and marine waters, air, soil, and in or
on other organisms. Whether a spore is to grow into an organism
depends on the combination of the species and the environmental
conditions where the spore lands.
The spores of freshwater algae are dispersed mainly by running water
and wind, as well as by living carriers. However, not all bodies
of water can carry all species of algae, as the chemical composition
of certain water bodies limits the algae that can survive within
them. Marine spores are often spread by ocean currents. Ocean
water presents many vastly different habitats based on temperature and
nutrient availability, resulting in phytogeographic zones, regions,
To some degree, the distribution of algae is subject to floristic
discontinuities caused by geographical features, such as Antarctica,
long distances of ocean or general land masses. It is, therefore,
possible to identify species occurring by locality, such as "Pacific
algae" or "North Sea algae". When they occur out of their localities,
hypothesizing a transport mechanism is usually possible, such as the
hulls of ships. For example, Ulva reticulata and U. fasciata travelled
from the mainland to Hawaii in this manner.
Mapping is possible for select species only: "there are many valid
examples of confined distribution patterns." For example,
Clathromorphum is an arctic genus and is not mapped far south of
there. However, scientists regard the overall data as insufficient
due to the "difficulties of undertaking such studies."
Phytoplankton, Lake Chuzenji
Algae are prominent in bodies of water, common in terrestrial
environments, and are found in unusual environments, such as on snow
and ice. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters, under
100 m (330 ft) deep; however, some such as
have been recorded to a depth of 360 m (1,180 ft).
The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology.
Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column
(phytoplankton) provide the food base for most marine food chains. In
very high densities (algal blooms), these algae may discolor the water
and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms.
Algae can be used as indicator organisms to monitor pollution in
various aquatic systems. In many cases, algal metabolism is
sensitive to various pollutants. Due to this, the species composition
of algal populations may shift in the presence of chemical
pollutants. To detect these changes, algae can be sampled from the
environment and maintained in laboratories with relative ease.
On the basis of their habitat, algae can be categorized as: aquatic
(planktonic, benthic, marine, freshwater, lentic, lotic),
terrestrial, aerial (subareial), lithophytic, halophytic (or
euryhaline), psammon, thermophilic, cryophilic, epibiont (epiphytic,
epizoic), endosymbiont (endophytic, endozoic), parasitic, calcifilic
or lichenic (phycobiont).
In classical Chinese, the word 藻 is used both for "algae" and (in
the modest tradition of the imperial scholars) for "literary talent".
The third island in
Kunming Lake beside the
Summer Palace in Beijing
is known as the Zaojian Tang Dao, which thus simultaneously means
"Island of the Algae-Viewing Hall" and "Island of the Hall for
Reflecting on Literary Talent".
Agar, a gelatinous substance derived from red algae, has a number of
commercial uses. It is a good medium on which to grow bacteria and
fungi, as most microorganisms cannot digest agar.
Alginic acid, or alginate, is extracted from brown algae. Its uses
range from gelling agents in food, to medical dressings. Alginic acid
also has been used in the field of biotechnology as a biocompatible
medium for cell encapsulation and cell immobilization. Molecular
cuisine is also a user of the substance for its gelling properties, by
which it becomes a delivery vehicle for flavours.
Between 100,000 and 170,000 wet tons of
Macrocystis are harvested
New Mexico for alginate extraction and abalone
Algae fuel, Biological hydrogen production,
Biohydrogen, Biodiesel, Ethanol fuel, Butanol fuel, Vegetable oil,
Biogas, and Hydrothermal Liquefaction
To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from
(local) policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost
level of fossil fuels. Here, algae-based fuels hold great
promise, directly related to the potential to produce more
biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass. The
break-even point for algae-based biofuels is estimated to occur by
Seaweed-fertilized gardens on Inisheer
For centuries, seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of
Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South
This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it
heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when
being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and
thereof springeth good corn, especially barley ... After
spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse
backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on
the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.
Today, algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as
fertilizers, soil conditioners, and livestock feed. Aquatic and
microscopic species are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and are
either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds.
Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in
Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner.
See also: Edible seaweed
Dulse, a type of edible seaweed
Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially
in Asia. They provide many vitamins including: A, B1, B2, B6, niacin,
and C, and are rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesium, and
calcium. In addition, commercially cultivated microalgae,
including both algae and cyanobacteria, are marketed as nutritional
supplements, such as spirulina,
Chlorella and the vitamin-C
supplement from Dunaliella, high in beta-carotene.
Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70
species, including fat choy, a cyanobacterium considered a vegetable;
Japan, over 20 species; Ireland, dulse; Chile, cochayuyo.
Laver is used to make "laver bread" in Wales, where it is known as
bara lawr; in Korea, gim; in Japan, nori and aonori. It is also used
along the west coast of North America from California to British
Columbia, in Hawaii and by the Māori of New Zealand.
Sea lettuce and
badderlocks are salad ingredients in Scotland, Ireland, Greenland, and
The oils from some algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids.
Parietochloris incisa is very high in arachidonic acid,
where it reaches up to 47% of the triglyceride pool. Some
varieties of algae favored by vegetarianism and veganism contain the
long-chain, essential omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty
acids, but the original source is algae (microalgae in particular),
which are eaten by marine life such as copepods and are passed up the
Algae have emerged in recent years as a popular source
of omega-3 fatty acids for vegetarians who cannot get long-chain EPA
and DHA from other vegetarian sources such as flaxseed oil, which only
contains the short-chain alpha-linolenic acid (ALA).
Sewage can be treated with algae, reducing the use of large
amounts of toxic chemicals that would otherwise be needed.
Algae can be used to capture fertilizers in runoff from farms. When
subsequently harvested, the enriched algae can be used as fertilizer.
Aquaria and ponds can be filtered using algae, which absorb nutrients
from the water in a device called an algae scrubber, also known as an
algae turf scrubber.
Agricultural Research Service
Agricultural Research Service scientists found that 60–90% of
nitrogen runoff and 70–100% of phosphorus runoff can be captured
from manure effluents using a horizontal algae scrubber, also called
an algal turf scrubber (ATS). Scientists developed the ATS, which
consists of shallow, 100-foot raceways of nylon netting where algae
colonies can form, and studied its efficacy for three years. They
found that algae can readily be used to reduce the nutrient runoff
from agricultural fields and increase the quality of water flowing
into rivers, streams, and oceans. Researchers collected and dried the
nutrient-rich algae from the ATS and studied its potential as an
organic fertilizer. They found that cucumber and corn seedlings grew
just as well using ATS organic fertilizer as they did with commercial
Algae scrubbers, using bubbling upflow or vertical
waterfall versions, are now also being used to filter aquaria and
Various polymers can be created from algae, which can be especially
useful in the creation of bioplastics. These include hybrid plastics,
cellulose based plastics, poly-lactic acid, and bio-polyethylene.
Several companies have begun to produce algae polymers commercially,
including for use in flip-flops and in surf boards.
The alga Stichococcus bacillaris has been seen to colonize silicone
resins used at archaeological sites; biodegrading the synthetic
The natural pigments (carotenoids and chlorophylls) produced by algae
can be used as alternatives to chemical dyes and coloring agents.
The presence of some individual algal pigments, together with specific
pigment concentration ratios, are taxon-specific: analysis of their
concentrations with various analytical methods, particularly
high-performance liquid chromatography, can therefore offer deep
insight into the taxonomic composition and relative abundance of
natural alga populations in sea water samples.
Carrageenan and Chondrus crispus
Carrageenan, from the red alga Chondrus crispus, is used as a
stabilizer in milk products.
Toxoid - anatoxin
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Wikispecies has information related to Algae
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History of botany
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