Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives
by wheel arrangement,
4-6-0 represents the configuration of four
leading wheels on two axles in a leading bogie, six powered and
coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. In the
mid 19th century, this wheel arrangement became the second most
popular configuration for new steam locomotives in the United States
of America, where this type is commonly referred to as a
Ten-wheeler.As a locomotive pulling trains of light weight all wood
passenger cars in the 1890-1920s, it was exceptionally stable at near
100 mph speeds on the New York Central's New York to Chicago Water
Level Route and on the Reading Railroad's Camden to Atlantic City, NJ,
line. As passenger equipment grew heavier with all steel construction,
heavier locomotives replaced the Ten Wheeler.
1.1 Tender locomotives
1.2 Tank locomotives
2.1.1 Cape gauge
2.1.2 Narrow gauge
2.7 New Zealand
2.11 South Africa
2.11.1 Cape gauge
2.11.2 Narrow gauge
2.13 United Kingdom
2.13.1 Pre-grouping era
2.13.2 Post-grouping era
British Railways era
2.14 United States of America
During the second half of the nineteenth and first half of the
twentieth centuries, the
4-6-0 was constructed in large numbers for
passenger and mixed traffic service. A natural extension of the 4-4-0
American wheel arrangement, the four-wheel leading bogie gave good
stability at speed and allowed a longer boiler to be supported, while
the lack of trailing wheels gave a high adhesive weight.
The primary limitation of the type was the small size of the firebox,
which limited power output. In passenger service, it was eventually
superseded by the
4-6-2 Pacific type whose trailing truck allowed it
to carry a greatly enlarged firebox. For freight service, the addition
of a fourth driving axle created the
4-8-0 Mastodon type, which was
rare in North America, but became very popular on
Cape gauge in
The 4-6-0T locomotive version was a far less common type. It was used
for passenger duties during the first decade of the twentieth century,
but was soon superseded by the 4-6-2T Pacific, 4-6-4T Baltic and
2-6-4T Adriatic types, on which larger fire grates were possible.
During the First World War, the type was also used on narrow gauge
Ex CGR 6th Class no. 218, CFB no. 22, at Benguela on 12 August 1972
In 1907, five 6th Class locomotives of the Cape Government Railways
were sold to the 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm) Benguela
Railway (CFB). These included one of the Dübs-built locomotives of
1897 and two each of the
Neilson and Company
Neilson and Company and Neilson, Reid and
Company-built locomotives of 1897 and 1898. (Also see South Africa
- Cape gauge)
In the mid-1930s, in order to ease maintenance, modifications were
made to the running boards and brake gear of the CFB locomotives. The
former involved mounting the running boards higher, thereby getting
rid of the driving wheel fairings. This gave the locomotives a much
more American rather than British appearance.
In April 1951, three Class NG9 locomotives were purchased from the
South African Railways for the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes (CFM).
They were placed in service on the Ramal da Chibía, a 600 mm
(1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge branch line across 116
kilometres (72 miles) from Sá da Bandeira to Chiange. The locomotives
were observed dumped at the Sá da Bandeira shops by 1969 and the
branch line itself was closed in 1970. (Also see South Africa -
In 1897, three Class 6
4-6-0 locomotives were ordered by the Cape
Government Railways (CGR) from
Neilson and Company
Neilson and Company for use on the new
Bulawayo line of the fledgling Bechuanaland Railway Company
(BR). The line through
Bechuanaland Protectorate was still under
construction and was operated by the CGR on behalf of the BR at the
time. The locomotives were eventually returned to the CGR.
The Finnish State Railways (Suomen Valtion Rautatiet or SVR, later the
Valtionrautatiet or VR) operated the Classes Hk1, Hk2, Hk3, Hk5, Hv1,
Hv2, Hv3, Hv4, Hr2 and Hr3 locomotives with a
4-6-0 wheel arrangement.
The Class Hk1, numbers 232 to 241, was built by Baldwin Locomotive
Works in 1898. The ten Baldwin locomotives were originally designated
Numbers 291 to 300 and 322 to 333 were built by the Richmond
Locomotive Works in 1900 and 1901. The 22 Richmond locomotives were
originally designated H2 class and were nicknamed Big-Wheel Kaanari.
One of them, no. 293, the locomotive that brought
Lenin from exile in
August–September 1917 prior to the Russian Revolution, was presented
Finland to the
Soviet Union on 13 June 1957 and is preserved at the
Finland Station in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Another 100 of these locomotives were manufactured in
1903 to 1916, numbered in the range from 437 to 574 and initially
designated H3 to H8 classes.
The Class Hk5 was numbered from 439 to 515. One, no. 497, is preserved
Finnish Class Hv1 4-6-0, built by
Tampella in 1915
The Class Hv1 was built from 1915 by
Tampella and Lokomo. They were
nicknamed Heikki and were numbered 545 to 578 and 648 to 655. The
class remained in service until 1967. One, no. 555 named Princess, is
preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum.
Class Hv2 no. 583 at Helsinki Central station in 1960
The Class Hv2 was built by
Berliner Maschinenbau and
Lokomo in the
years between 1919 and 1926. They were numbered 579 to 593, 671 to 684
and 777 to 780. One, no. 680, is preserved at Haapamäki.
The Class Hv3 was built by Berliner,
Lokomo in the years
from 1921 to 1941. They were numbered 638 to 647, 781 to 785 and 991
to 999. Three Class Hv3 locomotives were preserved, no. 781 at Kerava,
no. 995 at
Suolahti and no. 998 at Haapamäki.
The Class Hv4 was built by
Lokomo in the years from 1912
to 1933 and were numbered 516 to 529, 742 to 751 and 757 to 760. Two,
numbers 742 and 751, are preserved at Haapamäki.
Swedish State Railways
Swedish State Railways (Statens Järnvägar or SJ) sold its Class
Ta and Tb locomotives to
Finland in 1942. At the time, they were not
in traffic in
Sweden and, since they were purchased by Finland, they
were not considered as war assistance. The Class Ta was designated
Class Hr2 in
Finland while the Class Tb was designated Class Hr3.
The Class Hr2 was numbered from 1900 to 1906 and had been built by
NOHAB (Nydqvist & Holm AB) and
Motala Verkstad in
the years from 1901 to 1905. They were withdrawn from service in
Finland between 1950 and 1953.
The Class Hr3 was numbered from 1907 to 1919 and had been built in
Sweden by NOHAB, Motala, the Vagn & Maskinfabriks AB in
Nya AB Atlas in
Stockholm in the years from 1906 to 1908. The Class
Hr3 was withdrawn from service in
Finland between 1952 and 1953.
Baldwin Class 10-12-D
Baldwin Class 10-12-D 4-6-0T no. 778 at the Leighton Buzzard Light
4-6-0 tank locomotive types saw service in France.
Réseau Breton tank locomotives were a class of 1,000 mm
(3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) metre gauge locomotives of which
five were built in 1904 for the
Réseau Breton railway by Société
Franco-Belge at its
Raismes factory. A further seven locomotives
were built by
Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques
Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques (SACM)
Belfort plant in France in 1909.
Baldwin Class 10-12-D
Baldwin Class 10-12-D 600 mm
(1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge pannier tank locomotives
were built in the United States of America by Baldwin Locomotive Works
for the British War Department Light Railways, for service in France
in 1916 and 1917 during the First World War. A further batch was built
by the American Locomotive Company. After the war, many of these
locomotives were sold to work in France, Britain and India.
A Württembergian D class
4-6-0 of 1898
4-6-0 wheel arrangement was very popular on the railroads of
German states from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, when they
4-4-0 American type locomotives, initially
especially on hilly terrain. In 1925, after the creation of the
Deutsche Reichsbahn (DRG), express
4-6-0 passenger locomotives were
classified under group 17, while regular
4-6-0 passenger locomotives
were classified under group 38.
Baden adopted its IVe class passenger locomotives of Alfred
de Glehn design, the first four-cylinder compound
ever. Altogether 83 were built and later became the DRG class
Bavaria acquired three
4-6-0 express freight locomotive classes. All
were Maffei-built four-cylinder compound locomotives.
The C V class, of which 43 were built from 1899, later the DRG class
The S 3/5N class, of which 39 were built from 1903, later the DRG
The superheated steam S 3/5H class, of which thirty were built from
1906, later the DGR class 175.
Bavaria only began using
4-6-0 passenger locomotives in 1905.
The first was the P 3/5 N class, of which 36 were built, later the DRG
After a long break,
Bavaria ordered a superheated steam P 3/5 H class
in 1921. Eighty of these were built and later became the DRG class
Prussia ordered a short series of eighteen De Glehn passenger
locomotives that were designated S 7 class.
The most numerous
4-6-0 series in the world was the Prussian P 8
passenger locomotive, later the DRG class 3810-40, of which 3,556 were
built for the
Prussian state railways
Prussian state railways and German railways between 1906
and 1923. Of these, 627 locomotives were given to other countries
after the First World War. When exports and licensed production in
Romania are included, their number reached almost four thousand.
(Also see Poland)
Prussia only started to operate
4-6-0 express freight locomotives of
its S 10 family from 1910. While they were externally similar, they
differed in engine arrangement.
The S 10, of which 202 were built from 1910, later the DRG class
The S 101, of which 237 were built in two batches from 1911, later the
DRG class 1710-12.
The S 102, of which 124 were built from 1914, later the DRG class 172.
4-6-0 express freight locomotive classes XII H,
XII HV and XII H1, of which 6, 42 and 7 were built respectively. They
later became the DRG classes 176, 177 and 178 respectively. All were
superheated steam locomotives, differing mostly in engine
More numerous were the
Saxon XII H2
Saxon XII H2 class passenger locomotives, of
which 169 were built from 1910. They later became the DRG class
From 1898, the Royal
Württemberg State Railways used D class
passenger locomotives. It was also a four-cylinder compound
locomotive, of which fourteen were built.
The only Irish railways to use the
4-6-0 type were the Great Southern
& Western Railway (GS&WR) and its larger successor, Great
Southern Railways (GSR). The GS&WR had 4-6-0s for both fast
freight and express passenger service. The culmination of Irish 4-6-0
design was the
GSR Class 800
GSR Class 800 or B1a class, introduced in 1939. Three
of these locomotives were built for top express passenger work on the
Dublin-Cork mainline, coincidentally resembling the United Kingdom's
Royal Scot Class as rebuilt. They were the last new steam locomotives
to be built for the GSR.
New Zealand Railways Department
New Zealand Railways Department built its first home-built tender
locomotives in 1894, using the
4-6-0 wheel arrangement. Designated U
class, they were supplemented by units built in the United Kingdom,
which were sub-classed Ua.
More were built in two batches in the United States of America by
Baldwin and ALCO, arriving in 1898 and 1901. The American locomotives
were sub-classed Ub. With the exception of a once-off ALCO Richmond
type, the American batches were considered highly successful.
A third batch of U class locomotives were imported from the United
Kingdom, intended for provincial routes and sub-classed Uc. These
locomotives were costly to operate, but could be worked hard and found
use on the South Island's west coast, where blue bituminous coal was
In 1879, the Norwegian State Railways, the Smaalensbanen and
Merakerbanen, received four ten-wheelers with three-axled tenders from
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Baldwin Locomotive Works which were supposedly the first ten-wheeler
tender locomotives in Europe.
Polish class Ok22
Polish State Railways
Polish State Railways (PKP) used several classes of Prussian and
4-6-0 locomotives. The most significant of these was the
Prussian P 8, classified in Poland as the PKP class Ok1. After the
First World War, Poland received as reparations and also bought
altogether 257 of these locomotives. After the Second World War, their
number rose to 429 locomotives, which made it the most numerous
passenger locomotive in Poland. A few were preserved and kept in
working condition, including Class Ok1 no. 359. (Also see Germany
A significant number of the
Prussian S 10
Prussian S 10 family of express freight
locomotives were also used in Poland. There were 52 in total,
classified as Pk1, Pk2 and Pk3.
During the inter-war period, a
PKP class Ok22
PKP class Ok22 locomotive was designed
in cooperation with German builders Hanomag. It was basically an
improved class Ok1 with a more efficient boiler. Altogether 190 of
them were produced for the PKP, of which all but five were
manufactured in Poland.
4-6-0 passenger locomotives became quite popular in Russia at the turn
of the 20th century. While the locomotives originally had separate
class designations on each Russian railroad, common Russian class
designations were introduced in 1912. The Russian 4-6-0s were the A,
ADK, AD, AV, V, Zh, Z, G, U, K, B and KU classes.
The first and most numerous class was the Vladicaucasian Railway’s A
class, in the ADK, AD and, the most numerous, AV series. It was a
Kolomna factory design, of which 533 were built for several railroads
in several Russian and German factories from 1892 until 1907. All were
two-cylinder compound locomotives with 1,830-millimetre (72-inch)
diameter coupled wheels.
In 1896, 88 Baldwin-built four-cylinder
Vauclain compound locomotives
were introduced, designated V class (V for Vauclain, В in
Also from 1896, Henschel-designed locomotives were introduced.
Altogether 210 were built from 1896 to 1909, fourteen by Henschel and
the rest in Russia. They were two-cylinder compound locomotives with
1,700-millimetre (66.93-inch) diameter coupled wheels and were
regarded as a more successful design than the A class. These
locomotives were later designated as the Zh class (Ж in Russian). A
development of the Zh class was the superheated Z class (З in
Russian), of which 24 were built from 1902.
From 1901 to 1903, stronger passenger locomotives were built, the G
class (Г in Russian). These locomotives were of Vladicaucasian
Bryansk factory design. Of these, 39 were built for the
Vladicaucasian Railway and another 85 for Eastern Chinese railroads.
They were two-cylinder compound locomotives with 1,730-millimetre
(68.11-inch) diameter coupled wheels. Some of these locomotives were
later retrofitted with superheaters.
U class U-127, Lenin's locomotive, at the Museum of the Moscow Railway
The class U (У in Russian) was a four-cylinder oil burning De Glehn
compound locomotive which first appeared in 1906, initially on the
Ryazan-Ural railroad. Of these, 62 were built at the Kirov Plant
between 1906 and 1916. By the beginning of 1940, the inventory still
listed 47 U class locomotives and the last of them were withdrawn in
1952. Lenin's locomotive, U class no. U-127 that was used during his
funeral, is preserved at the Museum of the Moscow Railway.
Altogether 145 heavier superheated K class (К in Russian) passenger
locomotives were built between 1907 and 1912. They were of Kolomna
factory design and were two-cylinder simple expansion (simplex)
locomotives with 1,700-millimetre (66.93-inch) diameter coupled
At the same time, the Briansk factory designed an improved superheated
development of the G class that was produced between 1907 and 1914 as
the B class (Б in Russian). Altogether 252 were built in Briansk and
Lugansk. They were two-cylinder simplex locomotives with 1,830
millimetres (72 inches) diameter coupled wheels that were quite
successful in express work.
Between 1911 and 1914, Kolomna built 39 stronger KU class locomotives
(КУ in Russian) with 1,900 millimetres (75 inches) diameter coupled
wheels for faster trains.
Eighteen classes of
4-6-0 locomotives saw service in South Africa,
sixteen on 3 ft 6 in (1,067 mm)
Cape gauge and two
on 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge. Of these, only two were
conventional tank locomotives, while two others were delivered as
tank-and-tender locomotives with optional tenders.
NGR Class G no. 26, circa 1900
Between 1879 and 1885, the
Natal Government Railways
Natal Government Railways (NGR) placed 37
4-6-0 tank locomotives in service. Of these, 18 were built by Kitson
and Company and 19 by Stephenson. On the NGR they were designated
Class G. When the SAR was established in 1912, the 15 unmodified
survivors were designated Class C. The last one was withdrawn from
service in the mid-1980s, after more than 105 years in service.
In 1880 and 1881, the
Cape Government Railways
Cape Government Railways (CGR) placed 18 4th
Class tank-and-tender locomotives in mainline service on its Midland
System working out of Port Elizabeth and Eastern System working out of
East London. Four of these locomotives were still in service when the
South African Railways was established in 1912.
Stephenson-built CGR 4th Class
In 1882 and 1883, the CGR placed 68 4th Class
locomotives in mainline service on all three systems. It was an
improved version of the 4th Class locomotives of 1880 with larger
coupled wheels, built by two manufacturers. Robert Stephenson and
Company built 33 with Stephenson valve gear, while Neilson and Company
built 35 with Joy valve gear. Of these locomotives, 26 were still in
service when the South African Railways was established in
CGR experimental 4th Class
Four tank-and-tender locomotives of the CGR’s Experimental 4th Class
were supplied by Neilson in 1884, built to the design of J.D. Tilney,
Locomotive Superintendent of the Cape Eastern System at the time, to
be able to use low-grade local coal. They had
Joy valve gear
Joy valve gear and
unusual six-wheeled tenders, with the leading axle mounted in a rigid
frame and the other two axles mounted in a bogie. One of the
locomotives survived until 1912 and was designated SAR Class 04 as an
The first twenty of the CGR 5th Class tender locomotives were
Dübs and Company
Dübs and Company in 1890. In 1891, the CGR placed a
second batch of thirty 5th Class tender locomotives in mainline
service on all three Cape Systems. They were similar to the previous
batch of 1890, but differed in respect of the diameter of their
coupled wheels, the length of their smokeboxes and their tractive
effort. In 1912, when the South African Railways (SAR) was
established, the survivors were considered obsolete and designated
Class 05. Nevertheless, some of the Class 05 locomotives survived as
shunting engines in SAR service for another four decades. They were
the last obsolete locomotives to be still in service when they were
eventually withdrawn in 1953.:20
The Cape 6th Class passenger locomotive was designed at the Salt River
works of the CGR according to the specifications of Michael Stephens,
then Chief Locomotive Superintendent of the CGR, and under the
supervision of H.M. Beatty, then Locomotive Superintendent of the
Cape’s Western System. It was to become one of the most useful
classes to see service in South Africa. In 1912, when they came into
SAR stock, the 6th Class
4-6-0 family was reclassified into twelve
Class 6, as delivered with a round-topped firebox and three-axle
In 1893 and 1894, the CGR placed forty 6th Class locomotives in
service, built by Dübs. Ten of them, sold to the Oranje-Vrijstaat
Gouwerment-Spoorwegen (OVGS) in 1897, eventually became the Class 6-L1
on the CSAR. In 1912, all forty were assimilated into the SAR and
retained their Class 6 designation. (Also see Sudan)
In 1896 and 1897, the CGR acquired a second batch of fifty, built by
Dübs and Sharp, Stewart and Company. These locomotives differed from
the previous order in having slightly larger boilers with an increased
heating surface and higher coal capacity tenders. In 1907, one was
sold to the Benguela Railway in Angola. The remaining 49 locomotives
were designated Class 6A on the SAR in 1912. (Also see
Cape gauge and Sudan)
Between 1896 and 1898, the OVGS placed 24 new Cape Class 6 locomotives
in service, built by Dübs, Neilson and Sharp, Stewart. During the
Second Boer War, these locomotives were taken over by the Imperial
Military Railways (IMR) and after the war they became the CSAR Class
6-L2. All but one were assimilated into the SAR in 1912 and were
designated Class 6C. (Also see Sudan)
In 1897 and 1898, the CGR placed a third batch of 55 in service, built
Neilson and Company
Neilson and Company and Neilson, Reid and Company. They were
virtually identical to the previous fifty, except that they had
bogie-wheeled tenders. In 1907, four were sold to the Benguela Railway
in Angola. The remaining 51 locomotives were designated Class 6B in
1912. (Also see
Cape gauge and Sudan)
SAR Class 6D
In 1898, a fourth batch of 33 were placed in service by the CGR, built
by Neilson, Reid. These represented a further advance on earlier 6th
Class locomotives, with a greater heating surface and a larger grate
area. In 1912, they were designated Class 6D on the SAR. (Also
Also in 1898, the OVGS ordered its final six new Cape 6th Class
locomotives from Sharp, Stewart. These were delivered with larger cabs
than their predecessors and with bogie-wheeled tenders. They were also
taken over by the IMR and, after the war, came into the CSAR as Class
6-L3. In 1912, they became Class 6E on the SAR.
In 1900, two redesigned 6th Class locomotives entered service on the
CGR, built by Sharp, Stewart. They had bar frames, larger cabs and
bogie-wheeled tenders, and their larger heating surfaces and grate
areas allowed a higher boiler pressure rating of 180 pounds per square
inch (1,240 kilopascals). In visual appearance, they differed from all
previous 6th Class locomotives by having higher running boards without
driving wheel fairings. In 1912, they were classified as Class 6F on
Schenectady-built 6th Class
In 1901, eight 6th Class locomotives entered service, redesigned and
built by the
Schenectady Locomotive Works
Schenectady Locomotive Works to the specifications of the
CGR. Also built on bar frames like the previous two and similar in
appearance, they were larger, with larger boilers and 17 1⁄2
inches (444 millimetres) diameter cylinders compared to the 17 inches
(432 millimetres) of all earlier 6th Class locomotives. In 1912, they
became Class 6G on the SAR.
Also in 1901, a batch of 21 entered service on the CGR, built by
Neilson, Reid to the older plate frame design, but with a larger cab.
These also reverted to the 17 inches (432 millimetres) diameter
cylinders of the previous British-built locomotives, with the lower
running boards with driving wheel fairings. One of them was
experimental, being equipped with Drummond cross-water tubes in the
firebox. However, since the tubes were inclined to leak and were
difficult to maintain, they were soon removed. In 1912, these
locomotives became the Class 6H on the SAR.
Ten bar-framed locomotives were placed in service, also in 1901,
designed and built by the
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Baldwin Locomotive Works to the
specifications of the CGR. They were larger than any of the previous
6th Class locomotives, with larger boilers, large cabs, cylinders of
17 1⁄2 inches (444 millimetres) bore, bar frames, stovepipe
chimneys, large domes and high running boards without driving wheel
fairings. In 1912, they became Class 6K on the SAR.
SAR Class 6J no. 646
In 1902, fourteen bar-framed 6th Class locomotives entered service on
the CGR, built by Neilson, Reid. They were practically identical to
the two bar-framed locomotives built by Sharp, Stewart in 1900, with
high running boards without driving wheel fairings. In 1912, they were
designated Class 6J on the SAR.
In 1904, the CGR placed its last two 6th Class bar-framed locomotives
in service, built by the
North British Locomotive Company
North British Locomotive Company (NBL). They
were experimental and were the first South African locomotives to have
piston valves and superheaters. The pistons, with a diameter of
18 1⁄2 inches (470 millimetres), were the largest yet used on
the 6th Class. The Schmidt superheater was of the smokebox type, but
the arrangement was extremely complicated and not very successful. In
1912, they became the Class 6L on the SAR and in 1915, when they were
reboilered, the superheaters were removed to convert them to saturated
steam locomotives. At the same time the piston-valve cylinders were
replaced with smaller slide-valve cylinders of 17 1⁄2 inches
(444 millimetres) bore.
In 1897, the Pretoria-Pietersburg Railway in the Zuid-Afrikaansche
Republiek (Transvaal Republic) purchased a 35 Tonner tank locomotive
4-6-0 wheel arrangement from the Lourenco Marques, Delagoa Bay
and East Africa Railway in Mozambique. The locomotive was not
classified, but named Portuguese and referred to by name.
SAR Class NG8
In 1903, the CGR placed six Type B
4-6-0 locomotives with
eight-wheeled bogie tenders in service on the Avontuur narrow gauge
line in the Langkloof. They were built by
W. G. Bagnall
W. G. Bagnall and had bar
frames, copper fireboxes and Stephenson valve gear. In 1912, they came
into SAR stock and, in 1914, a further three locomotives with slightly
longer boilers were acquired by the SAR. One of these was also built
by Bagnall while the other two were built by Kerr, Stuart and Company.
These three were commonly referred to as the Improved B. When a system
of grouping narrow gauge locomotives into classes was eventually
introduced somewhere between 1928 and 1930, they were to be classified
as Class NG8 but had already been withdrawn from service.
During 1915 and 1916, the SAR placed six locomotives in service in the
Langkloof, built by Baldwin Locomotive Works. They were very similar
to the Bagnall built Type B, except that they were equipped with
Walschaerts valve gear. They were later designated Class NG9. Three of
them survived in SAR service until April 1951, when they were sold to
the Caminhos de Ferro de Moçâmedes (CFM) of Angola. (Also see
Angola - Narrow gauge)
During the Second World War, sixteen of the South African Railways
(SAR) Classes 6 to 6D were transferred to the
Middle East to assist
with the war effort during the North African Campaign. The group
consisted of seven Class 6, four Class 6A, two Class 6B, one Class 6C
and two Class 6D locomotives. They were sold to the Sudan Railways
Corporation in 1942. (Also see South Africa - Cape gauge)
4-6-0 locomotive to be introduced in the United Kingdom was
the Highland Railway’s Jones Goods class of 1894. Within five years,
however, the wheel arrangement was being used primarily on passenger
service, since British heavy freight trains were generally too slow to
require a locomotive with a four-wheel leading bogie. Between 1906 and
4-6-0 became the most common express passenger locomotive
type in everyday use in the United Kingdom, as a logical development
4-4-0 type that was previously used. The
4-6-0 type continued
to be used as mixed traffic locomotive until the end of steam in the
United Kingdom in 1968.
Pendennis Castle GWR 4079
During the pre-grouping era, from 1899 to 1923,
Wilson Worsdell of the
North Eastern Railway (NER) used the type for his express passenger
locomotives, the S and S1 classes of 1899 and 1900 that became the B13
and B14 classes of the
London and North Eastern Railway
London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) in
1923. Soon afterwards, these were followed by the appearance of other
John G. Robinson
John G. Robinson of the
Great Central Railway
Great Central Railway (GCR) designed the Class
8 Fish Engines of 1902.
In 1902 and 1903,
George Jackson Churchward produced the 2900 Saint
Class, which was the first in a long line of
4-6-0 classes operated by
Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway (GWR).
In 1903, Francis Webb of the
London and North Western Railway
London and North Western Railway (LNWR)
followed with his unsuccessful four-cylinder compound locomotives of
the 1400 Bill Bailey class.
Between 1905 and 1910, altogether 105 locomotives of George Whale’s
Experiment Class were built for the LNWR.
4-6-0 express passenger designs appeared in 1906. One was
the Caledonian Railway’s Cardean Class which was, at the time, the
most powerful locomotive in Britain. The other was Churchward’s
four-cylinder GWR Star Class, which was developed and enlarged by
Charles Collett as the GWR 4073 Castle class in 1923 and later also as
the GWR 6000 King class in 1927.
Other significant early express
4-6-0 designs included:
The LNWR’s Prince of Wales Class, with 246 locomotives built between
1911 and 1921.
The LNWR’s Claughton Class, with 130 locomotives built between 1913
The Class S69 of the
Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway (GER), with 81 locomotives
produced between 1912 and 1928.
King Arthur class 30777 Sir Lamiel
Robert Urie of the
London and South Western Railway
London and South Western Railway (LSWR) introduced
three successful classes, the H15 class mixed traffic locomotives,
introduced in 1914 and built until 1924, the N15 King Arthur class,
with 74 locomotives built between 1919 and 1926, and the S15 class,
with 45 locomotives built between 1920 and 1936.
Wilson Worsdell of the NER built ten W class 4-6-0T tank
locomotives. These were all rebuilt to
NER Class W1 4-6-2T Pacific
between 1914 and 1917.
During the post-grouping era from 1923 to 1948, the
arrangement was used extensively by all of the Big Four British
railway companies, especially by the
Great Western Railway
Great Western Railway (GWR) and
London, Midland and Scottish Railway
London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS), who continued to
develop new designs.
However, from the early 1930s, demands for more power and improved
performance from express passenger locomotives led to the widespread
4-6-2 Pacific locomotives, where the trailing axle
could support a larger firebox. Since the reduced traction of the
driving wheels was not a big disadvantage with relatively light
passenger trains, the
4-6-0 was displaced from top-rank express
services on most of the railways where they had been used, with the
exception of the GWR who continued to build both mixed-traffic and
express passenger 4-6-0s until nationalisation in 1948. The GWR’s
4073 Castle Class eventually consisted of 171 express passenger
locomotives, built between 1923 and 1950. The design was enlarged as
the GWR’s 6000 King Class, with thirty locomotives built between
1927 and 1930.
Several new mixed traffic 4-6-0s were also introduced:
The Southern Railway improved the LSWR’s King Arthur class and
introduced the Lord Nelson class, which was briefly the most powerful
class in Britain. Sixteen locomotives were built between 1926 and
The LMS introduced the 7P Royal Scot class, with 71 locomotives built
between 1927 and 1930, and the 6P Patriot class, with 52 locomotives
built between 1930 and 1934. All of the Royal Scots and 18 of the
Patriots were subsequently rebuilt in line with Stanier's practice and
were very successful in this form.
The largest and most successful British
4-6-0 class was the LMS Class
5 Black Five, designed by
William Stanier and consisting of 842
locomotives, built between 1934 and 1951. Stanier also designed the
LMS 6P Jubilee class, with 191 locomotives built between 1934 and
GWR Hall Class Olton Hall hauled the Hogwarts Express in the Harry
Charles Collett of the GWR developed Churchward’s 1902 Saint class
design into three further classes:
The GWR 4900 Hall class, with 259 locomotives built between 1928 and
The GWR 6800 Grange class, with eighty locomotives built between 1936
The GWR 7800 Manor class, with thirty locomotives built between 1938
Frederick Hawksworth later developed the Saint class design further,
first with his GWR 6959 Modified Hall Class, with 71 locomotives built
between 1944 and 1950, and then with his GWR 1000 County Class, with
thirty locomotives built between 1945 and 1947.
The LNER inherited large numbers of
4-6-0 locomotives from its
constituent companies, many of which were subsequently rebuilt, so
that the company ultimately had sixty different classes and
sub-classes with this wheel arrangement. In addition, the company also
introduced two new
The B17 class, designed by Nigel Gresley, of which 73 were built
between 1928 and 1937.
The B1 class, designed by Edward Thompson, of which 410 locomotives
were built between 1942 and 1952.
BR standard class 5
British Railways era
Following the formation of
British Railways in 1948, two further 4-6-0
classes were introduced, both in 1951.
BR standard class 5
BR standard class 5 was based on Stanier’s successful LMS Black
Five of 1934. Altogether 172 locomotives were built by 1957.
A lighter and less powerful design was the BR standard class 4. Eighty
of these were built by 1957.
United States of America
4-6-0 locomotive built in the United States of America was
the Chesapeake, built by
Norris Locomotive Works
Norris Locomotive Works for the Philadelphia
and Reading railroad in March 1847. There are still conflicting
opinions as to who the original designer of this type was. Many
authorities attribute the design to
Septimus Norris of Norris
Locomotive Works, but in an 1885 paper, George E. Sellers attributes
the design to John Brandt who worked for the
Erie Railroad between
1842 and 1851.
According to Sellers, the Erie's own management didn't feel it in
their best interests to pursue construction, so Brandt approached
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Baldwin Locomotive Works and Norris with the design. Baldwin was
similarly uninterested, but Norris liked the idea. James Millholland
of the Reading also saw the
4-6-0 design and ordered one from Norris
for the Reading. However, Sellers may have misinterpreted some of the
information since Millholland did not work for the Reading until 1848,
a year after the locomotive was built. Furthermore, Sellers refers to
4-6-0 to be constructed as the Susquehanna, which was the
Erie railroad's first 4-6-0, not the Reading’s.
The attribution to
Septimus Norris stems from a patent, allegedly
filed in 1846, that many sources cite for this locomotive type.
However, such a patent has not yet been found in searches at the
United States Patent and Trademark Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).
Septimus Norris did
file a patent in 1854 for running gears, and the patent application
4-6-0 wheel arrangement in the drawing. Norris' wording in
the 1854 patent was vague with regard to the
4-6-0 wheel arrangement
and the filing did not specifically claim invention of the 4-6-0
4-6-0 Camelback locomotive
A few days after William Norris completed the Chesapeake, Hinkley
Locomotive Works completed their first
4-6-0 locomotive, the New
Hampshire, for the Boston and Maine Railroad. The first
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works
Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works was the already mentioned
Susquehanna for the Erie Railroad. Baldwin's first
did not appear until 1852.
Soo Line no. 2645 of 1900 on display in North Freedom, Wisconsin
Through the 1860s and into the 1870s, demand for locomotives of the
4-6-0 wheel arrangement grew as more railroad executives switched from
purchasing a single, general-purpose type of locomotive such as the
4-4-0 American at that time, to purchasing locomotives designed for a
specific purpose. Both the
Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) and the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O) were early adopters of the
4-6-0, using them for fast freight as well as heavy passenger trains.
There were also two 3 ft narrow gauge
4-6-0 steam locomotives,
numbers 274 and 275, built by the
Baldwin Locomotive Works
Baldwin Locomotive Works in May 1925
for the United Railways of Yucatán in Mexico, where they were
withdrawn in the 1960s. Both locomotives were rescued and purchased by
Roger E. Broggie
Roger E. Broggie and Earl Vilmer for $8,000 each to
Walt Disney World Railroad
Walt Disney World Railroad circling around the Magic
Walt Disney World
Walt Disney World in Bay Lake, Florida. No. 274 became no.
1 Walter E. Disney and no. 275 became no. 3 Roger E. Broggie.
Probably the most famous American ten-wheeler is the Illinois Central
Railroad’s no. 382, the locomotive driven by
Casey Jones in the
wreck with a freight train that was immortalized in Wallace
Saunders’ song. A locomotive of the
4-6-0 type is on display at the
Casey Jones museum in Jackson, Tennessee.
As far as is known, the heaviest
4-6-0 ever built was Southern Pacific
no. 2371. According to R&LHS Bulletin no. 94, its engine weight
was 242,500 pounds (109,996 kilograms).
One of the B&O's 4-6-0s, built in 1869, is preserved at the
B&O Railroad Museum in Baltimore. Another is at the Museum of
Transportation in St. Louis. A third, The Great Northern Railway’s
GN 1355, built in 1909 as a
4-6-0 but rebuilt to a
4-6-2 Pacific in
1924, is in Sioux City, Iowa. And the Jackson, TN., Casey Jones
The only surviving locomotive of the 3 ft (914 mm) narrow
East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad
East Tennessee and Western North Carolina Railroad (ET&WNC)
is no. 12, a coal-fired
4-6-0 built in 1917 by the Baldwin Locomotive
Works. It was originally used to haul passengers and freight over the
ET&WNC's 66-mile (106-kilometre) line running from Johnson City
Appalachian Mountains to Boone, North Carolina. Since 1957,
it has been in operation at the
Tweetsie Railroad theme park in
Blowing Rock, North Carolina.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to 4-6-0.
^ a b c d e White, John H., Jr. (1968). A history of the American
locomotive; its development: 1830-1880. New York, NY: Dover
Publications. p. 57. ISBN 0-486-23818-0
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^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Holland, D.F.
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pp. 32–36, 39–48, 50–52, 54, 56–57, 78, 81, 87–89,
107–108, 118–119, 122, 126, 133.
^ Class 6B - Information supplied by Peter Bagshawe
^ British Overseas Railways Historical Trust, Journal No. 8 & 9
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David
(1985). Locomotives of the South African Railways (1st ed.). Cape
Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 19–20, 28, 41–44, 104, 110, 113,
156. ISBN 0869772112.
^ a b Class NG9 - Information supplied by Peter Bagshawe
^ Pattison, R.G. (1997). The Cape Seventh Class Locomotives (1st ed.).
Kenilworth, Cape Town: The Railway History Group. p. 7–8.
^ a b c d e f g h i j Rakov, V.A. (1995), Lokomotivy otechestvennyh
zheleznyh dorog 1845-1955 (Locomotives of domestic railways
1845-1955), Moscow, ISBN 5-277-00821-7, p.217-238 (in Russian)
Réseau Breton 230T". Continental Modeller. Peco Publications
(September 2010): 560–564. 2010.
^ a b c d Horst Obermayer, Manfred Weisbrod: Dampflok-Report:
Lokomotiv-Archiv. Band No. 1. Baureihen 01-19, Merker Verlag 1993,
ISBN 3-922404-40-5, pp.58-67 (in German)
^ a b Horst Obermayer, Manfred Weisbrod, Dampflok-Report:
Lokomotiv-Archiv. Band No. 2. Baureihen 22-39, Merker Verlag 1995,
ISBN 3-922404-72-3, pp. 44-49 (in German)
^ Herbert Rauter: Preußen-Report. Band 4:
Naßdampf-Personenzuglokomotiven P 0 – pp. 4, 7. Hermann Merker
Verlag, 1991, ISBN 3-922404-21-9, pp.76-78 (in German)
^ Günther Scheingraber, Manfred Weisbrod (1993). Preußen-Report.
Band 7: Heißdampf-Personenzuglokomotiven P 6, P 8, P 10 und
preußische Tender. Hermann Merker Verlag, ISBN 3-922404-53-7,
pp. 32, 36
^ Jan Piwowoński: Parowozy kolei polskich, Warsaw: WKiŁ, 1978, p.228
^ Sean Miller - The NZR Steam Locomotive, 2011
^ Sando, S. (1984). Die ersten 2C-Schlepptender-loks in Europa. In Lok
Magazin 128 September/Oktober 1984, p. 344-345.
^ a b Paweł Terczyński (2003): Atlas parowozów (Steam locomotives'
atlas), Poznań, ISBN 83-901902-8-1, p. 56-57 (in Polish)
^ Jan Piwowoński: Parowozy kolei polskich, Warsaw: WKiŁ, 1978, p.148
^ a b C.G.R. Numbering Revised, Article by Dave Littley, SA Rail
May–June 1993, pp. 94-95.
^ a b Classification of S.A.R. Engines with Renumbering Lists, issued
by the Chief Mechanical Engineer’s Office, Pretoria, January 1912,
pp. 27-28. (Reprinted in April 1987 by SATS Museum,
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& Charles. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0-7153-5427-8.
^ Class 6 to 6D sold to
Sudan Railways during the WWII North African
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^ Broggie, Michael (2014), Walt Disney's Railroad Story: The
Small-Scale Fascination That Led to a Full-Scale Kingdom (4th ed.),
The Donning Company Publishers, pp. 320–323, 393–394,
Steam locomotive wheel arrangements
Single engine types
Divided drive and
Duplex engine types
Fairlie, Meyer and
(includes Triplex types)
Other notation fo