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Stefan W. Hell
Stefan Walter Hell HonFRMS
HonFRMS
(born 23 December 1962) is a Romanian-born German physicist and one of the directors of the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen, Germany.[1] He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
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Arad, Romania
Arad (Romanian pronunciation: [aˈrad] ( listen); Hungarian: Arad; Serbian: Арад/Arad) is the capital city of Arad County, historically situated in the region of Crișana, and having recently extended on the left bank of the Mureș river, in Banat region of western Romania. An important industrial center and transportation hub on the Mureș River, Arad is also the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features two universities, a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary and a training school for teachers. It had one of the first music conservatories in Europe.[2][3] The city has a population of 159,704, making it the 12th largest city in Romania
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University Of Göttingen
The University of Göttingen
Göttingen
(German: Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany. Founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and starting classes in 1737, the university is the oldest in the state of Lower Saxony
Lower Saxony
and the largest in student enrollment, which stands at around 31,500.[5] Home to many noted figures, it represents one of Germany's historic and traditional institutions
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Optical Resolution
Optical resolution
Optical resolution
describes the ability of an imaging system to resolve detail in the object that is being imaged. An imaging system may have many individual components including a lens and recording and display components
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Confocal Microscopy
Confocal microscopy, most frequently confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), is an optical imaging technique for increasing optical resolution and contrast of a micrograph by means of using a spatial pinhole to block out-of-focus light in image formation.[1] Capturing multiple two-dimensional images at different depths in a sample enables the reconstruction of three-dimensional structures (a process known as optical sectioning) within an object. This technique is used extensively in the scientific and industrial communities and typical applications are in life sciences, semiconductor inspection and materials science. Light travels through the sample under a conventional microscope as far into the specimen as it can penetrate, while a confocal microscope only focuses a smaller beam of light at one narrow depth level at a time
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4Pi Microscope
A 4Pi microscope is a laser scanning fluorescence microscope with an improved axial resolution. The typical value of 500–700 nm can be improved to 100–150 nm, which corresponds to an almost spherical focal spot with 5–7 times less volume than that of standard confocal microscopy.[1]Contents1 Working principle 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesWorking principle[edit]Scheme of a 4Pi microscopeThe improvement in resolution is achieved by using two opposing objective lenses, which both are focused to the same geometrical location. Also the difference in optical path length through each of the two objective lenses is carefully aligned to be minimal. By this method, molecules residing in the common focal area of both objectives can be illuminated coherently from both sides and the reflected or emitted light can be collected coherently, i.e. coherent superposition of emitted light on the detector is possible
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Heidelberg
Heidelberg
Heidelberg
(German pronunciation: [ˈhaɪdl̩bɛʁk] ( listen)) is a college town in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württembe

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University Of Turku
The University
University
of Turku
Turku
(in Finnish Turun yliopisto, in Swedish Åbo universitet, shortened in UTU), located in Turku
Turku
in southwestern Finland
Finland
(EU), is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrollment, after University
University
of Helsinki
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Medical Physics
Medical physics
Medical physics
(also called biomedical physics, medical biophysics or applied physics in medicine) is, generally speaking, the application of physics concepts, theories and methods to medicine or healthcare. Medical physics
Medical physics
departments may be found in hospitals or universities. In the case of hospital work, the term medical physicist is the title of a specific healthcare profession, usually working within a hospital. Medical physicists are often found in the following healthcare specialties: diagnostic and interventional radiology (also known as medical imaging), nuclear medicine, radiation protection and radiation oncology. University departments are of two types. The first type are mainly concerned with preparing students for a career as a hospital medical physicist and research focuses on improving the practice of the profession
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University Of Oxford
Coordinates: 51°45′40″N 1°15′12″W / 51.7611°N 1.2534°W / 51.7611; -1.2534University of OxfordCoat of armsLatin: Universitas OxoniensisMotto Dominus Illuminatio Mea (Latin)Motto in English"The Lord is my Light"Established c. 1096; 922 years ago (1096)[1]Endowment £5.069 billion (inc
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Habilitation
Habilitation defines the qualification to conduct self-contained university teaching and is the key for access to a professorship in many European countries. Despite all changes implemented in the European higher education systems during the Bologna Process, it is the highest qualification level issued through the process of a university examination and remains a core concept of scientific careers in these countries.[1] The degree is conferred for a habilitation thesis based on independent scholarship, which was reviewed by and successfully defended before an academic committee in a process similar to that of a doctoral dissertation
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Heidelberg University Faculty Of Physics And Astronomy
The Faculty of Physics and Astronomy is one of twelve faculties at the University of Heidelberg. It comprises the Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, the Institute of Physics, Theoretical Physics, Environmental Physics and Theoretical Astrophysics.[1]Contents1 Kirchhoff Institute of Physics 2 Institute of Physics 3 Institute of Theoretical Physics 4 Institute of Environmental Physics 5 Center for Astronomy5.1 Astronomical Calculations Institute 5.2 Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics6 Notes and referencesKirchhoff Institute of Physics[edit]The Kirchhoff Institute for PhysicsThe Kirchhoff-Institut für Physik (Kirchhoff Institute of Physics), built in 2002, is a research institute located in Heidelberg, Germany. It shares faculty with the physics and astronomy departments at the University of Heidelberg
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Ernst Karl Abbe
Ernst Karl Abbe Hon FRMS
FRMS
(23 January 1840 – 14 January 1905) was a German physicist, optical scientist, entrepreneur, and social reformer. Together with Otto Schott
Otto Schott
and Carl Zeiss, he laid the foundation of modern optics. Abbe developed numerous optical instruments. He was a co-owner of Carl Zeiss
Carl Zeiss
AG, a German manufacturer of research microscopes, astronomical telescopes, planetariums and other optical systems.Contents1 Personal life 2 Life work 3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Citations 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksPersonal life[edit]Else SnellAbbe was born 23 January 1840 in Eisenach, Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach,[1] to Georg Adam Abbe and Elisabeth Christina Barchfeldt.[2] He came from a humble home — his father was a foreman in a spinnery
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Romania
Coordinates: 46°N 25°E / 46°N 25°E / 46; 25Romania România  (Romanian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Deșteaptă-te, române! '"Awaken thee, Romanian!"Location of  Romania  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Bucharest 44°25′N 26°06′E / 44.417°N 26.100°E / 44.417; 26.100Official languages Romanian[1]Recognised minority languages[2]Albanian Armenian Bulgarian Czech Croatian German Greek Italian Macedonian Hungarian Polish Romani Russian Rusyn Serbian Slovak Tatar Turkish Ukrainian YiddishEthnic groups (2011[3])88.9% Romanians 6.1% Hungarians 3.0% Roma 0.2% Ukrainians 0.2% GermansDemonym RomanianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentKlaus Iohannis• Pr
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Berthold Leibinger Innovationspreis
The Berthold Leibinger Innovationspreis is an award for given to those who have created applied laser technology and innovations on the application or generation of laser light. It is open to participants worldwide. It is biennially awarded by the German non-profit foundation Berthold Leibinger Stiftung. Three prizes are awarded worth 100,000 euros. The prize winners are selected from eight finalists that present their work person in a jury session
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European Inventor Of The Year
The European Inventor Award or European Inventor awards (formerly European Inventor of the Year Award, renamed in 2010), are presented annually by the European Patent Office, sometimes supported by the respective Presidency of the Council of the European Union
Presidency of the Council of the European Union
and by the European Commission, to inventors who have made a significant contribution to innovation, economy and society in Europe. Inventions from all technological fields are considered for this award. The winners in each category are presented with an award shaped like a sail
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