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Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of
Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions and generalised locations * Central Africa, a region in the centre of Africa ...
,
Eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current Chinese airline based in Shanghai *Eastern Air, former name of Zambia Skyways *Eastern Air Lines, a defunct American airline that operated from 1926 to 1991 *Eastern Air Lin ...
and
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criter ...

Southeastern Europe
. It borders
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
to the south,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of European countries by area, second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares bo ...

Ukraine
to the north,
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a landlocked country A landlocked country is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence ...
to the west,
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...

Serbia
to the southwest,
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins ...

Moldova
to the east and the Black Sea to the southeast. It has a predominantly
temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one ...
-
continental climate Continental may refer to: Places * Continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are commonly regarded as continents. Or ...
, and an area of , with a population of around 19 million. Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe, and the sixth-most populous member state of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
. Its capital and largest city is
Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at , on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than north ...

Bucharest
, and other major
urban areas An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as city, cities, towns, conurbatio ...
include
Iași Iași ( , , ), also referred to as Jassy, is the second largest city in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
,
Cluj-Napoca ; hu, kincses város) , official_name=Cluj-Napoca , image_skyline= , subdivision_type1 = Counties of Romania, County , subdivision_name1 = , settlement_type = Municipiu, City and county seat , leader_title = Mayor , leader_name = Emil Boc ...
,
Timișoara), City of Roses ( ro, Orașul florilor), City of Parks ( ro, Orașul parcurilor) , image_map = Timisoara pe Harta Timisului.png , pushpin_map = Romania#Europe , pushpin_relief = 1 , pushpin_label_position = bottom ...
,
Constanța Constanța (, ; ; el, Κωνστάντζα, Kōnstántza, or el, Κωνστάντια, Kōnstántia, label=none; bg, Кюстенджа, Kyustendzha, or bg, Констанца, Konstantsa, label=none; tr, Köstence; rup, Custantsa), histori ...
,
Craiova ) , official_name = Craiova , image_skyline = , image_caption = From left: Dolj County Prefecture • Constantin Mihail Palace • Bibescu Manor House • Carol I National College • Museum of Oltenia • University of Craiova , im ...
,
Brașov Brașov (, , ; la, Corona; german: Kronstadt; Transylvanian Saxon: ''Kruhnen''; hu, Brassó) is a city in Transylvania, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europ ...
, and
Galați Galați (, , ; also known by other #Etymology and names, alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Western Moldavia, in eastern Romania. Galați is a port town on the Danube, Danube River. It has been t ...
. The
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the List of rivers of Europe#Rivers of Europe by length, longest river in Europe. Situated ...
, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's
Black Forest The Black Forest (german: italic=no, Schwarzwald ) is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine valley to the west and south. Its highest peak is the Feldberg (Black Fore ...
and flows in a southeasterly direction for , before emptying into Romania's
Danube Delta The Danube Delta ( ro, Delta Dunării, ; uk, Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunaju, ) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in R ...
. The
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Ural Mountains, Urals at and the Scandinavian Mou ...
, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of . Romania was formed in 1859 through a
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more State (polity), states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct. A real union, by contrast, would involve the constituent states being to some ex ...

personal union
of the
Danubian Principalities in the mid 19th century Danubian Principalities ( ro, Principatele Dunărene, sr, Дунавске кнежевине, translit=Dunavske kneževine) was a conventional name given to the Principality, Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia ...
of
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is a ...

Moldavia
and
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia ( ro, Țara Românească , literally ''The Romanian Land'' or ''The Romanian Country''; Archaism, archaic: ', Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: ) is a Historical regions of Romania, historical and geographical region of Romania. It ...
. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
in 1877. During
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War, the World War, and "The war t ...

World War I
, after declaring its
neutrality
neutrality
in 1914, Romania fought together with the Allied Powers from 1916. In the aftermath of the war,
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the Euro ...
,
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
,
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region that is located in central Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It s ...

Transylvania
and parts of
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it ...
,
Crișana Crișana ( hu, Körösvidék, german: Kreischgebiet) is a geographical and historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encomp ...
, and
Maramureș Maramureș ( ro, Maramureș ; uk, Мармарощина, ''Marmaroshchyna''; hu, Máramaros) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of C ...
became part of the
Kingdom of Romania The Kingdom of Romania ( ro, Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy that existed in Romania from 13 March (Adoption of the Gregorian calendar#Adoption in Eastern Europe, O.S.) / 25 March 1881 with the crowning of prince Karl of Hohenzoll ...
. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact , long_name = , image = Bundesarchiv Bild 183-H27337, Moskau, Stalin und Ribbentrop im Kreml.jpg , image_width = 200 , caption = Joseph Stalin, Stalin and Joachim von Ribbentrop, Ribbentrop shaking hands after the signing of the pact in the Mos ...
and
Second Vienna Award The Second Vienna Award, also known as the Vienna Diktat, was the second of two territorial disputes that were arbitrated by Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "Nati ...
, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...
, and
Northern Transylvania Northern Transylvania ( ro, Transilvania de Nord, hu, Észak-Erdély) was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the August 1940 territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of th ...
to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the
Tripartite Pact The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official lang ...
and, consequently, in June 1941 entered
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the
Allies An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or sovereign state, states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alli ...
and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war and occupation by the
Red Army The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,) frequently shortened to Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established in Janu ...
, Romania became a
socialist republic A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a Sovereign state, sovereign State (polity), state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. The t ...
and a member of the
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a Collective security#Collective defense, collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poli ...
. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition towards democracy and a
market economy A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment To invest is to allocate money Image:National-Debt-Gillray.jpeg, In a 1786 James Gillray caricature, the plentiful money bags handed to King George III ar ...
. Romania is a
developing country 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, ...
, with a high-income economy, ranking 49th in the
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average (see below) time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current a ...
. It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP. Romania experienced rapid economic growth in the early 2000s; its economy is now based predominantly on services. It is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy through companies such as
Automobile Dacia Automobile Dacia S.A. (), commonly known as Dacia, is a Romanian car manufacturer that takes its name from Dacia, the historic region that constitutes the present-day Romania. The company was established in 1966. In 1999, after 33 years, the Rom ...
and OMV Petrom. Romania has been a member of the United Nations since 1955,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
since 2004, and the European Union since 2007. The majority of Romania's population are ethnic
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
and
Eastern Orthodox Christian The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a Communion ( ...
s, speaking
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
, a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance language
.


Etymology

"Romania" derives from the local name for
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
( ro, român), which in turn derives from
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...

Latin
''romanus'', meaning "
Roman Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
" or "of
Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Lazio, Italy).svg , map_caption = The te ...
". This ethnonym for Romanians is first attested in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in
Transylvania Transylvania is a historical region that is located in central Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It s ...

Transylvania
,
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas which at some point in time had a cultural Culture () is a ...

Moldavia
, and
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia ( ro, Țara Românească , literally ''The Romanian Land'' or ''The Romanian Country''; Archaism, archaic: ', Romanian Cyrillic alphabet: ) is a Historical regions of Romania, historical and geographical region of Romania. It ...
. The oldest known surviving document written in
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
, a 1521 letter known as the " Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of ''Romanian'' in a country name: Wallachia is mentioned as . Two spelling forms: and were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: came to mean " bondsman", while retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of
serfdom Serfdom was the status of many peasant A peasant is a pre-industrial farmhand, agricultural laborer or a farmer with limited land-ownership, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and tenant farmer, paying rent, tax, fee ...
in 1746, the word ''rumân'' gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form .In his literary testament writes: ""
In the "" a writes: "
Tudor Vladimirescu Tudor Vladimirescu (; c. 1780 – ) was a Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders wit ...

Tudor Vladimirescu
, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia. The use of the name ''Romania'' to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published his work ''The History of Romania'' in
Leipzig Leipzig (, ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern States of Germany, German state of Saxony and in adjacent parts of southeastern Saxony-Anhalt and eastern Thuring ...

Leipzig
, followed by ''The Geography of Romania''.
On the of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: ""
In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt ''Rumania'' or ''Roumania''. ''Romania'' became the predominant spelling around 1975. ''Romania'' is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with ''u'', e.g. French , German and Swedish , Spanish (the archaic form is still in use in Spain), Polish , Russian (), and Japanese ().


Official names

* 1859–1862:
United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia The United Principalities Moldavia and Wallachia ( ro, Principatele Unite Moldova și Țara Românească), commonly called United Principalities, was the personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the s ...
* 1862–1866:
United Principalities The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia ( ro, Principatele Unite ale Moldovei și Țării Românești), commonly called United Principalities, was the personal union of the Moldavia, Principality of Moldavia and the Wallachia, Principa ...
* 1866–1881:
Principality of Romania The United Principalities Moldavia and Wallachia ( ro, Principatele Unite Moldova și Țara Românească), commonly called United Principalities, was the personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the s ...
* 1881–1947:
Kingdom of Romania The Kingdom of Romania ( ro, Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy that existed in Romania from 13 March (Adoption of the Gregorian calendar#Adoption in Eastern Europe, O.S.) / 25 March 1881 with the crowning of prince Karl of Hohenzoll ...
* 1947–1965:
Romanian People's Republic The Socialist Republic of Romania ( ro, Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a Marxism–Leninism, Marxist–Leninist One-party state, one-party communist state that existed officially in Romania from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the sta ...
(RPR) * 1965–1989:
Socialist Republic of Romania The Socialist Republic of Romania ( ro, Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a Marxism–Leninism, Marxist–Leninist One-party state, one-party communist state that existed officially in Romania from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the sta ...
(RSR) * 1989–present: Romania


History


Prehistory

Human remains found in
Peștera cu Oase Peștera cu Oase (, meaning "The Cave with Bones") is a system of 12 karstic galleries and chambers located near the city Anina, in the Caraș-Severin county, southwestern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the cr ...
("Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon date from circa 40,000 years ago, and represent the oldest known ''
Homo sapiens Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs. An animal ...

Homo sapiens
'' in Europe.
Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final division of the Stone Age, with a wide-ranging set of developments that appear to have arisen independently in several parts of the world. It is first seen about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of ...
agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Thessalian Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', lite ...

Thessaly
in the 6th millennium BC. Excavations near a
salt spring A brine spring or salt spring is a Brine, saltwater Spring (hydrology), spring. Brine springs are not necessarily associated with halite deposits in the immediate vicinity. They may occur at valley bottoms made of clay and gravel which became soggy ...
at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here salt production began between the 5th and 4th millennium BC. The first permanent settlements developed into "proto-cities", which were larger than . The
Cucuteni–Trypillia culture 300px, Chalcolithic cultures of Southeastern Europe, with major archaeological sites (including typesites) The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture ( and ), also known as the Tripolye culture (), is a Neolithic The Neolithic period is the final divi ...
—the best known
archaeological culture An archaeological culture is a recurring Assemblage (archaeology), assemblage of types of Artifact (archaeology), artifacts, buildings and monuments from a specific period and region that may constitute the material culture remains of a particular p ...
of Old Europe—flourished in
Muntenia Muntenia (, also known in English as Greater Wallachia) is a historical region of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southea ...

Muntenia
, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millennium BC. The first fortified settlements appeared around 1800 BC, showing the militant character of
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age syst ...
societies.


Antiquity

Greek colonies established on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century BC became important centres of commerce with the local tribes. Among the native peoples,
Herodotus Herodotus ( ; grc, Ἡρόδοτος, Hēródotos, ; BC) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It ...
listed the
Getae The Getae ( ) or Gets ( ; grc, Γέται, singular ) were several Thracian tribes that once inhabited the regions to either side of the Lower Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest ri ...
of the Lower Danube region, the
Agathyrsi Agathyrsi (Scythian The Scythians (; from Greek ), also known as Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Iskuzai, or Askuzai, were an ancient nomadic people of Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continental area on Earth, comprising all of Europe and Asia. ...
of Transylvania and the Syginnae of the plains along the river
Tisza The Tisza, Tysa or Tisa, is one of the main rivers of Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly bec ...

Tisza
at the beginning of the 5th century BC. Centuries later,
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pres ...

Strabo
associated the Getae with the
Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the area near the Carpathian Mountains and west of the Black Sea ...
who dominated the lands along the southern
Carpathian Mountains The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians () are a range of mountains forming an arc throughout Central and Eastern Europe. Roughly long, it is the third-longest European mountain range after the Ural Mountains, Urals at and the Scandinavian Mou ...
in the 1st century BC.
Burebista Burebista ( grc, Βυρεβίστας, Βοιρεβίστας) was a Thracians, Thracian king of the Getae and Dacians, Dacian tribes from 82/61BC to 45/44BC. He was the first king who successfully unified the tribes of the Dacian Kingdom, which ...
was the first Dacian ruler to unite the local tribes. He also conquered the Greek colonies in
Dobruja Dobruja or Dobrudja (, ; bg, Добруджа, Dobrudzha or ''Dobrudža''; ro, Dobrogea, or ; tr, Dobruca) is a historical region in the Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeast ...

Dobruja
and the neighbouring peoples as far as the Middle Danube and the
Balkan Mountains The Balkan mountain range ( Bulgarian and Serbian: Стара Планина, Stara Planina, "Old Mountain"; ; ) is a mountain range in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. The range runs 557 km from the Vrashka Chuka Peak on Bulgaria ...
between around 55 and 44 BC. After Burebista was murdered in 44 BC, his kingdom collapsed. The Romans reached Dacia during Burebista's reign and conquered Dobruja in 46 AD.
Dacia Dacia (, ; ) was the land inhabited by the Dacians The Dacians (; la, Daci ; grc-gre, Δάκοι, Δάοι, Δάκαι) were a Thracians, Thracian people who were the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, located in the are ...

Dacia
was again united under
Decebalus Decebalus () and sometimes referred to as Diurpaneus was the last king of Dacia. He is famous for fighting three wars, with varying success, against the Roman Empire under two emperors. After raiding south across the Danube The Danube ( ; ) i ...

Decebalus
around 85 AD. He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army defeated his troops in 106 AD. Emperor
Trajan Trajan ( ; la, Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 539/11 August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Roman Senate, Senate ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-empero ...

Trajan
transformed
Banat Banat (, ) is a geographical and historical region straddling between Central and Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the European continent between Western Europe and Asia. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it ...
,
Oltenia Oltenia (, also called Lesser Wallachia in antiquated versions, with the alternative Latin names ''Wallachia Minor'', ''Wallachia Alutana'', ''Wallachia Caesarea'' between 1718 and 1739) is a historical province and geographical region of Romania i ...

Oltenia
and the greater part of Transylvania into a new
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are gen ...
called
Roman Dacia Roman Dacia ( ; also known as Dacia Traiana, "Trajan Dacia", or Dacia Felix, "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , count ...

Roman Dacia
, but Dacian,
Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic languages ** List of ancient Germanic peoples and tribes * Germanic languages :* Proto-Germanic language, a reconstructed proto-language of ...

Germanic
and
Sarmatian The Sarmatians (; Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 mi ...
tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers. The Romans pursued an organised colonisation policy, and the provincials enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity in the 2nd century. Scholars accepting the Daco-Roman continuity theory—one of the main theories about the
origin of the Romanians Several theories address the issue of the origin of the Romanians. The Romanian language Romanian (dated spellings: Rumanian or Roumanian; autonym: ''limba română'' , "the Romanian language", or ''românește'', lit. "in Romanian") is a B ...
—say that the cohabitation of the native Dacians and the Roman colonists in Roman Dacia was the first phase of the Romanians'
ethnogenesis Ethnogenesis (from Greek Language, Greek ''ethnos'' , "group of people, nation", and ''genesis'' , "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is "the formation and development of an ethnic group". This can originate through a process of ...
. The
Carpians The Carpi or Carpiani were an ancient people that resided in the eastern parts of modern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, S ...
,
Goths The Goths ( got, 𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰, translit=''Gutþiuda''; la, Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), ...
and other neighbouring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s. The Romans could not resist, and Emperor
Aurelian Aurelian ( la, Lucius Domitius Aurelianus; 9 September 214c. October 275) was Roman emperor from 270 to 275. As emperor, he won an unprecedented series of military victories which reunited the Roman Empire after it had practically disintegrated ...

Aurelian
ordered the evacuation of the province
Dacia Trajana Roman Dacia ( ; also known as Dacia Traiana, "Trajan Dacia", or Dacia Felix, "Fertile/Happy Dacia") was a province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ...
in 271. Scholars supporting the continuity theory are convinced that most Latin-speaking commoners stayed behind when the army and civil administration was withdrawn. The Romans did not abandon their fortresses along the northern banks of the Lower Danube for decades, and Dobruja (known as
Scythia Minor Scythia Minor or Lesser Scythia ( Greek: , ) was in ancient times the region surrounded by the Danube The Danube ( ; ) is Europe's List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river after the Volga River, Volga, flowing through mu ...
) remained an integral part of the Roman Empire until the early 7th century.


Middle Ages

The Goths were expanding towards the Lower Danube from the 230s, forcing the native peoples to flee to the Roman Empire or to accept their
suzerainty Suzerainty () is a relationship in which one state or other polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized socia ...
. The Goths' rule ended abruptly when the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral ...

Huns
invaded their territory in 376, causing new waves of migrations. The Huns forced the remnants of the local population into submission, but their empire collapsed in 454. The
Gepids The Gepids ( la, Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe who lived in the area of modern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast ...
took possession of the former Dacia province. The nomadic
Avars Avar(s) or AVAR may refer to: Peoples and states * Avars (Caucasus), a modern Northeast Caucasian-speaking people in the North Caucasus, Dagestan, Russia **Avar language, the modern Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Avars of the North Ca ...
defeated the Gepids and established a powerful empire around 570. The Bulgars, who also came from the Eurasian steppes, occupied the Lower Danube region in 680. Place names that are of Slavic languages, Slavic origin abound in Romania, indicating that a significant Slavic-speaking population lived in the territory. The first Early Slavs, Slavic groups settled in Moldavia and Wallachia in the 6th century, in Transylvania around 600. After the Avar Khaganate collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa. The Council of Preslav declared Old Church Slavonic the language of liturgy in the First Bulgarian Empire, First Bulgarian Tsardom in 893. The Romanians also adopted Old Church Slavonic as their liturgical language. The Hungarians, Magyars (Hungarians) took control of the steppes north of the Lower Danube in the 830s, but the Bulgarians and the Pechenegs jointly forced them to abandon this region for the Great Hungarian Plain, lowlands along the Middle Danube around 894. Centuries later, the ''Gesta Hungarorum'' wrote of the invading Magyars' wars against three dukes—Glad (duke), Glad, Menumorut and the Vlach Gelou—for Banat, Crișana and Transylvania. The ''Gesta'' also listed many peoples—Slavs, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Khazars, and Székelys—inhabiting the same regions. The reliability of the ''Gesta'' is debated. Some scholars regard it as a basically accurate account, others describe it as a literary work filled with invented details. The Pechenegs seized the lowlands abandoned by the Hungarians to the east of the Carpathians. Byzantine Empire, Byzantine missionaries proselytised in the lands east of the Tisa from the 940s and Byzantine troops occupied Dobruja in the 970s. The first king of Hungary, Stephen I of Hungary, Stephen I, who supported Western European missionaries, defeated the local chieftains and established Catholic Church in Romania, Roman Catholic bishoprics (office of a bishop) in Transylvania and Banat in the early 11th century. Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks followed them, and the nomadic Cumans became the dominant power of the steppes in the 1060s. Cooperation between the Cumans and the Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire is well documented from the end of the 11th century. Scholars who reject the Daco-Roman continuity theory say that the first Vlach groups left their Balkan Peninsula, Balkan homeland for the mountain pastures of the eastern and southern Carpathians in the 11th century, establishing the Romanians' presence in the lands to the north of the Lower Danube. Exposed to nomadic incursions, Transylvania developed into an important border province of the Kingdom of Hungary. The Székelys—a community of free warriors—settled in central Transylvania around 1100 and moved to the easternmost regions around 1200. Colonists from the Holy Roman Empire—the Transylvanian Saxons' ancestors—came to the province in the 1150s. A high-ranking royal official, styled Voivode of Transylvania, voivode, ruled the Transylvanian Counties of Hungary (before 1920), counties from the 1170s, but the Székely and Saxon Seat (territorial administrative unit), seats (or districts) were not subject to the voivodes' authority. Royal charters wrote of the "Vlachs' land" in southern Transylvania in the early 13th century, indicating the existence of Romanian district, autonomous Romanian communities. Papal correspondence mentions the activities of Orthodox prelates among the Romanians in Muntenia in the 1230s. Also in the 13th century, during one of its greatest periods of expansion, the Republic of Genoa started establishing many Genoese colonies, colonies and commercial and military ports on the Black Sea, in the current territory of Romania. The largest Genoese colonies in present-day Romania were Calafat (still known as such),
Constanța Constanța (, ; ; el, Κωνστάντζα, Kōnstántza, or el, Κωνστάντια, Kōnstántia, label=none; bg, Кюстенджа, Kyustendzha, or bg, Констанца, Konstantsa, label=none; tr, Köstence; rup, Custantsa), histori ...
(Costanza),
Galați Galați (, , ; also known by other #Etymology and names, alternative names) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Western Moldavia, in eastern Romania. Galați is a port town on the Danube, Danube River. It has been t ...
(Caladda), Giurgiu (San Giorgio), Licostomo and Vicina (town), Vicina (unknown modern location). These would last until the 15th century. The Mongols destroyed large territories during Mongol invasion of Europe, their invasion of Eastern and Central Europe in 1241 and 1242. The Mongols' Golden Horde emerged as the dominant power of Eastern Europe, but Béla IV of Hungary's land grant to the Knights Hospitallers in Oltenia and Muntenia shows that the local Vlach rulers were subject to the king's authority in 1247. Basarab I of Wallachia united the Romanian polities between the southern Carpathians and the Lower Danube in the 1310s. He defeated the Hungarian royal army in the Battle of Posada and secured the independence of Principality of Wallachia, Wallachia in 1330. The second Romanian principality, Principality of Moldavia, Moldavia, achieved full autonomy during the reign of Bogdan I of Moldavia, Bogdan I around 1360. A local dynasty ruled the Despotate of Dobruja in the second half of the 14th century, but the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th a ...
took possession of the territory after 1388. Princes Mircea I of Wallachia, Mircea I and Vlad the Impaler, Vlad III of Wallachia, and Stephen the Great, Stephen III of Moldavia defended their countries' independence against the Ottomans. Most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively. A military commander of Romanian origin, John Hunyadi, organised the defence of the Kingdom of Hungary until his death in 1456. Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants, and Transylvanian peasant revolt, they rose up in an open rebellion in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly suppressed their revolt. The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon, and Székely leaders, known as the Unio Trium Nationum, Union of the Three Nations, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania. The Orthodox Romanian ''Knez (Vlach leader), knezes'' ("chiefs") were excluded from the Union.


Early Modern Times and national awakening

The Kingdom of Hungary collapsed, and the Ottomans occupied parts of Banat and Crișana in 1541. Transylvania and
Maramureș Maramureș ( ro, Maramureș ; uk, Мармарощина, ''Marmaroshchyna''; hu, Máramaros) is a geographical, historical and cultural region in northern Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of C ...
, along with the rest of Banat and Crișana developed into a new state under Ottoman suzerainty, the Principality of Transylvania (1570–1711), Principality of Transylvania. Reformation spread and four denominations—Reformed Church in Romania, Calvinism, Evangelical Church of Augustan Confession in Romania, Lutheranism, Unitarian Church of Transylvania, Unitarianism, and Roman Catholicism—were officially acknowledged in 1568. The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated, although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations. The princes of Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia joined the Holy League (1594), Holy League against the Ottoman Empire in 1594. The Wallachian prince, Michael the Brave, united the three principalities under his rule in May 1600. The neighboring powers forced him to abdicate in September, but he became a symbol of the unification of the Romanian lands in the 19th century. Although the rulers of the three principalities continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, the most talented princes—Gabriel Bethlen of Transylvania, Matei Basarab of Wallachia, and Vasile Lupu of Moldavia—strengthened their autonomy. The united armies of the Holy League (1684), Holy League expelled the Ottoman troops from Central Europe between 1684 and 1699, and the Principality of Transylvania was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy. The Habsburgs supported the Catholic clergy and persuaded the Orthodox Romanian prelates to accept the church union, union with the Roman Catholic Church in 1699. The Church Union strengthened the Romanian intellectuals' devotion to their Roman heritage. The Orthodox Church was restored in Transylvania only after Orthodox monks stirred up revolts in 1744 and 1759. The organization of the Transylvanian Military Frontier caused further disturbances, Siculicidium, especially among the Székelys in 1764. Princes Dimitrie Cantemir of Moldavia and Constantin Brâncoveanu of Wallachia concluded alliances with the Habsburg Monarchy and Russia against the Ottomans, but they were dethroned in 1711 and 1714, respectively. The sultans lost confidence in the native princes and appointed Orthodox merchants from the Fener, Phanar district of Istanbul to rule Moldova and Wallachia. The Phanariotes, Phanariot princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army. The neighboring powers took advantage of the situation: the Habsburg Monarchy annexed the northwestern part of Moldavia, or
Bukovina Bukovina ro, Bucovina; german: Bukowina or ; pl, Bukowina; hu, Bukovina; uk, Буковина, ; see also other languages is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the region of the Euro ...
, in 1775, and the Russian Empire seized the eastern half of Moldavia, or
Bessarabia Bessarabia (; gag, Besarabiya; ro, Basarabia; russian: Бессарабия, ''Bessarabiya''; tr, Besarabya; uk, Бессара́бія'', Bessarabiya''; bg, Бесарабия, ''Besarabiya'') is a historical region Historical regions (or ...

Bessarabia
, in 1812. A census revealed that the Romanians were more numerous than any other ethnic group in Transylvania in 1733, but legislation continued to use contemptuous adjectives (such as "tolerated" and "admitted") when referring to them. The Romanian Greek Catholic Church, Uniate bishop, Inocențiu Micu-Klein who demanded recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile. Uniate and Orthodox clerics and laymen jointly signed a Supplex Libellus Valachorum, plea for the Transylvanian Romanians' emancipation in 1791, but the monarch and the local authorities refused to grant their requests.


Independence and monarchy

The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca authorised the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities) in 1774. Taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence, a Wallachian lesser nobleman, Tudor Vladimirescu, stirred up a revolt against the Ottomans in January 1821, but he was murdered in June by Phanariot Greeks. After a Russo-Turkish War (1828–29), new Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Adrianople (1829), Treaty of Adrianople strengthened the autonomy of the Danubian Principalities in 1829, although it also acknowledged the sultan's right to confirm the election of the princes. Mihail Kogălniceanu, Nicolae Bălcescu and other leaders of the Moldavian Revolution of 1848, 1848 revolutions in Moldavia and Wallachian Revolution of 1848, Wallachia demanded the emancipation of the peasants and the union of the two principalities, but Russian and Ottoman troops crushed their revolt. The Wallachian revolutionists were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red Tricolour (flag), tricolour as the Flag of Romania, national flag. In Transylvania, most Romanians supported the imperial government against the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Hungarian revolutionaries after the Diet passed a law concerning the union of Transylvania and Hungary. Bishop Andrei Șaguna proposed the unification of the Romanians of the Habsburg Monarchy in a separate duchy, but the central government refused to change the internal borders. The Treaty of Paris (1856), Treaty of Paris put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the International relations of the Great Powers (1814–1919), Great Powers in 1856. After Ad hoc Divans, special assemblies convoked in Moldavia and Wallachia urged Unification of Moldavia and Wallachia, the unification of the two principalities, the Great Powers did not prevent the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as their collective ''domnitor'' (or ruling prince) in January 1859. The United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia, united principalities officially adopted the name Romania on 21 February 1862. Cuza's government carried out a series of reforms, including the secularisation of the property of monasteries and agrarian reform, but a coalition of conservative and radical politicians forced him to abdicate in February 1866. Cuza's successor, a German prince, Carol I of Romania, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (or Carol I), was elected in May. The parliament adopted the 1866 Constitution of Romania, first constitution of Romania in the same year. The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin and Carol I was crowned king in 1881. The Congress also granted the Danube Delta and Dobruja to Romania. Although Romanian scholars strove for the unification of all Romanians into a Greater Romania, the government did not openly support their Irredentism, irredentist projects. The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Austro-Hungarian Compromise brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867. Ethnic Romanian politicians sharply opposed the Hungarian government's attempts to transform Hungary into a national state, especially the laws prescribing the obligatory teaching of Hungarian. Leaders of the Romanian National Party proposed the federalisation of Austria-Hungary and the Romanian intellectuals established a cultural association to promote the use of Romanian.


World Wars and Greater Romania

Fearing Russian expansionism, Romania secretly joined the Triple Alliance (1882), Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in 1883, but public opinion remained hostile to Austria-Hungary. Romania seized Southern Dobruja from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War in 1913. German and Austrian-Hungarian diplomacy supported Bulgaria during the war, bringing about a rapprochement between Romania and the Triple Entente of France, Russia and the United Kingdom. The country remained neutral when World War I broke out in 1914, but Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu started negotiations with the Entente Powers. After they promised Austrian-Hungarian territories with a majority of ethnic Romanian population to Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest (1916), Treaty of Bucharest, Romania entered the war against the Central Powers in 1916. The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917. After the October Revolution turned Russia from an ally into an enemy, Romania was forced to sign a Treaty of Bucharest (1918), harsh peace treaty with the Central Powers in May 1918, but the collapse of Russia also enabled the union of Bessarabia with Romania. Ferdinand I of Romania, King Ferdinand again mobilised the Romanian army on behalf of the Entente Powers a day before Armistice of 11 November 1918, Germany capitulated on 11 November 1918. Austria-Hungary quickly disintegrated after the war. The General Congress of Bukovina proclaimed Union of Bukovina with Romania, the union of the province with Romania on 28 November 1918, and the 1918 Romanian National Assembly election, Grand National Assembly proclaimed Union of Transylvania with Romania, the union of Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the kingdom on 1 December. Peace treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary delineated the new borders in 1919 and 1920, but the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a Political union, union of multiple national Republics of t ...
did not acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia. Romania achieved its greatest territorial extent, expanding from the pre-war . A new electoral system granted voting rights to all adult male citizens, and a series of radical agrarian reforms transformed the country into a "nation of small landowners" between 1918 and 1921. Gender equality as a principle was enacted, but women could not vote or be candidates. Calypso Botez established the National Council of Romanian Women to promote feminist ideas. Romania was a multiethnic country, with ethnic minorities making up about 30% of the population, but the 1923 Constitution of Romania, new constitution declared it a unitary national state in 1923. Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian. Agriculture remained the principal sector of economy, but several branches of industry—especially the production of coal, oil, metals, synthetic rubber, explosives and cosmetics—developed during the interwar period. With oil production of 5.8 million tons in 1930, Romania ranked sixth in the world. Two parties, the National Liberal Party (Romania, 1875), National Liberal Party and the National Peasants' Party, dominated political life, but the Great Depression in Romania brought about significant changes in the 1930s. The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard and the authoritarian tendencies of Carol II of Romania, King Carol II. The King promulgated a 1938 Constitution of Romania, new constitution and dissolved the political parties in 1938, replacing the parliamentary system with a royal dictatorship. The 1938 Munich Agreement convinced King Carol II that France and the United Kingdom could not defend Romanian interests. German preparations for a new war required the regular supply of Romanian oil and agricultural products. The two countries concluded a treaty concerning the coordination of their economic policies in 1939, but the King could not persuade Adolf Hitler to guarantee Romania's frontiers. Romania was forced to Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union on 26 June 1940,
Northern Transylvania Northern Transylvania ( ro, Transilvania de Nord, hu, Észak-Erdély) was the region of the Kingdom of Romania that during World War II, as a consequence of the August 1940 territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of th ...
to Hungary on 30 August, and Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in September. After the territorial losses, the King was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son, Michael I of Romania, Michael I, on 6 September, and Romania was transformed into a National Legionary State, national-legionary state under the leadership of General Ion Antonescu. Antonescu signed the
Tripartite Pact The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official lang ...
of Germany, Italy and Japan on 23 November. The Iron Guard staged a coup against Antonescu, but he crushed the riot with German support and introduced a military dictatorship in early 1941. Romania entered
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a World war, global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved World War II by country, the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the gr ...
soon after the Operation Barbarossa, German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941. The country regained Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and the Germans placed Transnistria Governorate, Transnistria (the territory between the rivers Dniester and Dnieper) under Romanian administration. Romanian and German troops massacred at least 160,000 local Jews in these territories; more than 105,000 Jews and about 11,000 Gypsies died during their deportation from Bessarabia to Transnistria. Most of the Jewish population of Moldavia, Wallachia, Banat and Southern Transylvania survived, but their fundamental rights were limited. After the Operation Margarethe, German occupation of Hungary in March 1944, about 132,000 Jews – mainly Hungarian-speaking – were deported to extermination camps from Northern Transylvania with the Hungarian authorities' support. After the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1943, Iuliu Maniu, a leader of the opposition to Antonescu, entered into secret negotiations with British diplomats who made it clear that Romania had to seek reconciliation with the Soviet Union. To facilitate the coordination of their activities against Antonescu's regime, the National Liberal and National Peasants' parties established the National Democratic Bloc, which also included the Romanian Social Democratic Party (1927–48), Social Democratic and Romanian Communist Party, Communist parties. After a successful Soviet offensive, the young King Michael's Coup, King Michael I ordered Antonescu's arrest and appointed politicians from the National Democratic Bloc to form a new government on 23 August 1944. Romania switched sides during the war, and nearly 250,000 Romanian troops joined the Red Army's military campaign against Hungary and Germany, but Joseph Stalin regarded the country as an occupied territory within the Soviet sphere of influence. Stalin's deputy instructed the King to make the Communists' candidate, Petru Groza, the prime minister in March 1945. The Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania was soon restored, and Groza's government carried out an agrarian reform. In February 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, Paris Peace Treaties confirmed the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania, but they also legalised the presence of units of the Red Army in the country.


Communism

During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new 1946 Romanian general election, elections in 1946, which they Electoral fraud, fraudulently won, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote. Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force. Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, a Communist party leader imprisoned in 1933, escaped in 1944 to become Romania's first Communist leader. In February 1947, he and others forced King Michael I to Abdication, abdicate and leave the country and proclaimed Romania a people's republic. Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were drained continuously by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes. In 1948, the state began to nationalization in Romania, nationalise private firms and to collectivization in Romania, collectivise agriculture. Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate—the Romanian secret police. During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges during which numerous "enemies of the state" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment including: deportation, internal exile, internment in forced labour camps and prisons—sometimes for life—as well as extrajudicial killing. Nevertheless, Romanian anti-communist resistance movement, anti-Communist resistance was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc. A Presidential Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Romania, 2006 Commission estimated the number of direct victims of the Communist repression at two million people. In 1965, Nicolae Ceaușescu came to power and started to conduct the country's foreign policy more independently from the Soviet Union. Thus, Communist Romania was the only
Warsaw Pact The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), officially the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, commonly known as the Warsaw Pact (WP), was a Collective security#Collective defense, collective defense treaty signed in Warsaw, Poli ...
country which refused to participate in the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968 invasion of Czechoslovakia. Ceaușescu even Ceaușescu's speech of 21 August 1968, publicly condemned the action as "a big mistake, [and] a serious danger to peace in Europe and to the fate of Communism in the world". It was the only Communist state to maintain diplomatic relations with Israel after 1967's Six-Day War and established diplomatic relations with West Germany the same year. At the same time, close ties with the Arab world, Arab countries and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) allowed Romania to play a key role in the Israel–Egypt and Israel–PLO peace talks. As Romania's foreign debt increased sharply between 1977 and 1981 (from US$3 billion to $10 billion), the influence of international financial organisations—such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank—grew, gradually conflicting with Ceaușescu's autocracy, autocratic rule. He eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing 1980s austerity policy in Romania, austerity steps that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. The process succeeded in repaying all of Romania's foreign government debt in 1989. At the same time, Ceaușescu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe Nicolae Ceaușescu's cult of personality, cult of personality, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution of December 1989 in which thousands were killed or injured. The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation.


Contemporary period

After the 1989 revolution, the National Salvation Front (Romania), National Salvation Front (NSF), led by Ion Iliescu, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures. In April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of 1990 Romanian general election, that year's legislative elections and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate grew rapidly to become what was called the Golaniad. Peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both local and foreign media, and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad. The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party (Romania), Social Democratic Party (PDSR then PSD) and the Democratic Party (Romania), Democratic Party (PD and subsequently PDL). The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments, with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009. In 2009, the country was bailed out by the International Monetary Fund as an aftershock of the Great Recession in Europe. In November 2014, Sibiu (german: link=no, Hermannstadt) former Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania, FDGR/DFDR mayor Klaus Iohannis was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta, who had been previously leading in the opinion polls. This surprise victory was attributed by many analysts to the implication of the Romanian diaspora in the voting process, with almost 50% casting ballots for Klaus Iohannis in the first round, compared to only 16% for Ponta. In 2019, Iohannis was re-elected president in a landslide victory over former Prime Minister Viorica Dăncilă. The post–1989 period is also characterised by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period were closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatisation of the post–1989 regimes. Corruption has also been a Corruption in Romania, major issue in contemporary Romanian politics. In November 2015, massive 2015 Romanian protests, anti-corruption protests which developed in the wake of the Colectiv nightclub fire led to the resignation of Romania's Prime Minister Victor Ponta. During 2017–2018, in response to measures which were perceived to weaken the fight against corruption, some of the 2017–2018 Romanian protests, biggest protests since 1989 took place in Romania, with over 500,000 people protesting across the country. Nevertheless, there have been efforts to tackle corruption. A National Anticorruption Directorate was formed in the country in 2002. In Transparency International's 2019 Corruption Perceptions Index, Romania's public sector corruption score deteriorated to 44 out of 100, reversing gains made in previous years.


NATO and EU integration

After the end of the Cold War, Romania developed closer ties with Western Europe and the United States, eventually joining
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. Th ...
in 2004, and hosting the 2008 Bucharest summit, 2008 summit in Bucharest. The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...

European Union
and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a 2007 enlargement of the European Union, full member on 1 January 2007. During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe". This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced domestic poverty and established a functional democratic state.Human Development Report 2009 – Country Fact Sheets – Romania
. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the Great Recession, late-2000s' recession leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and a budget deficit in 2009. This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund. Worsening economic conditions led to 2012 Romanian constitutional crisis, unrest and triggered a political crisis in 2012. Romania still faces problems related to infrastructure, medical services, Education in Romania, education, and corruption. Near the end of 2013, ''The Economist'' reported Romania again enjoying "booming" economic growth at 4.1% that year, with wages rising fast and a lower unemployment than in Britain. Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms. In 2016 the
Human Development Index The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average (see below) time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current a ...
ranked Romania as a nation of "Very High Human Development". Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy, Germany and Spain. In 2016, the Romanian diaspora was estimated to be over 3.6 million people, the fifth-highest emigrant population in the world.


Geography and climate

Romania is the largest country in
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criter ...

Southeastern Europe
and the List of European countries by area, twelfth-largest in Europe, having an area of . It lies between latitudes 43rd parallel north, 43° and 49th parallel north, 49° N and longitudes 20th meridian east, 20° and 30th meridian east, 30° E. The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with List of mountain peaks in Romania, 14 mountain ranges reaching above —the highest is Moldoveanu Peak at . They are surrounded by the Moldavian Plateau, Moldavian and Transylvanian Plateau, Transylvanian plateaus, the Carpathian Basin and the Wallachian Plain, Wallachian plains. Romania is home to six terrestrial ecoregions: Balkan mixed forests, Central European mixed forests, East European forest steppe, Pannonian mixed forests, Carpathian montane conifer forests, and Pontic steppe. Natural and semi-natural ecosystems cover about 47% of the country's land area. There are almost (about 5% of the total area) of Protected areas of Romania, protected areas in Romania covering 13 national parks and three biosphere reserves. The
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga The Volga (; russian: Во́лга, a=Ru-Волга.ogg, p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the List of rivers of Europe#Rivers of Europe by length, longest river in Europe. Situated ...
river forms a large part of the border with
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr, Србија, Srbija, ),, * cs, Srbsko, * ro, Serbia * rue, Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk, Сербія * hu, Szerbia * bg, Сърбия * sq, Serbia * bs, Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, ...

Serbia
and
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia ...
, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the Danube Delta, which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve and a biodiversity World Heritage Site. At , the
Danube Delta The Danube Delta ( ro, Delta Dunării, ; uk, Дельта Дунаю, Deľta Dunaju, ) is the second largest river delta in Europe, after the Volga Delta, and is the best preserved on the continent. The greater part of the Danube Delta lies in R ...
is the largest continuous marshland in Europe, and supports 1,688 different plant species alone. Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe, covering almost 27% of its territory. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 5.95/10, ranking it 90th globally out of 172 countries. Some 3,700 plant species have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments, 74 extinct, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable, and 1,253 rare. The fauna of Romania consists of 33,792 species of animals, 33,085 invertebrate and 707 vertebrate, with almost 400 unique species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, including about 50% of Europe's (excluding Russia) brown bears and 20% of its wolf, wolves.


Climate

Owing to its distance from open sea and its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is
temperate In geography, the temperate climates of Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is one ...
and continental climate, continental, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is  in the south and  in the north. In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to , and temperatures over are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country. In winter, the average maximum temperature is below . Precipitation is average, with over per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to approximately . There are some regional differences: in western sections, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. In Dobruja, the Black Sea also exerts an influence over the region's climate.


Governance

The Constitution of Romania is based on Constitution of France, the constitution of France's French Fifth Republic, Fifth Republic and was approved in a national referendum on 8 December 1991 and amended in October 2003 to bring it into conformity with EU legislation. The country is governed on the basis of a multi-party democratic system and the separation of powers between the legislative, executive and judicial branches. It is a semi-presidential republic where executive functions are held by both the Government of Romania, government and the President of Romania, president. The latter is elected by popular vote for a maximum of two terms of five years and appoints the prime minister who in turn appoints the Romanian Cabinet, Council of Ministers. The legislative branch of the government, collectively known as the Parliament of Romania, Parliament (residing at the Palace of the Parliament), consists of Bicameralism, two chambers (Senate of Romania, Senate and Chamber of Deputies (Romania), Chamber of Deputies) whose members are elected every four years by Plurality voting system, simple plurality. The justice system is independent of the other branches of government and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts with the High Court of Cassation and Justice being the supreme court of Romania. There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French law, French model, is based on Civil law (legal system), civil law and is inquisitorial system, inquisitorial in nature. The Curtea Constituțională, Constitutional Court (''Curtea Constituțională'') is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations with the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum. Romania's 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.


Foreign relations

Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union, albeit with limited Romania–Russia relations, relations involving the Russian Federation. It joined the NATO on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization. In the past, recent governments have stated that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries (in particular
Moldova Moldova (, ; ), officially the Republic of Moldova ( ro, Republica Moldova), is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins ...

Moldova
,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the List of European countries by area, second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares bo ...

Ukraine
, and Georgia (country), Georgia) with the process of integration with the rest of the West. Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus. Romania also declared its public support for Turkey, and Croatia joining the European Union. Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to accede to the Schengen Area, and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament in June 2011, but was rejected by the Council of the European Union, EU Council in September 2011. As of August 2019, its acceptance into the Schengen Area is hampered because the European Council has misgivings about Romania's adherence to the rule of law, a fundamental principle of EU membership. In December 2005, President Traian Băsescu and United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice signed an agreement that would allow a U.S. military presence at several Romanian facilities primarily in the eastern part of the country. In May 2009, Hillary Clinton, US Secretary of State, declared that "Romania is one of the most trustworthy and respectable partners of the USA." Romanian-Moldovan relations, Relations with Moldova are a special case given that the two countries share the same language and a History of Moldavia, common history. A Unification of Romania and Moldova, movement for unification of Romania and Moldova appeared in the early 1990s after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule but lost ground in the mid-1990s when a new Moldovan government pursued an agenda towards preserving a Moldovan republic independent of Romania. After the 2009 Moldovan protests, 2009 protests in Moldova and the subsequent removal of Communists from power, relations between the two countries have improved considerably.


Military

The Romanian Armed Forces consist of Romanian Land Forces, land, Romanian Air Force, air, and Romanian Naval Forces, naval forces led by a Commander-in-chief under the supervision of the Ministry of National Defence (Romania), Ministry of National Defence, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields. Total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment. The Air Force operates modernised Soviet MiG-21 Lancer fighters. The Air Force purchased seven new C-27J Spartan tactical airlifters, while the Naval Forces acquired two modernised Type 22 frigates from the British Royal Navy. Romania contributed troops to the international coalition in War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan beginning in 2002, with a peak deployment of 1,600 troops in 2010 (which was the 4th largest contribution according to the US). Its combat mission in the country concluded in 2014. Romanian troops participated in the History of Iraq (2003–2011), occupation of Iraq, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. The frigate the ''Regele Ferdinand frigate, Regele Ferdinand'' participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya. In December 2011, the Romanian Senate unanimously adopted the draft law ratifying the Romania–United States relations, Romania-United States agreement signed in September of the same year that would allow the establishment and operation of a US land-based Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System, ballistic missile defence system in Romania as part of NATO's efforts to build a continental NATO missile defence system, missile shield.


Administrative divisions

Romania is divided into 41 Counties of Romania, counties (''județe'', pronounced judetse) and the municipality of
Bucharest Bucharest ( , ; ro, București ) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at , on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than north ...

Bucharest
. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a Prefect (Romania), prefect responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party. Each county is subdivided further into cities of Romania, cities and Communes of Romania, communes, which have their own mayor and local council. There are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes in Romania. A total of 103 of the larger cities have Municipalities of Romania, municipality status, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case, as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors of Bucharest, sectors and has a prefect, a general mayor (''primar''), and a general city council. The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of the European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest. The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions of Romania, macroregions) and NUTS-2 (eight Development regions of Romania, development regions) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity and are used instead for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.


Economy

In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a List of countries by GDP per capita (PPP), GDP per capita (purchasing power parity, PPP) of $28,189., IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017 According to the World Bank, Romania is a high-income economy. According to Eurostat, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was 70% of the EU average (100%) in 2019, an increase from 44% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU), making Romania one of the fastest growing economies in the EU. After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the National Institute of Statistics (Romania), Romanian Statistics Office, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe. However, the Great Recession forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF €20 billion bailout program. According to The World Bank, GDP per capita in purchasing power parity grew from $13,687 in 2007 to $28,206 in 2018. Romania's net average monthly wage increased to 666 euro as of 2020, and an inflation rate of −1.1% in 2016. Unemployment in Romania was at 4.3% in August 2018, which is low compared to other EU countries. Industrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the Europe. The largest local companies include car maker
Automobile Dacia Automobile Dacia S.A. (), commonly known as Dacia, is a Romanian car manufacturer that takes its name from Dacia, the historic region that constitutes the present-day Romania. The company was established in 1966. In 1999, after 33 years, the Rom ...
, Petrom, Rompetrol, Ford Romania, Electrica, Romgaz, RCS & RDS and Banca Transilvania. As of 2020, there are around 6000 exports per month. Romania's main exports are: cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be 4.52% of GDP. After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat less than in other European economies. In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax system with a flat tax of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union. The economy is based predominantly on services, which account for 56.2% of the country's total GDP as of 2017, with industry and agriculture accounting for 30% and 4.4% respectively. Approximately 25.8% of the Romanian workforce is employed in agriculture, one of the highest rates in Europe. Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment following the end of Communism, with the stock of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Romania rising to €83.8 billion in June 2019. Romania's FDI outward stock (an external or foreign business either investing in or purchasing the stock of a local economy) amounted to $745 million in December 2018, the lowest value among the 28 EU member states. Some companies that have invested in Romania include Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Proctor & Gamble, Citibank, and IBM. According to a 2019 World Bank report, Romania ranks 52nd out of 190 economies in the ease of doing business, one place higher than neighbouring Hungary and one place lower than Italy. The report praised the consistent enforcement of contracts and access to credit in the country, while noting difficulties in access to electricity and dealing with construction permits. Since 1867 the official currency has been the Romanian leu, Romanian ''leu'' ("lion") and following a denomination in 2005. After joining the EU in 2007, Romania is expected to adopt the Euro in 2024. In January 2020, Romania's external debt was reported to be US$122 billion according to CEIC data.


Infrastructure

According to the Romania's National Institute of Statistics (INSSE), Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at . The World Bank estimates the railway network at of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe. Romania's Căile Ferate Române, rail transport experienced a dramatic decline after 1989 and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004, but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatisation of lines, accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. Bucharest Metro, the only rapid transit, underground railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek in the country. There are List of airports in Romania, sixteen international commercial airports in service today. Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport in 2017. Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 52nd worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy. Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power. In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%). It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade. With one of the largest reserves of crude oil and shale gas in Europe it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union, and is looking to expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă Nuclear Power Plant, Cernavodă further. There were almost 18.3 million connections to the Internet in June 2014. According to Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg, in 2013 Romania ranked fifth in the world, and according to ''The Independent'', it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds, with
Timișoara), City of Roses ( ro, Orașul florilor), City of Parks ( ro, Orașul parcurilor) , image_map = Timisoara pe Harta Timisului.png , pushpin_map = Romania#Europe , pushpin_relief = 1 , pushpin_label_position = bottom ...
ranked among the highest in the world.


Tourism

Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP. The number of tourists has been rising steadily, reaching 9.33 million foreign tourists in 2016, according to the Worldbank. Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005. More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries. The popular summer attractions of Mamaia and other Romanian Black Sea resorts, Black Sea Resorts attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.Criza ne strică vacanța
, 9 July 2010, jurnalul.ro, accessed on 21 August 2010
Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei and in Poiana Brașov. List of castles in Romania, Castles, fortifications, or strongholds as well as preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as
Cluj-Napoca ; hu, kincses város) , official_name=Cluj-Napoca , image_skyline= , subdivision_type1 = Counties of Romania, County , subdivision_name1 = , settlement_type = Municipiu, City and county seat , leader_title = Mayor , leader_name = Emil Boc ...
, Sibiu,
Brașov Brașov (, , ; la, Corona; german: Kronstadt; Transylvanian Saxon: ''Kruhnen''; hu, Brassó) is a city in Transylvania, Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europ ...
, Bistrița, Mediaș, Cisnădie, or Sighișoara also attract a large number of tourists. Bran Castle, near Brașov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula in popular culture, Dracula's Castle. Rural tourism, focusing on folklore and traditions, has become an important alternative, and is targeted to promote such sites as Bran, Brașov, Bran and its Dracula's Castle, the Churches of Moldavia, painted churches of northern Moldavia, and the wooden churches of Maramureș, or the villages with fortified churches in Transylvania. Other attractions include the Danube Delta or the Sculptural Ensemble of Constantin Brâncuși at Târgu Jiu. In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of €2.6 billion. More than 1.9 million foreign tourists visited Romania in 2014, 12% more than in 2013. According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America.


Science and technology

Historically, Romanian researchers and inventors have made notable contributions to several fields. In the history of flight, Traian Vuia built the first airplane to take off under its own power and Aurel Vlaicu built and flew some of the earliest successful aircraft, while Henri Coandă discovered the Coandă effect of fluidics. Victor Babeș discovered more than 50 types of bacteria; biologist Nicolae Paulescu developed an extract of the pancreas and showed that it lowers blood sugar in diabetic dogs, thus being significant in the history of insulin; while Emil Palade received the Nobel Prize for his contributions to cell biology. Lazăr Edeleanu was the first chemist to synthesise amphetamine, and he also invented the procedure of separating valuable petroleum components with selective solvents. During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including: corruption, low funding, and a considerable brain drain. In recent years, Romania has ranked the lowest or second-lowest in the European Union by research and development spending as a percentage of GDP, standing at roughly 0.5% in 2016 and 2017, substantially below the EU average of just over 2%. The country joined the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2011, and CERN in 2016. In 2018, however, Romania lost its voting rights in the ESA due to a failure to pay €56.8 million in membership contributions to the agency. In the early 2010s, the situation for science in Romania was characterised as "rapidly improving" albeit from a low base. In January 2011, Parliament passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review". Romania was ranked 46th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, up from 50th in 2019. The nuclear physics facility of the European Union's proposed Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI) laser will be built in Romania. In early 2012, Romania launched its first Goliat, satellite from the Centre Spatial Guyanais in French Guyana. Starting in December 2014, Romania became a co-owner of the International Space Station.


Demographics

According to the 2011 Romanian census, Romania's population was 20,121,641. Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to decline gradually as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates and negative net migration rate. In October 2011, Romanians made up 88.9% of the population. The largest Minorities of Romania, ethnic minorities are the Hungarian people, Hungarians, 6.1% of the population, and the Romani people, Roma, 3.0% of the population.2002 census data, based o
population by ethnicity
, gave a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. Many ethnicities are not recorded, as the
do not have ID cards
. International sources give higher figures than the official census (e.g.

UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe
World Bank
The Romani people in Romania, Roma minority is usually underestimated in census data and may represent up to 10% of the population. Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita County, Harghita and Covasna County, Covasna. Other minorities include Ukrainians of Romania, Ukrainians, Germans of Romania, Germans, Turks of Romania, Turks, Lipovans, Aromanians in Romania, Aromanians, Tatars of Romania, Tatars, and Serbs of Romania, Serbs. In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans living in Romania, but only about 36,000 remained in the country to this day. , there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China. The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.36 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world, it remains considerably below the high of 5.82 children born per woman in 1912. In 2014, 31.2% of births were to unmarried women. The birth rate (9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate (11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 41.6 years, 2018), one of the oldest populations in the world, with approximately 16.8% of total population aged 65 years and over. The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 74.92 years (71.46 years male, 78.59 years female). The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million. After the Romanian Revolution of 1989, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia. For example, in 1990, 96,919 Romanians permanently settled abroad.


Languages

The official language is Romanian, a
Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin Latin (, or , ) ...

Romance language
(the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance languages, Eastern Romance branch), which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian language, Aromanian, Megleno-Romanian language, Megleno-Romanian, and Istro-Romanian language, Istro-Romanian, but shares many features equally with the rest of the Western Romance languages, specifically Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese language, Portuguese, and Catalan language, Catalan. The Romanian alphabet contains the same 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet, as well as five additional ones (namely ''ă'',''â'',''î'',''ț'', and ''ș''), totaling 31. Romanian is spoken as a first language by approximately 90% of the entire population, while Hungarian language, Hungarian and Vlax Romani are spoken by 6.2% and 1.2% of the population, respectively. There are also approximately 50,000 native speakers of Ukrainian language, Ukrainian (concentrated in some compact regions near the border, where they form local majorities), 25,000 native speakers of German, and 32,000 native speakers of Turkish language, Turkish living in Romania. According to the Constitution, local councils ensure linguistic rights to all minorities. In localities with ethnic minorities of over 20%, that minority's language can be used in the public administration, justice system, and education. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language. English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools. In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie identified 4,756,100 French speakers in the country. According to the 2012 Eurobarometer, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, and Italian and German, each by 7%.


Religion

Romania is a secular state and has no state religion. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox Christians belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church. Other denominations include Protestantism (6.2%), Roman Catholicism in Romania, Roman Catholicism (4.3%), and Romanian Greek-Catholic Church, Greek Catholicism (0.8%). From the remaining population, 195,569 people belong to other Christian denominations or have another religion, which includes 64,337 Islam in Romania, Muslims (mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity) and 3,519 History of the Jews in Romania, Jewish (Jews once constituted 4% of the Romanian population—728,115 persons in the 1930 census). Moreover, 39,660 people have no religion or are atheism, atheist, whilst the religion of the rest is unknown. The Romanian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church in full communion with other Orthodox churches, with a Patriarch of All Romania, Patriarch as its leader. It is the third-largest Eastern Orthodox Church in the world, and unlike other Orthodox churches, it functions within a Latin culture and uses a Romance language, Romance liturgical language. Its canonical jurisdiction covers the territories of Romania and Moldova. Romania has the Eastern Orthodoxy by country, world's third-largest Eastern Orthodox population.


Urbanisation

Although 54.0% of the population lived in urban areas in 2011, this percentage has been declining since 1996. Counties with over ⅔  urban population are Hunedoara County, Hunedoara, Brașov County, Brașov and Constanța County, Constanța, while those with less than a third are Dâmbovița County, Dâmbovița (30.06%) and Giurgiu County, Giurgiu and Teleorman County, Teleorman. Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Its larger urban zone has a population of almost 2.2 million, which are planned to be included into a Bucharest metropolitan area, metropolitan area up to 20 times the area of the city proper. Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants,
Iași Iași ( , , ), also referred to as Jassy, is the second largest city in Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern, and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Eu ...
, Constanța,
Craiova ) , official_name = Craiova , image_skyline = , image_caption = From left: Dolj County Prefecture • Constantin Mihail Palace • Bibescu Manor House • Carol I National College • Museum of Oltenia • University of Craiova , im ...
, and Brașov with over 250,000 inhabitants, and Galați and Ploiești with over 200,000 inhabitants. Metropolitan areas in Romania, Metropolitan areas have been constituted for most of these cities.


Education

Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism. In 2004, some 4.4 million individuals were enrolled in school. Of these, 650,000 were in kindergarten (three-six years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities). In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%. Kindergarten is optional between three and five years. Since 2020, compulsory schooling starts at age 5 with the last year of kindergarten (grupa mare) and is compulsory until twelfth grade. Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. There is also a semi-legal, informal Tutoring#Private tutors, private tutoring system used mostly during secondary school, which prospered during the Communist regime. Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iași, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, University of Bucharest, and West University of Timișoara have been included in the QS World University Rankings' top 800. Romania ranks fifth in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Ciprian Manolescu managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for a gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China, Russia, the United States and Hungary. Romania also ranks sixth in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989.


Healthcare

Romania has a universal health care system; total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of GDP. It covers medical examinations, any surgical operations, and any post-operative medical care, and provides free or subsidised medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards. In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals, with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people, and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors. , the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%.


Culture


Arts and monuments

The topic of the origin of Romanian culture began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School scholars. Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including: George Coșbuc, Ioan Slavici, Mihail Kogălniceanu, Vasile Alecsandri, Nicolae Bălcescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Ion Creangă, and Mihai Eminescu, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem ''Luceafărul (poem), Luceafărul''. In the 20th century, a number of Romanian artists and writers achieved international acclaim, including: Tristan Tzara, Marcel Janco, Mircea Eliade, Nicolae Grigorescu, Marin Preda, Liviu Rebreanu, Eugène Ionesco, Emil Cioran, and Constantin Brâncuși. Brâncuși has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture ''Bird in Space'', was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million. Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986, while Banat Swabians, Banat Swabian writer Herta Müller received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature. Prominent Romanian painters include: Nicolae Grigorescu, Ștefan Luchian, Ion Andreescu Nicolae Tonitza, and Theodor Aman. Notable Romanian classical composers of the 19th and 20th centuries include: Ciprian Porumbescu, Anton Pann, Eduard Caudella, Mihail Jora, Dinu Lipatti, and especially George Enescu. The annual George Enescu Festival is held in Bucharest in honour of the 20th-century composer. Contemporary musicians like Angela Gheorghiu, Gheorghe Zamfir, Inna, Alexandra Stan, and many others have achieved various levels of international acclaim. At the Eurovision Song Contest Romanian singers achieved third place in 2005 and 2010. In cinema, several movies of the Romanian New Wave have achieved international acclaim. At the Cannes Film Festival, ''The Death of Mr. Lazarescu'' by Cristi Puiu won the ''Un Certain Regard#Prix Un Certain Regard winners, Prix Un Certain Regard'' in 2005, while ''4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days'' by Cristian Mungiu won the festival's top prize, the ''Palme d'Or'', in 2007. At the Berlin International Film Festival, ''Child's Pose (film), Child's Pose'' by Călin Peter Netzer won the Golden Bear in 2013. The list of World Heritage Sites includes List of World Heritage Sites in Romania, six cultural sites located within Romania, including eight painted churches of northern Moldavia, eight wooden churches of Maramureș, seven villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara. The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture and the 2019 European Region of Gastronomy. Multiple castles exist in Romania, including the popular tourist attractions of Peleș Castle, Corvin Castle, and Bran Castle or "Dracula's Castle".


Holidays, traditions, and cuisine

There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania. Winter holidays include the Christmas and New Year festivities during which various unique folklore dances and games are common: ''plugușorul'', ''sorcova'', ''ursul'', and ''capra''. The traditional Romanian dress that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in rural areas. There are sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter that has required a special exemption from EU law after 2007. In the Easter, traditions such as Easter egg, painting the eggs are very common. On 1 March features ''mărțișor'' gifting, which is a tradition that females are gifted with a type of talisman that is given for good luck. Romanian cuisine has been influenced by Austrian cuisine, Austrian and German cuisine (especially in the historical regions that had been formerly administered by the Habsburg Monarchy), but also shares some similarities with other cuisines in the Balkans, Balkan region such as the Greek cuisine, Greek, Bulgarian cuisine, Bulgarian, or Serbian cuisine. ''Ciorbă'' includes a wide range of sour soups, while ''mititei'', ''mămăligă'' (similar to polenta), and ''Sarma (food), sarmale'' are featured commonly in main courses. Pork, chicken, and beef are the preferred types of meat, but lamb and fish are also quite popular. Certain traditional recipes are made in direct connection with the holidays: ''kofta, chiftele'', ''tobă'' and ''tochitura'' at Christmas; ''drob'', ''Paska (bread), pască'' and ''cozonac'' at Easter and other Romanian holidays. ''Țuică'' is a strong plum brandy reaching a 70% alcohol content which is the country's traditional alcoholic beverage, taking as much as 75% of the national crop (Romania is one of the List of countries by plum production, largest plum producers in the world). Traditional alcoholic beverages also include Romanian wine, wine, ''rakia, rachiu'', ''Pálinka, palincă'' and ''vișinată'', but Beer in Romania, beer consumption has increased dramatically over recent years.


Sports

Association football, Football is the most popular sport in Romania with over 219,000 registered players . The market for professional football in Romania is roughly €740 million according to UEFA. The governing body is the Romanian Football Federation, which belongs to UEFA. The Romania national football team played its first match in 1922 and is one of only four national teams to have taken part in the first three FIFA World Cups, the other three being Brazil, France, and Belgium. Overall, it has played in seven World Cups and had its most successful period during the 1990s, when it finished 6th at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, eventually being ranked 3rd by FIFA in 1997. The core player of this golden generation was Gheorghe Hagi, who was nicknamed "Maradona of the Carpathians". Other successful players include the European Golden Shoe winners: Dudu Georgescu, Dorin Mateuț and Rodion Cămătaru, Nicolae Dobrin, Ilie Balaci, Florea Dumitrache, Mihai Mocanu, Michael Klein (footballer, born 1959), Michael Klein, Mircea Rednic, Cornel Dinu, Mircea Lucescu, Costică Ștefănescu, Ion Dumitru, Liță Dumitru, Lajos Sătmăreanu, Ștefan Sameș, László Bölöni, Ladislau Bölöni, Anghel Iordănescu, Miodrag Belodedici, Helmuth Duckadam, Marius Lăcătuș, Victor Pițurcă and many others, and most recently Gheorghe Popescu, Florin Răducioiu, Dorinel Munteanu, Dan Petrescu, Adrian Mutu, Cristian Chivu, or Cosmin Contra. Romania's home ground is the Arena Națională in Bucharest. The most successful club is FCSB, Steaua București, who were the first Eastern European team to win the UEFA Champions League, Champions League in 1986, and were runners-up in 1989. They were also UEFA Europa League, Europa League semi-finalists in 2006. FC Dinamo București, Dinamo București reached the Champions League semi-final in 1984 and the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, Cup Winners' Cup semi-final in 1989–90 European Cup Winners' Cup, 1990. Other important Romanian football clubs are FC Rapid București, Rapid București, FC UTA Arad, UTA Arad, CS Universitatea Craiova, Universitatea Craiova, FC Petrolul Ploiești, Petrolul Ploiești, CFR Cluj, FC Astra Giurgiu, Astra Giurgiu and FC Viitorul Constanța, Viitorul Constanța (the latter having recently merged with FCV Farul Constanța). Tennis is the second most popular sport. Romania reached the Davis Cup finals three times in 1969, 1971 and 1972. In singles, Ilie Năstase was the List of ATP number 1 ranked singles tennis players, first year-end World Number 1 in the ATP Rankings in 1973, winning several Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam titles. Also Virginia Ruzici won the French Open in 1978, and was runner-up in 1980, Simona Halep won the French Open in 2018 and The Championships, Wimbledon, Wimbledon in 2019 after losing her first three Grand Slam finals. She has ended 2017 and 2018 as List of WTA number 1 ranked tennis players, WTA's World Number 1. And in doubles Horia Tecău won three Grand Slams and the ATP Finals final. He was World Number 2 in 2015. The second most popular team sport is team handball, handball. The Romania men's national handball team, men's team won the World Men's Handball Championship, handball world championship in 1961 World Men's Handball Championship, 1961, 1964 World Men's Handball Championship, 1964, 1970 World Men's Handball Championship, 1970, 1974 World Men's Handball Championship, 1974 making them the third most successful nation ever in the tournament. The Romania women's national handball team, women's team won the IHF World Women's Handball Championship, world championship in 1962 World Women's Handball Championship, 1962 and have enjoyed more success than their male counterparts in recent years. In the club competition Romanian teams have won the EHF Champions League a total of three times, CSA Steaua București (handball), Steaua București won in 1967–68 European Cup (handball), 1968 as well as 1976–77 European Cup (handball), 1977 and CS Dinamo București (men's handball), Dinamo București won in 1964–65 European Cup (handball), 1965. The most notable players include Ștefan Birtalan, Vasile Stîngă (all-time top scorer in the national team) and Gheorghe Gruia who was named the best player ever in 1992. In present-day Cristina Neagu is the most notable player and has a record four IHF World Player of the Year awards. In women's handball, powerhouse CSM București (women's handball), CSM București lifted the Women's EHF Champions League, EHF Champions League trophy in 2016. Popular individual sports include combat sports, martial arts, and swimming. In professional boxing, Romania has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by governing bodies. World champions include Lucian Bute, Leonard Doroftei, Leonard Dorin Doroftei, Adrian Diaconu, and Mihai Leu, Michael Loewe. Another popular combat sport is kickboxing, professional kickboxing, which has produced prominent practitioners including Daniel Ghiță, and Benjamin Adegbuyi. Romania's 306 All-time Olympic Games medal table, all-time Summer Olympics medals would rank 12th most among all countries, while its 89 gold medals would be 14th most. The 1984 Summer Olympics was their most successful run, where they won 53 medals in total, 20 of them gold, ultimately placing 2nd to the hosts United States in the 1984 Summer Olympics medal table, medal rankings. Amongst countries who have never hosted the event themselves, they are second in the total number of medals earned. Artistic gymnastics, Gymnastics is the country's major medal-producing sport, with Olympic and sport icon Nadia Comăneci becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics. Other Romanian athletes who collected five gold medals like Comăneci are rowers Elisabeta Lipa (1984–2004) and Georgeta Damian (2000–2008). The Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo.


See also

* Outline of Romania


Notes


References


Sources


Secondary sources

* * * * *
excerpt
* Hitchins, Keith. ''Rumania 1866-1947'' (1994) (Oxford History of Modern Europe
excerpt
* * * * * * * * Stavrianos, L.S. '' The Balkans Since 1453'' (1958), major scholarly history
online free to borrow
*


Primary sources

*
The Ancient History of Herodotus
' (Translated by William Beloe) (1859). Derby & Jackson. *

' (Translated by John Selby Watson) (1886). George Bell and Sons.


External links


Country Profile
from BBC News.
Romania Article and Country Profile
from Encyclopædia Britannica
Romania Profile
from Balkan Insight.
România Un Secol de Istorie – statistical data
from National Institute of Statistics (Romania), INS
Romania
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. ;Government
Romanian Presidency


;Culture and history links
Treasures of the national library of Romania

Historic Houses of Romania
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