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Positive Right
Negative and positive rights
Negative and positive rights
are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights). These obligations may be of either a legal or moral character. The notion of positive and negative rights may also be applied to liberty rights. To take an example involving two parties in a court of law: Adrian has a negative right to x against Clay if and only if Clay is prohibited from acting upon Adrian in some way regarding x. In contrast, Adrian has a positive right to x against Clay if and only if Clay is obliged to act upon Adrian in some way regarding x
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Plant Rights
Plant
Plant
rights are rights to which plants may be entitled. Such issues are often raised in connection with discussions about human rights, animal rights, biocentrism, or sentiocentrism.Contents1 Philosophy 2 Scientific arguments 3 Legal arguments 4 Popular arguments 5 References 6 External linksPhilosophy[edit] Samuel Butler's Erewhon
Erewhon
contains a chapter, "The Views of an Erewhonian Philosopher Concerning the Rights
Rights
of Vegetables".[1] On the question of whether animal rights can be extended to plants, philosopher Tom Regan
Tom Regan
argues that animals acquire rights due to being aware, what he calls "subjects-of-a-life"
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Labor Rights
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. In general, these rights' debates have to do with negotiating workers' pay, benefits, and safe working conditions. One of the most central of these rights is the right to unionize. Unions take advantage of collective bargaining and industrial action to increase their members' wages and otherwise change their working situation. Labor rights can also take in the form of worker's control and worker's self management in which workers have a democratic voice in decision and policy making. The labor movement initially focused on this "right to unionize", but attention has shifted elsewhere. Critics of the labor rights movement claim that regulation promoted by labor rights activists may limit opportunities for work
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Mothers' Rights
Mother's rights are the legal obligations for expecting mothers, existing mothers, and adoptive mothers in the United States. Issues that involve mothers' rights include labor rights, breast feeding, and family rights.Contents1 Labor rights 2 Breast feeding 3 Family rights for mothers3.1 Parental Rights 3.2 Child Custody and Support4 ReferencesLabor rights[edit] Labor rights for mothers in the United States consist of maternal leave during the various stages of pregnancy as well as when the baby is born and afterwards. They also include work procedures for new mothers returning to their workplace after giving birth. The time women are allowed to take off for childbirth is referred to as maternity leave. Each state and company has its own laws regarding the allotted time allowed off for family leave, as well as any other support given to new mothers
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Patients' Rights
A patient's bill of rights is a list of guarantees for those receiving medical care. It may take the form of a law or a non-binding declaration. Typically a patient's bill of rights guarantees patients information, fair treatment, and autonomy over medical decisions, among other rights.Contents1 United Kingdom 2 United States2.1 Bill of 2001 2.2 Industry resistance 2.3 AAPS proposal3 See also 4 References 5 External linksUnited Kingdom[edit] In the UK, the Patient's Charter was introduced and revised in the 1990s
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Claim Rights And Liberty Rights
Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between claim rights and liberty rights. A claim right is a right which entails responsibilities, duties, or obligations on other parties regarding the right-holder. In contrast, a liberty right is a right which does not entail obligations on other parties, but rather only freedom or permission for the right-holder. The distinction between these two senses of "rights" originates in American jurist Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld's analysis thereof in his seminal work Fundamental Legal Conceptions, As Applied in Judicial Reasoning and Other Legal Essays. Liberty rights and claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a claim right forbidding him from doing so; and likewise, if a person has a claim right against someone else, that other person's liberty is thus limited
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Prisoners' Rights
The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law. International conventions include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the United Nations' Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,[1] and the Convention on the Rights
Rights
of Persons with Disabilities[2]Contents1 Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act 2 See also 3 References 4 External links Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act[edit] Main article: Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act In the United States, the Prison
Prison
Litigation Reform Act, or PLRA, is a federal statute enacted in 1996 with the intent of limiting "frivolous lawsuits" by prisoners
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Student Rights In Higher Education
Student
Student
rights are those rights, such as civil, constitutional, contractual and consumer rights, which regulate student rights and freedoms and allow students to make use of their educational investment. These include such things as the right to free speech and association, to due process, equality, autonomy, safety and privacy, and accountability in contracts and advertising, which regulate the treatment of students by teachers and administrators. There is very little scholarship about student rights throughout the world. In general most countries have some kind of student rights (or rights that apply in the educational setting) enshrined in their laws and proceduralized by their court precedents. Some countries, like Romania, in the European Union, have comprehensive student bills of rights, which outline both rights and how they are to be proceduralized
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Victims' Rights
Victims' rights are legal rights afforded to victims of crime. These may include the right to restitution, the right to a victims' advocate, the right not to be excluded from criminal justice proceedings, and the right to speak at criminal justice proceedings.[1][2]Contents1 United States1.1 History 1.2 Victims' rights legislation 1.3 Federal law1.3.1 Victims of Crime
Crime
Act (VOCA) 1.3.2 Crime
Crime
Victims' Rights Act of 20041.4 State law 1.5 U.S
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Women's Rights
Women's rights
Women's rights
are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, and formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed
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Youth Rights
The youth rights movement (also known as youth liberation) seeks to grant the rights to young people that are traditionally reserved for adults, due to having reached a specific age or sufficient maturity. This is closely akin to the notion of evolving capacities within the children's rights movement, but the youth rights movement differs from the children's rights movement in that the latter places emphasis on the welfare and protection of children through the actions and decisions of adults, while the youth rights movement seeks to grant youth the liberty to make their own decisions autonomously in the ways adults are permitted to, or to lower the legal minimum ages at which such rights are acquired, such as the age of majority and the voting age. Youth
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LGBT Rights By Country Or Territory
Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity
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Disability Rights Movement
The disability rights movement is a global[1][2] social movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities. It is made up of organizations of disability activists around the world working together with similar goals and demands, such as: accessibility and safety in architecture, transportation, and the physical environment; equal opportunities in independent living, employment equity, education, and housing; and freedom from discrimination, abuse, neglect, and from other rights violations.[3] Disability
Disability
activists are working to break institutional, physical, and societal barriers t
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Digital Rights
The term digital rights describes the human rights that allow individuals to access, use, create, and publish digital media or to access and use computers, other electronic devices, or communications networks
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Linguistic Rights
Linguistic rights
Linguistic rights
are the human and civil rights concerning the individual and collective right to choose the language or languages for communication in a private or public atmosphere
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Right To Property
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions. A general recognition of a right to private property is found more rarely and is typically heavily constrained insofar as property is owned by legal persons (i.e
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