HOME
The Info List - Rights


--- Advertisement ---



Rights
Rights
are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement; that is, rights are the fundamental normative rules about what is allowed of people or owed to people, according to some legal system, social convention, or ethical theory.[1] Rights
Rights
are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics, especially theories of justice and deontology. Rights
Rights
are often considered fundamental to civilization, for they are regarded as established pillars of society and culture,[2] and the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "rights structure the form of governments, the content of laws, and the shape of morality as it is currently perceived".[1]

Contents

1 Definitional issues

1.1 Natural versus legal 1.2 Claim versus liberty 1.3 Positive versus negative 1.4 Individual versus group 1.5 Other senses

2 Politics 3 Philosophy

3.1 Criticism

4 Etymology 5 History 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Definitional issues[edit]

Rights
Rights
are widely regarded as the basis of law, but what if laws are bad? Some theorists suggest civil disobedience is, itself, a right, and it was advocated by thinkers such as Henry David Thoreau, Martin Luther King Jr., and Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi.

There is considerable disagreement about what is meant precisely by the term rights. It has been used by different groups and thinkers for different purposes, with different and sometimes opposing definitions, and the precise definition of this principle, beyond having something to do with normative rules of some sort or another, is controversial. One way to get an idea of the multiple understandings and senses of the term is to consider different ways it is used. Many diverse things are claimed as rights:

“ A right to life, a right to choose; a right to vote, to work, to strike; a right to one phone call, to dissolve parliament, to operate a forklift, to asylum, to equal treatment before the law, to feel proud of what one has done; a right to exist, to sentence an offender to death, to launch a nuclear first strike, to carry a concealed weapon, to a distinct genetic identity; a right to believe one's own eyes, to pronounce the couple husband and wife, to be left alone, to go to hell in one's own way.[1] ”

There are likewise diverse possible ways to categorize rights, such as:

“ Who is alleged to have the right: Children's rights, animal rights, workers' rights, states' rights, the rights of peoples. What actions or states or objects the asserted right pertains to: Rights
Rights
of free expression, to pass judgment; rights of privacy, to remain silent; property rights, bodily rights. Why the rightholder (allegedly) has the right: Moral rights spring from moral reasons, legal rights derive from the laws of the society, customary rights are aspects of local customs. How the asserted right can be affected by the rightholder's actions: The inalienable right to life, the forfeitable right to liberty, and the waivable right that a promise be kept.[1] ”

There has been considerable debate about what this term means within the academic community, particularly within fields such as philosophy, law, deontology, logic, political science, and religion. Natural versus legal[edit]

According to some views, certain rights derive from deities or nature

Main article: Natural and legal rights

Natural rights
Natural rights
are rights which are "natural" in the sense of "not artificial, not man-made", as in rights deriving from human nature or from the edicts of a god. They are universal; that is, they apply to all people, and do not derive from the laws of any specific society. They exist necessarily, inhere in every individual, and can't be taken away. For example, it has been argued that humans have a natural right to life. These are sometimes called moral rights or inalienable rights. Legal rights, in contrast, are based on a society's customs, laws, statutes or actions by legislatures. An example of a legal right is the right to vote of citizens. Citizenship, itself, is often considered as the basis for having legal rights, and has been defined as the "right to have rights". Legal rights are sometimes called civil rights or statutory rights and are culturally and politically relative since they depend on a specific societal context to have meaning.

Some thinkers see rights in only one sense while others accept that both senses have a measure of validity. There has been considerable philosophical debate about these senses throughout history. For example, Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
believed that legal rights were the essence of rights, and he denied the existence of natural rights; whereas Thomas Aquinas held that rights purported by positive law but not grounded in natural law were not properly rights at all, but only a facade or pretense of rights. Claim versus liberty[edit]

A deed is an example of a claim right in the sense that it asserts a right to own land. This particular deed dates back to 1273.

Main article: Claim rights and liberty rights

A claim right is a right which entails that another person has a duty to the right-holder. Somebody else must do or refrain from doing something to or for the claim holder, such as perform a service or supply a product for him or her; that is, he or she has a claim to that service or product (another term is thing in action).[3] In logic, this idea can be expressed as: "Person A has a claim that person B do something if and only if B has a duty to A to do that something." Every claim-right entails that some other duty-bearer must do some duty for the claim to be satisfied. This duty can be to act or to refrain from acting. For example, many jurisdictions recognize broad claim rights to things like "life, liberty, and property"; these rights impose an obligation upon others not to assault or restrain a person, or use their property, without the claim-holder's permission. Likewise, in jurisdictions where social welfare services are provided, citizens have legal claim rights to be provided with those services.[citation needed] A liberty right or privilege, in contrast, is simply a freedom or permission for the right-holder to do something, and there are no obligations on other parties to do or not do anything.[3] This can be expressed in logic as: "Person A has a privilege to do something if and only if A has no duty not to do that something." For example, if a person has a legal liberty right to free speech, that merely means that it is not legally forbidden for them to speak freely: it does not mean that anyone has to help enable their speech, or to listen to their speech; or even, per se, refrain from stopping them from speaking, though other rights, such as the claim right to be free from assault, may severely limit what others can do to stop them.

Liberty
Liberty
rights and claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a claim right forbidding him from doing so. Likewise, if a person has a claim right against someone else, then that other person's liberty is limited. For example, a person has a liberty right to walk down a sidewalk and can decide freely whether or not to do so, since there is no obligation either to do so or to refrain from doing so. But pedestrians may have an obligation not to walk on certain lands, such as other people's private property, to which those other people have a claim right. So a person's liberty right of walking extends precisely to the point where another's claim right limits his or her freedom. Positive versus negative[edit] Main article: Negative and positive rights In one sense, a right is a permission to do something or an entitlement to a specific service or treatment from others, and these rights have been called positive rights. However, in another sense, rights may allow or require inaction, and these are called negative rights; they permit or require doing nothing. For example, in some countries, e.g. the United States, citizens have the positive right to vote and they have the negative right to not vote; people can choose not to vote in a given election without punishment. In other countries, e.g. Australia, however, citizens have a positive right to vote but they don't have a negative right to not vote, since voting is compulsory. Accordingly:

Positive rights are permissions to do things, or entitlements to be done unto. One example of a positive right is the purported "right to welfare."[4] Negative rights are permissions not to do things, or entitlements to be left alone. Often the distinction is invoked by libertarians who think of a negative right as an entitlement to non-interference such as a right against being assaulted.[4]

Though similarly named, positive and negative rights should not be confused with active rights (which encompass "privileges" and "powers") and passive rights (which encompass "claims" and "immunities"). Individual versus group[edit] Main article: Individual and group rights The general concept of rights is that they are possessed by individuals in the sense that they are permissions and entitlements to do things which other persons, or which governments or authorities, can not infringe. This is the understanding of people such as the author Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
who argued that only individuals have rights, according to her philosophy known as Objectivism.[5] However, others have argued that there are situations in which a group of persons is thought to have rights, or group rights. Accordingly:

Individual rights are rights held by individual people regardless of their group membership or lack thereof.

Do groups have rights? Some argue that when soldiers bond in combat, the group becomes like an organism in itself and has rights which trump the rights of any individual soldier.

Group rights have been argued to exist when a group is seen as more than a mere composite or assembly of separate individuals but an entity in its own right. In other words, it's possible to see a group as a distinct being in and of itself; it's akin to an enlarged individual, a corporate body, which has a distinct will and power of action and can be thought of as having rights. For example, a platoon of soldiers in combat can be thought of as a distinct group, since individual members are willing to risk their lives for the survival of the group, and therefore the group can be conceived as having a "right" which is superior to that of any individual member; for example, a soldier who disobeys an officer can be punished, perhaps even killed, for a breach of obedience. But there is another sense of group rights in which people who are members of a group can be thought of as having specific individual rights because of their membership in a group. In this sense, the set of rights which individuals-as-group-members have is expanded because of their membership in a group. For example, workers who are members of a group such as a labor union can be thought of as having expanded individual rights because of their membership in the labor union, such as the rights to specific working conditions or wages. As expected, there is sometimes considerable disagreement about what exactly is meant by the term "group" as well as by the term "group rights."[citation needed]

There can be tension between individual and group rights. A classic instance in which group and individual rights clash is conflicts between unions and their members. For example, individual members of a union may wish a wage higher than the union-negotiated wage, but are prevented from making further requests; in a so-called closed shop which has a union security agreement, only the union has a right to decide matters for the individual union members such as wage rates. So, do the supposed "individual rights" of the workers prevail about the proper wage? Or do the "group rights" of the union regarding the proper wage prevail? Clearly this is a source of tension. The Austrian School
Austrian School
of Economics holds that only individuals think, feel, and act whether or not members of any abstract group. The society should thus according to economists of the school be analyzed starting from the individual. This methodology is called methodological individualism and is used by the economists to justify individual rights. Other senses[edit] Other distinctions between rights draw more on historical association or family resemblance than on precise philosophical distinctions. These include the distinction between civil and political rights and economic, social and cultural rights, between which the articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
are often divided. Another conception of rights groups them into three generations. These distinctions have much overlap with that between negative and positive rights, as well as between individual rights and group rights, but these groupings are not entirely coextensive. Politics[edit]

In the United States, persons who are going to be questioned by police when they are in police custody must be read their "Miranda rights". The Miranda warning
Miranda warning
requires police officers to read a statement to people being arrested which informs them that they have certain rights, such as the right to remain silent and the right to have an attorney.

Rights
Rights
are often included in the foundational questions that governments and politics have been designed to deal with. Often the development of these socio-political institutions have formed a dialectical relationship with rights. Rights
Rights
about particular issues, or the rights of particular groups, are often areas of special concern. Often these concerns arise when rights come into conflict with other legal or moral issues, sometimes even other rights. Issues of concern have historically included labor rights, LGBT rights, reproductive rights, disability rights, patient rights and prisoners' rights. With increasing monitoring and the information society, information rights, such as the right to privacy are becoming more important. Some examples of groups whose rights are of particular concern include animals,[6] and amongst humans, groups such as children[7] and youth, parents (both mothers and fathers), and men and women.[8] Accordingly, politics plays an important role in developing or recognizing the above rights, and the discussion about which behaviors are included as "rights" is an ongoing political topic of importance. The concept of rights varies with political orientation. Positive rights such as a "right to medical care" are emphasized more often by left-leaning thinkers, while right-leaning thinkers place more emphasis on negative rights such as the "right to a fair trial". Further, the term equality which is often bound up with the meaning of "rights" often depends on one's political orientation. Conservatives and libertarians and advocates of free markets often identify equality with equality of opportunity, and want equal and fair rules in the process of making things, while agreeing that sometimes these fair rules lead to unequal outcomes. In contrast, socialists often identify equality with equality of outcome and see fairness when people have equal amounts of goods and services, and therefore think that people have a right to equal portions of necessities such as health care or economic assistance or housing.[9] Philosophy[edit] In philosophy, meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, statements, attitudes, and judgments. Meta-ethics is one of the three branches of ethics generally recognized by philosophers, the others being normative ethics and applied ethics. While normative ethics addresses such questions as "What should one do?", thus endorsing some ethical evaluations and rejecting others, meta-ethics addresses questions such as "What is goodness?" and "How can we tell what is good from what is bad?", seeking to understand the nature of ethical properties and evaluations. Rights
Rights
ethics is an answer to the meta-ethical question of what normative ethics is concerned with ( Meta-ethics also includes a group of questions about how ethics comes to be known, true, etc. which is not directly addressed by rights ethics). Rights
Rights
ethics holds that normative ethics is concerned with rights. Alternative meta-ethical theories are that ethics is concerned with one of the following:

Duties (deontology) Value (axiology) Virtue
Virtue
(virtue ethics) Consequences (consequentialism, e.g. utilitarianism)

Rights
Rights
ethics has had considerable influence on political and social thinking. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
gives some concrete examples of widely accepted rights. Criticism[edit] Some philosophers have criticised rights as ontologically dubious entities. For instance, although in favour of the extension of individual legal rights, the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham opposed the idea of natural law and natural rights, calling them "nonsense upon stilts".[10] Further, one can question the ability of rights to actually bring about justice for all. Etymology[edit] The Modern English word right derives from Old English
Old English
riht or reht, in turn from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
*riχtaz meaning "right" or "direct", and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *reg-to- meaning "having moved in a straight line", in turn from *(o)reg'(a)- meaning "to straighten or direct".[11] In several different Indo-European languages, a single word derived from the same root means both "right" and "law", such as French droit,[12] Spanish derecho,[13] German Recht,[14] and Italian diritto. Many other words related to normative or regulatory concepts derive from this same root, including correct,[15] regulate,[16] and rex[17] (meaning "king"), whence regal[18] and thence royal.[19] Likewise many more geometric terms derive from this same root, such as erect (as in "upright"),[20] rectangle (literally "right angle"),[21] straight[22] and stretch.[23] Like right, the English words rule[24] and ruler,[25] deriving still from the same root, have both normative or regulatory and geometric meanings (e.g. a ruler as in a king, or a ruler as in a straightedge). Several other roots have similar normative and geometric descendants, such as Latin norma,[26] whence norm,[27] normal,[28] and normative[29] itself, and also geometric concepts such as normal vectors; and likewise Greek ortho[30] and Latin ordo,[31] meaning either "right" or "correct" (as in orthodox, meaning "correct opinion"[32]) or "straight" or "perpendicular" (as in orthogonal, meaning "perpendicular angle"[33]), and thence order,[34] ordinary,[35] etc. History[edit] See also: History of human rights

The Magna Carta
Magna Carta
or "Great Charter" was one of England's first documents containing commitments by a king to his people to respect certain legal rights. It reduced the power of the monarch.

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
in 1789 in France.

The specific enumeration of rights has differed greatly in different periods of history. In many cases, the system of rights promulgated by one group has come into sharp and bitter conflict with that of other groups. In the political sphere, a place in which rights have historically been an important issue, constitutional provisions of various states sometimes address the question of who has what legal rights. Historically, many notions of rights were authoritarian and hierarchical, with different people granted different rights, and some having more rights than others. For instance, the right of a father to respected from his son did not indicate a right from the son to receive a return from that respect; and the divine right of kings, which permitted absolute power over subjects, did not leave a lot of room for many rights for the subjects themselves.[36] In contrast, modern conceptions of rights have often emphasized liberty and equality as among the most important aspects of rights, as was evident in the American and French revolutions. Important documents in the political history of rights include:

The Persian Empire of ancient Iran established unprecedented principles of human rights in the 6th century BC under Cyrus the Great. After his conquest of Babylon
Babylon
in 539 BC, the king issued the Cyrus cylinder, discovered in 1879 and seen by some today as the first human rights document.[37][38][39] The Constitution of Medina (622 AD; Arabia) instituted a number of rights for the Muslim, Jewish, camp followers and "believers" of Medina.[40] The Magna Carta
Magna Carta
(1215; England) required the King of England
England
to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, and to accept that the will of the king could be bound by law, after King John promised his barons he would follow the "law of the land". While Magna Carta
Magna Carta
was originally a set of rules that the king had to follow, and mainly protected the property of aristocratic landowners, today the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
is seen as the basis of certain rights for ordinary people, such as the right of due process.[41] The Declaration of Arbroath
Declaration of Arbroath
(1320; Scotland) established the right of the people to choose a head of state (see popular sovereignty). The Henrician Articles (1573; Poland-Lithuania) or King Henry's Articles were a permanent contract that stated the fundamental principles of governance and constitutional law in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including the rights of the nobility to elect the king, to meet in parliament whose approval was required to levy taxes and declare war or peace, to religious liberty and the right to rebel in case the king transgressed against the laws of the republic or the rights of the nobility. The Bill of Rights
Rights
(1689; England) declared that Englishmen, as embodied by Parliament, possess certain civil and political rights; the Claim of Right (1689; Scotland) was similar but distinct. The Virginia Declaration of Rights
Virginia Declaration of Rights
(1776) by George Mason
George Mason
declared the inherent natural rights and separation of powers. The United States
United States
Declaration of Independence (1776) succinctly defined the rights of man as including, but not limited to, "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" which later influenced "liberté, égalité, fraternité" (liberty, equality, fraternity) in France.[42] The phrase can also be found in Chapter III, Article 13 of the 1947 Constitution of Japan,[43] and in President Ho Chi Minh's 1945 declaration of independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.[44] An alternative phrase "life, liberty and property", is found in the Declaration of Colonial Rights, a resolution of the First Continental Congress. Also, Article 3 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rights
reads, "Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person". The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(1789; France), one of the fundamental documents of the French Revolution, defined a set of individual rights and collective rights of the people. The Virginia Statute
Statute
for Religious Freedom (1785; United States), written by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
in 1779, was a document that asserted the right of man to form a personal relationship with God free from interference by the state. The United States
United States
Bill of Rights
Rights
(1789–1791; United States), the first ten amendments of the United States
United States
Constitution specified rights of individuals in which government could not interfere, including the rights of free assembly, freedom of religion, trial by jury, and the right to keep and bear arms for self-defense. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(1948) is an overarching set of standards by which governments, organisations and individuals would measure their behaviour towards each other.[citation needed] The preamble declares that the "...recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world..." The European Convention on Human Rights
European Convention on Human Rights
(1950; Europe) was adopted under the auspices of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
(1966), a follow-up to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, concerns civil and political rights. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966), another follow-up to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, concerns economic, social and cultural rights. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
(1982; Canada) was created to protect the rights of Canadian citizens from actions and policies of all levels of government.[citation needed] The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
(2000) is one of the most recent proposed legal instruments concerning human rights.

See also[edit]

Outline of rights

Christianity and animal rights Contractual rights Constitutionalism Constitutional liberalism Constitutional economics Rule according to higher law Deed Droit Equal rights (other), various meanings Exclusive rights Freedom Freedom of religion Freedom of speech Freedom of the press Fundamental Laws
Laws
of England History of citizenship Ideology Inheritance Jurisprudence Law Liberty Social contract Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld Right to food Right to housing Right to water Right to an adequate standard of living Right to health Right to social security

Organisations:

Amnesty International Human Rights
Rights
Watch United States
United States
Commission on Civil Rights

References[edit]

^ a b c d "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Stanford University. July 9, 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-21. Rights
Rights
dominate most modern understandings of what actions are proper and which institutions are just. Rights
Rights
structure the forms of our governments, the contents of our laws, and the shape of morality as we perceive it. To accept a set of rights is to approve a distribution of freedom and authority, and so to endorse a certain view of what may, must, and must not be done.  ^ UN UDHR
UDHR
Preamble: "Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world..." ^ a b Fagan, Andrew. "Human Rights". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
http://www.iep.utm.edu/hum-rts/#SH3b ^ a b "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Stanford University. July 9, 2007. Retrieved 2009-12-21. A distinction between negative and positive rights is popular among some normative theorists, especially those with a bent toward libertarianism. The holder of a negative right is entitled to non-interference, while the holder of a positive right is entitled to provision of some good or service. A right against assault is a classic example of a negative right, while a right to welfare assistance is a prototypical positive right.  ^ Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
(2009-12-18). "The Virtue
Virtue
of Selfishness: Individual Rights". The Ayn Rand
Ayn Rand
Lexicon. Retrieved 2009-12-18. Individual rights are not subject to a public vote; a majority has no right to vote away the rights of a minority; the political function of rights is precisely to protect minorities from oppression by majorities (and the smallest minority on earth is the individual). see page 104. See also: Collectivized 'Rights  ^ Kate Pickert (Mar 9, 2009). "Undercover Animal- Rights
Rights
Investigator". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2009-12-21. One of the most powerful tools animal-rights activists have is the video footage shot inside places like poorly run dog kennels, animal-testing facilities and factory farms, used as grim evidence of the brutality that can take place. But how do animal-rights crusaders actually get those videos?  ^ Victoria Burnett (July 26, 2007). " Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
says migrant children are at risk in Canary Islands". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-21. They must immediately come up with a plan to close these centers," Simone Troller, author of the report and a children's rights researcher for Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
in Europe, said in a telephone interview. "While these centers continue to exist, we believe children continue to be at risk.  ^ "Soap Operas Boost Rights, Global Economist Says". NPR. October 21, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-21. Many of these locally produced programs feature strong female characters. When Rede Globo began broadcasting in its native Brazil in 1965 the average woman had about six children—now the average woman has no children or one child.  ^ John E. Roemer (December 14, 2005). "Roemer on equality of opportunity". New Economist. Retrieved 2009-12-21. Equality of opportunity is to be contrasted with equality of outcome. While advocacy of the latter has been traditionally associated with a left-wing political philosophy, the former has been championed by conservative political philosophy. Equality of outcome
Equality of outcome
fails to hold individuals responsible for imprudent actions that may, absent redress, reduce the values of the outcomes they enjoy, or for wise actions that would raise the value of the outcomes above the levels of others’. Equality of opportunity, in contrast, ‘levels the playing field,’ so that all have the potential to achieve the same outcomes; whether or not, in the event, they do, depends upon individual choice.  ^ Harrison, Ross (1995). "Jeremy Bentham". In Honderich, Ted. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–88.  Also see Sweet, William (11 April 2001). "Jeremy Bentham". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ wikt:right ^ wikt:droit ^ wikt:derecho ^ wikt:recht ^ wikt:correct ^ wikt:regulate ^ wikt:rex#latin ^ wikt:regal ^ wikt:royal ^ wikt:erect ^ wikt:rectangle ^ wikt:straight ^ wikt:stretch ^ wikt:rule ^ wikt:ruler ^ wikt:norma#latin ^ wikt:norm ^ wikt:normal ^ wikt:normative ^ wikt:ortho ^ wikt:ordo ^ wikt:orthodox ^ wikt:orthogonal ^ wikt:order ^ wikt:ordinary ^ "Divine Right of Kings". BBC. 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2009-12-21. [...] the idea that a king was sacred, appointed by God and above the judgment of earthly powers [...] was called the Divine Right of Kings and it entered so powerfully into British culture during the 17th century that it shaped the pomp and circumstance of the Stuart monarchs, imbued the writing of Shakespeare and provoked the political thinking of Milton and Locke.  ^ "The First Global Statement of the Inherent Dignity and Equality". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-09-13.  ^ Lauren, Paul Gordon (2003). "Philosophical Visions: Human Nature, Natural Law, and Natural Rights". The Evolution of International Human Rights: Visions Seen. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1854-X.  ^ Robertson, Arthur Henry; Merrills, J. G. (1996). Human rights
Human rights
in the world : an introduction to the study of the international protection of human rights. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 978-0-7190-4923-1.  ^ R. B. Serjeant, The Sunnah Jami'ah, pacts with the Yathrib Jews, and the Tahrim of Yathrib: Analysis and translation of the documents comprised in the so-called "Constitution of Medina". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 41, No. 1. (1978), p. 4. ^ Lepore, Jill (April 20, 2015). "The Rule of History: Magna Carta, the Bill of Rights, and the hold of time". New Yorker.  ^ Dyck, Rand (2000). Canadian Politics: Critical Approaches (3rd edition). Thomas Nelson. ISBN 978-0-17-616792-9.  ^ http://history.hanover.edu/texts/1947con.html ^ http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1945vietnam.html

External links[edit]

Look up right in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Rights

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, article by Leif Wenar. WikiEd - Teacher's Rights International Freedom of Expression Exchange nstitutions-aristotle.com/ Comparative Analysis of Human Rights

v t e

Liberty

Concepts

Positive liberty Negative liberty Cognitive liberty Social liberty Rights Free will Moral responsibility Goddess of Liberty

By type

Academic Civil Economic Intellectual Morphological Political

By right

Assembly Association Choice Education Information Movement Press Religion Public speech Thought

v t e

Rights
Rights
theory

Natural and legal rights Claim rights and liberty rights Negative and positive rights Individual and group rights

Natural law Positive law Sovereign states Universal jurisdiction Equality before the law Social contract

v t e

Social and political philosophy

Pre-modern philosophers

Aquinas Aristotle Averroes Augustine Chanakya Cicero Confucius Al-Ghazali Han Fei Laozi Marsilius Mencius Mozi Muhammad Plato Shang Socrates Sun Tzu Thucydides

Modern philosophers

Bakunin Bentham Bonald Bosanquet Burke Comte Emerson Engels Fourier Franklin Grotius Hegel Hobbes Hume Jefferson Kant Kierkegaard Le Bon Le Play Leibniz Locke Machiavelli Maistre Malebranche Marx Mill Montesquieu Möser Nietzsche Paine Renan Rousseau Royce Sade Smith Spencer Spinoza Stirner Taine Thoreau Tocqueville Vivekananda Voltaire

20th–21th-century Philosophers

Ambedkar Arendt Aurobindo Aron Azurmendi Badiou Baudrillard Bauman Benoist Berlin Judith Butler Camus Chomsky De Beauvoir Debord Du Bois Durkheim Foucault Gandhi Gehlen Gentile Gramsci Habermas Hayek Heidegger Irigaray Kirk Kropotkin Lenin Luxemburg Mao Marcuse Maritain Michels Mises Negri Niebuhr Nozick Oakeshott Ortega Pareto Pettit Plamenatz Polanyi Popper Radhakrishnan Rand Rawls Rothbard Russell Santayana Sarkar Sartre Schmitt Searle Simonović Skinner Sombart Spann Spirito Strauss Sun Taylor Walzer Weber Žižek

Social theories

Ambedkarism Anarchism Authoritarianism Collectivism Communism Communitarianism Conflict theories Confucianism Consensus theory Conservatism Contractualism Cosmopolitanism Culturalism Fascism Feminist political theory Gandhism Individualism Legalism Liberalism Libertarianism Mohism National liberalism Republicanism Social constructionism Social constructivism Social Darwinism Social determinism Socialism Utilitarianism Vaisheshika

Concepts

Civil disobedience Democracy Four occupations Justice Law Mandate of Heaven Peace Property Revolution Rights Social contract Society War more...

Related articles

Jurisprudence Philosophy
Philosophy
and economics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education Philosophy
Philosophy
of history Philosophy
Philosophy
of love Philosophy
Philosophy
of sex Philosophy
Philosophy
of social science Political ethics Social epistemology

Category Portal Task Force

v t e

Ethics

Theories

Casuistry Consequentialism Deontology

Kantian ethics

Ethics
Ethics
of care Existentialist ethics Meta-ethics Particularism Pragmatic ethics Role ethics Virtue
Virtue
ethics

Concepts

Autonomy Axiology Belief Conscience Consent Equality Care Free will Good and evil Happiness Ideal Justice Morality Norm Freedom Principles Suffering
Suffering
or Pain Stewardship Sympathy Trust Value Virtue Wrong full index...

Philosophers

Laozi Plato Aristotle Diogenes Valluvar Cicero Confucius Augustine of Hippo Mencius Mozi Xunzi Thomas Aquinas Baruch Spinoza David Hume Immanuel Kant Georg W. F. Hegel Arthur Schopenhauer Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill Søren Kierkegaard Henry Sidgwick Friedrich Nietzsche G. E. Moore Karl Barth Paul Tillich Dietrich Bonhoeffer Philippa Foot John Rawls John Dewey Bernard Williams J. L. Mackie G. E. M. Anscombe William Frankena Alasdair MacIntyre R. M. Hare Peter Singer Derek Parfit Thomas Nagel Robert Merrihew Adams Charles Taylor Joxe Azurmendi Christine Korsgaard Martha Nussbaum more...

Applied ethics

Bioethics Business ethics Discourse ethics Engineering ethics Environmental ethics Legal ethics Media ethics Medical ethics Nursing ethics Professional ethics Sexual ethics Ethics
Ethics
of eating meat Ethics
Ethics
of technology

Related articles

Christian ethics Descriptive ethics Ethics
Ethics
in religion Evolutionary ethics Feminist ethics History of ethics Ideology Islamic ethics Jewish ethics Normative ethics Philosophy
Philosophy
of law Political philosophy Population ethics Social philosophy

Portal Category

v t e

Jurisprudence

Legal theory

Critical legal studies Comparative law Economic analysis International legal theory Legal history Philosophy
Philosophy
of law Sociology of law

Philosophers

Alexy Allan Aquinas Aristotle Austin Beccaria Bentham Betti Bickel Blackstone Bobbio Bork Brożek Cardozo Castanheira Neves Chafee Coleman Del Vecchio Durkheim Dworkin Ehrlich Feinberg Fineman Finnis Frank Fuller Gardner George Green Grisez Grotius Gurvitch Habermas Han Hart Hegel Hobbes Hohfeld Hägerström Jellinek Jhering Kant Kelsen Köchler Kramer Llewellyn Lombardía Luhmann Lundstedt Lyons MacCormick Marx Nussbaum Olivecrona Pashukanis Perelman Petrazycki Pontes de Miranda Posner Pound Puchta Radbruch Rawls Raz Reale Reinach Renner Ross Rumi Savigny Scaevola Schmitt Shang Simmonds Somló Suárez Tribe Unger Voegelin Waldron Walzer Weber

Theories

Analytical jurisprudence Deontological ethics Interpretivism Legalism Legal moralism Legal positivism Legal realism Libertarian theories of law Natural law Paternalism Utilitarianism Virtue
Virtue
jurisprudence

Concepts

Dharma Fa Judicial interpretation Justice Legal system Li Rational-legal authority

Related articles

Law Political philosophy more...

Category Law
Law
portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal WikiProject Law WikiProject Philosophy changes

Authority control

.