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Landlocked
A LANDLOCKED STATE or LANDLOCKED COUNTRY is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas . There are currently 49 such countries, including five partially recognised states . Only two, Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay
Paraguay
in South America
South America
, lie outside Afro-Eurasia
Afro-Eurasia
(the Old World
Old World
). As a rule, being landlocked creates political and economic handicaps that access to the high seas avoids. For this reason, states large and small across history have striven to gain access to open waters, even at great expense in wealth, bloodshed, and political capital . The economic disadvantages of being landlocked can be alleviated or aggravated depending on degree of development, language barriers, and other considerations
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Neum
NEUM (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: , Cyrillic : Неум) is the only town to be situated along Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
's 20 km (12 mi) of coastline, making it the country's only access to the Adriatic Sea . In 2009 the municipal (općina ) population was 4,605 and in 1991 the population of Neum
Neum
town (naselje ) was 4,268. CONTENTS * 1 Features * 2 Geography * 2.1 Overview * 2.2 Subdivision * 2.3 Border crossings * 3 History * 4 Climate * 5 Demographics * 6 Culture * 7 Sport * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links FEATURES This section CONTAINS CONTENT THAT IS WRITTEN LIKE AN ADVERTISEMENT . Please help improve it by removing promotional content and inappropriate external links , and by adding encyclopedic content written from a neutral point of view
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Republic Of Ragusa
The REPUBLIC OF RAGUSA was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik
Dubrovnik
(Ragusa in Italian , German and Latin
Latin
; Raguse in French ) in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
(today in southernmost Croatia
Croatia
) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808. It reached its commercial peak in the 15th and the 16th centuries, before being conquered by Napoleon
Napoleon
's French Empire and formally annexed by the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy in 1808. It had a population of about 30,000 people, out of whom 5,000 lived within the city walls. Its Latin
Latin
motto was "Non bene pro toto libertas venditur auro", which means "Liberty is not well sold for all the gold"
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Ottoman Empire
The OTTOMAN EMPIRE (/ˈɒtəmən/ ; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye ), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the TURKISH EMPIRE or simply TURKEY, was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province ) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman . After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
Europe
, and with the conquest of the Balkans
Balkans
, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople
Constantinople
by Mehmed the Conqueror
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Republic Of Venice
The REPUBLIC OF VENICE (Venetian : Repùblica Vèneta; Italian : Repubblica di Venezia), traditionally known as the MOST SERENE REPUBLIC OF VENICE (Venetian : Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta; Italian : Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy
Italy
, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century. It was based in the lagoon communities of the historically prosperous city of Venice
Venice
, and was a leading European economic and trading power during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Renaissance
Renaissance
. The Venetian city state was founded as a safe haven for the people escaping persecution in mainland Europe after the decline of the Roman Empire. In its early years, it prospered on the salt trade. In subsequent centuries, the city state established a thalassocracy
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Bosnia And Herzegovina
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (/ˈbɒzniə ... ˌhɛərtsəɡoʊˈviːnə, -ˌhɜːrt-, -ɡə-/ ( listen ) or /ˌhɜːrtsəˈɡɒvɪnə/ ; abbreviated B Bosnian and Serbian : Bosna i Hercegovina (BIH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian : Bosna i Hercegovina (BIH) pronounced ), sometimes called BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA, and often known informally as BOSNIA, is a country in Southeastern Europe
Europe
located on the Balkan Peninsula . Sarajevo
Sarajevo
is the capital and largest city. Bordered by Croatia
Croatia
to the north and west; Serbia
Serbia
to the east; Montenegro
Montenegro
to the southeast; and the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
to the south, with a coastline about 20 kilometres (12 miles) long surrounding the town of Neum
Neum

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Conference Of Berlin
The BERLIN CONFERENCE of 1884–85, also known as the CONGO CONFERENCE (German : Kongokonferenz) or WEST AFRICA CONFERENCE (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa
Africa
during the New Imperialism
New Imperialism
period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
, first Chancellor of Germany , its outcome, the GENERAL ACT OF THE BERLIN CONFERENCE, can be seen as the formalization of the Scramble for Africa
Africa
. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance
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Angola
Coordinates : 12°30′S 18°30′E / 12.500°S 18.500°E / -12.500; 18.500 Republic
Republic
of Angola República de Angola
Angola
(Portuguese ) Flag Emblem MOTTO: * Virtus Unita Fortior (Latin) * (English: "Virtue is stro
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International Waterway
The terms INTERNATIONAL WATERS or TRANS-BOUNDARY WATERS apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins ) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems , enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries , rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers ), and wetlands . International waters
International waters
have no sovereignty, ergo is "Terra nullius" as no state controls it. All states have the freedom of: fishing, navigation, overflight, laying cables and pipelines, and research. Oceans, seas, and waters outside national jurisdiction are also referred to as the HIGH SEAS or, in Latin
Latin
, mare liberum (meaning free sea)
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Port Of Giurgiulești
The PORT OF GIURGIULEșTI is a port on the Danube
Danube
River and the largest port in Moldova
Moldova
. It is also a port on Prut River
Prut River
. It is Moldova’s only port accessible to seagoing vessels, situated at km 133.8 (nautical mile 72.2) of the River Danube
Danube
in the South of Moldova. It operates both a grain and an oil terminal as well as a passenger terminal. The building of an oil terminal started in 1996 and it was launched on October 26, 2006. Giurgiulești
Giurgiulești
passenger port was officially opened on March 17, 2009, when the first sea passenger trip Giurgiulești- Istanbul
Istanbul
- Giurgiulești
Giurgiulești
was launched. The Grain Transhipment Terminal was opened on July 24, 2009. A container facility was added in 2012. As of 2015 a second grain terminal was under construction
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International Congo Society
Coordinates : 2°52′48″S 23°39′22″E / 2.88°S 23.656°E / -2.88; 23.656 International Congo Society Association internationale du Congo Provisional government 1879–1885 Flag CAPITAL Boma POLITICAL STRUCTURE Provisional government OWNER Leopold II of Belgium
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Democratic Republic Of The Congo
Coordinates : 2°52′48″S 23°39′22″E / 2.88°S 23.656°E / -2.88; 23.656 Democratic Republic of the Congo République démocratique du Congo (French ) Repubilika ya Kôngo ya Dimokalasi (Kongo ) Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki ( Lingala ) Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo (Swahili ) Ditunga dia Kongu wa Mungalaata (Luba-Katanga ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Justice – Paix – Travail" (French) "Justice – Peace – Work" ANTHEM: Debout Congolais (French) "Arise, Congolese" Location of Democratic
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Croatia
Coordinates : 45°10′N 15°30′E / 45.167°N 15.500°E / 45.167; 15.500 Republic of Croatia Republika Hrvatska (Croatian ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Lijepa naša domovino " "Our Beautiful Homeland" Location of Croatia
Croatia
(dark green) – in
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Ploče
PLOčE (pronounced ; Italian : Porto Tolero) is a town and a notable seaport in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County
Dubrovnik-Neretva County
of Croatia
Croatia
. CONTENTS* 1 Geography * 1.1 Climate * 2 History * 3 Population * 4 Port * 5 International relations * 5.1 Twin towns – Sister cities * 6 References * 7 External links GEOGRAPHY Ploče
Ploče
is located on the Adriatic
Adriatic
coast in Dalmatia
Dalmatia
just north of the Neretva Delta
Neretva Delta
and is as such the natural seaside endpoint of most north-south routes through the central Dinaric Alps
Dinaric Alps
. This makes it the primary seaport used by Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and the endpoint of the Pan-European corridor 5C
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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic
Republic
of Poland Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska (Polish ) Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "Mazurek Dąbrowskiego " (English: "
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Gdańsk
GDAńSK (Polish pronunciation: ( listen ), English: /ɡəˈdaɪnsk/ ; German : Danzig ( listen ), English: /ˈdænsɪɡ/ ) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. It is the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodeship , Poland's principal seaport and is also the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area . The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay (of the Baltic Sea ), in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia , spa town of Sopot , and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population approaching 1.4 million. Gdańsk itself has a population of 460,427 (December 2012), making it the largest city in the Pomerania region of Northern Poland. Gdańsk is the capital of Gdańsk Pomerania and the largest city of Kashubia
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