Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (/ˌtʃɛkoʊsloʊˈvækiə,
-kə-, -slə-, -ˈvɑː-/; Czech and Slovak: Československo,
Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that
existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the
Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech
Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
From 1939 to 1945, following its forced division and partial
incorporation into Nazi Germany, the state did not de facto exist but
its government-in-exile continued to operate.
From 1948 to 1990,
Czechoslovakia was part of the Soviet bloc with a
command economy. Its economic status was formalized in membership of
Comecon from 1949 and its defense status in the
Warsaw Pact of May
1955. A period of political liberalization in 1968, known as the
Prague Spring, was forcibly ended when the Soviet Union, assisted by
Warsaw Pact countries, invaded. In 1989, as
Marxist–Leninist governments and communism were ending all over
Czechoslovaks peacefully deposed their government in the
Velvet Revolution; state price controls were removed after a period of
preparation. In 1993,
Czechoslovakia split into the two sovereign
states of the
Czech Republic and Slovakia.
2 Official names
3.2 First Czechoslovak Republic
3.2.3 Interwar period
3.3 Munich Agreement, and Two-Step German Occupation
3.4 Socialist Czechoslovakia
3.5 After 1989
4 Government and politics
4.1 Constitutional development
4.2 Heads of state and government
4.3 Foreign policy
4.3.1 International agreements and membership
4.4 Administrative divisions
5 Population and ethnic groups
7 Resource base
8 Transport and communications
12 Health, social welfare and housing
13 Mass media
16 Postage stamps
17 See also
21 Further reading
22 External links
Form of state
1918–1938: A democratic republic.
1938–1939: After annexation of
Nazi Germany in 1938,
the region gradually turned into a state with loosened connections
among the Czech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts. A large strip of
Slovakia and Carpatho-
Ukraine was annexed by Hungary, and the
Zaolzie region was annexed by Poland.
1939–1945: The region was split into the Protectorate of
Moravia and the Slovak Republic. A government-in-exile continued to
exist in London, supported by the United Kingdom,
United States and
its Allies; after the German invasion of Russia, it was also
recognised by the Soviet Union.
Czechoslovakia adhered to the
Declaration by United Nations
Declaration by United Nations and was a founding member of the United
1946–1948: The country was governed by a coalition government with
communist ministers, including the prime minister and the minister of
Carpathian Ruthenia was ceded to the Soviet Union.
1948–1989: The country became a socialist state under Soviet
domination with a centrally planned economy. In 1960, the country
officially became a socialist republic, the Czechoslovak Socialist
Republic. It was a satellite state of the Soviet Union.
1989–1990: The federal republic consisted of the Czech Socialist
Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic.
1990–1992: Following the Velvet Revolution, the state was renamed
the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, consisting of the Czech
Republic and the Slovak Republic.
Austria 1918–1938, 1945–1992
Germany (Both predecessors, West
Germany and East Germany, were
neighbors between 1949 and 1990.)
Soviet Union 1945–1991
The country was of generally irregular terrain. The western area was
part of the north-central European uplands. The eastern region was
composed of the northern reaches of the
Carpathian Mountains and lands
Danube River basin.
The weather is mild winters and mild summers. Influenced by the
Atlantic Ocean from the west, Baltic Sea from the north, and
Mediterranean Sea from the south. There is no continental weather.
Hyphen War and Name of the Czech Republic
1918–1920: Republic of
ČSR)/Czecho-Slovak State, or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia
1920–1938: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR), or Czechoslovakia
1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, or Czecho-Slovakia
1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR), or Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR), or
April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic (Czech version) and
Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic (Slovak version)
The country subsequently became the Czech and Slovak Federative
Republic (ČSFR), or Československo (Czech version) and
Česko-Slovensko (Slovak version).
Main articles: History of Czechoslovakia, History of the Czech lands,
and History of Slovakia
Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk, founder and first president
Czechoslovak troops in Vladivostok (1918)
Main article: Origins of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovak declaration of independence
Czechoslovak declaration of independence rally in
Prague on Wenceslas
Square, 28 October 1918
The area was long a part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the
empire collapsed at the end of World War I. The new state was founded
by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk (1850–1937), who served as its first
president from 14 November 1918 to 14 December 1935. He was succeeded
by his close ally,
Edvard Beneš (1884–1948).
The roots of Czech nationalism go back to the 19th century, when
philologists and educators, influenced by Romanticism, promoted the
Czech language and pride in the Czech people. Nationalism became a
mass movement in the second half of the 19th century. Taking advantage
of the limited opportunities for participation in political life under
Austrian rule, Czech leaders such as historian František Palacký
(1798–1876) founded many patriotic, self-help organizations which
provided a chance for many of their compatriots to participate in
communal life prior to independence. Palacký supported Austro-Slavism
and worked for a reorganized and federal Austrian Empire, which would
protect the Slavic speaking peoples of Central Europe against Russian
and German threats.
An advocate of democratic reform and Czech autonomy within
Austria-Hungary, Masaryk was elected twice to the Reichsrat (Austrian
Parliament), first from 1891 to 1893 for the Young Czech Party, and
again from 1907 to 1914 for the Czech Realist Party, which he had
founded in 1889 with
Karel Kramář and Josef Kaizl.
World War I
World War I small numbers of Czechs, the Czechoslovak Legions,
fought with the Allies in
France and Italy, while large numbers
Russia in exchange for its support for the independence of
Czechoslovakia from the Austrian Empire. With the outbreak of World
War I, Masaryk began working for Czech independence in a union with
Edvard Beneš and Milan Rastislav Štefánik, Masaryk
visited several Western countries and won support from influential
Bohemia and Moravia, under Austrian rule, were Czech-speaking
industrial centres, while Slovakia, which was part of the Kingdom of
Hungary, was an undeveloped agrarian region. Conditions were much
better for the development of a mass national movement in the Czech
lands than in Slovakia. Nevertheless, the two regions united and
created a new nation.
First Czechoslovak Republic
Main article: First Czechoslovak Republic
Czechoslovakia in 1928.
Bohemian Kingdom ceased to exist in 1918 when it was incorporated
Czechoslovakia was founded in October 1918, as
one of the successor states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end
World War I
World War I and as part of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It
consisted of the present day territories of Bohemia, Moravia, Slovakia
and Carpathian Ruthenia. Its territory included some of the most
industrialized regions of the former Austria-Hungary.
See also: Ethnic minorities in Czechoslovakia
Linguistic map of
Czechoslovakia in 1930
The new country was a multi-ethnic state. The population consisted of
Hungarians (5%) and Rusyns
(4%). Many of the Germans, Hungarians,
Ruthenians and Poles and
some Slovaks, felt oppressed because the political elite did not
generally allow political autonomy for minority ethnic
groups. This policy, combined with increasing Nazi
propaganda especially in the industrialized German-speaking
Sudetenland, led to unrest among the non-Czech population.
The state proclaimed the official ideology that there were no separate
Czech and Slovak nations, but only one nation of
Czechoslovakism), to the disagreement of
Slovaks and other ethnic
groups. Once a unified
Czechoslovakia was restored after World War II
(after the country had been divided during the war), the conflict
Czechs and the
Slovaks surfaced again. The governments of
Czechoslovakia and other eastern European nations deported ethnic
Germans to the West, reducing the presence of minorities in the
nation. Most of the
Jews had been killed during the war by the Nazis
and their allies.
Czechoslovakia in 1921
Czechoslovakia in 1930
Jews identified themselves as
Jews only by
religion not ethnicity), the sum is, therefore, more than 100%.
During the period between the two world wars, democracy thrived in
Czechoslovakia. Of all the new states established in central Europe
after 1918, only
Czechoslovakia preserved a democratic government
until the war broke out. Thus, despite regional disparities, its level
of development was much higher than that of neighboring
states. The population was generally literate, and
contained fewer alienated groups. The influence of these conditions
was augmented by the political values of Czechoslovakia's leaders and
the policies they adopted. Under Tomas Masaryk, Czech and Slovak
politicians promoted progressive social and economic conditions that
served to defuse discontent.
Foreign minister Beneš became the prime architect of the
Czechoslovak-Romanian-Yugoslav alliance (the "Little Entente",
1921–38) directed against Hungarian attempts to reclaim lost areas.
Beneš worked closely with France. Far more dangerous was the German
element, which after 1933 became allied with the Nazis in Germany. The
increasing feeling of inferiority among the Slovaks,
who were hostile to the more numerous Czechs, weakened the country in
the late 1930s. Many
Slovaks supported an extreme nationalist movement
and welcomed the puppet Slovak state set up under Hitler's control in
Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in central and
The partition of
Czechoslovakia after Munich Agreement
Munich Agreement, and Two-Step German Occupation
Main article: German occupation of Czechoslovakia
The car in which
Reinhard Heydrich was killed
Territory of the
Second Czechoslovak Republic
Second Czechoslovak Republic (1938–1939)
In September 1938,
Adolf Hitler demanded control of the Sudetenland.
On 29 September 1938, Britain and
France ceded control in the
Appeasement at the Munich Conference;
France ignored the military
alliance it had with Czechoslovakia. During October 1938, Nazi Germany
occupied and annexed the
Sudetenland border region, effectively
crippling Czechoslovak defences.
On 15 March 1939, the remainder ("rump") of
Czechoslovakia was invaded
and divided into the Protectorate of
Moravia and the
puppet Slovak State.
Slovakia and all of
Carpathian Ruthenia were annexed by
Poland occupied Zaolzie, an area whose population was
majority Polish, in October 1938.
The eventual goal of the German state under Nazi leadership was to
eradicate Czech nationality through assimilation, deportation, and
extermination of the Czech intelligentsia; the intellectual elites and
middle class made up a considerable number of the 200,000 people who
passed through concentration camps and the 250,000 who died during
German occupation. Under Generalplan Ost, it was assumed that
Czechs would be fit for Germanization. The Czech
intellectual elites were to be removed not only from Czech territories
but from Europe completely. The authors of
Generalplan Ost believed it
would be best if they emigrated overseas, as even in
Siberia they were
considered a threat to German rule. Just like Jews, Poles, Serbs, and
several other nations,
Czechs were considered to be untermenschen by
the Nazi state. In 1940, in a secret Nazi plan for the
Germanization of the Protectorate of
Moravia it was
declared that those considered to be of racially Mongoloid origin and
the Czech intelligentsia were not to be Germanized.
The deportation of
Jews to concentration camps was organized under the
direction of Reinhard Heydrich, and the fortress town of Terezín was
made into a ghetto way station for Jewish families. On 4 June 1942
Heydrich died after being wounded by an assassin in Operation
Anthropoid. Heydrich's successor, Colonel General Kurt Daluege,
ordered mass arrests and executions and the destruction of the
Lidice and Ležáky. In 1943 the German war effort was
accelerated. Under the authority of Karl Hermann Frank, German
minister of state for
Bohemia and Moravia, some 350,000 Czech laborers
were dispatched to the Reich. Within the protectorate, all
non-war-related industry was prohibited. Most of the Czech population
obeyed quiescently up until the final months preceding the end of the
war, while thousands were involved in the resistance movement.
Czechs of the Protectorate
Bohemia and Moravia, German
occupation was a period of brutal oppression. Czech losses resulting
from political persecution and deaths in concentration camps totaled
between 36,000 and 55,000. The Jewish population of
Moravia (118,000 according to the 1930 census) was virtually
Jews emigrated after 1939; more than 70,000 were
killed; 8,000 survived at Terezín. Several thousand
Jews managed to
live in freedom or in hiding throughout the occupation.
Despite the estimated 136,000 deaths at the hands of the Nazi regime,
the population in the Reichsprotektorate saw a net increase during the
war years of approximately 250,000 in line with an increased birth
On 3 May 1945, the third US Army of General Patton entered Pilsen from
the south west. On 9 May 1945, Soviet Red Army troops entered Prague.
Socialist coat of arms in 1960–1990
Spartakiad in 1960
History of Czechoslovakia
History of Czechoslovakia (1948–1989)
Main article: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
After World War II, pre-war
Czechoslovakia was re-established, with
the exception of Subcarpathian Ruthenia, which was annexed by the
Soviet Union and incorporated into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist
Beneš decrees were promulgated concerning ethnic
Germans (see Potsdam Agreement) and ethnic Hungarians. Under the
decrees, citizenship was abrogated for people of German and Hungarian
ethnic origin who had accepted German or Hungarian citizenship during
the occupations. In 1948, this provision was cancelled for the
Hungarians, but only partially for the Germans. The government then
confiscated the property of the
Germans and expelled about 90% of the
ethnic German population, over 2 million people. Those who remained
were collectively accused of supporting the Nazis after the Munich
Agreement, as 97.32% of Sudeten
Germans had voted for the
NSDAP in the
December 1938 elections. Almost every decree explicitly stated that
the sanctions did not apply to antifascists. Some 250,000 Germans,
many married to Czechs, some antifascists, and also those required for
the post-war reconstruction of the country, remained in
Czechoslovakia. The Beneš Decrees still cause controversy among
nationalist groups in the Czech Republic, Germany,
Carpathian Ruthenia (Podkarpatská Rus) was occupied by (and in June
1945 formally ceded to) the Soviet Union. In the 1946 parliamentary
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
Communist Party of Czechoslovakia was the winner in the
Czech lands, and the Democratic Party won in Slovakia. In February
1948 the Communists seized power. Although they would maintain the
fiction of political pluralism through the existence of the National
Front, except for a short period in the late 1960s (the
the country had no liberal democracy. Since citizens lacked
significant electoral methods of registering protest against
government policies, periodically there were street protests that
became violent. For example, there were riots in the town of Plzeň in
1953, reflecting economic discontent. Police and army units put down
the rebellion, and hundreds were injured but no one was killed. While
its economy remained more advanced than those of its neighbors in
Czechoslovakia grew increasingly economically weak
relative to Western Europe.
Czechoslovakia after 1969
In 1968, when the reformer
Alexander Dubček was appointed to the key
post of First Secretary of the Czechoslovak Communist Party, there was
a brief period of liberalization known as the
Prague Spring. In
response, after failing to persuade the Czechoslovak leaders to change
course, five other
Eastern Bloc members of the
Warsaw Pact invaded.
Soviet tanks rolled into
Czechoslovakia on the night of 20–21 August
1968. The General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party Leonid
Brezhnev viewed this intervention as vital for the preservation of the
Soviet, socialist system and vowed to intervene in any state that
sought to replace Marxism-
Leninism with capitalism. In the week
after the invasion there was a spontaneous campaign of civil
resistance against the occupation. This resistance involved a wide
range of acts of non-cooperation and defiance: this was followed by a
period in which the Czechoslovak Communist Party leadership, having
been forced in Moscow to make concessions to the Soviet Union,
gradually put the brakes on their earlier liberal policies. In
April 1969 Dubček was finally dismissed from the First Secretaryship
of the Czechoslovak Communist Party. Meanwhile, one plank of the
reform program had been carried out: in 1968-9,
turned into a federation of the
Czech Socialist Republic
Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak
Socialist Republic. The theory was that under the federation, social
and economic inequities between the Czech and Slovak halves of the
state would be largely eliminated. A number of ministries, such as
education, now became two formally equal bodies in the two formally
equal republics. However, the centralised political control by the
Czechoslovak Communist Party severely limited the effects of
The 1970s saw the rise of the dissident movement in Czechoslovakia,
represented among others by Václav Havel. The movement sought greater
political participation and expression in the face of official
disapproval, manifested in limitations on work activities, which went
as far as a ban on professional employment, the refusal of higher
education for the dissidents' children, police harassment and prison.
Visegrád Group signing ceremony in February 1991
History of Czechoslovakia
History of Czechoslovakia (1989–1992)
In 1989, the
Velvet Revolution restored democracy. This occurred at
around the same time as the fall of communism in Romania, Bulgaria,
Hungary and Poland. Within three years communist rule was extirpated
The word "socialist" was removed from the country's full name on 29
March 1990 and replaced by "federal".
In 1992, because of growing nationalist tensions in the government,
Czechoslovakia was peacefully dissolved by parliament. On 1 January
1993 it formally separated into two independent countries, the Czech
Republic and the Slovak Republic.
Government and politics
Federative coat of arms in 1990–1992
History of Czechoslovakia
History of Czechoslovakia (1918–1938) and Politics of
After World War II, a political monopoly was held by the Communist
Gustáv Husák was elected first
secretary of the KSČ in 1969 (changed to general secretary in 1971)
and president of
Czechoslovakia in 1975. Other parties and
organizations existed but functioned in subordinate roles to the KSČ.
All political parties, as well as numerous mass organizations, were
grouped under umbrella of the National Front. Human rights activists
and religious activists were severely repressed.
Main article: Constitutional Court of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia had the following constitutions during its history
Temporary constitution of 14 November 1918 (democratic): see History
The 1920 constitution (The Constitutional Document of the Czechoslovak
Republic), democratic, in force until 1948, several amendments
The Communist 1948 Ninth-of-May Constitution
The Communist 1960 Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
with major amendments in 1968 (Constitutional Law of Federation),
1971, 1975, 1978, and 1989 (at which point the leading role of the
Communist Party was abolished). It was amended several more times
during 1990–1992 (for example, 1990, name change to Czecho-Slovakia,
1991 incorporation of the human rights charter)
Heads of state and government
See also: Leaders of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
List of presidents of Czechoslovakia
List of Prime Ministers of Czechoslovakia
International agreements and membership
In the 1930s, the nation formed a military alliance with France, which
collapsed in the
Munich Agreement of 1938. After World War II, active
participant in Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon),
Warsaw Pact, United Nations and its specialized agencies; signatory of
conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia
1918–1923: Different systems in former Austrian territory (Bohemia,
Moravia, a small part of Silesia) compared to former Hungarian
Slovakia and Ruthenia): three lands (země) (also called
district units (kraje)): Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, plus 21 counties
(župy) in today's
Slovakia and three counties in today's Ruthenia;
both lands and counties were divided into districts (okresy).
1923–1927: As above, except that the Slovak and Ruthenian counties
were replaced by six (grand) counties ((veľ)župy) in
one (grand) county in Ruthenia, and the numbers and boundaries of the
okresy were changed in those two territories.
1928–1938: Four lands (Czech: země, Slovak: krajiny): Bohemia,
Slovakia and Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia, divided into
Late 1938 – March 1939: As above, but
the status of "autonomous lands".
Slovakia was called Slovenský
štát, with its own currency and government.
1945–1948: As in 1928–1938, except that
Ruthenia became part of
the Soviet Union.
1949–1960: 19 regions (kraje) divided into 270 okresy.
1960–1992: 10 kraje, Prague, and (from 1970)
Bratislava (capital of
Slovakia); these were divided into 109–114 okresy; the kraje were
abolished temporarily in
Slovakia in 1969–1970 and for many purposes
from 1991 in Czechoslovakia; in addition, the Czech Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic
Slovak Socialist Republic were established in 1969 (without
the word Socialist from 1990).
Population and ethnic groups
Main article: Demographics of Czechoslovakia
Main article: Economy of communist Czechoslovakia
Before World War II, the economy was about the fourth in all
industrial states in Europe. The state was based on strong economy,
manufacturing cars (Škoda, Tatra), trams, aircraft (Aero, Avia),
ships, ship engines (Škoda), canons, shoes (Baťa), turbines, guns
(Zbrojovka Brno). It was the industrial workshop for Austro-Hungarian
empire. The Slovak lands were more in agriculture.
After World War II, the economy was centrally planned, with command
links controlled by the communist party, similarly to the Soviet
Union. The large metallurgical industry was dependent on imports of
iron and non-ferrous ores.
Industry: Extractive industry and manufacturing dominated the sector,
including machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and
textiles. The sector was wasteful in its use of energy, materials, and
labor and was slow to upgrade technology, but the country was a major
supplier of high-quality machinery, instruments, electronics,
aircraft, airplane engines and arms to other socialist countries.
Agriculture: Agriculture was a minor sector, but collectivized farms
of large acreage and relatively efficient mode of production enabled
the country to be relatively self-sufficient in food supply. The
country depended on imports of grains (mainly for livestock feed) in
years of adverse weather. Meat production was constrained by shortage
of feed, but the country still recorded high per capita consumption of
Foreign trade: Exports were estimated at US$17.8 billion in 1985.
Exports were machinery (55%), fuel and materials (14%), and
manufactured consumer goods (16%). Imports stood at estimated US$17.9
billion in 1985, including fuel and materials (41%), machinery (33%),
and agricultural and forestry products (12%). In 1986, about 80% of
foreign trade was with other socialist countries.
Exchange rate: Official, or commercial, rate was crowns (Kčs) 5.4 per
US$1 in 1987. Tourist, or non-commercial, rate was Kčs 10.5 per US$1.
Neither rate reflected purchasing power. The exchange rate on the
black market was around Kčs 30 per US$1, which became the official
rate once the currency became convertible in the early 1990s.
Fiscal year: Calendar year.
Fiscal policy: The state was the exclusive owner of means of
production in most cases. Revenue from state enterprises was the
primary source of revenues followed by turnover tax. The government
spent heavily on social programs, subsidies, and investment. Budget
was usually balanced or left small surplus.
Main article: Resource base of Communist Czechoslovakia
After World War II, the country was short of energy, relying on
imported crude oil and natural gas from Soviet Union, domestic brown
coal, and nuclear and hydroelectric energy. Energy constraints were a
major factor in the 1980s.
Transport and communications
Slightly after the foundation of
Czechoslovakia in 1918, there was a
lack of needful infrastructure in many areas – paved roads,
railways, bridges etc. Massive improvement in the following years
Czechoslovakia to develop its industry. Prague's civil airport
in Ruzyně became one of the most modern terminals in the world, when
it was finished in 1937. Tomáš Baťa, Czech entrepreneur and
visionary outlined his ideas in the publication "Budujme stát pro 40
milionů lidí", where he described the future motorway system.
Construction of the first motorways in
Czechoslovakia begun in 1939,
nevertheless, they were stopped after Nazi occupation during the World
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September
Main article: Transport in Czechoslovakia
Main article: Society of Communist Czechoslovakia
Main article: Education in Czechoslovakia
Education was free at all levels and compulsory from age 6 to 15. The
vast majority of the population was literate. There was a highly
developed system of apprenticeship training and vocational schools
supplemented general secondary schools and institutions of higher
Main article: Religion in Czechoslovakia
Roman Catholics 46%, Evangelical Lutheran 5.3%,
n/a 17%, but there were huge differences in religious practices
between the two constituent republics; see
Czech Republic and
Health, social welfare and housing
Main article: Health and social welfare in Communist Czechoslovakia
After World War II, free health care was available to all citizens.
National health planning emphasised preventive medicine; factory and
local health care centres supplemented hospitals and other inpatient
institutions. There was substantial improvement in rural health care
during the 1960s and 1970s.
Main article: Mass media in Communist Czechoslovakia
During the era between the World Wars, Czechoslovak democracy and
liberalism facilitated conditions for free publication. The most
significant daily newspapers in these times were Lidové noviny,
Národní listy, Český deník and Československá republika.
During Communist rule, the mass media in
controlled by the Communist Party. Private ownership of any
publication or agency of the mass media was generally forbidden,
although churches and other organizations published small periodicals
and newspapers. Even with this information monopoly in the hands of
organizations under KSČ control, all publications were reviewed by
the government's Office for Press and Information.
Czechoslovakia at the Olympics
Czechoslovakia national football team
Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer
on the international scene, with eight appearances in the FIFA World
Cup Finals, finishing in second place in 1934 and 1962. The team also
won the European Football Championship in 1976, came in third in 1980
and won the Olympic gold in 1980.
Well-known football players such as Pavel Nedvěd, Antonín Panenka,
Milan Baroš, Tomáš Rosický,
Vladimír Šmicer or
Petr Čech were
all born in Czechoslovakia.
International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee code for
Czechoslovakia is TCH,
which is still used in historical listings of results.
Czechoslovak national ice hockey team
Czechoslovak national ice hockey team won many medals from the
world championships and Olympic Games. Peter Šťastný, Jaromír
Jágr, Dominik Hašek, Peter Bondra, Petr Klíma, Marián Gáborík,
Miroslav Šatan and
Pavol Demitra all come from
Emil Zátopek, winner of four Olympic gold medals in athletics, is
considered one of the top athletes in the history.
Věra Čáslavská was an Olympic gold medallist in gymnastics,
winning seven gold medals and four silver medals. She represented
Czechoslovakia in three consecutive Olympics.
Several accomplished professional tennis players including Ivan Lendl,
Jan Kodeš, Miloslav Mečíř, Hana Mandlíková, Martina Hingis,
Martina Navratilova, Jana Novotna,
Petra Kvitová and Daniela
Hantuchová were born in Czechoslovakia.
Czech Republic / Slovakia
List of Czechs / List of Slovaks
MDŽ (International Women's Day)
Jazz in dissident Czechoslovakia
List of people on stamps of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia stamp reused by
Slovak Republic after 18 January 1939
by overprinting country and value
Effects on the environment in
Czechoslovakia from Soviet influence
during the Cold War
Former countries in Europe after 1815
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech Kingdom)
1968 Red Square demonstration
^ In other recognized languages of Czechoslovakia:
*Rusyn: Чеськословеньско, Cheskoslovensko
*Yiddish: טשעכאסלאוואקיי, Tshekhaslavakey
^ "THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS".
^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.),
Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0
^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th
ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
^ "Ján Kačala: Máme nový názov federatívnej republiky (The New
Name of the Federal Republic), In: Kultúra Slova (official
publication of the Slovak Academy of Sciences Ľudovít Štúr
Institute of Linguistics) 6/1990 pp. 192–197" (PDF).
^ Czech pronunciation: [ˈtʃɛskoslovɛnsko], Slovak
^ Votruba, Martin. "Czecho-
Slovakia or Czechoslovakia". Slovak Studies
Program. University of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on 15
October 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
Czechs Celebrate Republic's Birth, 1933/11/06 (1933). Universal
Newsreel. 1933. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved
22 February 2012.
^ Z. A. B. Zeman, The Masaryks: The Making of
^ "The War of the World",
Niall Ferguson Allen Lane 2006.
^ "Playing the blame game". Archived from the original on 30 June
2008. Retrieved 30 June 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
unknown (link) ,
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Czechoslovakia.
Wikisource has the text of the 1922
Encyclopædia Britannica article
Online books and articles
U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies, "Czechoslovakia"
English/Czech: Orders and Medals of
Czechoslovakia including Order of
the White Lion
Czechoslovakia by Encyclopædia Britannica
Maps with Hungarian-language rubrics:
Border changes after the creation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia after Munich Agreement
Council of Europe
Committee of Ministers
Court of Human Rights
Commissioner for Human Rights
Commission for the Efficiency of Justice
Commission against Racism and Intolerance
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)
1 Provisionally referred to by the
Council of Europe
Council of Europe as "the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.
ISNI: 0000 0001 2296 6146
BNF: cb11881605z (data)