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Karaköy
Karaköy, the modern name for ancient Galata, is a commercial quarter in the Beyoğlu
Beyoğlu
district of Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern part of the Golden Horn
Golden Horn
mouth on the European side of Bosphorus. Karaköy
Karaköy
is one of the oldest and most historic districts of the city, and is today an important commercial center and transport hub. The location is connected with the surrounding neighborhoods through streets originating from Karaköy
Karaköy
Square
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Turkic Languages
The Turkic languages
Turkic languages
are a language family of at least thirty-five[2] documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
of Eurasia
Eurasia
from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia
West Asia
all the way to North Asia
North Asia
(particularly in Siberia) and East Asia
East Asia
(including the Far East)
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Latin Empire
The Empire of Romania[2] (Latin: Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin
Latin
Empire or Latin
Latin
Empire of Constantinople, and known to the Byzantines as the Frankokratia
Frankokratia
or the Latin
Latin
Occupation,[3] was a feudal Crusader state
Crusader state
founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
on lands captured from the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 1204 and lasted until 1261
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Pier
A pier is a raised structure in a body of water, typically supported by well-spaced piles or pillars. Bridges, buildings, and walkways may all be supported by piers. Their open structure allows tides and currents to flow relatively unhindered, whereas the more solid foundations of a quay or the closely spaced piles of a wharf can act as a breakwater, and are consequently more liable to silting. Piers can range in size and complexity from a simple lightweight wooden structure to major structures extended over 1600 metres. In American English, a pier may be synonymous with a dock. Piers have been built for several purposes, and because these different purposes have distinct regional variances, the term pier tends to have different nuances of meaning in different parts of the world
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Eminönü
Eminönü is a former district of Istanbul in Turkey, currently a quarter of Fatih, the province's capital district. This is the heart of the walled city of Constantine, the focus of a history of incredible richness. Eminönü covers roughly the area on which the ancient Byzantium was built. The Galata Bridge crosses the Golden Horn into Eminönü and the mouth of the Bosphorus opens into the Marmara Sea. And up on the hill stands Topkapı Palace, the Blue Mosque (Sultanahmet Camii) and Hagia Sophia (Aya Sofya). Thus Eminönü is the main tourist destination in Istanbul. It was a part of the Fatih district until 1928, which covered the whole peninsular area (the old Stamboul) within the Roman city walls - that area which was formerly the Byzantine capital Constantinople
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Crimean War
223,513  Ottoman Empire 45,400[2] 10,100 killed in action 10,800 died of wounds 24,500 died of disease French Empire 135,485[2] 8,490 killed in action; 11,750 died of wounds; 75,375 died of disease 39,870 wounded  British Empire 40,462[2] 2,755 killed in action 1,847 died of wounds 17,580 died of disease 18,280 wounded  Kingdom of Sardinia 2,166[2] 28 killed in action 2,138 died of disease 530,125[2] 35,671 killed in action 37,454 died of wounds 377,000 died from non-combat causes 80,000 wounded[3][4]v t eCrimean WarBalkansOltenița Sinop Cetate Calafat SilistraCaucasusKurekdere KarsNaval OperationsSuomenlinna Bomarsund PetropavlovskCrimeaAlma Sevastopol Balaclava Inkerman Eupatoria Taganrog Chernaya Malakoff Great Redan Kinburnv t eRusso-Ottoman Wars1568–70 1676–81 1686–1700 1710–11 1735–39 1768–74 1787–92 1806–12 1828–29 1853–56 1877–78 1914–18Russ
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Jewish
Jews
Jews
(Hebrew: יְהוּדִים‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation [jehuˈdim]) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group[12] and a nation[13][14][15] originating from the Israelites,[16][17][18] or Hebrews,[19][20] of the Ancient Near East. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated,[21] as
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Crimean Karaites
The Crimean Karaites
Crimean Karaites
or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim: Кърымкъарайлар sg. къарай – qaray; Trakai Karaim: sg. karaj, pl. karajlar; Hebrew: קראי מזרח אירופה‬; Turkish: Karaylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnic group derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism
Judaism
in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire
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Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Republic Of Genoa
The Republic
Republic
of Genoa
Genoa
(Ligurian: Repúbrica de Zêna, pronounced [reˈpybrika de ˈze:na]; Latin: Res Publica Ianuensis; Italian: Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria
Liguria
on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica
Corsica
from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. It began when Genoa
Genoa
became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, and ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic
French First Republic
under Napoleon
Napoleon
and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica
Corsica
was ceded to France
France
in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768
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White Emigre
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia
Russia
in the wake of the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate. Many white émigrés were participants in the White movement or supported it, although the term is often broadly applied to anyone who may have left the country due to the change in regimes. Some white émigrés, like Mensheviks
Mensheviks
and Socialist-Revolutionaries, were opposed to the Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
but had not directly supported the White movement; some were just apolitical. The term is also applied to the descendants of those who left and still retain a Russian Orthodox Christian identity while living abroad. The term is most commonly used in France, the United States, and the United Kingdom
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Italy
Coordinates: 43°N 12°E / 43°N 12°E / 43; 12Italian Republic Repubblica Italiana  (Italian)FlagEmblemAnthem: Il Canto degli Italiani  (Italian) "The Song of the Italians"Location of  Italy  (dark green) – in Europe  (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (light green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Rome 41°54′N 12°29′E / 41.900°N 12.483°E / 41.900; 12.483Official languages ItalianaNative languages see full listReligion83.3% Christians 12.4% irreligious 3.7% Muslims 0.2% Buddhists 0.1% Hindus 0.3% other religions[1]Demonym ItalianGovernment Unitary constitutional parliamentary republic• PresidentSergio Mattarella• Prime MinisterPaolo Gentiloni• President of the SenateElisabetta Casellati•&
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Fall Of Constantinople
Ottomans Land forces: [e] 50,000–80,000[6]:101 [7]:49[8]:52[9]:618[10][page needed][11][page needed][f]100,000[12]:755–160,000[13][page needed][14][page needed]–200,000[3][page needed]70 cannons[15]:139–14014 large and 56 small caliber)[16]:179Naval forces:70 ships,[10]:4420 galleys[17] 90 – 126 ships [18]Byzantines Land forces:7,000–10,000[5]:85[12]:755[19]:343[12]:755[20]:46[21][page needed]-12,000,[18] 600 Ottoman defectors[22]Naval forces:26 ships[10]:45[g]Casualties and lossesUnknown but heavy[24][4][page needed]4,000 killed in total (including combatants and civilians)[10]:37–8 30,000 enslaved or deported[24]^ More specifically, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Palaiologos dynasty ^ The Venetians decided to make a peace treaty with the Ottomans in September 1451, because they were on good terms already with the Ottomans and they did not want to ruin a relationship
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Greeks Of Turkey
The Greeks
Greeks
in Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Rumlar) constitute a population of Greek and Greek-speaking Eastern Orthodox Christians who mostly live in Istanbul, as well as on the two islands of the western entrance to the Dardanelles: Imbros
Imbros
and Tenedos
Tenedos
(Turkish: Gökçeada and Bozcaada). They are the remnants of the estimated 200,000 Greeks
Greeks
who were permitted under the provisions of the Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations to remain in Turkey following the 1923 population exchange,[7] which involved the forcible resettlement of approximately 1.5 million Greeks
Greeks
from Anatolia
Anatolia
and East Thrace
East Thrace
and of half a million Turks from all of Greece
Greece
except for Western Thrace. After years of persecution (e.g
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Armenians Of Turkey
Armenians
Armenians
in Turkey
Turkey
(Turkish: Türkiye Ermenileri; Armenian: Թուրքահայեր, also Թրքահայեր, "Turkish Armenians"), one of the indigenous peoples of Turkey, have an estimated population of 50,000 to 70,000,[4][5] down from more than 2 million in 1914. Today, the overwhelming majority of Turkish Armenians
Armenians
are concentrated in Istanbul
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