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Galata is the former name of the
Karaköy Karaköy, the modern name for ancient Galata Galata is the former name of the Karaköy neighbourhood in Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34000 to 34990 , area_code ...

Karaköy
neighbourhood in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
, which is located at the northern shore of the
Golden Horn 300px, The Golden Horn as seen from Galata Bridge The Golden Horn ( tr, Altın Boynuz or ''Haliç''; grc, Χρυσόκερας, ''Chrysókeras''; la, Sinus Ceratinus) is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus F ...

Golden Horn
. The district is connected to the historic
Fatih Fatih (), historically Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsargrad (Slavs, Slavic), Qustantiniya (Arabic), ...

Fatih
district by several bridges that cross the Golden Horn, most notably the
Galata Bridge The Galata Bridge ( tr, Galata Köprüsü, ) is a bridge that spans the Golden Horn in Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34000 to 34990 , area_code = +90 2 ...
. The medieval
citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brooke ...

citadel
of Galata was a
colony In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, ...
of the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
between 1273 and 1453. The famous
Galata Tower The Galata Tower ( tr, Galata Kulesi) or with the current official name Galata Kulesi Museum ( tr, Galata Kulesi Müzesi) is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a m ...

Galata Tower
was built by the Genoese in 1348 at the northernmost and highest point of the citadel. Galata is now a quarter within the district of
Beyoğlu Beyoğlu () is a district on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. It was known as the region of Pera (Πέρα, meaning "Beyond" in Greek language, Greek, ...
in Istanbul.


Etymology

There are several theories concerning the origin of the name ''Galata''. The
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
believe that the name comes either from ''Galatai'' (meaning "
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of peoples of in the and the (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). The area they originally inhabited was known as . Their forms the main branch of th ...
"), as the
Celtic The words Celt and Celtic (also Keltic) may refer to: Ethno-linguistics *Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: ...

Celtic
tribe of Gauls ( Galatians) were thought to have camped here during the
Hellenistic period The Hellenistic period spans the period of History of the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31  ...
before settling into
Galatia Galatia (; grc, Γαλατία, ''Galatía'', "Gaul Gaul ( la, Gallia) was a region of Western Europe Western Europe is the region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally ...
in central
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
; or from ''galatas'' (meaning "
milkman An Indian milkman on his motorbike Milk delivery is a delivery service dedicated to supplying milk Milk is a nutrient-rich liquid food produced by the mammary gland A mammary gland is an exocrine gland in humans and other mammals th ...

milkman
"), as the area was used by shepherds for grazing in the
Early Medieval The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
(
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
) period. According to another hypothesis it is a variant of the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
word ''calata'', which means "a section of the docks of the ports intended for the mooring of merchant ships, for the direct embarkation or disembarkation of goods or passengers, for the temporary storage of goods and marine equipment", since the neighborhood was for centuries a
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
colony. The name ''Galata'' has subsequently been given by the city of
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
to its naval museum, '' Galata - Museo del mare'', which was opened in 2004.


History

In historic documents, Galata is often called Pera, which comes from the old
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
name for the place, Peran en Sykais, literally "the Fig Field on the Other Side." The quarter first appears in
Late Antiquity Late antiquity is a periodization Periodization is the process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified named blocks of time.Adam Rabinowitz. It’s about time: historical periodization and Linked Ancient World Data'. Inst ...
as
Sykai Sykai or Sycae, later known as Justinianae or Ioustinianai and Justinianopolis or Ioustinianoupolis, was a town of ancient Thrace, a suburb of Byzantium/Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), No ...
or Sycae. By the time the ''
Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae The ''Notitia Urbis Constantinopolitanae'' is an ancient "regionary", i.e., a list of monuments, public buildings and civil officials in Constantinople during the mid-5th century (between 425 and the 440s), during the reign of the emperor Theodosiu ...
'' was compiled in ca. 425 AD, it had become an integral part of the city as its 13th region. According to the ''Notitia'', it featured public baths and a
forum Forum (plural forums or fora) may refer to: Common uses * Forum (legal), designated space for public expression in the United States *Forum (Roman), open public space within a Roman city **Roman Forum, most famous example *Internet forum, discus ...
built by Emperor Honorius (r. 395–423), a theatre, a
portico A portico is a porch A porch (from Old French ''porche'', from Latin ''porticus'' "colonnade", from ''porta'' "passage") is a room or gallery located in front of an entrance of a building. A porch is placed in front of the facade of a bu ...

portico
ed street and 435 mansions. It is also probable that the settlement was enclosed by walls in the 5th century. Sykai received full city rights under
Justinian I Justinian I (; la, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus; grc-gre, Ἰουστινιανός ; 48214 November 565), also known as Justinian the Great, was the Byzantine emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation o ...
(r. 527–565), who renamed it Iustinianopolis, but declined and was probably abandoned in the 7th century. Only the large tower, ''Megalos Pyrgos'' (the ''kastellion tou Galatou'') which controlled the northern end of the sea chain that blocked the entrance to the
Golden Horn 300px, The Golden Horn as seen from Galata Bridge The Golden Horn ( tr, Altın Boynuz or ''Haliç''; grc, Χρυσόκερας, ''Chrysókeras''; la, Sinus Ceratinus) is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus F ...

Golden Horn
remained. In the 11th century, the quarter housed the city's Jewish community, which came to number some 2,500 people. In 1171, a new
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
settlement in the area was attacked and nearly destroyed.John Julius Norwich, A History of Venice, First Vintage Books Edition May 1986, p. 104 Despite Genoese averments that Venice had nothing to do with the attack, the
Byzantine Emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse ...
Manuel I Komnenos Manuel I Komnenos ( el, Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180), Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * L ...
(r. 1143–1180) used the attack on the settlement as a pretext to imprison all Venetian citizens and confiscate all Venetian property within the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
. The ''kastellion'' and the Jewish quarter were seized and destroyed in 1203 by the
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
crusaders The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

crusaders
during the
Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Roman Catholic Church, Latin Christian armed expedition called by Pope Innocent III. The stated intent of the expedition was to recapture the Islam, Muslim-controlled city of Jerusalem, by first defeating th ...
, shortly before the
sack of Constantinople The sack of Constantinople occurred in April 1204 and marked the culmination of the Fourth Crusade The Fourth Crusade (1202–1204) was a Latin Christian , native_name_lang = la , image = San Giovanni in Laterano - Rom ...
. In 1233, during the subsequent
Latin Empire The Latin Empire, also referred to as the Latin Empire of Constantinople, was a feudal Crusader state The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade through conquest and political ...

Latin Empire
(1204–1261), a small
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...
chapel A chapel is a Christian place of prayer and worship that is usually relatively small. The term has several meanings. Firstly, smaller spaces inside a church that have their own altar are often called chapels; the Lady chapel is a common type ...

chapel
dedicated to St. Paul was built in place of a 6th-century
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...
church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is usually used to refer to the p ...
in Galata.Müller-Wiener (1977), p. 79 This chapel was significantly enlarged in 1325 by the
Dominican friars Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic ( , stress on the "mi"), on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles, in the Caribbean ** People of the Dominican Republic ** Demographics of the Domin ...
, who officially renamed it as the Church of San Domenico,Eyice (1955), p. 102 but local residents continued to use the original denomination of San Paolo.Janin (1953), p. 599 In 1407,
Pope Gregory XII Pope Gregory XII ( la, Gregorius XII; or 1327 – 18 October 1417), born Angelo Corraro, Corario," or Correr, was the Roman claimant to the headship of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic C ...

Pope Gregory XII
, in order to ensure the maintenance of the church, conceded
indulgence File:Apostolic Benediction and Plenary Indulgence Parchment 1948 Oct 26 Pope Pius XII to Della Mora Antonietta (DSC 2566).jpg, Apostolic Benediction and Plenary Indulgence Parchment In the teaching of the Catholic Church, an indulgence (, from , 'p ...

indulgence
s to the visitors of the Monastery of San Paolo in Galata.Janin (1953), p. 600 The building is known today as the '' Arap Camii'' (Arab Mosque) because a few years after its conversion into a
mosque A mosque (; from ar, مَسْجِد, masjid, ; literally "place of ritual prostration"), also called masjid, is a place of worship for Muslims. Any act of worship that follows the Salah, Islamic rules of prayer can be said to create a mosque, w ...

mosque
(between 1475 and 1478) under the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
Sultan
Mehmed II Mehmed II ( ota, محمد ثانى, translit=Meḥmed-i s̱ānī; tr, II. Mehmed, ; 30 March 14323 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror ( ota, ابو الفتح, Ebū'l-Fetḥ, lit=the Father of Conquest, links=no; tr, Fatih Su ...

Mehmed II
with the name ''Galata Camii'' (Galata Mosque; or alternatively ''Cami-i Kebir'', i.e. Great Mosque), it was given by Sultan
Bayezid II Bayezid II ( ota, بايزيد ثانى, Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, December 1447 – 26 May 1512, Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southe ...

Bayezid II
to the
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
Moors '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors init ...
who fled the
Spanish Inquisition The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition ( es, Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition ( es, Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by the Catholic Monarchs The term Catho ...
of 1492 and came to Istanbul. In 1261, the quarter was retaken by the , but Emperor
Michael VIII Palaiologos Michael VIII Palaiologos or Palaeologus ( el, Μιχαὴλ Δούκας Ἄγγελος Κομνηνὸς Παλαιολόγος, Mikhaēl Doukas Angelos Komnēnos Palaiologos; 1223 – 11 December 1282) reigned as the co-emperor of the Empire ...

Michael VIII Palaiologos
(r. 1259–1282) granted it to the
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
in 1267 in accordance with the Treaty of Nymphaeum. The precise limits of the Genoese colony were stipulated in 1303, and they were prohibited from fortifying it. The Genoese however disregarded this, and through subsequent expansions of the walls, enlarged the area of their settlement. These walls, including the mid-14th-century
Galata Tower The Galata Tower ( tr, Galata Kulesi) or with the current official name Galata Kulesi Museum ( tr, Galata Kulesi Müzesi) is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a m ...

Galata Tower
(originally ''Christea Turris'', "Tower of Christ", and completed in 1348) survived largely intact until the 19th century, when most were dismantled in order to allow further urban expansion towards the northern neighbourhoods of
Beyoğlu Beyoğlu () is a district on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. It was known as the region of Pera (Πέρα, meaning "Beyond" in Greek language, Greek, ...
,
Beşiktaş Beşiktaş () is a district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by the local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or County, counties, ...

Beşiktaş
, and beyond. At present, only a small portion of the Genoese walls are still standing, in the vicinity of the
Galata Tower The Galata Tower ( tr, Galata Kulesi) or with the current official name Galata Kulesi Museum ( tr, Galata Kulesi Müzesi) is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a m ...

Galata Tower
. When Constantinople fell to
Mehmed the Conqueror Mehmed II ( ota, محمد ثانى, translit=Meḥmed-i s̱ānī; tr, II. Mehmed, ; 30 March 14323 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror ( ota, ابو الفتح, Ebū'l-Fetḥ, lit=the Father of Conquest, links=no; tr, Fatih Su ...

Mehmed the Conqueror
in 1453, the neighborhood was mostly inhabited by
Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also

* Genovese, a surname * Genovesi, a surname * * * * * Genova (disambiguati ...
and Venetian Catholics, though there were also some Greek, Armenian and Jewish residents. The Christian residents of Galata maintained a formal neutrality during the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
siege, neither siding with the Sultan, nor openly against him. One modern historian,
Halil İnalcık Halil İnalcık (7 September 1916 – 25 July 2016) was a Turkish historian. His highly influential research centered on social and economic approaches to the empire. His academic career started at Ankara University Ankara University ( tr, Ankar ...
, has estimated (based on the a census from 1455) that around 8% of Galata's population fled after the city fell. In the 1455 census it is recorded that Jews primarily resided in the Fabya quarter and Samona (which is in the vicinity of present-day
Karaköy Karaköy, the modern name for ancient Galata Galata is the former name of the Karaköy neighbourhood in Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34000 to 34990 , area_code ...

Karaköy
). Though the Greek-speaking
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...
of Galata appear to have retained their homes after the conquest, there are no Jewish households recorded in Galata by 1472, a situation that remained unchanged until the mid-16th century. Contemporary accounts differ about the course of events that took place in Galata during the Ottoman conquest in 1453. By some accounts, those who remained in Galata surrendered to the Ottoman fleet, prostrating themselves before the Sultan and presenting to him the keys of the citadel. This account is fairly consistent in records from Michael Ducas and Giovanni Lomellino; but according to
Laonikos Chalkokondyles Laonikos Chalkokondyles, Latinized as Laonicus Chalcocondyles ( el, Λαόνικος Χαλκοκονδύλης, from λαός "people", νικᾶν "to be victorious", an anagram An anagram is a word or phrase formed by rearranging the lette ...
, the Genoese mayor made the decision to surrender before the fleet arrived in Galata and relinquished the keys to the Ottoman commander Zagan Pasha, not the Sultan. One eyewitness, Leonard of Chios, describes the flight of Christians from the city:
"Those of them who did not manage to board their ships before the Turkish vessels reached their side of the harbor were captured; mothers were taken and their children left, or the reverse, as the case might be; and many were overcome by the sea and drowned in it. Jewels were scattered about, and they preyed on one another without pity."
According to Ducas and Michael Critobulus, the population was not harmed by Zaganos Pasha's forces, but Chalkokondyles does not mention this good conduct, and Leonard of Chios says the population acted against orders from
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
when they agreed to accept servitude for their lives and property to be spared. Those who fled had their property confiscated; however, according to Ducas and Lomellino, their property was restored if they returned within three months. Designed as an identical copy of the 13th century
Palazzo San Giorgio The Palazzo San Giorgio or Palace of St. George (also known as the Palazzo delle Compere di San Giorgio) is a palace , the official residence of Emperor of Japan The Emperor of Japan is the head of state A head of state (or chief ...

Palazzo San Giorgio
in
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
, the palace of the Genoese
podestà Podestà (, English: Potestate, Podesta) was the name given to the holder of the highest civil office in the government of the cities of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some pl ...
of Galata, Montano de Marinis (which was known as the ''Palazzo del Comune'' (Palace of the Municipality) in the Genoese period and was built in 1316),National inventory of historic buildings: Palace of the Podestà (1316) in Galata
partially stands in ruins on ''Kart Çınar Sokak''; a narrow side street that's parallel to the neighbouring
Bankalar Caddesi Bankalar Caddesi (English language, English: ''Banks Street''), alternatively known as Voyvoda Caddesi (English language, English: ''Voivode Street''), located in the historic Galata quarter (present-day Karaköy) within the district of Beyoğlu (P ...

Bankalar Caddesi
(Banks Street) which was the financial center of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
. The front façade of the palace on Bankalar Caddesi (together with circa 2/3 of the building) was demolished in 1880 for constructing the street's
tram A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

tram
way line (later replaced by a 5-floor building named Bereket Han), while its rear façade on Kart Çınar Sokak (and the remaining 1/3 of the palace building) is in ruins and currently undergoing restoration.Tarihi Bereket Han otel oluyor (NTV-MSNBC)
/ref> Bankalar Caddesi has rows of Ottoman-era bank buildings, including the headquarters of the Ottoman Central Bank, which is today the Ottoman Bank Museum. Several ornaments that were originally on the façade of the Genoese Palace were used to embellish these 19th-century bank buildings in the late Ottoman period. Galata and Pera in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were a part of the ''Municipality of the Sixth Circle'' (french: Municipalité du VIme Cercle), established under the laws of 11
Jumada al-Thani Jumada al-Thani ( ar, جُمَادَىٰ ٱلثَّانِي, Jumādā ath-Thānī, lit=The second Jumada) also known as Jumada al-Akhirah ( ar, جُمَادَىٰ ٱلْآخِرَة, link=no, Jumādā al-ʾĀkhirah, lit=The final Jumada), Jumada ...
(Djem. II) and 24
Shawwal Shawwal ( ar, شَوَّال, ') is the tenth month of the lunar based Islamic calendar The Hijri calendar ( ar, ٱلتَّقْوِيم ٱلْهِجْرِيّ '), also known as the Lunar Hijri calendar and (in English) as the Islamic, Musl ...
(Chev.) 1274, in 1858; the organisation of the central city in the city walls, "Stamboul" ( tr, İstanbul), was not affected by these laws. All of Constantinople was in the ''Prefecture of the City of Constantinople'' (french: Préfecture de la Ville de Constantinople). The Camondo Steps, a famous pedestrian stairway designed with a unique mix of the
Neo-Baroque #Redirect Neo-Baroque The Baroque Revival, also known as Neo-Baroque (or Second Empire architecture in France and Wilhelminism in Germany), was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture and a ...
and early
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
styles, and built in circa 1870–1880 by the renowned Ottoman-Venetian Jewish banker , is also located on
Bankalar Caddesi Bankalar Caddesi (English language, English: ''Banks Street''), alternatively known as Voyvoda Caddesi (English language, English: ''Voivode Street''), located in the historic Galata quarter (present-day Karaköy) within the district of Beyoğlu (P ...

Bankalar Caddesi
. The seaside mansion of the Camondo family, popularly known as the Camondo Palace (''Kamondo Sarayı''), was built between 1865 and 1869 and designed by architect
Sarkis Balyan The Balyan family ( hy, Պալեաններ; tr, Balyan ailesi or ''Palyan ailesi'') was a prominent Ottoman Armenian family of court architects in the service of List of Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman sultans and other members of the Ot ...

Sarkis Balyan
.Bahriye Nezareti (Ministry of the Navy) building
/ref>Bahriye Nezareti (Ministry of the Navy) building
/ref> It is located on the northern shore of the
Golden Horn 300px, The Golden Horn as seen from Galata Bridge The Golden Horn ( tr, Altın Boynuz or ''Haliç''; grc, Χρυσόκερας, ''Chrysókeras''; la, Sinus Ceratinus) is a major urban waterway and the primary inlet of the Bosphorus F ...

Golden Horn
, within the nearby Kasımpaşa quarter to the west of Galata. It later became the headquarters of the Ministry of the
Navy A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
(''Bahriye Nezareti'') during the late
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
period, and is currently used by the
Turkish Navy The Turkish Naval Forces ( tr, ), or Turkish Navy ( tr, ) is the naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat (French language, French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violence, violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the op ...
as the headquarters of the Northern Sea Area Command (''Kuzey Deniz Saha Komutanlığı''). The Camondo family also built two historic apartment buildings in Galata, both of which are named ''Kamondo Apartmanı'': the older one is located at Serdar-ı Ekrem Street near
Galata Tower The Galata Tower ( tr, Galata Kulesi) or with the current official name Galata Kulesi Museum ( tr, Galata Kulesi Müzesi) is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a m ...

Galata Tower
and was built between 1861 and 1868;Kamondo Apartmanı (1868) at Serdar-ı Ekrem Street
while the newer one is located at the corner between Felek Street and Hacı Ali Street and was built in 1881.
Galatasaray S.K. Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (, ''Galatasaray Sports Club'') is a Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western A ...
, one of the most famous football clubs of Turkey, gets its name from this quarter and was established in 1905 in the nearby Galatasaray Square in Pera (now
Beyoğlu Beyoğlu () is a district on the European side of İstanbul, Turkey, separated from the old city (historic peninsula of Constantinople) by the Golden Horn. It was known as the region of Pera (Πέρα, meaning "Beyond" in Greek language, Greek, ...
), where
Galatasaray High School Galatasaray High School ( tr, Galatasaray Lisesi, french: Lycée de Galatasaray) is a high school in Turkey. Established in 1481, it is the oldest high school in Turkey and the second-oldest Turkish educational institution after Istanbul Univers ...
, formerly known as the ''Mekteb-i Sultani'', also stands. ''Galatasaray'' literally means ''Galata Palace''. In the early 20th century, Galata housed embassies of European countries and sizeable Christian minority groups. At the time, signage in businesses was multilingual. Matthew Ghazarian described Galata in the early 20th century as "a bastion of diversity" which was "the
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
to the
Old CityOld City often refers to old town, the historic or original core of a city or town. Old City may refer to several places: Historical cities or regions of cities ''(by country)'' *Old City (Baku), Azerbaijan *Old Quebec, Canada, also called ''Old C ...

Old City
’s
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as ''The City'', is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs 5 is a number, numeral, and glyph. 5, five or number 5 may also refer to: * AD 5, the fifth year of the AD era ...

Manhattan
."


Media

In the Ottoman era many newspapers in non-Muslim minority and foreign languages were produced in Galata, with production in daylight hours and distribution at nighttime; Ottoman authorities did not allow production of the Galata-based newspapers at night. - Volume 12 of Bamberger Orientstudien // Cited: p
40
/ref>


Gallery


Notable buildings in Galata

* Arap Mosque (Church of San Domenico) (1325) *
Galata Tower The Galata Tower ( tr, Galata Kulesi) or with the current official name Galata Kulesi Museum ( tr, Galata Kulesi Müzesi) is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a m ...

Galata Tower
(1348) * Church of Saint Benoit (1427) * Zülfaris Synagogue (1823) *
Church of Saints Peter and Paul The Church of Saints Peter and Paul (Simplified Chinese characters, Chinese: 圣伯多禄圣保禄堂) is a Roman Catholic church in Singapore. It is located at Queen Street, Singapore, Queen Street within the Central Area, Singapore, Central ...
(1843) * Camondo Steps (1880) * St. George's Austrian High School (1882) * Ashkenazi Synagogue (1900) * (1931) * Neve Shalom Synagogue (1951)


Notable natives and residents of Galata

* *
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz (October 22, 1783September 18, 1840) was a French 19th-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France. He traveled as a young man in the United States, ultimately ...

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
*
Seydi Ali Reis Seydi Ali Reis (1498–1563), formerly also written Sidi Ali Reis and Sidi Ali Ben Hossein, was an Ottoman admiral and navigator. Known also as Katib-i Rumi, Galatalı or Sidi Ali Çelebi,Danışan, Gaye. 2019. “A Sixteenth-Century Ottom ...


See also

*
Genoese colonies The colonies of the Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marina ...


References and notes


Sources

* * * {{Coord, 41, 01, 22, N, 28, 58, 25, E, region:TR_type:city, display=title Beyoğlu Quarters and suburbs of Constantinople Territories of the Republic of Genoa Jewish communities in Turkey Golden Horn