Bosporus (/ˈbɒspərəs/) or Bosphorus (/ˈbɒspərəs/ or
/ˈbɒsfərəs/); Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos
[ˈvos.po.ros], Ancient Greek: Βόσπορος, Bósporos
[bós.po.ros]; Turkish: İstanbul Boğazı, [isˈtanbuɫ bo‿aˈzɯ])
is a narrow, natural strait and an internationally significant
waterway located in northwestern Turkey. It forms part of the
continental boundary between
Europe and Asia, and separates Asian
Turkey from European Turkey. The world's narrowest strait used for
international navigation, the
Bosporus connects the
Black Sea with the
Sea of Marmara, and, by extension via the Dardanelles, the Aegean and
Most of the shores of the strait are heavily settled, straddled by the
city of Istanbul's metropolitan population of 17 million inhabitants
extending inland from both coasts.
Together with the Dardanelles, the
Bosporus forms the Turkish Straits.
2.2 Present morphology
2.3 Newer explorations
3.1 Ancient Greek, Persian, Roman and Byzantine eras (pre-1453)
3.2 Ottoman era (1453–1922)
3.3 Turkish republican era (1923–present)
6 Image gallery
7 See also
9 External links
The name of the channel comes from the
Ancient Greek Βόσπορος
(Bosporos), which was folk-etymologised as βοὸς πόρος, i.e.
"cattle strait" (or "Ox-ford"), from the genitive of bous βοῦς
"ox, cattle" + poros πόρος "passage", thus meaning
"cattle-passage", or "cow passage". This is in reference to the
mythological story of Io, who was transformed into a cow, and was
subsequently condemned to wander the Earth until she crossed the
Bosporus, where she met the Titan Prometheus, who comforted her with
the information that she would be restored to human form by
become the ancestress of the greatest of all heroes, Heracles
This folk etymology was canonized by
Prometheus Bound (v.
Prometheus prophesies to Io that the strait would be
named after her. The site where Io supposedly went ashore was near
Chrysopolis (present-day Üsküdar), and was named Bous "the Cow". The
same site was also known as Damalis, as it was where the Athenian
general Chares had erected a monument to his wife Damalis, which
included a colossal statue of a cow (the name Damalis translating to
The English spelling with -ph-, Bosphorus has no justification in the
ancient Greek name, and dictionaries prefer the spelling with -p-
but -ph- occurs as a variant in medieval Latin (as Bosphorus, and
occasionally Bosforus, Bosferus), and in medieval Greek sometimes as
Βόσφορος, giving rise to the French form Bosphore, Spanish
Bósforo and Russian Босфор. The 12th century Greek scholar John
Tzetzes calls it Damaliten Bosporon (after Damalis), but he also
reports that in popular usage the strait was known as Prosphorion
during his day, the name of the most ancient northern harbour of
Bosporus was also known as the "
Constantinople", or the Thracian Bosporus, in order to distinguish it
Cimmerian Bosporus in Crimea. These are expressed in
Herodotus' Histories, 4.83; as
Bosporus Thraciae ,
and Βόσπορος Θρᾴκιος, respectively. Other names by
which the strait is referenced by
Herodotus include Chalcedonian
Bosporus Chalcedoniae, Bosporos tes Khalkedonies, Herodotus
4.87), or Mysian
The term eventually came to be used as common noun βόσπορος,
meaning "a strait", and was also formerly applied to the
Classical Greek by
Aeschylus and Sophocles.
As a maritime waterway, the
Bosporus connects various seas along the
Eastern Mediterranean, the Balkans, the Near East, and Western
Eurasia, and specifically connects the
Black Sea to the Sea of
Marmara. The Marmara further connects to the Aegean and Mediterranean
Seas via the Dardanelles. Thus, the
Bosporus allows maritime
connections from the
Black Sea all the way to the Mediterranean Sea
and the Atlantic Ocean via Gibraltar, and the Indian Ocean through the
Suez Canal, making it a crucial international waterway, in particular
for the passage of goods coming in from Russia.
A common mistake made by those who are unfamiliar with the locale is
to assume the
Bosporus is a river, when it is, in fact, a narrow sea
Black Sea deluge hypothesis
The exact cause and date of the formation of the
Bosporus remain the
subject of debate among geologists. One recent theory, dubbed The
Black Sea deluge theory, which was launched by a study of the same
name in 1997 by two scientists from Columbia University, postulates
Bosporus was formed around 5600 BC when the rising waters of
Mediterranean Sea and the
Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara breached through to the
Black Sea, which at the time, according to the theory, was a low-lying
body of fresh water.
Many geologists, however, claim that the strait is much older, even if
relatively young on a geologic timescale.
From the perspective of ancient Greek mythology, it was said that
colossal floating rocks known as the Symplegades, or Clashing Rocks,
once occupied the hilltops on both sides of the Bosporus, and
destroyed any ship that attempted passage of the channel by rolling
down the strait's hills and violently crushing all vessels between
Symplegades were defeated when the lyrical hero Jason
obtained successful passage, whereupon the rocks became fixed, and
Greek access to the
Black Sea was opened.
The limits of the
Bosporus are defined as the connecting line between
the lighthouses of
Rumeli Feneri and
Anadolu Feneri in the north, and
Ahırkapı Feneri and the
Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri
Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri in
the south. Between these limits, the strait is 31 km
(17 nmi) long, with a width of 3,329 m (1.798 nmi) at
the northern entrance and 2,826 m (1.526 nmi) at the
southern entrance. Its maximum width is 3,420 m (1.85 nmi)
between Umuryeri and Büyükdere Limanı, and minimum width 700 m
(0.38 nmi) between Kandilli Point and Aşiyan.
The depth of the
Bosporus varies from 13 to 110 m (43 to
361 ft) in midstream with an average of 65 m (213 ft).
The deepest location is between Kandilli and Bebek with 110 m
(360 ft). The most shallow locations are off Kadıköy İnciburnu
on the northward route with 18 m (59 ft) and off Aşiyan
Point on the southward route with 13 m (43 ft).
Golden Horn is an estuary off the main strait that historically
acted as a moat to protect Old
Istanbul from attack, as well as
providing a sheltered anchorage for the imperial navies of various
empires until the 19th century, after which it became a historic
neighborhood at the heart of the city, popular with tourists and
It had been known since before the 20th century that the
Black Sea and
Sea of Marmara
Sea of Marmara flow into each other in a geographic example of
"density flow", and in August 2010, a continuous 'underwater channel'
of suspension composition was discovered to flow along the floor of
the Bosporus, which would be the sixth largest river on Earth if it
were to be on land. The study of the water and wind erosion of the
straits relates to that of its formation. Sections of the shore have
been reinforced with concrete or rubble and sections of the strait
prone to deposition are periodically dredged.
The 2010 team of scientists, led by the University of Leeds, used a
robotic "yellow submarine" to observe detailed flows within an
"undersea river", scientifically referred to as a submarine channel,
for the first time. Submarine channels are similar to land rivers, but
they are formed by density currents—underwater flow mixtures of
sand, mud and water that are denser than sea water and so sink and
flow along the bottom. These channels are the main transport pathway
for sediments to the deep sea where they form sedimentary deposits.
These deposits ultimately hold not only untapped reserves of gas and
oil, they also house important secrets—from clues on past climate
change to the ways in which mountains were formed.
The team studied the detailed flow within these channels and findings
The channel complex and the density flow provide the ideal natural
laboratory for investigating and detailing the structure of the flow
field through the channel. Our initial findings show that the flow in
these channels is quite different to the flow in river channels on
land. Specifically, as flow moves around a bend it spirals in the
opposite direction in the deep sea compared to the spiral found in
river channels on land. This is important in understanding the
sedimentology and layers of sediment deposited by these systems.
The central tenet of the
Black Sea deluge hypothesis is that as the
ocean rose 72.5 metres (238 ft) at the end of the last Ice Age
when the massive ice sheets melted, the sealed
Bosporus was overtopped
in a spectacular flood that increased the then fresh water Black Sea
Lake 50%, and drove people from the shores for many months. This was
supported by findings of undersea explorer Robert Ballard, who
discovered settlements along the old shoreline; scientists dated the
flood to 7500 BP or 5500 BC from fresh-salt water microflora. The
peoples driven out by the constantly rising water, which must have
been terrifying and inexplicable, spread to all corners of the Western
world carrying the story of the Great Flood, which is how it probably
entered most religions. As the waters surged, they scoured a network
of sea-floor channels less resistant to denser suspended solids in
liquid, which remains a very active layer today.
The first images of these submarine channels were obtained in 1999,
showing them to be of great size during a
NATO SACLANT Undersea
Research project using jointly the
NATO RV Alliance, and the Turkish
Navy survey ship Çubuklu. In 2002, a survey was carried out on board
the Ifremer RV Le Suroit for BlaSON project (Lericolais, et al.,
2003) completed the multibeam mapping of this underwater channel
fan-delta. A complete map was published in 2009 using these
previous results with high quality mapping obtained in 2006 (by
researchers at Memorial University, Newfoundland, Canada who are
project partners in this study.)
The team will use the data obtained to create innovative computer
simulations that can be used to model how sediment flows through these
channels. The models the team will produce will have broad
applications, including inputting into the design of seafloor
engineering by oil and gas companies.
The project was led by Dr. Jeff Peakall and Dr. Daniel Parsons at the
University of Leeds, in collaboration with the University of
Memorial University (Newfoundland, Canada), and the
Institute of Marine Sciences (Izmir, Turkey). The survey was run and
coordinated from the Institute of Marine Sciences research ship, the
R/V Koca Piri Reis.
The researchers estimate that the river, known as a submarine channel,
would be the sixth largest river in the world if it were on land based
on the amount of water flowing through it.
As part of the only passage between the
Black Sea and the
Bosporus has always been of great importance from a
commercial and military point of view, and remains strategically
important today. It is a major sea access route for numerous
Russia and Ukraine. Control over it has been an
objective of a number of conflicts in modern history, notably the
Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), as well as of the attack of the Allied
Powers on the
Dardanelles during the 1915
Battle of Gallipoli
Battle of Gallipoli in the
course of World War I.
Ancient Greek, Persian, Roman and Byzantine eras (pre-1453)
Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), designed in 1422 by
Florentine cartographer Cristoforo Buondelmonti. This is the oldest
surviving map of the city, and the only surviving map which predates
the Turkish conquest of 1453. The
Bosporus is visible along the right
hand side of the map, wrapping vertically around the historic city.
The strategic importance of the
Bosporus dates back millennia. The
Greek city-state of
Athens in the 5th century BC, which was dependent
on grain imports from Scythia, maintained critical alliances with
cities which controlled the straits, such as the Megarian colony
Darius I the Great, in an attempt to subdue the Scythian
horsemen who roamed across the north of the Black Sea, crossed through
the Bosporus, then marched towards the
River Danube. His army crossed
Bosporus over an enormous bridge made by connecting Achaemenid
boats. This bridge essentially connected the farthest
geographic tip of
Asia to Europe, encompassing at least some 1,000
metres of open water if not more. Years later, a similar boat
bridge would be constructed by
Xerxes I on the Dardanelles
(Hellespont) strait, during his invasion of Greece.
The Byzantines called the
Bosporus "Stenon" and most important
toponyms of it Bosporios Akra, Argyropolis, St. Mamas, St. Phokas,
Hestiai or Michaelion, Phoneus, Anaplous or Sosthenion in European
side and Hieron tower, Eirenaion, Anthemiou, Sophianai, Bithynian
Chryspolis in Asian side in this era
The strategic significance of the strait was one of the factors in the
decision of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great to found there in
AD 330 his new capital, Constantinople, which came to be known as the
capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. The expressions "swim the
Bosporus" and "cross the Bosporus" were and are still used to indicate
religious conversion to the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Ottoman era (1453–1922)
The Bosphorus, with the Castles of
Europe & Asia. 19th-century
engraving by Thomas Allom. The castles are
Anadoluhisarı, respectively. The original is a watercolor available
in the online collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum.
On 29 May 1453, the then-emergent
Ottoman Empire conquered the city of
Constantinople following a lengthy campaign wherein the Ottomans
constructed fortifications on each side of the strait, the
Anadoluhisarı (1393) and the
Rumelihisarı (1451), in preparation for
not only the primary battle but to assert long-term control over the
Bosporus and surrounding waterways. The final 53-day campaign, which
resulted in Ottoman victory, constituted an important turn in world
history. Together with Christopher Columbus's first voyage to the
Americas in 1492, the 1453 conquest of
Constantinople is commonly
noted as among the events that brought an end to the Middle Ages and
marked the transition to the
Renaissance and the Age of Discovery.
The event also marked the end of the Byzantines —the final remnants
of the Roman Empire— and the transfer of the control of the Bosporus
into Ottoman hands, who made
Constantinople their new capital, and
from where they expanded their empire in the centuries that followed.
At its peak between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Ottoman Empire
had used the strategic importance of the
Bosporus to expand their
regional ambitions and to wrest control of the entire
Black Sea area,
which they regarded as an "Ottoman lake", on which Russian warships
Subsequently, several international treaties have governed vessels
using the waters. Under the
Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi
Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi of 8 July
Dardanelles straits were to be closed on
Russian demand to naval vessels of other powers. By the terms of
London Straits Convention
London Straits Convention concluded on 13 July 1841, between the
Great Powers of
Europe — Russia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria
and Prussia — the "ancient rule" of the
Ottoman Empire was
re-established by closing the
Turkish Straits to any and all warships,
barring those of the Sultan's allies during wartime. It thus benefited
British naval power at the expense of Russian, as the latter lacked
direct access for its navy to the Mediterranean.
Following the First World War, the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres
demilitarized the strait and made it an international territory under
the control of the League of Nations.
Turkish republican era (1923–present)
This was amended under the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne, which restored the
straits to Turkish territory—but allowed all foreign warships and
commercial shipping to traverse the straits freely.
rejected the terms of that treaty, and subsequently Turkey
remilitarised the straits area. The reversion was formalised under the
Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the
Turkish Straits of 20
July 1936. That convention, which is still in force, treats the
straits as an international shipping lane save that
Turkey retains the
right to restrict the naval traffic of non-
Black Sea states.
Turkey was neutral in the
Second World War
Second World War until February 1945, and
the straits were closed to the warships of belligerent nations during
this time, although some German auxiliary vessels were permitted to
transit. In diplomatic conferences, Soviet representatives had made
known their interest in Turkish concession of Soviet naval bases on
the straits. This, as well as Stalin's demands for the restitution of
the Turkish provinces of Kars,
Ardahan to the Soviet Union
(which were lost by
Turkey in the Russo–Turkish War of 1877–1878,
but were regained with the
Treaty of Kars
Treaty of Kars in 1921), were
considerations in Turkey's decision to abandon neutrality in foreign
Turkey declared war against Germany in February 1945, but did
not engage in offensive actions.
NATO in 1952, thus affording its straits even more
strategic importance as a commercial and military waterway.
During the early 21st century, the
Turkish Straits have become
particularly important for the oil industry. Russian oil, from ports
such as Novorossyisk, is exported by tankers primarily to western
Europe and the U.S. via the
Bosporus and the
Dardanelles straits. In
Turkey planned a 50 km canal through
Silivri as a second
waterway, reducing risk in the Bosporus.
Bosphorus Bridge, the first to be built across the Bosphorus,
completed in 1973
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, the second crossing built in 1988, as seen
from the Rumelian Castle on the Bosphorus
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge, the third and most recent crossing, in
September 2016. The bridge was opened on 26 August 2016.
The waters of the Bosphorus are traversed by numerous passenger and
vehicular ferries daily, as well as recreational and fishing boats
ranging from dinghies to yachts owned by both public and private
The strait also experiences significant amounts of international
commercial shipping traffic by freighters and tankers. Between its
northern limits at
Rumeli Feneri and
Anadolu Feneri and its southern
Ahırkapı Feneri and Kadıköy İnciburnu Feneri, there are
numerous dangerous points for large-scale maritime traffic that
require sharp turns and management of visual obstructions. Famously,
the stretch between Kandilli Point and
Aşiyan requires a 45-degree
course alteration in a location where the currents can reach 7 to 8
knots (3.6 to 4.1 m/s). To the south, at Yeniköy, the necessary
course alteration is 80 degrees. Compounding these difficult changes
in trajectory, the rear and forward sight lines at Kandilli and
Yeniköy are also completely blocked prior to and during the course
alteration, making it impossible for ships approaching from the
opposite direction to see around these bends. The risks posed by
geography are further multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic across the
strait, linking the European and Asian sides of the city. As such, all
the dangers and obstacles characteristic of narrow waterways are
present and acute in this critical sea lane.
In 2011, the Turkish Government discussed creating a large-scale canal
project roughly 80 kilometres (50 mi) long that runs north-south
through the western edges of
Istanbul Province as a second waterway
Black Sea and the Marmara, intended to reduce risk in the
Kanal İstanbul project currently continues to
Two suspension bridges and a cable-stayed bridge cross the Bosphorus.
The first of these, the 15th July Martyrs Bridge, is 1,074 m
(3,524 ft) long and was completed in 1973. The second, named
Fatih Sultan Mehmet (Bosphorus II) Bridge, is 1,090 m
(3,576 ft) long, and was completed in 1988 about 5 km
(3 mi) north of the first bridge. The first Bosphorus Bridge
forms part of the O1 Motorway, while the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge
forms part of the Trans-European Motorway. The third, Yavuz Sultan
Selim Bridge, is 2,164 metres (7,100 ft) long and was completed
in 2016. It is located near the northern end of the Bosphorus,
between the villages of Garipçe on the European side and Poyrazköy
on the Asian side, as part of the "Northern Marmara Motorway",
integrated with the existing
Black Sea Coastal Highway, and allowing
transit traffic to bypass city traffic.
Marmaray project, featuring a 13.7 km (8.5 mi) long
undersea railway tunnel, opened on 29 October 2013. Approximately
1,400 m (4,593 ft) of the tunnel runs under the strait, at a
depth of about 55 m (180 ft).
An undersea water supply tunnel with a length of 5,551 m
(18,212 ft), named the
Bosporus Water Tunnel, was constructed
in 2012 to transfer water from the Melen Creek in
Düzce Province (to
the east of the Bosphorus strait, in northwestern Anatolia) to the
European side of Istanbul, a distance of 185 km
Tunnel is a 5.4 km (3.4 mi) undersea highway
tunnel, crossing the Bosphorus for vehicular traffic, between
Kazlıçeşme and Göztepe. Construction began in February 2011, and
was opened on 20 December 2016.
See also: Yalı, Ferries in Istanbul, and İDO
The Bosphorus has 620 waterfront houses (yalı) built during the
Ottoman period along the strait's European and Asian shorelines.
Ottoman palaces such as the Topkapı Palace, Dolmabahçe Palace,
Yıldız Palace, Çırağan Palace, Feriye Palaces, Beylerbeyi Palace,
Küçüksu Palace, Ihlamur Palace, Hatice Sultan Palace, Adile Sultan
Khedive Palace are within its view. Buildings and landmarks
within view include the Hagia Sophia, Hagia Irene, Sultan Ahmed
Mosque, Yeni Mosque, Kılıç Ali Pasha Mosque, Nusretiye Mosque,
Dolmabahçe Mosque, Ortaköy Mosque,
Üsküdar Mihrimah Sultan Mosque,
Yeni Valide Mosque, Maiden's Tower, Galata Tower, Rumelian Castle,
Anatolian Castle, Yoros Castle, Selimiye Barracks, Sakıp Sabancı
Museum, Sadberk Hanım Museum,
Istanbul Museum of Modern Art, Borusan
Museum of Contemporary Art, Tophane-i Amire Museum, Mimar Sinan Fine
Arts University, Galatasaray University, Boğaziçi University, Robert
College, Kabataş High School, Kuleli Military High School.
Two points in
Istanbul have most of the public ferries that traverse
the strait: from
Eminönü (ferries dock at the Boğaz İskelesi pier)
on the historic peninsula of
Istanbul to Anadolu Kavağı near the
Black Sea, zigzagging and calling briefly multiple times at the
Rumelian and Anatolian sides of the city. At central piers shorter,
regular ride in one of the public ferries cross.
Private ferries operate between
Beşiktaş or Kabataş
in the city. The few well-known geographic hazards are multiplied by
ferry traffic across the strait, linking the European and Asian sides
of the city, particularly for the largest ships.
The catamaran seabuses offer high-speed commuter services between the
European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus, but they stop at fewer
ports and piers in comparison to the public ferries. Both the public
ferries and the seabuses also provide commuter services between the
Bosphorus and the
Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara.
There are also tourist rides available in various places along the
coasts of the Bosphorus. The prices vary according to the type of the
ride, and some feature loud popular music for the duration of the
View of the European side of
Istanbul from the southern entrance to
View of the European side of
Istanbul from the Bosphorus.
View of the entrance to the Bosphorus from the Sea of Marmara, as seen
from the Topkapı Palace.
Panoramic view of the Bosphorus as seen from Ulus on the European
side, with the
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) at left and the
Bosphorus Bridge (1973) at right.
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and the Bosphorus strait.
Dolmabahçe Palace on the Bosphorus.
Topkapi Palace on the Bosphorus.
View of the Bosphorus from the Marmara Hotel, Taksim Square.
The Rumelian Castle on the Bosphorus, with both suspension bridges
which span the strait.
620 historic waterfront houses stretch along the coasts of the
Bosphorus, such as the yalı of Ahmet Rasim Pasha.
Yalı of Hacı Şefik Bey on the Bosphorus.
Ottoman era waterfront houses on the Bosphorus.
Afif Pasha Mansion on the Bosphorus was designed by Alexander
The quarters of Bebek,
Arnavutköy and Yeniköy on the Bosphorus are
famous for their fish restaurants.
Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus.
Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus.
Ottoman era waterfront houses (yalı) on the Bosphorus.
Boat on Bosphorus as seen from Sultanahmet street.
Istanbul Tunnel, a proposed three-level road-rail undersea
List of maritime incidents in the Turkish Straits
Public transport in Istanbul
Rail transport in Turkey
^ a b The spelling
Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all
major British and American dictionaries (e.g.
Dictionaries, Collins, Longman, Merriam-Webster, American Heritage,
and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the
Columbia Encyclopedia. The American Heritage Dictionary's online
version has only this spelling and its search function doesn't even
find anything for the spelling Bosphorus. The Columbia Encyclopedia
specifies that the pronunciation of the alternative spelling ph is
also /p/, but dictionaries also list the pronunciation /f/.
^ There is a certain (Oxonian) tradition of equating the name "Oxford"
with "Bosporus", see e.g. Wolstenholme Parr, Memoir on the propriety
of the word Oxford, Oxford,1820, esp. p. 18
^ Entry: Βόσπορος at Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940,
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^ F. Sickler, Handbuch der alten Geographie, 1824, p. 551.
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^ Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Bischoff, Verleichendes wörterbuch der
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Tyrkiet" Ingeniøren, 29 April 2011. Accessed: 2 December 2014.
^ "İstanbul Canal project to open debate on Montreux Convention".
Today's Zaman. 2010-10-08. Archived from the original on
Turkey debates whether international treaty is obstacle to plan to
bypass the Bosporus". The Washington Post. 2011-04-29.
^ "Turkey's Ambitious Canal Proposal". STRATFOR. May 16, 2013.
Retrieved 2013-05-16. Registry required.
^ a b "3rd Bosphorus bridge opening ceremony". TRT World. 25 August
2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016.
^ a b "Istanbul's mega project
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge
Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge to open in
Turkey Unveils Route for Istanbul's Third Bridge". Anatolian
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Bosporus tunnel to open sub-sea
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^ a b "Melen hattı Boğaz'ı geçti".
^ Nayır, Mehmet (2012-05-19). "Melen Boğaz'ı geçiyor". Sabah
Ekonomi (in Turkish). Retrieved 2012-06-11.
Tunnel Project" (PDF). Unicredit - Yapı Merkezi, SK EC
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Istanbul/Bosphorus.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bosporus.
"Bosphorus". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914.
Coordinates: 41°07′10″N 29°04′31″E / 41.11944°N
29.07528°E / 41.11944; 29.07528