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Cisalpine Republic
The Cisalpine Republic
Cisalpine Republic
(Italian: Repubblica Cisalpina) was a sister republic of France in Northern Italy
Northern Italy
that lasted from 1797 to 1802.Contents1 Creation 2 Institutional form2.1 First constitution 2.2 Second constitution3 Directors 4 Treaty of alliance4.1 Relations with Switzerland5 Second republic 6 See also 7 Notes 8 SourcesCreation[edit] After the Battle of Lodi
Battle of Lodi
in May 1796, Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
proceeded to organize two states: one to the south of the Po River, the Cispadane Republic, and one to the north, the Transpadane Republic. On 19 May 1797, Napoleon
Napoleon
transferred the territories of the former Duchy of Modena to Transpadania and, on 12 Messidor (29 June), he decreed the birth of the Cisalpine Republic, creating a Directory for the republic and appointing its ministers
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French Denier
The denier (Latin: denarius; abbr. d.) or penny was a medieval coin which takes its name from the Frankish coin first issued in the late seventh century;[1] in English it is sometimes referred to as a silver penny. Its appearance represents the end of gold coinage, which, at the start of Frankish rule, had either been Byzantine or "pseudo-imperial" (minted by the Franks in imitation of Byzantine coinage)
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Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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French Departments
(including overseas)Departments (including overseas)ArrondissementsCantonsIntercommunality Métropole Communauté urbaine Communauté d'agglomération Communauté de communesCommunes Associated communes Municipal arrondissementsOthers in Overseas France Overseas collectivities Sui generis collectivity Overseas country Overseas territory Clipperton IslandIn the administrative divisions of France, the department (French: département, pronounced [depaʁt(ə)mɑ̃]) is one of the three levels of government below the national level ("territorial collectivities"), between the administrative regions and the commune. There are 96 departments in metropolitan France, and 5 overseas departments, which are also classified as regions
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Po River
The Po (/poʊ/; Latin: Padus and Eridanus; Italian: Po [pɔ]; ancient Ligurian: Bodincus or Bodencus; Ancient Greek: Πάδος, Ancient Greek: Ἠριδανός) is a river that flows eastward across northern Italy. The Po flows either 652 km (405 mi) or 682 km (424 mi) – considering the length of the Maira, a right bank tributary. The headwaters of the Po are a spring seeping from a stony hillside at Pian del Re, a flat place at the head of the Val Po
Val Po
under the northwest face of Monviso
Monviso
(in the Cottian Alps). The Po ends at a delta projecting into the Adriatic Sea
Adriatic Sea
near Venice
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Napoleon I Of France
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide
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Battle Of Lodi
The Battle of Lodi
Battle of Lodi
was fought on 10 May 1796 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte and an Austrian rear guard led by Karl Philipp Sebottendorf at Lodi, Lombardy
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Northern Italy
Northern Italy
Italy
(Italian: Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.[2] Non-administrative, it consists of eight administrative Regions in northern Italy: Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[3] As of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance
Rhaeto-Romance
and Gallo-Italic languages
Gallo-Italic languages
are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy. For statistic purposes, the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
Istituto Nazionale di Statistica
(ISTAT) uses the terms Northwest Italy
Italy
and Northeast Italy
Italy
for two of Italy's five statistical regions in its reporting
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French First Republic
In the history of France, the First Republic
Republic
(French: Première République), officially the French Republic
Republic
(République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. The First Republic
Republic
lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon, although the form of the government changed several times
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Desenzano
Desenzano del Garda
Desenzano del Garda
(Eastern Lombard: Dezensà) is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy, Italy, on the southwestern shore of Lake Garda. It borders the communes of Castiglione delle Stiviere, Lonato, Padenghe sul Garda
Padenghe sul Garda
and Sirmione.Contents1 History 2 Main sights 3 Tourism 4 Transport 5 World heritage site 6 Municipal government 7 Gallery 8 References 9 External linksHistory[edit] Sometime in the first century, the area around lake Garda, including what is now Desenzano del Garda, became a favourite vacation spot for the Veronese élite, Verona
Verona
being one of the largest Roman cities in northeastern Italy
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Austria
Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333 Republic
Republic
of Austria Republik Österreich  (German)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: Land der Berge, Land am Strome  (German) Land of Mountains, Land by the RiverLocation of  Austria  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  –  [Legend]Capital and largest city Vienna 48°12′N 16°21′E / 48.200°N 16.350°E / 48.200; 16.350Off
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Soldo
Soldo
Soldo
was the name of an Italian medieval silver coin, issued for the first time in the late 12th century at Milan
Milan
by Emperor Henry VI. The name derives from the late Roman coin solidus. It quickly became widespread in Italy where it was coined in Genoa, Bologna, and numerous other cities. In Venice, the soldo was minted from the reign of Francesco Dandolo
Francesco Dandolo
onward, remaining in use also after the republic's dissolution in 1797 and during the Austrian occupation, until 1862. In the 14th century Florence, a soldo equaled ​1⁄20 of a lira and 12 denari. As time passed, the soldo started to be coined in billon and, from the 18th century, in copper. During the reign of Leopoldo II of Tuscany (19th century), it was worth 3 quattrini
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Lira
Lira
Lira
(plural lire) is the name of several currency units. It is the current currency of Turkey
Turkey
and also the local name of the currencies of Lebanon
Lebanon
and Syria. It is the former currency of Italy, Malta, San Marino and the Vatican City, all of which were replaced in 2002 with the euro, and of Israel, which replaced it with the old shekel in 1980. The term originates from the value of a Troy pound
Troy pound
(Latin libra) of high purity silver. The libra was the basis of the monetary system of the Roman Empire. When Europe resumed a monetary system, during the Carolingian Empire, the Roman system was adopted, the so-called £sd (librae, solidi, denarii). Particularly this system was kept during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and Modern Age in England, France, and Italy
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Battle Of Cassano (1799)
The Battle of Cassano d'Adda
Cassano d'Adda
was fought on 27 April 1799 near Cassano d'Adda, about 28 km (17 mi) ENE of Milan. It resulted in a victory for the Austrians and Russians under Alexander Suvorov
Alexander Suvorov
over Jean Moreau's French army. The action took place during the War of the Second Coalition
Second Coalition
during the larger conflict known as the French Revolutionary Wars.Contents1 Background 2 Battle 3 Results 4 References4.1 Books 4.2 External links 4.3 FootnotesBackground[edit] While General Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
campaigned in Egypt, the Second Coalition launched an invasion of French-occupied Italy
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Battle Of Marengo
The Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
was fought on 14 June 1800 between French forces under Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
and Austrian forces near the city of Alessandria, in Piedmont, Italy. Near the end of the day, the French overcame Gen. Michael von Melas's surprise attack, driving the Austrians out of Italy
Italy
and enhancing Napoleon's political position in Paris
Paris
as First Consul
First Consul
of France
France
in the wake of his coup d’état the previous November.[7] Surprised by the Austrian advance toward Genoa
Genoa
in mid-April 1800, Bonaparte hastily led his army over the Alps
Alps
in mid-May and reached Milan
Milan
on 2 June
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Decree
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution). It has the force of law. The particular term used for this concept may vary from country to country. The executive orders made by the President
President
of the United States, for example, are decrees (although a decree is not exactly an order)
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