Milan (/mɪˈlæn, -ˈlɑːn/; Italian: Milano
[miˈlaːno] ( listen); Lombard:
Milan [miˈlãː] (Milanese
variant)) is the capital of
Lombardy and the second-most
populous city in
Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a
population of 1,366,037 while its province-level municipality has a
population of 3,235,000. Its continuously built-up urban area (that
stretches beyond the boundaries of the Metropolitan City of Milan) has
a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square
kilometres (730 square miles), ranking 4th in the European Union.
Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a
polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central
Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5
million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in
Milan served as capital of the Western Roman
Empire from 286 to 402 and the
Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan during the middle and
early modern age.
Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in
the arts, commerce, design, education, entertainment, fashion,
finance, healthcare, media, services, research, and tourism. Its
business district hosts Italy's Stock Exchange and the headquarters of
the largest national and international banks and companies. In terms
of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities and the
wealthiest among European non-capital cities.
considered part of the
Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for
The city has long been named fashion capital of the world and the
world's design capital, thanks to several international events and
Fashion Week and the
Milan Furniture Fair,
which are currently among the world's biggest in terms of revenue,
visitors and growth. It hosted the
Universal Exposition in
1906 and 2015. The city hosts numerous cultural institutions,
academies and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled
Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors
every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some
of the most important collections in the world, including major works
by Leonardo da Vinci. The city is served by a large number of luxury
hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin
Guide. The city is home to two of Europe's most successful
A.C. Milan and F.C. Internazionale, and one of Italy's
main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano.
2.1 Prehistory and Roman times
2.2 Middle Ages
2.3 Early modern
2.4 Late modern and contemporary
5.1 Municipal government
5.2 Metropolitan city and regional government
6.3 Parks and gardens
7.1 Ethnic groups
9.1 Museums and art galleries
Fashion and design
9.4 Languages and literature
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns – sister cities
12.2 Other relations
13 See also
15 External links
The etymology of the name
Milan [miˈlã]) remains
uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name
Mediolanum comes from
the Latin words medio (in the middle) and planus (plain). However,
some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan,
meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory (source of the Welsh word
llan, meaning "a sanctuary or church", ultimately cognate to
English/German Land) in which Celtic communities used to build
Mediolanum could signify the central town or
sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in
France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes (Mediolanum
Mediolanum Aulercorum). In addition,
another theory links the name to the boar sow (the Scrofa semilanuta)
an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea
Alciato's Emblemata (1584), beneath a woodcut of the first raising of
the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, and
the etymology of
Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in
Latin and in French.
The foundation of
Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the
Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar;
therefore "The city's symbol is a wool-bearing boar, an animal of
double form, here with sharp bristles, there with sleek wool."
Ambrose for his account.
History of Milan
History of Milan and Timeline of Milan
Prehistory and Roman times
Roman ruins in Milan: the Columns of San Lorenzo.
Milan appears to have been founded around 600 BC by the Celtic
Insubres, after whom this region of northern
Italy was called
Insubria. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king
Ambicatus sent his nephew
Bellovesus into northern
Italy at the head
of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; this
Bellovesus was said
to have founded
Mediolanum (in the time of Tarquinius Priscus,
according to this legend). The Romans, led by consul Gnaeus
Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the
Insubres and captured the city in
222 BC; the chief of the
Insubres submitted to Rome, giving the Romans
control of the city. They eventually conquered the entirety of the
region, calling the new province Cisalpine Gaul—"
Gaul this side of
the Alps"—and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of
Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name
element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus
*Mediolanon (Latinized as Mediolānum) meant "(settlement) in the
midst of the plain".
Diocletian moved the capital of the
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire from
Rome to Mediolanum. He chose to reside at
Nicomedia in the Eastern
Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan. Maximian built
several gigantic monuments, the large circus (470 × 85 metres), the
thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces
and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain.
Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone
wall (about 4.5 km long) encompassing an area of 375 acres with
many 24-sided towers. The monumental area had twin towers; one that
was included in the convent of San Maurizio Maggiore remains 16.6 m
It was from
Milan that the
Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of
Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the
Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant
religion of the Empire. Constantine was in
Milan to celebrate the
wedding of his sister to the Eastern Emperor, Licinius. In 402, the
city was besieged by the
Goths and the Imperial residence was moved to
Ravenna. In 452, it was besieged again by Attila, but the real break
with its Imperial past came in 538, during the Gothic War, when
Mediolanum was laid to waste by Uraia, a nephew of Witiges, King of
the Goths, with great loss of life. The
their capital (renaming it ‘Papia’, hence the modern Pavia), and
Milan was left to be governed by its archbishops.
Milan as it appeared in 1493, woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle.
The beginning of the 5th century was the start of a tortuous period of
barbarian invasions for Milan. After the city was besieged by the
Visigoths in 402, the imperial residence was moved to Ravenna. An age
of decadence began which worsened when Attila, King of the Huns,
sacked and devastated the city in 452 AD. In 539, the Ostrogoths
conquered and destroyed
Milan during the Gothic War against Byzantine
Emperor Justinian I. In the summer of 569, a Teutonic tribe, the
Lombards (from which the name of the Italian region
conquered Milan, overpowering the small
Byzantine army left for its
defence. Some Roman structures remained in use in
Milan under Lombard
Milan surrendered to
Charlemagne and the
Franks in 774.
The biscione eating a child on the Visconti coat of arms.
The 11th century saw a reaction against the control of the German
emperors. The city-state was born, an expression of the new political
power of the city and its will to fight against all feudal powers.
Milan was no exception. It did not take long, however, for the City
States to begin fighting each other to try to limit neighbouring
powers. The Milanese destroyed Lodi and continuously warred with
Pavia, Cremona and Como, who in turn asked the Emperor of Germany,
Frederick I Barbarossa for help. This brought the destruction of much
Milan in 1162. A fire destroyed the storehouses containing the
entire food supply, and within just a few days
Milan was forced to
A period of peace followed and
Milan prospered as a centre of trade
due to its position. As a result of the independence that the Lombard
cities gained in the
Peace of Constance
Peace of Constance in 1183,
Milan became a duchy.
In 1447 Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, died without a male
heir; following the end of the Visconti line, the Ambrosian Republic
was established; it took its name from St. Ambrose, the popular patron
saint of the city. Both the Guelph and the Ghibelline factions
worked together to bring about the Ambrosian Republic in Milan.
Nonetheless, the Republic collapsed when, in 1450,
Milan was conquered
by Francesco I of the House of Sforza, which made
Milan one of the
leading cities of the Italian Renaissance.
The late 16th-century city encircled by the Spanish walls.
Milan's last independent ruler, Lodovico il Moro, called French king
Charles VIII into
Italy in the expectation that
France might be an
ally against other Italian statlets. The future king of France, Louis
of Orléans, took part in the expedition and realised
virtually defenceless. This prompted him to come back a few years
later in 1500, and claim the
Duchy of Milan
Duchy of Milan for himself, his
grandmother having been a member of the ruling Visconti family. At
Milan was also defended by Swiss mercenaries. After the
victory of Louis's successor François I over the Swiss at the Battle
of Marignan, the duchy was promised to the French king François I.
When the Spanish Habsburg Emperor Charles V defeated François I at
the Battle of
Pavia in 1525, northern Italy, including Milan, passed
to Habsburg Spain.
In 1556, Charles V abdicated in favour of his son Philip II and his
brother Ferdinand I. Charles's Italian possessions, including Milan,
passed to Philip II and remained with the Spanish line of Habsburgs,
while Ferdinand's Austrian line of Habsburgs ruled the Holy Roman
The Great Plague of
Milan in 1629–31 killed an estimated 60,000
people out of a population of 130,000. This episode is considered one
of the last outbreaks of the centuries-long pandemic of plague that
began with the Black Death.
In 1700 the Spanish line of Habsburgs was extinguished with the death
of Charles II. After his death, the War of the Spanish Succession
began in 1701 with the occupation of all Spanish possessions by French
troops backing the claim of the French Philippe of Anjou to the
Spanish throne. In 1706, the French were defeated in Ramillies and
Turin and were forced to yield northern
Italy to the Austrian
Habsburgs. In 1713–1714 the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt formally
confirmed Austrian sovereignty over most of Spain's Italian
Lombardy and its capital, Milan.
Late modern and contemporary
Popular print depicting the "Five Days" uprising against Austrian
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II destroyed by Allied bombings, 1943.
CityLife district, part of the city's radical renewal of the early
On 18 March 1848, the Milanese rebelled against Austrian rule, during
the so-called "Five Days" (Italian: Le Cinque Giornate), and Field
Marshal Radetzky was forced to withdraw from the city temporarily. The
Kingdom of Sardinia
Kingdom of Sardinia stepped in to help the insurgents; a plebiscite
Lombardy decided in favour of unification with Sardinia.
However, after defeating the Sardinian forces at Custoza on 24 July,
Radetzky was able to reassert Austrian control over
Milan and northern
Italy. A few years on, however, Italian nationalists again called for
the removal of Austria and Italian unification.
Sardinia and France
formed an alliance and defeated Austria at the
Battle of Solferino
Battle of Solferino in
1859. Following this battle,
Milan and the rest of
incorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia, which soon gained control
of most of
Italy and in 1861 was rechristened as the Kingdom of Italy.
The political unification of
Italy cemented Milan's commercial
dominance over northern Italy. It also led to a flurry of railway
construction that had started under Austrian patronage
(Venice–Milan; Milan–Monza) that made
Milan the rail hub of
northern Italy. Thereafter with the opening of the Gotthard (1881) and
Simplon (1906) railway tunnels,
Milan became the major South European
rail focus for business and passenger movements e.g. the Simplon
Orient Express. Rapid industrialization and market expansion put Milan
at the centre of Italy's leading industrial region, including
extensive stone quarries that have led to much of the air pollution we
see today in the region. In the 1890s
Milan was shaken by the
Bava-Beccaris massacre, a riot related to a high inflation rate.
Meanwhile, as Milanese banks dominated Italy's financial sphere, the
city became the country's leading financial centre.
In 1919, Benito Mussolini's
Blackshirts rallied for the first time in
Piazza San Sepolcro and later began their March on
Rome in Milan.
During the Second World War
Milan suffered extensive damage from
Allied bombings. When
Italy surrendered in 1943, German forces
occupied most of Northern
Italy until 1945. As a result, resistance
groups formed. As the war came to an end, the American 1st Armored
Division advanced on Milan—but before they arrived, the resistance
seized control of the city and executed Mussolini along with several
members of his government. On 29 April 1945, the corpses of Mussolini,
Clara Petacci and other Fascist leaders were hanged in
During the post-war economic boom, a large wave of internal migration
(especially from rural areas of Southern Italy) moved to Milan. The
population grew from 1.3 million in 1951 to 1.7 million in 1967.
During this period,
Milan was largely reconstructed, with the building
of several innovative and modernist skyscrapers, such as the Torre
Velasca and the
Pirelli Tower. The economic prosperity was,
however, overshadowed in the late 1960s and early 1970s during the
so-called Years of Lead, when
Milan witnessed an unprecedented wave of
street violence, labour strikes and political terrorism. The apex of
this period of turmoil occurred on 12 December 1969, when a bomb
exploded at the National Agrarian Bank in Piazza Fontana, killing
seventeen people and injuring eighty-eight.
In the 1980s, with the international success of Milanese houses (like
Versace and Dolce & Gabbana),
Milan became one of the
world's fashion capitals. The city saw also a marked rise in
international tourism, notably from America and Japan, while the stock
exchange increased its market capitalisation more than five-fold.
This period led the mass media to nickname the metropolis "Milano da
bere", literally "
Milan to drink". However, in the 1990s, Milan
was badly affected by Tangentopoli, a political scandal in which many
politicians and businessmen were tried for corruption. The city was
also affected by a severe financial crisis and a steady decline in
textiles, automobile and steel production.
In the early 21st century,
Milan underwent a series of sweeping
redevelopments. Its exhibition centre moved to a much larger site in
Rho. New business districts such as Porta Nuova and CityLife 
were constructed. With the decline in manufacturing, the city has
sought to develop on its other sources of revenue, including
publishing, finance, banking, fashion design, information technology,
logistics, transport and tourism. In addition, the city's
decades-long population decline seems to have come to an end in recent
years, with signs of recovery as it grew by seven percent since the
Aerial view of the city
Milan is located in the north-western section of the Po Valley,
approximately halfway between the river Po to the south and the
foothills of the
Alps with the great lakes (Lake Como, Lake Maggiore,
Lake Lugano) to the north, the
Ticino river to the west and the Adda
to the east. The city's land is flat, the highest point being at
122 m (400.26 ft) above sea level.
The administrative commune covers an area of about 181 square
kilometres (70 sq mi), with a population, in 2013, of
1,324,169 and a population density of 7,315 inhabitants per square
kilometre (18,950/sq mi). The
Metropolitan City of Milan covers
1,575 square kilometres (608 sq mi) and in 2015 had a
population estimated at 3,196,825, with a resulting density of 2,029
inhabitants per square kilometre (5,260/sq mi). A larger
urban area, comprising parts of the provinces of Milan,
Brianza, Como, Lecco and Varese is 1,891 square kilometres
(730 sq mi) wide and has a population of 5,270,000 with a
density of 2,783 inhabitants per square kilometre
The concentric layout of the city centre reflects the Navigli, an
ancient system of navigable and interconnected canals, now mostly
covered. The suburbs of the city have expanded mainly to the
north, swallowing up many communes to reach Varese, Como, Lecco and
A typical foggy day in central Milan.
Milan has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), according to the Köppen
climate classification, or a temperate oceanic climate (Do), according
to the Trewartha climate classification. Milan's climate is similar to
much of Northern Italy's inland plains, with hot, sultry summers and
cold, foggy winters. However, the mean number of days with
precipitation per year is one of the lowest in Europe. The
Apennine Mountains form a natural barrier that protects the city from
the major circulations coming from northern Europe and the sea.
During winter, daily average temperatures can fall below freezing
(0 °C [32 °F]) and accumulations of snow can occur: the
historic average of Milan's area is 25 centimetres (10 in) in the
period between 1961 and 1990, with a record of 90 centimetres
(35 in) in January 1985. In the suburbs the average can reach 36
centimetres (14 in). The city receives on average seven days
of snow per year.
The city is often shrouded in heavy fog, although the removal of rice
paddies from the southern neighbourhoods and the urban heat island
effect have reduced this occurrence in recent decades. Occasionally,
Foehn winds cause the temperatures to rise unexpectedly: on 22
January 2012 the daily high reached 16 °C (61 °F) while on
22 February 2012 it reached 21 °C (70 °F). Air
pollution levels rise significantly in wintertime when cold air clings
to the soil, causing
Milan to be one of Europe’s most polluted
In summer, humidity levels are high and peak temperatures can reach
temperatures above 35 °C (95 °F). Usually this season
enjoys clearer skies with an average of more than 13 hours of
daylight: when precipitations occur though, there is a higher
likelihood of them being thunderstorms and hailstorms. Springs and
autumns are generally pleasant, with temperatures ranging between 10
and 20 °C (50 and 68 °F); these seasons are characterised
by higher rainfall, especially in April and May. Relative humidity
typically ranges between 45% (comfortable) and 95% (very humid)
throughout the year, rarely dropping below 27% (dry) and reaching as
high as 100% Wind is generally absent: over the course of the year
typical wind speeds vary from 0 to 14 km/h (0 to 9 mph)
(calm to gentle breeze), rarely exceeding 29 km/h (18 mph)
(fresh breeze), except during summer thunderstorms when winds can blow
strong. In the spring, gale-force windstorms may happen, generated
Tramontane blowing from the
Alps or by Bora-like winds from
Climate data for
Milan (Linate Airport, 1971–2000, Extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: Servizio Meteorologico
See also: Mayor of Milan, City Council of Milan, and Boroughs of Milan
Milan City Hall
Giuseppe Sala, mayor since 2016
The city's nine boroughs
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council
(Consiglio Comunale), which in cities with more than one million
population is composed by 48 councillors elected every five years with
a proportional system, contextually to the mayoral elections. The
executive body is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale), composed by 12
assessors, that is nominated and presided over by a directly elected
Mayor. The current mayor of
Milan is Giuseppe Sala, a left-wing
independent leading a progressive alliance composed by Democratic
Party and Italian Left.
The municipality of
Milan is subdivided into nine administrative
Borough Councils (Consigli di Municipio), down from the former twenty
districts before the 1999 administrative reform. Each Borough
Council is governed by a Council (Consiglio) and a President, elected
contextually to the city Mayor. The urban organisation is governed by
the Italian Constitution (art. 114), the Municipal Statute and
several laws, notably the Legislative Decree 267/2000 or Unified Text
on Local Administration (Testo Unico degli Enti Locali). After the
2016 administrative reform, the Borough Councils have the power to
advise the Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of
topics and are responsible for running most local services, such as
schools, social services, waste collection, roads, parks, libraries
and local commerce; in addition they are supplied with an autonomous
funding in order to finance local activities.
Metropolitan city and regional government
Palazzo Lombardia, seat of the regional government of Lombardy.
Milan is the capital of the eponymous Metropolitan city and of
Lombardy, one of the twenty regions of Italy. While the Metropolitan
Milan has a population of 3,277,524, making it the second-most
populated metropolitan city of
Italy after Rome,
Lombardy is by far
the most populated region of Italy, with more than ten million
inhabitants, almost one sixth of the national total. The seat of the
regional government is
Palazzo Lombardia that, standing at 161.3
metres (529 feet), is the fifth-tallest building in Milan.
According to the last governmental dispositions concerning
administrative reorganisation, the urban area of
Milan is one of the
15 Metropolitan municipalities (città metropolitane), new
administrative bodies fully operative since 1 January 2015. The
new Metro municipalities, giving large urban areas the administrative
powers of a province, are conceived for improving the performance of
local administrations and to slash local spending by better
co-ordinating the municipalities in providing basic services
(including transport, school and social programs) and environment
protection. In this policy framework, the
Mayor of Milan
Mayor of Milan is
designated to exercise the functions of Metropolitan mayor (Sindaco
metropolitano), presiding over a Metropolitan Council formed by 24
mayors of municipalities within the Metro municipality.
Metropolitan City of Milan is headed by the Metropolitan Mayor
(Sindaco metropolitano) and by the Metropolitan Council (Consiglio
metropolitano). Since 21 June 2016 Giuseppe Sala, as mayor of the
capital city, has been the mayor of the Metropolitan City.
Skyline of Porta Nuova from the roof of the Duomo
There are two main areas which dominate Milan's skyline: the Porta
Nuova area in the north-east (boroughs n° 9 and 2) and the CityLife
area (borough n° 8). The tallest buildings include the Unicredit
Tower at 231 m (though only 162 m without the tower), and the 209 m
Allianz Tower, which has 50 floors.
List of buildings in Milan and Villas and palaces in Milan
Milan Cathedral is the largest Gothic cathedral in the world.
Sforza Castle (Castello Sforzesco), a historic medieval
View of the Navigli.
Villa Belgiojoso Bonaparte, one of the finest examples of Neoclassical
architecture in Lombardy.
There are only few remains of the ancient Roman colony, notably the
well-preserved Colonne di San Lorenzo. During the second half of the
4th century, Saint Ambrose, as bishop of Milan, had a strong influence
on the layout of the city, reshaping the centre (although the
cathedral and baptistery built in Roman times are now lost) and
building the great basilicas at the city gates: Sant'Ambrogio, San
Nazaro in Brolo, San Simpliciano and Sant'Eustorgio, which still
stand, refurbished over the centuries, as some of the finest and most
important churches in Milan. Milan's Cathedral, built between 1386 and
1577, is the fifth-largest cathedral in the world and the most
important example of
Gothic architecture in Italy. The gilt bronze
statue of the Virgin Mary, placed in 1774 on the highest pinnacle of
the Duomo, soon became one of the most enduring symbols of Milan.
In the 15th century, when the Sforza ruled the city, an old Viscontean
fortress was enlarged and embellished to become the Castello
Sforzesco, the seat of an elegant
Renaissance court surrounded by a
walled hunting park. Notable architects involved in the project
included the Florentine Filarete, who was commissioned to build the
high central entrance tower, and the military specialist Bartolomeo
Gadio. The alliance between Francesco Sforza and Florence's Cosimo
de' Medici bore to
Milan Tuscan models of
apparent in the
Ospedale Maggiore and Bramante's work in the city,
Santa Maria presso San Satiro
Santa Maria presso San Satiro (a reconstruction of a
small 9th-century church), the tribune of Santa Maria delle Grazie and
three cloisters for Sant'Ambrogio. The
Counter-Reformation in the
16th to 17th centuries was also the period of Spanish domination and
was marked by two powerful figures: Saint
Charles Borromeo and his
cousin, Cardinal Federico Borromeo. Not only did they impose
themselves as moral guides to the people of Milan, but they also gave
a great impulse to culture, with the creation of the Biblioteca
Ambrosiana, in a building designed by Francesco Maria Ricchino, and
the nearby Pinacoteca Ambrosiana. Many notable churches and Baroque
mansions were built in the city during this period by the architects,
Galeazzo Alessi and Ricchino himself.
Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria was responsible for the significant
renovations carried out in
Milan during the 18th century. This
profound urban and artistic renewal included the establishment of
Teatro alla Scala, inaugurated in 1778 and today one of the world's
most famous opera houses, and the renovation of the Royal Palace. The
Palazzo Belgioioso by
Giuseppe Piermarini and Royal Villa
Milan by Leopoldo Pollack, later the official residence of Austrian
viceroys, are often regarded among the best examples of Neoclassical
architecture in Lombardy. The Napoleonic rule of the city in
1805–1814, having established
Milan as the capital of a satellite
Kingdom of Italy, took steps in order to reshape it accordingly to its
new status, with the construction of large boulevards, new squares
Porta Ticinese by
Luigi Cagnola and Foro Bonaparte by Giovanni
Antonio Antolini) and cultural institutions (Art Gallery and the
Academy of Fine Arts). The massive Arch of Peace, situated at the
bottom of Corso Sempione, is often compared to the
Arc de Triomphe
Arc de Triomphe in
Paris. In the second half of the 19th century,
Milan quickly became
the main industrial centre in of the new Italian nation, drawing
inspiration from the great European capitals that were hubs of the
second industrial revolution. The great Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II,
Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1877 to celebrate
Vittorio Emanuele II, is a covered passage with a glass and cast iron
roof, inspired by the
Burlington Arcade in London. Another late 19th
century eclectic monument in the city is the Cimitero Monumentale
graveyard, built in a Neo-Romanesque style between 1863 and 1866.
The tumultuous period of early 20th century brought several, radical
innovations in Milanese architecture. Art Nouveau, also known as
Liberty in Italy, is recognisable in Palazzo Castiglioni, built by
Giuseppe Sommaruga between 1901 and 1904. Other
remarkable examples include Hotel Corso and Berri-Meregalli house,
the latter built in a traditional Milanese
Art Nouveau style combined
with elements of neo-Romanesque and Gothic revival architecture,
regarded as one of the last such types of architecture in the
city. A new, more eclectic form of architecture can be seen in
buildings such as Castello Cova, built the 1910s in a distinctly
neo-medieval style, evoking the architectural trends of the past.
An important example of Art Deco, which blended such styles with
Fascist architecture, is the huge Central railway station inaugurated
World War II
World War II period saw rapid reconstruction and fast
economic growth, accompanied by a nearly two-fold increase in
population. In the 1950s and 1960s, a strong demand for new
residential and commercial areas drove to extreme urban expansion,
that has produced some of the major milestones in the city's
architectural history, including Gio Ponti's
(1956–60), Velasca Tower (1956–58), and the creation of brand new
residential satellite towns, as well as huge amounts of low quality
public housings. In recent years, de-industrialization, urban decay
and gentrification led to a vast urban renewal of former industrial
areas, that have been transformed into modern residential and
financial districts, notably Porta Nuova in downtown
FieraMilano in the suburb of Rho. In addition, the old exhibition area
is being completely reshaped according to the Citylife regeneration
project, featuring residencial areas, museums, an urban park and three
skyscrapers designed by international architects, and after whom they
are named: the 202-metre (663-foot) Isozaki Arata—when completed,
the tallest building in Italy, the twisted Hadid Tower, and
the curved Libeskind Tower.
Parks and gardens
Arch of Peace
Arch of Peace at the gates of Sempione Park.
The largest parks in the central area of
Milan are Sempione Park, at
the north-western edge, and Montanelli Gardens, situated northeast of
the city. English-style Sempione Park, built in 1890, contains a
Napoleonic Arena, the
Milan City Aquarium, a steel lattice panoramic
tower, an art exhibition centre, a Japanese garden and a public
library. The Montanelli gardens, created in the 18th century,
hosts the Natural History Museum of
Milan and a planetarium.
Slightly away from the city centre, heading east, Forlanini Park is
characterised by a large pond and a few preserved shacks which remind
of the area's agricultural past.
In addition, even though
Milan is located in one of the most urbanised
regions of Italy, it's surrounded by a belt of green areas and
features numerous gardens even in its very centre. Since 1990, the
farmlands and woodlands north (Parco Nord Milano) and south (Parco
Agricolo Sud Milano) of the urban area have been protected as regional
parks. West of the city, the Parco delle Cave (Sand pit park) has been
established on a neglected site where gravel and sand used to be
extracted, featuring artificial lakes and woods.
Istat historical data 1861-2011 2016 Estimates
With rapid industrialisation in post-war years, the population of
Milan peaked at 1,743,427 in 1973. Thereafter, during the
following thirty years, almost one third of the population moved to
the outer belt of new suburbs and satellite settlements that grew
around the city proper. There were an estimated 1,368,590 official
residents in the municipality of
Milan at the end of 2016 and
3,218,201 in its province-level municipality. However, Milan's
urban area extends well beyond the limits of its administrative
commune and was home to 5,270,000 people in 2015, while its wider,
polycentric metropolitan area is estimated to have a population
exceeding 8 million.
Top 10 nationalities of foreign residents (2017)
Country of birth
As of 2016, some 260,421 foreign-born residents lived in the
municipality of Milan, representing almost 20% of the total
resident population. These figures suggest that the immigrant
population has more than doubled in the last 15 years. After
World War II,
Milan experienced two main waves of immigration: the
first, dating from the 1950s to the early 1970s, saw a large influx of
migrants from poorer and rural areas within Italy; the second,
starting from the late 1980s, has been characterised by the
preponderance of foreign-born immigrants. The early period
coincided with the so-called Italian economic miracle of postwar
years, an era of extraordinary growth based on rapid industrial
expansion and great public works, that brought to the city a large
influx of over 400,000 people, mainly from rural and overpopulated
Southern Italy. In the last three decades, the foreign born share
of the population soared. Immigrants came mainly from
particular Eritrean, Egyptian, Moroccans, Senegalese, and Nigerian),
and the former socialist countries of
Eastern Europe (notably Albania,
Romania, Ukraine, Macedonia, Moldova), in addition to a growing number
of Asians (in particular Chinese, Sri Lankans and Filipinos) and Latin
Americans (Mainly South Americans). At the beginning of the 1990s,
Milan already had a population of foreign-born residents of
approximately 58,000 (or 4% of the then population), that rose rapidly
to over 117,000 by the end of the decade (about 9% of the total).
Decades of continuing high immigration have made the city the most
cosmopolitan and multicultural in Italy.
Milan notably hosts the
oldest and largest Chinese community in Italy, with almost 21,000
people in 2011. Situated in the 9th district, and centred on Via
Paolo Sarpi, an important commercial avenue, the Milanese Chinatown
was originally established in the 1920s by immigrants from Wencheng
County, in the
Zhejiang province, and used to operate small textile
and leather workshops.
Milan has also a substantial
English-speaking community (more than 3,000 American, British and
Australian expatriates), and several English schools and language
publications, such as Hello Milano, Where Milano and Easy Milano.
Milan's population, like that of
Italy as a whole, is mostly Catholic.
It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan. The city is
also home to sizeable Orthodox, Buddhist, Jewish,
Muslim, and Protestant communities.[clarification
Milan has its own historic Catholic rite known as the Ambrosian Rite
(Italian: Rito ambrosiano). It varies slightly from the typical
Catholic rite (the Roman, used in all other western regions), with
some differences in the liturgy and mass celebrations, in the Canons
Easter and Lent, in the colour of liturgical vestments, peculiar
use of incense, marriage form, office for the dead, baptism by
immersion, and in the calendar (for example, the date for the
beginning of lent is celebrated some days after the common date, so
the carnival has different date). The season of Advent is of six weeks
duration and starts on the Sunday after the feast of Saint Martin (11
November). The Ambrosian rite is also practised in other surrounding
locations in Lombardy, parts of
Piedmont and in the Swiss canton of
Ticino. The sounding of church bells uses a peculiar technique.
Another important difference concerns the liturgical music. The
Gregorian chant was completely unused in
Milan and surrounding areas,
because the official one was its own Ambrosian chant, definitively
established by the
Council of Trent
Council of Trent (1545–1563) and earlier than the
Gregorian. To preserve this music there has developed the unique
schola cantorum, a college, and an Institute called PIAMS (Pontifical
Ambrosian Institute of Sacred Music), in partnership with the
Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music
Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music (PIMS) in Rome.
Milan Synagogue was designed by
Luca Beltrami in 1892. The
Anglican Episcopal Church of All Saints
Milan was built in 1896. In
2014 the City Council agreed on the construction of a mosque next to
the area of the former sport venue Palatrussardi.
Main article: Economy of Milan
The skyscrapers of Porta Nuova business district.
Milan Stock Exchange, Italy's main.
Rome is Italy's political capital,
Milan is the country's
industrial and financial heart. With a 2014
GDP estimated at €158.9
billion, the province of
Milan generates approximately 10% of the
national GDP; while the economy of the
Lombardy region generates
approximately 22% of Italy's
GDP (or an estimated €357 billion in
2015, roughly the size of Belgium). The province of
Milan is home
to about 45% of businesses in the
Lombardy region and more than 8
percent of all businesses in Italy, including three Fortune 500
Milan also contains
Via Monte Napoleone
Via Monte Napoleone (Monte
Napoleone Street), Europe's most expensive street.
Milan is, since the late 1800s, an important industrial and
manufacturing centre, especially for the automotive industry, with
companies such as Alfa Romeo,
Techint having a significant
presence in the city. Other important products manufactured in Milan
include chemicals, machinery, pharmaceuticals and plastics, health and
biotechnologie and food & beverage.
The city is home to a large number of media and advertising agencies,
national newspapers and telecommunication companies, including both
the public service broadcaster
RAI and private television companies
La7 and Sky Italia. The city hosts the headquarters of
the largest Italian publishing companies, such as Feltrinelli,
Mondadori, RCS Media Group, Messaggerie Italiane, and Giunti Editore.
Milan has also seen a rapid increase in internet companies with both
domestic and international companies such as Altavista, Google, Lycos,
Yahoo! establishing their Italian operations in the city.
As Italy's financial hub numerous headquarters of insurance companies
as (Alleanza Assicurazioni, Vittoria Assicurazioni) as well as many
banking groups (198 companies), including Banca Popolare di Milano,
UniCredit and over forty foreign
banks are located in the city. Also, most asset management
companies are based in Milan, including Anima Holding, Azimut Holding,
ARCA SGR, and Eurizon Capital. The Associazione Bancaria Italiana
representing the Italian banking system and
Milan Stock Exchange
Milan Stock Exchange (225
companies listed on the stock exchange) are both located in the city.
Milan is a major world fashion centre, where the sector can count on
12,000 companies, 800 show rooms, and 6,000 sales outlets (with brands
such as Armani, Prada, Versace, Valentino and Luxottica), while four
weeks a year are dedicated to top shows and other fashion events.
The city is also a global hub for trade and design. The city
successfully hosted Expo 2015. FieraMilano, the historical city trade
fair operator, operates one of the largest expo areas in the world and
the second in Europe (after Hannover) in the northern suburb of Rho,
responsible for fairs such as
Milan Furniture Fair, EICMA, EMO on 0.7
mln m² of exhibition areas with about 4.5 million visitors every
Porta Nuova is the main business district of Milan, and one of the
most important in Italy. Accenture, AXA, Bank of America, BNP Paribas,
China Construction Bank, Finanza & Futuro Banca,
FinecoBank, FM Global, Google, Herbalife, HSBC, KPMG, Maire Tecnimont,
Microsoft, Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, Samsung, Shire, Telecom
UnipolSai and many other companies have their main
Italian headquarters located there.
Tourism is an increasingly important part of the city's economy: with
7.65 million registered international arrivals in 2016 (up 1.8% on the
Milan ranked as the world's 14th-most visited
Main article: Culture of Milan
Museums and art galleries
Milan and List of museums in Milan
Leonardo da Vinci's The Last Supper, together with the church of Santa
Maria delle Grazie, is a
UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Museo del Novecento
Museo del Novecento displays the world's largest collection of
The Pinacoteca di Brera.
Milan is home to many cultural institutions, museums and art
galleries, that account for about a tenth of the national total of
visitors and receipts. The
Pinacoteca di Brera
Pinacoteca di Brera is one of Milan's
most important art galleries. It contains one of the foremost
collections of Italian painting, including masterpieces such as the
Brera Madonna by Piero della Francesca. The Castello Sforzesco hosts
numerous art collections and exhibitions, especially statues, ancient
arms and furnitures, as well as the Pinacoteca del Castello Sforzesco,
with an art collection including Michelangelo's last sculpture, the
Rondanini Pietà, Andrea Mantegna's
Trivulzio Madonna and Leonardo da
Codex Trivulzianus manuscript. The Castello complex also
includes The Museum of Ancient Art, The Furniture Museum, The Museum
of Musical Instruments and the Applied
Arts Collection, The Egyptian
and Prehistoric sections of the Archaeological Museum and the Achille
Bertarelli Print Collection.
Milan's figurative art flourished in the Middle Ages, and with the
Visconti family being major patrons of the arts, the city became an
important centre of
Gothic art and architecture (
Milan Cathedral being
the city's most formidable work of Gothic architecture). Leonardo
Milan from 1482 until 1499. He was commissioned to paint the
Virgin of the Rocks
Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception
The Last Supper
The Last Supper for the monastery of Santa Maria delle
The city was affected by the
Baroque in the 17th and 18th centuries,
and hosted numerous formidable artists, architects and painters of
that period, such as
Caravaggio and Francesco Hayez, which several
important works are hosted in Brera Academy. The Museum of
Risorgimento is specialised on the history of
Italian unification Its
collections include iconic paintings like Baldassare Verazzi's Episode
from the Five Days and Francesco Hayez's 1840 Portrait of Emperor
Ferdinand I of Austria. The
Triennale is a design museum and events
venue located in Palazzo dell'Arte, in Sempione Park. It hosts
exhibitions and events highlighting contemporary Italian design, urban
planning, architecture, music, and media arts, emphasising the
relationship between art and industry.
Milan in the 20th century was the epicentre of the Futurist artistic
movement. Filippo Marinetti, the founder of Italian
Futurism wrote in
his 1909 "Manifesto of Futurism" (in Italian, Manifesto Futuristico),
Milan was "grande...tradizionale e futurista"
("grand...traditional and futuristic", in English). Umberto Boccioni
was also an important
Futurism artist who worked in the city. Today,
Milan remains a major international hub of modern and contemporary
art, with numerous modern art galleries. The Modern Art Gallery,
situated in the Royal Villa, hosts collections of Italian and European
painting from the 18th to the early 20th centuries. The
Museo del Novecento, situated in the Palazzo dell'Arengario, is one of
the most important art galleries in
Italy about 20th-century art; of
particular relevance are the sections dedicated to Futurism,
Spatialism and Arte povera. In the early 1990s architect David
Chipperfield was invited to convert the premises of the former Ansaldo
Factory into a Museum. Museo delle Culture (MUDEC) opened in April
2015. The Gallerie di Piazza Scala, a modern and contemporary
museum located in
Piazza della Scala
Piazza della Scala in the
Palazzo Brentani and the
Palazzo Anguissola, hosts 195 artworks from the collections of
Fondazione Cariplo with a strong representation of nineteenth century
Lombard painters and sculptors, including
Antonio Canova and Umberto
Boccioni. A new section was opened in the Palazzo della Banca
Commerciale Italiana in 2012. Other private ventures dedicated to
contemporary art include the exhibiting spaces of the
and HangarBicocca. The
Nicola Trussardi Foundation is renewed for
organising temporary exhibition in venues around the city.
also home to many public art projects, with a variety of works that
range from sculptures to murals to pieces by internationally renowned
artists, including Arman, Kengiro Azuma, Francesco Barzaghi, Alberto
Burri, Pietro Cascella, Maurizio Cattelan, Leonardo Da Vinci, Giorgio
de Chirico, Kris Ruhs, Emilio Isgrò, Fausto Melotti, Joan Miró,
Carlo Mo, Claes Oldenburg, Igor Mitoraj, Gianfranco Pardi,
Michelangelo Pistoletto, Arnaldo Pomodoro, Carlo Ramous, Aldo Rossi,
Giuseppe Spagnulo and Domenico Trentacoste.
See also: Music of Milan
Founded in 1778,
La Scala is the world's most famous opera house.
Milan is a major national and international centre of the performing
arts, most notably opera. The city hosts
La Scala operahouse,
considered one of the world's most prestigious, having throughout
history witnessed the premieres of numerous operas, such as
Giuseppe Verdi in 1842, La Gioconda by Amilcare Ponchielli, Madama
Giacomo Puccini in 1904,
Turandot by Puccini in 1926, and
more recently Teneke, by
Fabio Vacchi in 2007. Other major theatres in
Milan include the Teatro degli Arcimboldi, Teatro Dal Verme, Teatro
Lirico and formerly the Teatro Regio Ducal. The city is also the seat
of a renowned symphony orchestra and musical conservatory, and has
been, throughout history, a major centre for musical composition:
numerous famous composers and musicians such as Gioseppe Caimo, Simon
Boyleau, Hoste da Reggio, Verdi, Giulio Gatti-Casazza, Paolo Cherici
Alice Edun lived and worked in Milan. The city is also the
birthplace of many modern ensembles and bands, including Camaleonti,
Camerata Mediolanense, Gli Spioni, Dynamis Ensemble, Elio e le Storie
Tese, Krisma, Premiata Forneria Marconi, Quartetto Cetra, Stormy Six
and Le Vibrazioni.
Fashion and design
Fashion in Milan
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II is one of the city's largest shopping
Milan is widely regarded as a global capital in industrial design,
fashion and architecture. In the 1950s and 60s, as the main
industrial centre of
Italy and one of Europe's most dynamic cities,
Milan became a world capital of design and architecture. There was
such a revolutionary change that Milan’s fashion exports accounted
for million (US currency) in 1952, and by 1955 that number grew to
billion. Modern skyscrapers, such as the
Pirelli Tower and the
Torre Velasca were built, and artists such as Bruno Munari, Lucio
Enrico Castellani and
Piero Manzoni gathered in the
Milan is still particularly well known for its
high-quality furniture and interior design industry. The city is home
to FieraMilano, Europe's largest permanent trade exhibition, and
Salone Internazionale del Mobile, one of the most prestigious
international furniture and design fairs.
Milan is also regarded as one of the fashion capitals of the world,
along with New York City, Paris, and London.
Milan is synonymous
with the Italian prêt-à-porter industry, as many of the most
Italian fashion brands, such as Valentino, Gucci, Versace,
Armani and Dolce & Gabbana, are headquartered in the city.
Numerous international fashion labels also operate shops in Milan.
Furthermore, the city hosts the
Fashion Week twice a year, one
of the most important events in the international fashion system.
Milan's main upscale fashion district, quadrilatero della moda, is
home to the city's most prestigious shopping streets (Via Monte
Napoleone, Via della Spiga, Via Sant'Andrea,
Via Manzoni and Corso
Venezia), in addition to Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II, one of the
world's oldest shopping malls.
Languages and literature
Main article: Milanese literature
Monument to Alessandro Manzoni.
In the late 18th century, and throughout the 19th,
Milan was an
important centre for intellectual discussion and literary creativity.
The Enlightenment found here a fertile ground. Cesare, Marquis of
Beccaria, with his famous Dei delitti e delle pene, and Count Pietro
Verri, with the periodical Il Caffè were able to exert a considerable
influence over the new middle-class culture, thanks also to an
open-minded Austrian administration.
In the first years of the 19th century, the ideals of the Romantic
movement made their impact on the cultural life of the city and its
major writers debated the primacy of Classical versus Romantic poetry.
Here, too, Giuseppe Parini, and
Ugo Foscolo published their most
important works, and were admired by younger poets as masters of
ethics, as well as of literary craftsmanship. Foscolo's poem Dei
sepolcri was inspired by a Napoleonic law that—against the will of
many of its inhabitants—was being extended to the city.
In the third decade of the 19th century,
Alessandro Manzoni wrote his
novel I Promessi Sposi, considered the manifesto of Italian
Romanticism, which found in
Milan its centre; in the same period Carlo
Porta, reputed the most renowned local vernacular poet, wrote his
poems in Lombard Language. The periodical
Il Conciliatore published
articles by Silvio Pellico, Giovanni Berchet, Ludovico di Breme, who
were both Romantic in poetry and patriotic in politics.
After the Unification of
Italy in 1861,
Milan lost its political
importance; nevertheless it retained a sort of central position in
cultural debates. New ideas and movements from other countries of
Europe were accepted and discussed: thus Realism and Naturalism gave
birth to an Italian movement, Verismo. The greatest verista novelist,
Giovanni Verga, was born in
Sicily but wrote his most important books
In addition to Italian, approximately 2 million people in the Milan
metropolitan area can speak the
Milanese dialect or one of its Western
Milan from the Branca Radio tower.
Milan is an important national and international media centre.
Corriere della Sera, founded in 1876, is one of the oldest Italian
newspapers, and it is published by Rizzoli, as well as La Gazzetta
dello Sport, a daily dedicated to coverage of various sports and
currently considered the most widely read daily newspaper in Italy.
Other popular local dailies are the general broadsheets Il Giorno, Il
Giornale, the Roman Catholic Church-owned Avvenire, and Il Sole 24
Ore, a daily business newspaper owned by
Confindustria (the Italian
employers' federation). Free daily newspapers include
Leggo and Metro.
Milan is also home to many architecture, art, and fashion periodicals,
including Abitare, Casabella, Domus, Flash Art, Gioia, Grazia, and
Panorama and Oggi, two of Italy’s most important
weekly news magazines, are also published in Milan.
Several commercial broadcast television networks have their national
headquarters in the
Milan conurbation, including
Mediaset Group (owner
of Canale 5, Italia 1, Iris and Rete 4),
Telelombardia and MTV Italy.
National radio stations based in
Milan include Radio Deejay, Radio 105
Network, R101 (Italy), Radio Popolare, RTL 102.5,
Radio Capital and
Virgin Radio Italia.
Main article: Lombard cuisine
Panettone is Milan's traditional Christmas cake.
Like most cities in Italy,
Milan has developed its own local culinary
tradition, which, as it is typical for North Italian cuisines, uses
more frequently rice than pasta, butter than vegetable oil and
features almost no tomato or fish. Milanese traditional dishes
includes cotoletta alla milanese, a breaded veal (pork and turkey can
be used) cutlet pan-fried in butter (similar to Viennese Wiener
Schnitzel). Other typical dishes are cassoeula (stewed pork rib chops
and sausage with Savoy cabbage), ossobuco (braised veal shank served
with a condiment called gremolata), risotto alla milanese (with
saffron and beef marrow), busecca (stewed tripe with beans), and
brasato (stewed beef or pork with wine and potatoes).
Season-related pastries include chiacchiere (flat fritters dusted with
sugar) and tortelli (fried spherical cookies) for Carnival, colomba
(glazed cake shaped as a dove) for Easter, pane dei morti ("bread of
the (Day of the ) Dead", cookies flavoured with cinnamon) for All
Souls' Day and panettone for Christmas. The salame Milano, a salami
with a very fine grain, is widespread throughout Italy. Renowned
Milanese cheeses are gorgonzola (from the namesake village nearby),
mascarpone, used in pastry-making, taleggio and quartirolo.
Milan is well known for its world-class restaurants and cafés,
characterised by innovative cuisine and design. As of
Milan has 157 Michelin-selected places, including three
2-Michelin-starred restaurants; these include Cracco, Sadler and
il Luogo di Aimo e Nadia. Many historical restaurants and bars
are found in the historic centre, the Brera and
Navigli districts. One
of the city's oldest surviving cafés, Caffè Cova, was established in
1817. In total,
Milan has 15 cafés, bars and restaurants
registered among the Historical Places of Italy, continuously
operating for at least 70 years.
San Siro Stadium, home of
A.C. Milan and Inter Milan, has a 80,000
capacity. It is Italy's biggest stadium.
Milan hosted the
FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup in 1934 and 1990, the UEFA European
Football Championship in 1980 and most recently the 2003 World Rowing
Championships, the 2009 World Boxing Championships, and some games of
the Men's Volleyball World Championship in 2010 and the final games of
the Women's Volleyball World Championship in 2014. In 2018, it will
host World Figure Skating Championships.
Milan is the only city in Europe that is home to two European
Cup/Champions League winning teams—
Serie A renewed football clubs
Milan and Inter. Both teams have also won the Intercontinental Cup
(now FIFA Club World Cup). With a combined ten Champions League
Milan is second after
Madrid as city that have won the most
European Cups. They are the most successful clubs in the world of
football in terms of international trophies. Both teams play at the
UEFA 5-star-rated Giuseppe Meazza Stadium, more commonly known as the
San Siro, that is one of the biggest stadiums in Europe, with a
seating capacity of over 80,000. The Meazza Stadium hosted the
UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League Final, in which Real
Atlético Madrid 5–3 in a penalty shoot out. A third team, Brera
Calcio F.C. plays in Promozione. Another team, Bustese Milano
City F.C. (formerly of ASD Bustese) plays in Serie D.
There are currently four professional
Lega Basket clubs in Milan:
Olimpia Milano, Pallacanestro Milano 1958, Società Canottieri Milano
and A.S.S.I. Milano. Olimpia is the most titled basketball club in
Italy, having won 27 Italian League championships, six Italian
National Cups, one Italian Super Cup, three European Champions Cups,
one FIBA Intercontinental Cup, three FIBA Saporta Cups, two FIBA
Korać Cups and many junior titles. The team play at the Mediolanum
Forum, with a capacity of 12,700 where it has been hosted the final of
the 2013–14 Euroleague. In some cases the team play also at the
PalaDesio, with a capacity of 6,700.
Milan is also home to Italy's oldest American football team: Rhinos
Milano, that won 4 Italian Super Bowls. The team play at the Velodromo
Vigorelli, with a capacity of 8,000.
Milan has also two cricket teams,
Milano Fiori (currently competing in the second division) and
Kingsgrove Milan, who won the
Serie A championship in 2014. Amatori
Rugby Milano, the most titled rugby team in Italy, was founded in
Milan in 1927. The world-famous
Formula One circuit is located
near the city, inside a suburban park. It is one of the world's oldest
car racing circuits. The capacity for the F1 races is currently of
over 113,000. It has hosted an F1 race nearly every year since the
first year of competition, with the exception of 1980.
In road cycling,
Milan hosts the start of the annual Milan–San Remo
classic one-day race and the annual
Milano–Torino one day race.
Polytechnic University of Milan
Polytechnic University of Milan ranks as the best university in
Bocconi University is a leading institution for economics, management
and related disciplines in Europe.
Milan is home to some of Italy's most prominent educational
institutions. Milan's higher education system includes 7 universities,
48 faculties and 142 departments, with 185,000 university students in
2011 (approximately 11 percent of the national total) and the
largest number of university graduates and postgraduate students
(34,000 and more than 5,000, respectively) in Italy.
Founded in 1863, the
Polytechnic University of Milan
Polytechnic University of Milan is the city's
oldest university. The "Politecnico" is organised in 16 departments
and a network of 9 Schools of engineering, architecture and industrial
design spread over 7 campuses in the
Lombardy region. The number of
students enrolled in all campuses is approximately 38,000, which makes
Politecnico the largest technical university in Italy. The State
University of Milan, founded in 1923, is the largest public teaching
and research university in the city, with 9 faculties, 58 departments,
48 institutes and a teaching staff of 2,500 professors. A leading
Italy and Europe in scientific publication, the State
University of Milan
University of Milan is the sixth-largest university in Italy, with
approximately 60,000 enrolled students.
Other prominent tertiary education institutions in
Milan include: the
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, a private institute founded in
1921 and located in the Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio, famous for its law
and economics teaching, currently the largest Catholic university in
the world with 42,000 enrolled students; the Bocconi University,
a private management and finance school established in 1902, ranking
as the seventh best business school in Europe; the University of
Milan Bicocca, a multidisciplinary public university with more than
30,000 enrolled students; the IULM University of Milan,
specialising in marketing, information and communications technology,
tourism and fashion; the Università Vita Salute San Raffaele,
linked to the San Raffaele hospital, is home to research laboratories
in neurology, neurosurgery, diabetology, molecular biology, AIDS
studies and cognitive science.
Milan is also well known for its fine arts and music schools. The
Milan Academy of Fine
Arts (Brera Academy) is a public academic
institution founded in 1776 by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria; the
New Academy of Fine
Arts is the largest private art and design
university in Italy; the European Institute of
Design is a
private university specialised in fashion, industrial and interior
design, audio/visual design including photography, advertising and
marketing and business communication; the Marangoni Institute, is a
fashion institute with campuses in Milan, London, and Paris; the Domus
Academy is a private postgraduate institution of design, fashion,
architecture, interior design and management; the Pontifical Ambrosian
Institute of Sacred Music, a college of music founded in 1931 by the
blessed cardinal A.I. Schuster, archbishop of Milan, and raised
according to the rules by the Holy See in 1940, is—similarly to the
Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music
Pontifical Institute of Sacred Music in Rome, which is consociated
with—an Institute "ad instar facultatis" and is authorised to confer
university qualifications with canonical validity and the Milan
Conservatory, a college of music established in 1807, currently
Italy's largest with more than 1,700 students and 240 music
Main article: Transport in Milan
A typical tramcar operated by ATM.
Milan Metro is Italy's longest rapid transit system
Malpensa, one of the three airports that serve the city, is the
second-busiest in Italy.
Milan is one of southern Europe's key transport nodes and one of
Italy's most important railway hubs. Its five major railway stations,
such as the
Milan Central station, are among Italy's
busiest. Since the end of 2009, two high-speed train lines
Milan to Rome,
Naples and Turin, considerably shortening travel
times with other major cities in Italy. Further high-speed lines are
under construction towards
Genoa and Verona.
Milan is served by direct
international trains to Nice, Marseille, Lyon, Paris, Geneva, Bern,
Basel, Zurich and Frankfurt, and by overnight sleeper services to
Paris and Dijon (Thello), Munich and Vienna (ÖBB).
Azienda Trasporti Milanesi
Azienda Trasporti Milanesi (ATM) is the statutory corporation
responsible for the transport network in Milan; it operates 4 metro
Milan Metro), 18 tram lines, 67 urban bus lines, 4 trolleybus
lines, and 52 interurban bus lines, carrying over 734 million
passengers in 2010. Overall the network covers nearly
1,500 km (932 mi) reaching 46 municipalities. Besides
public transport, ATM manages the interchange parking lots and other
transportation services including bike sharing and carsharing
Trenord, responsible for the
Milan suburban railway service, is the
main regional railway operator in Lombardy, carrying 650,000
passengers on more than 50 routes every day.
Local rail and underground
Milan Metro is the rapid transit system serving the city and
surrounding municipalities. The network consists of 4 lines (plus one
under construction), with a total network length of 101 kilometres
(63 mi), and a total of 113 stations, mostly underground. It
has a daily ridership of 1.15 million. one of the largest in
Milan suburban railway service, operated by Trenord,
comprises 12 lines and connects the metropolitan area with the city
centre through the
Milan Passerby underground railway. Commonly
referred to as "il Passante", it has a train running every 6 minutes,
functioning as a subway line with full transferability to the Milan
Buses and trams
The city tram network consists of approximately 160 kilometres
(99 mi) of track and 17 lines, and is Europe's most advanced
light rail system. Bus lines cover over 1,070 km
Milan has also taxi services operated by private
companies and licensed by the City council of Milan. The city is also
a key node for the national road network, being served by all the
major highways of Northern Italy. Numerous long-distance bus lines
Milan with many other cities and towns in
Lombardy and throughout
Milan metropolitan area
Milan metropolitan area is served by three international airports,
with a grand total of about 40 million passengers served in 2016.
Linate, the oldest and the only airport lying within the city limits,
is mainly used for domestic and short-haul international flights, and
served 9.7 million passengers in 2016.
Malpensa International Airport,
the second-busiest airport in
Italy (about 19 million passengers
served in 2016), is 45 km (28 mi) from downtown
Milan and is
connected to the city by the
Malpensa Express railway service. Orio al
Serio airport serves mainly the low-cost traffic of
million passengers served in 2016). Finally
Bresso Airfield, operated
by Aero Club Milano, is a general aviation airport.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Twin towns – sister cities
Milan has fifteen official sister cities as reported on the city's
website. The date column indicates the year in which the
relationship was established.
São Paulo was Milan's first sister
The partnership with the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, that started
in 1967, was suspended in 2012 (a decision taken by the city of
Milan), because of the prohibition of the Russian government on
Milan has the following collaborations:
Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Dubai, United Arab Emirates
New York City, United States
European Union portal
List of cities in the European Union by population within city limits
Outline of Italy
Outline of Milan
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Milan.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Milan.
Wikisource has the text of the 1920
Encyclopedia Americana article
City of Milan
ATM—Milan's Transportation Company
Rete Metropolitana di Milano (in Italian)
Videotour in Milan
Articles relating to Milan
Zones and quarters of
Conca del Naviglio
Villaggio dei Giornalisti
Ronchetto delle Rane
Lodovico il Moro
Ronchetto sul Naviglio
Villaggio dei Fiori
Quartiere degli Olmi
Campo dei Fiori
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Milan
Boffalora sopra Ticino
Cassina de' Pecchi
Cassinetta di Lugagnano
Cernusco sul Naviglio
Cerro al Lambro
Locate di Triulzi
Marcallo con Casone
Pessano con Bornago
Robecchetto con Induno
Robecco sul Naviglio
San Colombano al Lambro
San Donato Milanese
San Giorgio su Legnano
San Giuliano Milanese
San Vittore Olona
San Zenone al Lambro
Santo Stefano Ticino
Sesto San Giovanni
Trezzano sul Naviglio
Zibido San Giacomo
European Capitals of Sport
2022 The Hague
Italy by population
Tourism in Milan
Basilica di Santa Tecla
S Carlo al Corso
S. Maria delle Grazie
The Last Supper
The Last Supper (Leonardo da Vinci)
S. Maria della Passione
S. Nazaro in Brolo
S. Stefano Maggiore
S. Vincenzo in Prato
S. Vittore al Corpo
S. Antonio Abate
S. Bernardino alle Ossa
S. Cristoforo sul Naviglio
S. Giorgio al Palazzo
S. Giovanni in Conca
S. Maria del Carmine
S. Maria della Pace
S Maria Incoronata
S. Maria presso San Celso
S. Maria presso San Satiro
S. Maurizio al Monastero Maggiore
S. Pietro in Gessate
Oratorio di San Protaso
Rotonda della Besana
Museums and galleries
Alfa Romeo Museum
Bagatti Valsecchi Museum
Galleria d'Arte Moderna
Gallerie di Piazza Scala
Art collection of Fondazione Cariplo
Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano
Museo del Novecento
Museo del Risorgimento
Museo della Scienza e della Tecnologia "Leonardo da Vinci"
Museo Poldi Pezzoli
Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Contemporary Art Pavilion
Pinacoteca di Brera
Antique Furniture & Wooden Sculpture Museum
Museum of Musical Instruments
Museo d'Arte Antica
Villas and palaces
Casa degli Omenoni
Casa di Riposo per Musicisti
Palazzo della Banca Commerciale Italiana
Palazzo dei Giureconsulti
Palazzo della Ragione
Palazzo delle Scuole Palatine
Palazzo del Senato
Royal Palace of Milan
Villa Belgiojoso Bonaparte
Biblioteca di Brera
Teatro degli Arcimboldi
Teatro Dal Verme
Squares and public spaces
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II
Piazza del Duomo
Piazza della Scala
Piazza Gae Aulenti
Streets and canals
Corso Buenos Aires
Quadrilatero della moda
Via della Spiga
Via Monte Napoleone
Gardens and parks
Giardini Pubblici Indro Montanelli
Orto Botanico di Brera
Orto Botanico di Cascina Rosa
Villa Litta Modignani
Events and traditions
Milan Furniture Fair
Milan International (1906)
Oh bej! Oh bej!
Districts of Milan
Trams in Milan
BNF: cb11864886n (data)