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César Franck
César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (10 December 1822 – 8 November 1890) was a composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher who worked in Paris during his adult life. He was born at Liège, in what is now Belgium
Belgium
(though at the time of his birth it was part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands). He gave his first concerts there in 1834 and studied privately in Paris from 1835, where his teachers included Anton Reicha. After a brief return to Belgium, and a disastrous reception to an early oratorio Ruth, he moved to Paris, where he married and embarked on a career as teacher and organist. He gained a reputation as a formidable improviser, and travelled widely in France to demonstrate new instruments built by Aristide Cavaillé-Coll. In 1858 he became organist at Sainte-Clotilde, a position he retained for the rest of his life
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Pedal Keyboard
A pedalboard (also called a pedal keyboard, pedal clavier, or, with electronic instruments, a bass pedalboard[1]) is a keyboard played with the feet that is usually used to produce the low-pitched bass line of a piece of music. A pedalboard has long, narrow lever-style keys laid out in the same semitone scalar pattern as a manual keyboard, with longer keys for C, D, E, F, G, A and B, and shorter, higher keys for C♯, D♯, F♯, G♯ and A♯. Training in pedal technique is part of standard organ pedagogy in church music and art music. Pedalboards are found at the base of the console of most pipe organs, theatre organs, and electronic organs. Standalone pedalboards such as the 1970s-era Moog Taurus
Moog Taurus
bass pedals are occasionally used in progressive rock and fusion music. In the 21st century, MIDI pedalboard controllers are used with synthesizers, electronic Hammond-style organs, and with digital pipe organs
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Libretto
A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical. The term libretto is also sometimes used to refer to the text of major liturgical works, such as the Mass, requiem and sacred cantata, or the story line of a ballet. Libretto
Libretto
(pronounced [liˈbretto]; plural libretti [liˈbretti]), from Italian, is the diminutive of the word libro ("book"). Sometimes other language equivalents are used for libretti in that language, livret for French works and Textbuch for German. A libretto is distinct from a synopsis or scenario of the plot, in that the libretto contains all the words and stage directions, while a synopsis summarizes the plot
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Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, Paris
The Church of Notre-Dame-de-Lorette is a neoclassical church in the 9th arrondissement of Paris.[1] History[edit] Construction of the church began in 1823 under the reign of Louis XVIII and was completed in 1836 under the reign of Louis-Philippe. An earlier chapel of the same name was situated at 54 rue Lamartine but was destroyed during the French Revolution. In 1821, plans were made to rebuild Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, with Louis-Hippolyte Lebas
Louis-Hippolyte Lebas
the sole architect. Originally, the church was planned to face northward towards Montmartre, but eventually faced southward towards rue Laffitte. Two notable figures in French culture were baptized at Notre-Dame-de-Lorette
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Monarchy Of Belgium
The monarchy of Belgium is a constitutional, popular and hereditary monarchy whose incumbent is titled the King or Queen of the Belgians (Dutch: Koning(in) der Belgen, French: Roi / Reine des Belges, German: König(in) der Belgier) and serves as the country's head of state. There have been seven Belgian monarchs since independence in 1830. The incumbent, Philippe, ascended the throne on 21 July 2013, following the abdication of his father.Contents1 Origins 2 Hereditary and constitutional2.1 Leopold I, Leopold II and Albert I 2.2 Leopold III and Baudouin 2.3 Constitutional, political, and historical consequences3 List of kings of the Belgians 4 Title 5 Constitutional role5.1 Inviolability 5.2 Traditions6 Popular support 7 Royal Household 8 Members of the Belgian royal family8.1 Other members of the royal family 8.2 Other descendants of Leopold III 8.3 Family tree of members9 Deceased members 10 Royal consorts 11 See also 12 Referen
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Solfège
In music, solfège (/ˈsɒlfɛʒ/,[1] also US: /sɒlˈfɛʒ/, French: [sɔl.fɛʒ]) or solfeggio (/sɒlˈfɛdʒioʊ/, Italian: [solˈfeddʒo]), also called sol-fa, solfa, solfeo, among many names, is a music education method used to teach pitch and sight singing of Western music. Solfège
Solfège
is a form of solmization, and though the two terms are sometimes used interchangeably, the systems used in other music cultures such as swara, durar mufaṣṣalāt and Jianpu
Jianpu
are discussed in their respective articles. Syllables are assigned to the notes of the scale and enable the musician to audiate, or mentally hear, the pitches of a piece of music which he or she is seeing for the first time and then to sing them aloud. Through the Renaissance (and much later in some shapenote publications) various interlocking 4, 5 and 6-note systems were employed to cover the octave
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Weimar
Weimar
Weimar
(German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaɐ̯]; Latin: Vimaria or Vinaria) is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is located between Erfurt
Erfurt
in the west and Jena
Jena
in the east, approximately 80 kilometres (50 miles) southwest of Leipzig, 170 kilometres (106 miles) north of Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and 170 kilometres (106 miles) west of Dresden
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Germany
Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)Location of
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Walloon Language
Walloon (Walon in Walloon) is a Romance language
Romance language
that is spoken as a primary language in large portions (70%) of Wallonia
Wallonia
in Belgium, in some villages of Northern France
France
(near Givet) and in the northeast part of Wisconsin[3] until the mid 20th century and in some parts of Canada[citation needed]. It belongs to the langue d'oïl language family, whose most prominent member is the French language. The historical background of its formation was the territorial extension since 980 of the Principality of Liège
Principality of Liège
to the south and west. Despite its rich literature, beginning anonymously in the 16th century and with well-known authors since 1756, the use of Walloon has decreased markedly since France's annexation of Wallonia
Wallonia
in 1795
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Musical Keyboard
A musical keyboard is the set of adjacent depressible levers or keys on a musical instrument. Keyboards typically contain keys for playing the twelve notes of the Western musical scale, with a combination of larger, longer keys and smaller, shorter keys that repeats at the interval of an octave. Depressing a key on the keyboard causes the instrument to produce sounds, either by mechanically striking a string or tine (piano, electric piano, clavichord), plucking a string (harpsichord), causing air to flow through a pipe (organ), striking a bell (carillon), or, on electric and electronic keyboards, completing a circuit (Hammond organ, digital piano, synthesizer)
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Orléans
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Orléans
Orléans
(UK: /ɔːrˈliːənz/;[1] French pronunciation: ​[ɔʁleɑ̃][1]) is a city in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 mi) southwest of Paris
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French Second Republic
The French Second Republic
Republic
was a short-lived republican government of France
France
between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire. It officially adopted the motto of the First Republic, Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
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Second French Empire
The French Second Empire
Empire
(French: Second Empire)[1] was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.Contents1 Rule of Napoleon III 2 History2.1 Coup of 1851 2.2 Early reign 2.3 Freedom of the press 2.4 The Union libérale 2.5 Rise of Prussia 2.6 Mobilization of the working classes 2.7 Plebiscite of 1870 2.8 End of the Empire3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 Further reading6.1 Surveys 6.2 Politics 6.3 Military and diplomatic 6.4 Social and economic 6.5 Historiography7 External linksRule of Napoleon III[edit]Napoléon IIIImperial Standard of Napoléon IIIThe structure of the French government during the Second Empire
Empire
was little changed from the First. But Emperor Napoleon III
Napoleon III
stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government
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Prix De Rome
The Prix de Rome
Prix de Rome
(pronounced [pʁi də ʁɔm]) or Grand Prix de Rome[1] was a French scholarship for arts students, initially for painters and sculptors, that was established in 1663 during the reign of Louis XIV
Louis XIV
of France. Winners were awarded a bursary that allowed them to stay in Rome for three to five years at the expense of the state. The prize was extended to architecture in 1720, music in 1803, and engraving in 1804
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Louis-Napoléon
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (born Charles-Louis Napoléon Bonaparte; 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the President of France from 1848 to 1852 and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the French from 1852 to 1870. He was the only president of the French Second Republic and the head of the Second French Empire. The nephew and heir of Napoleon I, he was the first Head of State of France to hold the title of President, the first elected by a direct popular vote, and the youngest until the election of Emmanuel Macron in 2017. Barred by the Constitution and Parliament from running for a second term, he organized a self-coup d'état in 1851 and then took the throne as Napoleon III on 2 December 1852, the forty-eighth anniversary of his uncle's coronation. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution
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Comédie-Française
The Comédie-Française
Comédie-Française
(French pronunciation: ​[kɔmedi fʁɑ̃sɛz]) or Théâtre-Français (IPA: [teatʁə fʁɑ̃sɛ]) is one of the few state theatres in France
France
and is considered the oldest still-active theatre in the world. It is the only state theatre to have its own troupe of actors. The company's primary venue is the Salle Richelieu. The theatre is part of the Palais-Royal
Palais-Royal
complex and located at 2 rue de Richelieu on the Place André-Malraux in the 1st arrondissement of Paris. The theatre has also been known as the Théâtre de la République and La maison de Molière
Molière
(English: House of Molière). It inherited the latter name from the troupe of the best-known playwright associated with the Comédie-Française, Molière. He was considered the patron of French actors
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