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Coordinates: 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9

Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)[a]

Flag

Coat of arms

Motto:  "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit" (de facto) "Unity and Justice and Freedom"

Anthem: "Deutschlandlied" (third verse only)[b] "Song of Germany"

Location of  Germany  (dark green) – in Europe  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)

Location of Germany
Germany
in the World

Capital and largest city Berlin[c] 52°31′N 13°23′E / 52.517°N 13.383°E / 52.517; 13.383

Official language and national language German[1][d]

Ethnic groups (2016[2])

7001808000000000000♠80.8% Germans 7001117000000000000♠11.7% Other Europeans 7000490000000000000♠4.9% West Asians —7000340000000000000♠3.4% Turks —7000130000000000000♠1.3% Arabs 7000130000000000000♠1.3% Other Asians 6999600000000000000♠0.6% Africans 6999500000000000000♠0.5% Americans 6999100000000000000♠0.1% Other

Religion

59.3% Christianity 34.4% Not religious 5.5% Islam 0.8% Other religions[3]

Demonym German

Government Federal constitutional parliamentary republic

• President

Frank-Walter Steinmeier

• Chancellor

Angela Merkel

• President of the Bundestag

Wolfgang Schäuble

• President of the Bundesrat

Michael Müller

• President of the Federal Constitutional Court

Andreas Voßkuhle

Legislature

• Upper house

Bundesrat

• Lower house

Bundestag

Area

• Total

357,168 km2 (137,903 sq mi) (62nd)

Population

• 2017 estimate

82,800,000[4] (16th)

• Density

232/km2 (600.9/sq mi) (58th)

GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate

• Total

$4.308 trillion[5] (5th)

• Per capita

$52,045[5] (18th)

GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate

• Total

$3.934 trillion[5] (4th)

• Per capita

$47,535[5] (17th)

Gini (2016)  29.5[6] low

HDI (2015)  0.926[7] very high · 4th

Currency Euro
Euro
(€) (EUR)

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

• Summer (DST)

CEST (UTC+2)

Drives on the right

Calling code +49

ISO 3166 code DE

Internet TLD .de and .eu

Germany
Germany
(German: Deutschland [ˈdɔʏtʃlant]), officially the Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany
Germany
(German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland,  listen (help·info)),[e][8] is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), and has a largely temperate seasonal climate. With about 82 million inhabitants, Germany
Germany
is the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund
Dortmund
and Essen. The country's other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hannover, and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany
Germany
since classical antiquity. A region named Germania
Germania
was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.[9] During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation
German Confederation
was formed in 1815. The German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany
Germany
became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power
Nazi seizure of power
in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II
World War II
and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II
World War II
in Europe
Europe
and a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: West Germany, formed of the American, British and French occupation zones, and East Germany, formed of the Soviet occupation zone. Following the Revolutions of 1989
Revolutions of 1989
that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.[10] In the 21st century, Germany
Germany
is a great power with a strong economy; it has the world's 4th largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 5th largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. A developed country with a very high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, and a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany
Germany
was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union
European Union
in 1993. It is part of the Schengen Area
Schengen Area
and became a co-founder of the Eurozone
Eurozone
in 1999. Germany
Germany
is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany
Germany
has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, philosophers, musicians, sportspeople, entrepreneurs, scientists, engineers, and inventors.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
and Frankish Empire 2.2 East Francia
East Francia
and Holy Roman Empire 2.3 German Confederation
German Confederation
and Empire 2.4 Weimar Republic
Republic
and Nazi Germany 2.5 East and West Germany 2.6 Reunified Germany
Germany
and the European Union

3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Biodiversity 3.3 Urbanisation

4 Politics

4.1 Law 4.2 Constituent states 4.3 Foreign relations 4.4 Military

5 Economy

5.1 Companies 5.2 Transport 5.3 Energy and infrastructure 5.4 Science and technology 5.5 Tourism

6 Demographics

6.1 Immigrant population 6.2 Religion 6.3 Languages 6.4 Education 6.5 Health

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Art 7.3 Architecture 7.4 Literature and philosophy 7.5 Media 7.6 Cinema 7.7 Cuisine 7.8 Sports 7.9 Fashion and design

8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Etymology Further information: Names of Germany The English word Germany
Germany
derives from the Latin
Latin
Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine.[11] The German term Deutschland, originally diutisciu land ("the German lands") is derived from deutsch (compare dutch), descended from Old High German
Old High German
diutisc "popular" (i.e. belonging to the diot or diota "people"), originally used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin
Latin
and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular" (see also the Latinised form Theodiscus), derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons
Teutons
also originates.[12] History Main article: History of Germany

The Nebra sky disk, c. 1700 BC

The discovery of the Mauer 1
Mauer 1
mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany
Germany
at least 600,000 years ago.[13] The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen
Schöningen
where three 380,000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed.[14] The Neander Valley was the location where the first ever non-modern human fossil was discovered; the new species of human was called the Neanderthal. The Neanderthal
Neanderthal
1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura
Swabian Jura
near Ulm. The finds include 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found,[15] the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man which is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered,[16] and the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels
Venus of Hohle Fels
which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever discovered.[17] The Nebra sky disk
Nebra sky disk
is a bronze artifact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt. It is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme.[18] Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
and Frankish Empire Main articles: Germania, Migration Period, and Frankish Realm

Migrations in Europe
Europe
(100–500 AD)

The Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
are thought to date from the Nordic Bronze
Bronze
Age or the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and north Germany, they expanded south, east and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul
Gaul
as well as Iranian, Baltic, and Slavic tribes in Central and Eastern Europe.[19] Under Augustus, Rome began to invade Germania
Germania
(an area extending roughly from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Ural Mountains). In 9 AD, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan
Cheruscan
leader Arminius. By 100 AD, when Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote Germania, Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
had settled along the Rhine
Rhine
and the Danube
Danube
(the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. However, Austria, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hessen
Hessen
and the western Rhineland
Rhineland
had been conquered and incorporated into Roman provinces: Noricum, Raetia, Germania
Germania
Superior, and Germania Inferior.[20][21][22][23]

Frankish Realm
Frankish Realm
and its expansion. As it was partitioned in 843, West Francia
Francia
(blue) and East Francia
East Francia
(red) became predecessors of France and Germany, respectively

In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
emerged: Alemanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisii, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
broke into Roman-controlled lands.[24] After the invasion of the Huns
Huns
in 375, and with the decline of Rome from 395, Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
moved farther southwest. Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany
Germany
and displaced or absorbed smaller Germanic tribes. Large areas known since the Merovingian
Merovingian
period as Austrasia, Neustria, and Aquitaine were conquered by the Franks
Franks
who established the Frankish Kingdom, and pushed farther east to subjugate Saxony
Saxony
and Bavaria. Areas of what is today the eastern part of Germany
Germany
were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes of Sorbs, Veleti
Veleti
and the Obotritic confederation.[20]

East Francia
East Francia
and Holy Roman Empire Main articles: East Francia
East Francia
and Holy Roman Empire In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor and founded the Carolingian Empire, which was later divided in 843 among his heirs.[25] Following the break up of the Frankish Realm, for 900 years, the history of Germany
Germany
was intertwined with the history of the Holy Roman Empire,[26] which subsequently emerged from the eastern portion of Charlemagne's original empire. The territory initially known as East Francia
East Francia
stretched from the Rhine
Rhine
in the west to the Elbe River in the east and from the North Sea
North Sea
to the Alps.[25] The Ottonian rulers (919–1024) consolidated several major duchies and the German king Otto I
Otto I
was crowned Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
of these regions in 962. In 996 Gregory V became the first German Pope, appointed by his cousin Otto III, whom he shortly after crowned Holy Roman Emperor. The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
absorbed northern Italy
Italy
and Burgundy under the reign of the Salian
Salian
emperors (1024–1125), although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy.[27]

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546) initiated the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation.

In the 12th century, under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254), German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs; they encouraged German settlement in these areas, called the eastern settlement movement (Ostsiedlung). Members of the Hanseatic League, which included mostly north German cities and towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.[28] In the south, the Greater Ravensburg Trade Corporation (Große Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft) served a similar function. The edict of the Golden Bull issued in 1356 by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.[29] Population declined in the first half of the 14th century, starting with the Great Famine in 1315, followed by the Black Death
Black Death
of 1348–50.[30] Despite the decline, however, German artists, engineers, and scientists developed a wide array of techniques similar to those used by the Italian artists and designers of the time who flourished in such merchant city-states as Venice, Florence and Genoa. Artistic and cultural centres throughout the German states produced such artists as the Augsburg painters Hans Holbein and his son, and Albrecht Dürer. Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg
introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses.[31]

The Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in 1648, after the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years' War

In 1517, the Wittenberg
Wittenberg
monk Martin Luther
Martin Luther
publicised The Ninety-Five Theses, challenging the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
and initiating the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. In 1555, the Peace of Augsburg
Peace of Augsburg
established Lutheranism
Lutheranism
as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio. The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: for example, the Reformed
Reformed
faith was still considered a heresy and the principle did not address the possible conversion of an ecclesiastic ruler, such as happened in Electorate of Cologne
Cologne
in 1583. From the Cologne
Cologne
War until the end of the Thirty Years' Wars (1618–1648), religious conflict devastated German lands.[32] The latter reduced the overall population of the German states by about 30 per cent, and in some places, up to 80 per cent.[33] The Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
ended religious warfare among the German states.[32] German rulers were able to choose either Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism
Lutheranism
or the Reformed
Reformed
faith as their official religion after 1648.[34] In the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
consisted of approximately 1,800 territories.[35] The elaborate legal system initiated by a series of Imperial Reforms (approximately 1450–1555) created the Imperial Estates and provided for considerable local autonomy among ecclesiastical, secular, and hereditary states, reflected in Imperial Diet. The House of Habsburg
House of Habsburg
held the imperial crown from 1438 until the death of Charles VI in 1740. Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction. This was finally settled through the War of Austrian Succession; in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, Charles VI's daughter Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
ruled the Empire as Empress Consort when her husband, Francis I, became Holy Roman Emperor. From 1740, the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
dominated the German history. In 1772, then again in 1793 and 1795, the two dominant German states of Prussia
Prussia
and Austria, along with the Russian Empire, agreed to the Partitions of Poland; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies. However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.[36][37] During the period of the French Revolutionary Wars, along with the arrival of the Napoleonic era
Napoleonic era
and the subsequent final meeting of the Imperial Diet, most of the secular Free Imperial Cities
Free Imperial Cities
were annexed by dynastic territories; the ecclesiastical territories were secularised and annexed. In 1806 the Imperium was dissolved; German states, particularly the Rhineland
Rhineland
states, fell under the influence of France. Until 1815, France, Russia, Prussia
Prussia
and the Habsburgs competed for hegemony in the German states during the Napoleonic Wars.[38]

German Confederation
German Confederation
and Empire Main articles: German Confederation, German Empire, and German Colonial Empire

A map showing the German Confederation
German Confederation
(1815–1836) with its 39 member states.

Following the fall of Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(convened in 1814) founded the German Confederation
German Confederation
(Deutscher Bund), a loose league of 39 sovereign states. The appointment of the Emperor of Austria
Austria
as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests. Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich. The Zollverein, a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states.[39] National and liberal ideals of the French Revolution gained increasing support among many, especially young, Germans. The Hambach Festival
Hambach Festival
in May 1832 was a main event in support of German unity, freedom and democracy. In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe, which established a republic in France, intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
in the German states. King Frederick William IV of Prussia
Prussia
was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.[40]

Foundation of the German Empire
German Empire
in Versailles, 1871. Bismarck is at the centre in a white uniform.

King William I appointed Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
as the new Minister President of Prussia
Prussia
in 1862. Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark
Denmark
in 1864, which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula. The subsequent (and decisive) Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
of 1866 enabled him to create the North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) which excluded Austria
Austria
from the federation's affairs. After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in 1871 at Versailles, uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria. Prussia
Prussia
was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia
Prussia
ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin
Berlin
became its capital.[40] In the Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
period following the unification of Germany, Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France
France
by diplomatic means, and avoiding war. Under Wilhelm II, Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries. Most alliances in which Germany
Germany
had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary, promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support. Subsequently, the Triple Alliance of 1882 included Italy, completing a Central European geographic alliance that illustrated German, Austrian and Italian fears of incursions against them by France
France
and/or Russia. Similarly, Britain, France
France
and Russia
Russia
also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.[41]

The German Empire
German Empire
(1871–1918), with the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
in blue

At the Berlin
Berlin
Conference in 1884, Germany
Germany
claimed several colonies including German East Africa, German South West Africa, Togoland, and Kamerun.[42] Later, Germany
Germany
further expanded its colonial empire to include German New Guinea, German Micronesia
German Micronesia
and German Samoa
German Samoa
in the Pacific, and Kiautschou Bay in China. In what became known as the "First Genocide
Genocide
of the Twentieth-Century", between 1904 and 1907, the German colonial government in South West Africa
Africa
(present-day Namibia) ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples, as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule. In total, around 100,000 people—80% of the Herero and 50% of the Namaqua—perished from imprisonment in concentration camps, where the majority died of disease, abuse, and exhaustion, or from dehydration and starvation in the countryside after being deprived of food and water.[43][44] The assassination of Austria's crown prince on 28 June 1914 provided the pretext for the Austrian Empire
Austrian Empire
to attack Serbia
Serbia
and trigger World War I. After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed,[45] a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home. In the German Revolution (November 1918), Emperor Wilhelm II and all German ruling princes abdicated their positions and responsibilities. Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
in 1919. In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers, accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time. Germans
Germans
perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler.[46][47][48] After the defeat in the First World War, Germany lost around 13% of its European territory (areas predominantly inhabited by ethnic Polish, French and Danish populations, which were lost following the Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising, the return of Alsace-Lorraine and the Schleswig plebiscites), and all of its colonial possessions in Africa
Africa
and the South Sea.[49] Weimar Republic
Republic
and Nazi Germany Main articles: Weimar Republic
Republic
and Nazi Germany

Philipp Scheidemann
Philipp Scheidemann
proclaims the German Republic
Republic
from the Reichskanzlei window, on 9 November 1918.

Germany
Germany
was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November 1918. On 11 August 1919 President Friedrich Ebert signed the democratic Weimar Constitution.[50] In the subsequent struggle for power, the radical-left Communists
Communists
seized power in Bavaria, but conservative elements in other parts of Germany
Germany
attempted to overthrow the Republic
Republic
in the Kapp Putsch. It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
(military) and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions. After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr
Ruhr
by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of 1922–23, a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in 1924 ushered in the Golden Twenties, an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life. Historians describe the period between 1924 and 1929 as one of "partial stabilisation."[51] The worldwide Great Depression
Great Depression
hit Germany
Germany
in 1929. After the federal election of 1930, Chancellor Heinrich Brüning's government was enabled by President Paul von Hindenburg to act without parliamentary approval. Brüning's government pursued a policy of fiscal austerity and deflation which caused high unemployment of nearly 30% by 1932.[52] The Nazi Party
Nazi Party
led by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
won the special federal election of 1932. After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
on 30 January 1933.[53] After the Reichstag fire, a decree abrogated basic civil rights and within weeks the first Nazi concentration camp at Dachau opened.[54][55] The Enabling Act of 1933
Enabling Act of 1933
gave Hitler unrestricted legislative power; subsequently, his government established a centralised totalitarian state, withdrew from the League of Nations following a national referendum, and began military rearmament.[56]

Adolf Hitler, leader of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
(1933–1945)

Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects. In public work projects of 1934, 1.7 million Germans
Germans
immediately were put to work, which gave them an income and social benefits.[57] The most famous of the projects was the high speed roadway, the Reichsautobahn, known as the German autobahns.[58] Other capital construction projects included hydroelectric facilities such as the Rur Dam, water supplies such as Zillierbach Dam, and transportation hubs such as Zwickau Hauptbahnhof.[59] Over the next five years, unemployment plummeted and average wages both per hour and per week rose.[60] In 1935, the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
and introduced the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Laws which targeted Jews
Jews
and other minorities. Germany
Germany
also reacquired control of the Saar in 1935,[61] remilitarized the Rhineland
Rhineland
in 1936, annexed Austria
Austria
in 1938, annexed the Sudetenland in 1938 with the Munich
Munich
Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
in March 1939. Kristallnacht, or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30,000 Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany. Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany.[62] In August 1939, Hitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop pact
Molotov–Ribbentrop pact
that divided Eastern Europe
Europe
into German and Soviet spheres of influence. Following the agreement, on 1 September 1939, Germany
Germany
invaded Poland, marking the beginning of World War II.[63][64]

WWII, German-occupied Europe
Europe
in 1942

In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany
Germany
to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France
France
declared war on Germany.[65] In the spring of 1940, Germany
Germany
conquered Denmark
Denmark
and Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France
France
forcing the French government to sign an armistice after German troops occupied most of the country. The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain
Battle of Britain
in the same year. In 1941, German troops invaded Yugoslavia, Greece
Greece
and the Soviet Union. By 1942, Germany
Germany
and other Axis powers
Axis powers
controlled most of continental Europe
Europe
and North Africa, but following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, the allies' reconquest of North Africa
North Africa
and invasion of Italy
Italy
in 1943, German forces suffered repeated military defeats.[63] In June 1944, the Western allies landed in France
France
and the Soviets pushed into Eastern Europe. By late 1944, the Western allies had entered Germany
Germany
despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. Following Hitler's suicide during the Battle of Berlin, German armed forces surrendered on 8 May 1945, ending World War II
World War II
in Europe.[66] After World War II, former members of the Nazi regime were tried for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.[67][68] In what later became known as The Holocaust, the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe
Europe
to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples. In total, over 10 million civilians were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews, between 220,000 and 1,500,000 Romani, 275,000 persons with disabilities, thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses, thousands of homosexuals, and hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany, and occupied countries (Nacht und Nebel).[69] Nazi policies in the German occupied countries resulted in the deaths of 2.7 million Poles,[70] 1.3 million Ukrainians,[71] and an estimated 2.8 million Soviet war prisoners.[71][67] In addition, the Nazi regime abducted approximately 12 million people from across the German occupied Europe for use as slave labour in the German industry.[72] German military war casualties have been estimated at 5.3 million,[73] and around 900,000 German civilians died; 400,000 from Allied bombing, and 500,000 in the course of the Soviet invasion from the east.[74] Around 12 million ethnic Germans
Germans
were expelled from across Eastern Europe. Germany
Germany
lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory.[10] Strategic bombing and land warfare destroyed many cities and cultural heritage sites. East and West Germany Main article: History of Germany
History of Germany
(1945–90)

American, Soviet, British and French occupation zones in Germany, and the French controlled Saar Protectorate, 1947. Territories east of the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
transferred to Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
under the terms of the Potsdam
Potsdam
Conference.

After Germany
Germany
surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin
Berlin
and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones. The western sectors, controlled by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, were merged on 23 May 1949 to form the Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany
Germany
(Bundesrepublik Deutschland); on 7 October 1949, the Soviet Zone became the German Democratic Republic
Republic
(Deutsche Demokratische Republik). They were informally known as West Germany
West Germany
and East Germany. East Germany
East Germany
selected East Berlin
Berlin
as its capital, while West Germany
Germany
chose Bonn
Bonn
as a provisional capital, to emphasize its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.[75] West Germany
West Germany
was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a "social market economy". Starting in 1948 West Germany
West Germany
became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
and used this to rebuild its industry.[76] Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
was elected the first Federal Chancellor (Bundeskanzler) of Germany
Germany
in 1949 and remained in office until 1963. Under his and Ludwig Erhard's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s, that became known as an "economic miracle" (Wirtschaftswunder).[77] The Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany
Germany
joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957.

The Berlin
Berlin
Wall during its fall in 1989, with the Brandenburg Gate
Brandenburg Gate
in the background.

East Germany
East Germany
was an Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
state under political and military control by the USSR via occupation forces and the Warsaw Pact. Although East Germany
East Germany
claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members (Politbüro) of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany, supported by the Stasi, an immense secret service controlling many aspects of the society.[78] A Soviet-style command economy was set up and the GDR later became a Comecon
Comecon
state.[79] While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR's social programmes and the alleged constant threat of a West German invasion, many of its citizens looked to the West for freedom and prosperity.[80] The Berlin
Berlin
Wall, rapidly built on 13 August 1961 prevented East German citizens from escaping to West Germany, eventually becoming a symbol of the Cold War.[40][81] Ronald Reagan's "Mr. Gorbachov, Tear down this wall!" speech at the Wall on 12 June 1987 influenced public opinion, echoing John F. Kennedy's famous Ich bin ein Berliner
Ich bin ein Berliner
speech of 26 June 1963. The fall of the Wall in 1989 became a symbol of the Fall of Communism, the Dissolution of the Soviet Union, German Reunification
German Reunification
and Die Wende.[82] Tensions between East and West Germany
West Germany
were reduced in the early 1970s by Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik. In summer 1989, Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain
Iron Curtain
and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans
Germans
to West Germany
West Germany
via Hungary. This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany
East Germany
as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process. This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September 1990, under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender, and Germany
Germany
regained full sovereignty. This permitted German reunification
German reunification
on 3 October 1990, with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.[40] Reunified Germany
Germany
and the European Union Main articles: German reunification
German reunification
and History of Germany
History of Germany
since 1990

German unity was established on 3 October 1990.[83] Since 1999, the Reichstag building
Reichstag building
in Berlin
Berlin
has been the meeting place of the Bundestag, the German parliament.

The united Germany
Germany
is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany
Germany
and not a successor state. As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations.[84] Based on the Berlin/ Bonn
Bonn
Act, adopted in 1994, Berlin
Berlin
once again became the capital of the reunified Germany, while Bonn
Bonn
obtained the unique status of a Bundesstadt (federal city) retaining some federal ministries.[85] The relocation of the government was completed in 1999.[86] Following the 1998 elections, SPD politician Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
became the first Chancellor of a red–green coalition with the Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens
party. Among the major projects of the two Schröder legislatures was the Agenda 2010 to reform the labour market to become more flexible and reduce unemployment. The modernisation and integration of the eastern German economy is a long-term process scheduled to last until the year 2019, with annual transfers from west to east amounting to roughly $80 billion.[87]

Germany
Germany
became a co-founder of the European Union
European Union
(1993), introduced the Euro
Euro
currency (2002), and signed the Lisbon Treaty
Lisbon Treaty
in 2007 (pictured).

Since reunification, Germany
Germany
has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany
Germany
signed the Maastricht Treaty
Maastricht Treaty
in 1992, established the Eurozone
Eurozone
in 1999, and signed the Lisbon Treaty
Lisbon Treaty
in 2007.[88] Germany
Germany
sent a peacekeeping force to secure stability in the Balkans and sent a force of German troops to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as part of a NATO
NATO
effort to provide security in that country after the ousting of the Taliban.[89] These deployments were controversial since Germany
Germany
is bound by domestic law only to deploy troops for defence roles.[90] In the 2005 elections, Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
became the first female Chancellor of Germany
Chancellor of Germany
as the leader of a grand coalition.[40] In 2009 the German government approved a €50 billion economic stimulus plan to protect several sectors from a downturn.[91] In 2009, a liberal-conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In 2013, a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet. Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration, the energy transition (Energiewende) for a sustainable energy supply, the "Debt Brake" for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly (pronatalism), and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.0.[92] Germany
Germany
was affected by the European migrant crisis
European migrant crisis
in 2015 as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa
Africa
and the Middle East
Middle East
entering the EU. The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.[93] Geography Main article: Geography of Germany

Physical map of Germany

Germany
Germany
is in Western and Central Europe, with Denmark
Denmark
bordering to the north, Poland
Poland
and the Czech Republic
Republic
to the east, Austria
Austria
to the southeast, Switzerland
Switzerland
to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg
Luxembourg
and Belgium
Belgium
lie to the west, and the Netherlands
Netherlands
to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 47° and 55° N and longitudes 5° and 16° E. Germany
Germany
is also bordered by the North Sea
North Sea
and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland
Switzerland
and Austria, Germany
Germany
also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance, the third largest lake in Central Europe.[94] German territory covers 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi), consisting of 349,223 km2 (134,836 sq mi) of land and 7,798 km2 (3,011 sq mi) of water. It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe
Europe
and the 62nd largest in the world.[95] Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps
Alps
(highest point: the Zugspitze
Zugspitze
at 2,962 metres or 9,718 feet) in the south to the shores of the North Sea
North Sea
(Nordsee) in the northwest and the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
(Ostsee) in the northeast. The forested uplands of central Germany
Germany
and the lowlands of northern Germany
Germany
(lowest point: Wilstermarsch at 3.54 metres or 11.6 feet below sea level) are traversed by such major rivers as the Rhine, Danube
Danube
and Elbe. Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation. Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.[95] Climate

Rhine
Rhine
valley in summer at Lorelei.

Most of Germany
Germany
has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate. The climate is moderated by the North Atlantic Drift, the northern extension of the Gulf Stream. This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic. Germany
Germany
gets an average of 789 mm (31 in) of precipitation per year; there is no consistent dry season. Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).[96] The east has a more continental climate: winters can be very cold and summers very warm, and longer dry periods can occur. Central and southern Germany
Germany
are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental. In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.[96] Biodiversity The territory of Germany
Germany
can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.[97] As of 2008[update] the majority of Germany
Germany
is covered by either arable land (34%) or forest and woodland (30.1%); only 13.4% of the area consists of permanent pastures, 11.8% is covered by settlements and streets.[98]

The golden eagle is the national bird of Germany

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches, oaks, and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation. Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns, flowers, fungi, and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer, wild boar, mouflon (a subspecies of wild sheep), fox, badger, hare, and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.[99] The blue cornflower was once a German national symbol.[100] The 16 national parks in Germany
Germany
include the Jasmund National Park, the Vorpommern Lagoon Area National Park, the Müritz National Park, the Wadden Sea National Parks, the Harz National Park, the Hainich National Park, the Black Forest
Forest
National Park, the Saxon Switzerland National Park, the Bavarian Forest
Forest
National Park and the Berchtesgaden National Park. In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves, as well as 98 nature parks. More than 400 registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.[101] The Berlin
Berlin
Zoo, opened in 1844, is the oldest zoo in Germany, and presents the most comprehensive collection of species in the world.[102]

Urbanisation See also: List of cities and towns in Germany
List of cities and towns in Germany
and List of cities in Germany
Germany
by population Germany
Germany
has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. 34 cities have been identified as regiopolis. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11.7 million in 2008[update]), including Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
(the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.[103]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany
Germany
(31 December 2015)

Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.

Berlin

Hamburg 1 Berlin Berlin 3,710,156 11 Bremen Bremen
Bremen
(state) 557,464

Munich

Cologne

2 Hamburg Hamburg 1,787,408 12 Dresden Saxony 543,825

3 Munich Bavaria 1,450,381 13 Hannover Lower Saxony 532,163

4 Cologne North Rhine-Westphalia 1,060,582 14 Nuremberg Bavaria 509,975

5 Frankfurt Hesse 732,688 15 Duisburg North Rhine-Westphalia 491,231

6 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 623,738 16 Bochum North Rhine-Westphalia 364,742

7 Düsseldorf North Rhine-Westphalia 612,178 17 Wuppertal North Rhine-Westphalia 350,046

8 Dortmund North Rhine-Westphalia 586,181 18 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 333,090

9 Essen North Rhine-Westphalia 582,624 19 Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 318,809

10 Leipzig Saxony 560,472 20 Münster North Rhine-Westphalia 310,039

Politics Main articles: Politics of Germany, Taxation in Germany, and Federal budget of Germany

Frank-Walter Steinmeier President since 2017 Angela Merkel Chancellor since 2005

Germany
Germany
is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1949 constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.[104] The president, Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
(19 March 2017–present), is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers. He is elected by the Bundesversammlung (federal convention), an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag
Bundestag
and an equal number of state delegates. The second-highest official in the German order of precedence
German order of precedence
is the Bundestagspräsident (President of the Bundestag), who is elected by the Bundestag
Bundestag
and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.[40]

The political system of Germany

The chancellor, Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(22 November 2005–present), is the head of government and exercises executive power, similar to the role of a Prime Minister
Prime Minister
in other parliamentary democracies. Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag
Bundestag
(Federal Diet) and Bundesrat (Federal Council), which together form the legislative body. The Bundestag
Bundestag
is elected through direct elections, by proportional representation (mixed-member).[95] The members of the Bundesrat represent the governments of the sixteen federated states and are members of the state cabinets.[40] Since 1949, the party system has been dominated by the Christian Democratic Union and the Social Democratic Party of Germany. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties. However, the smaller liberal Free Democratic Party (in parliament from 1949 to 2013) and the Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens
(in parliament since 1983) have also played important roles.[105] Since 2005, the left-wing populist party The Left, formed through the merger of two former parties, has been a staple in the German Bundestag
Bundestag
though they have never been part of the federal government. In the German federal election, 2017, the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany
Alternative for Germany
gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time. The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany
Germany
had its peak in 2010 when it stood at 80.3% and decreased since then.[106] According to Eurostat, the government gross debt of Germany
Germany
amounts to €2,152.0 billion or 71.9% of its GDP in 2015.[107] The federal government achieved a budget surplus of €12.1 billion ($13.1 billion) in 2015.[108] Germany's credit rating by credit rating agencies Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch Ratings
Fitch Ratings
stands at the highest possible rating AAA with a stable outlook in 2016.[109]

Law Main articles: Law of Germany, Judiciary of Germany, and Law enforcement in Germany

Judges of the Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) in Karlsruhe in 1989

Germany
Germany
has a civil law system based on Roman law
Roman law
with some references to Germanic law. The Bundesverfassungsgericht (Federal Constitutional Court) is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.[40][110] Germany's supreme court system, called Oberste Gerichtshöfe des Bundes, is specialised: for civil and criminal cases, the highest court of appeal is the inquisitorial Federal Court of Justice, and for other affairs the courts are the Federal Labour Court, the Federal Social Court, the Federal Finance Court and the Federal Administrative Court. Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch
Strafgesetzbuch
and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch
respectively. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public.[111] Except for petty crimes, which are tried before a single professional judge, and serious political crimes, all charges are tried before mixed tribunals on which lay judges (Schöffen) sit side by side with professional judges.[112][113] Many of the fundamental matters of administrative law remain in the jurisdiction of the states. Germany
Germany
has a low murder rate with 0.9 murders per 100,000 in 2014.[114] Constituent states Main article: States of Germany Germany
Germany
comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.[115] Each state has its own state constitution[116] and is largely autonomous in regard to its internal organisation. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: Berlin
Berlin
and Hamburg. The state of Bremen
Bremen
consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Bremen
Bremen
and Bremerhaven. Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary. For regional administrative purposes five states, namely Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and Saxony, consist of a total of 22 Government Districts (Regierungsbezirke). As of 2017[update] Germany
Germany
is divided into 401 districts (Kreise) at a municipal level; these consist of 294 rural districts and 107 urban districts.[117]

 Lower Saxony  Bremen  Hamburg  Mecklenburg- Vorpommern  Saxony- Anhalt  Saxony  Brandenburg  Berlin  Thuringia  Hesse  North Rhine- Westphalia  Rhineland-Palatinate  Bavaria  Baden- Württemberg  Saarland  Schleswig-Holstein

State Capital Area (km2) Population (2015)[118] Nominal GDP billions EUR (2015)[119] Nominal GDP per capita EUR (2015)[119]

Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart 35,752 10,879,618 461 42,800

Bavaria Munich 70,549 12,843,514 550 43,100

Berlin Berlin 892 3,520,031 125 35,700

Brandenburg Potsdam 29,477 2,484,826 66 26,500

Bremen Bremen 404 671,489 32 47,600

Hamburg Hamburg 755 1,787,408 110 61,800

Hesse Wiesbaden 21,115 6,176,172 264 43,100

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Schwerin 23,174 1,612,362 40 25,000

Lower Saxony Hanover 47,618 7,926,599 259 32,900

North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf 34,043 17,865,516 646 36,500

Rhineland-Palatinate Mainz 19,847 4,052,803 132 32,800

Saarland Saarbrücken 2,569 995,597 35 35,400

Saxony Dresden 18,416 4,084,851 113 27,800

Saxony-Anhalt Magdeburg 20,445 2,245,470 57 25,200

Schleswig-Holstein Kiel 15,763 2,858,714 86 31,200

Thuringia Erfurt 16,172 2,170,714 57 26,400

Germany Berlin 357,376 82,175,684 3025 37,100

Foreign relations Main article: Foreign relations of Germany

Germany
Germany
hosted the G20
G20
summit in Hamburg, 7–8 July 2017

Germany
Germany
has a network of 227 diplomatic missions abroad[120] and maintains relations with more than 190 countries.[121] As of 2011[update], Germany
Germany
is the largest contributor to the budget of the European Union
European Union
(providing 20%)[122] and the third largest contributor to the UN (providing 8%).[123] Germany
Germany
is a member of NATO, the OECD, the G8, the G20, the World Bank
World Bank
and the IMF. It has played an influential role in the European Union
European Union
since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France
France
and all neighbouring countries since 1990. Germany
Germany
promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.[124][125] The development policy of Germany
Germany
is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations. The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community.[126] It was the world's third biggest aid donor in 2009 after the United States
United States
and France.[127][128] In 1999, Chancellor Gerhard Schröder's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO
NATO
decisions surrounding the Kosovo War
Kosovo War
and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since 1945.[129] The governments of Germany
Germany
and the United States
United States
are close political allies.[40] Cultural ties and economic interests have crafted a bond between the two countries resulting in Atlanticism.[130] Military Main article: Bundeswehr

Play media

The Eurofighter Typhoon
Eurofighter Typhoon
is part of the Luftwaffe fleet

Germany's military, the Bundeswehr, is organised into Heer (Army and special forces KSK), Marine (Navy), Luftwaffe (Air Force), Bundeswehr Joint Medical Service and Streitkräftebasis
Streitkräftebasis
(Joint Support Service) branches. In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.[131] In 2015, military spending was at €32.9 billion, about 1.2% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO
NATO
target of 2%.[132] As of 2017[update] the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
employed roughly 178,000 service members, including about 9,000 volunteers.[133] Reservists are available to the Armed Forces and participate in defence exercises and deployments abroad.[134] Since 2001 women may serve in all functions of service without restriction.[135] About 19,000 female soldiers are on active duty. According to SIPRI, Germany
Germany
was the fifth largest exporter of major arms in the world from 2012–2016.[136]

A German Navy
German Navy
Brandenburg-class frigate
Brandenburg-class frigate
(Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)

In peacetime, the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
is commanded by the Minister of Defence. In state of defence, the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr.[137] The role of the Bundeswehr
Bundeswehr
is described in the Constitution
Constitution
of Germany as defensive only. But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in 1994 the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany
Germany
anywhere in the world. As of 2017[update], the German military has about 3,600 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1,200 supporting operations against Daesh, 980 in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and 800 in Kosovo.[138] Until 2011, military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst
Zivildienst
(civilian service), or a six-year commitment to (voluntary) emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross. In 2011 conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service.[139][140]

Economy Main article: Economy of Germany

Countries with economy larger than Germany

Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
F800. Germany
Germany
maintains a large automotive industry, and is the world's third largest exporter of goods.[141]

Germany
Germany
has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force, a large capital stock, a low level of corruption,[142] and a high level of innovation.[143] It is the world's third largest exporter of goods,[141] and has the largest national economy in Europe which is also the world's fourth largest by nominal GDP[144] and the fifth one by PPP.[145] The service sector contributes approximately 71% of the total GDP (including information technology), industry 28%, and agriculture 1%.[95] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat
Eurostat
amounts to 4.7% in January 2015, which is the lowest rate of all 28 EU member states.[146] With 7.1% Germany
Germany
also has the lowest youth unemployment rate of all EU member states.[146] According to the OECD
OECD
Germany
Germany
has one of the highest labour productivity levels in the world.[147]

Frankfurt
Frankfurt
is a leading business centre in Europe
Europe
and seat of the ECB.

Germany
Germany
is part of the European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union
European Union
(EU) members and by EU legislation. Germany
Germany
introduced the common European currency, the Euro in 2002.[148][149] It is a member of the Eurozone
Eurozone
which represents around 340 million citizens. Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank, which is headquartered in Frankfurt, the financial centre of continental Europe. Being home to the modern car, the automotive industry in Germany
Germany
is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world,[150] and is the fourth largest by production.[151] The top 10 exports of Germany
Germany
are vehicles, machinery, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipments, pharmaceuticals, transport equipments, basic metals, food products, and rubber and plastics.[152]

Companies Of the world's 500 largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in 2014, the Fortune Global 500, 28 are headquartered in Germany. 30 Germany-based companies are included in the DAX, the German stock market index. Well-known international brands include Mercedes-Benz, BMW, SAP, Volkswagen, Audi, Siemens, Allianz, Adidas, Porsche, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bank
Deutsche Bank
and Bosch.[153] Germany
Germany
is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises, known as the Mittelstand
Mittelstand
model. Around 1,000 of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.[154] Berlin
Berlin
developed a thriving, cosmopolitan hub for startup companies and became a leading location for venture capital funded firms in the European Union.[155] The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in 2015:[156]

Germany
Germany
is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

Rank Name Headquarters Revenue (bil. €) Profit (bil. €) Employees (World)

01. Volkswagen Wolfsburg 237 −1.5 610,000

02. Daimler Stuttgart 166 9.3 284,000

03. E.ON Essen 129 −7.8 56,500

04. Allianz Munich 123 7.3 142,500

05. BMW Munich 102 7.0 122,000

06. Siemens Berlin, Munich 88 8.3 348,000

07. Robert Bosch Stuttgart 78 3.5 375,000

08. BASF Ludwigshafen 78 4.4 108,000

09. Deutsche Telekom Bonn 77 3.6 226,000

010. Metro Düsseldorf 71 0.8 204,000

Transport Main articles: Transport in Germany
Transport in Germany
and Rail transport in Germany

The ICE 3
ICE 3
in Cologne
Cologne
railway station

With its central position in Europe, Germany
Germany
is a transport hub for the continent.[157] Like its neighbours in Western Europe, Germany's road network is among the densest in the world.[158] The motorway (Autobahn) network ranks as the third-largest worldwide in length and is known for its lack of a general speed limit.[159] Germany
Germany
has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. The InterCityExpress
InterCityExpress
or ICE network of the Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
serves major German cities as well as destinations in neighbouring countries with speeds up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[160] The German railways are subsidised by the government, receiving €17.0 billion in 2014.[161] The largest German airports are Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Airport and Munich
Munich
Airport, both hubs of Lufthansa, while Air Berlin
Berlin
has hubs at Berlin
Berlin
Tegel and Düsseldorf. Other major airports include Berlin
Berlin
Schönefeld, Hamburg, Cologne/ Bonn
Bonn
and Leipzig/Halle.[162] The Port of Hamburg
Hamburg
is one of the top twenty largest container ports in the world.[163] Energy and infrastructure Main articles: Energy in Germany, Telecommunications in Germany, and Water supply and sanitation in Germany

Electricity production in Germany
Germany
from 1980 to 2012

In 2008[update], Germany
Germany
was the world's sixth-largest consumer of energy,[164] and 60% of its primary energy was imported.[165] In 2014, energy sources were: oil (35.0%); coal, including lignite (24.6%); natural gas (20.5%); nuclear (8.1%); hydro-electric and renewable sources (11.1%).[166] The government and the nuclear power industry agreed to phase out all nuclear power plants by 2021.[167] It also enforces energy conservation, green technologies, emission reduction activities,[168] and aims to meet the country's electricity demands using 40% renewable sources by 2020. Germany
Germany
is committed to the Paris Agreement
Paris Agreement
and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management, and the renewable energy commercialisation.[169] The country's household recycling rate is among the highest in the world—at around 65%.[170] Nevertheless, the country's total greenhouse gas emissions were the highest in the EU in 2010[update].[171] The German energy transition (Energiewende) is the recognised move to a sustainable economy by means of energy efficiency and renewable energy.[172] Science and technology Main article: Science and technology in Germany

Albert Einstein, physicist. The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
has been awarded to 107 German laureates.

Germany
Germany
is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant. Research and development
Research and development
efforts form an integral part of the economy.[173] The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
has been awarded to 107 German laureates.[174] It produces the second highest number of graduates in science and engineering (31%) after South Korea.[175] In the beginning of the 20th century, German laureates had more awards than those of any other nation, especially in the sciences (physics, chemistry, and physiology or medicine).[176][177] Notable German physicists before the 20th century include Hermann von Helmholtz, Joseph von Fraunhofer
Joseph von Fraunhofer
and Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, among others. Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in 1905 and 1915 respectively. Along with Max Planck, he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics, in which Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
and Max Born later made major contributions.[178] Wilhelm Röntgen
Wilhelm Röntgen
discovered X-rays.[179] Otto Hahn
Otto Hahn
was a pioneer in the fields of radiochemistry and discovered nuclear fission, while Ferdinand Cohn
Ferdinand Cohn
and Robert Koch were founders of microbiology. Numerous mathematicians were born in Germany, including Carl Friedrich Gauss, David Hilbert, Bernhard Riemann, Gottfried Leibniz, Karl Weierstrass, Hermann Weyl
Hermann Weyl
and Felix Klein.

European Space Operations Centre
European Space Operations Centre
(ESOC) in Darmstadt

Germany
Germany
has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers, including Hans Geiger, the creator of the Geiger counter; and Konrad Zuse, who built the first fully automatic digital computer.[180] Such German inventors, engineers and industrialists as Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin,[181] Otto Lilienthal, Gottlieb Daimler, Rudolf Diesel, Hugo Junkers and Karl Benz
Karl Benz
helped shape modern automotive and air transportation technology. German institutions like the German Aerospace Center (DLR) are the largest contributor to ESA. Aerospace engineer Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
developed the first space rocket at Peenemünde and later on was a prominent member of NASA
NASA
and developed the Saturn V
Saturn V
Moon rocket. Heinrich Rudolf Hertz's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.[182] Research institutions in Germany
Germany
include the Max Planck
Max Planck
Society, the Helmholtz Association and the Fraunhofer Society. The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald
Greifswald
hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance.[183] The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize is granted to ten scientists and academics every year. With a maximum of €2.5 million per award it is one of highest endowed research prizes in the world.[184] Tourism Main article: Tourism in Germany Germany
Germany
is the seventh most visited country in the world,[185] with a total of 407 million overnights during 2012.[186] This number includes 68.83 million nights by foreign visitors. In 2012, over 30.4 million international tourists arrived in Germany. Berlin
Berlin
has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.[187] Additionally, more than 30% of Germans
Germans
spend their holiday in their own country, with the biggest share going to Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR43.2 billion to German GDP. Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.5% of German GDP and supports 2 million jobs (4.8% of total employment).[188] Germany
Germany
is well known for its diverse tourist routes, such as the Romantic Road, the Wine Route, the Castle Road, and the Avenue Road. The German Timber-Frame Road
German Timber-Frame Road
(Deutsche Fachwerkstraße) connects towns with examples of these structures.[189][190] Germany's most-visited landmarks include e.g. Neuschwanstein Castle, Cologne
Cologne
Cathedral, Berlin
Berlin
Bundestag, Hofbräuhaus
Hofbräuhaus
Munich, Heidelberg Castle, Dresden
Dresden
Zwinger, Fernsehturm Berlin
Berlin
and Aachen Cathedral. The Europa-Park
Europa-Park
near Freiburg
Freiburg
is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.[191]

Neuschwanstein Castle
Neuschwanstein Castle
in Bavaria

Museum Island in Berlin

Lake Obersee in Bavaria

Europa-Park
Europa-Park
near Freiburg

Stralsund
Stralsund
old town

Demographics Main articles: Demographics of Germany
Demographics of Germany
and Germans

German population development from 1800 to 2010[192]

With a population of 80.2 million according to the 2011 census,[193] rising to 81.5 million as at 30 June 2015[194] and to at least 81.9 million as at 31 December 2015,[195] Germany
Germany
is the most populous country in the European Union, the second most populous country in Europe
Europe
after Russia, and ranks as the 16th most populous country in the world.[196] Its population density stands at 227 inhabitants per square kilometre (588 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Germany
Germany
at birth is 80.19 years (77.93 years for males and 82.58 years for females).[95] The fertility rate of 1.41 children born per woman (2011 estimates), or 8.33 births per 1000 inhabitants, is one of the lowest in the world.[95] Since the 1970s, Germany's death rate has exceeded its birth rate.[197] However, Germany
Germany
is witnessing increased birth rates and migration rates since the beginning of the 2010s,[198] particularly a rise in the number of well-educated migrants.[199][200] Four sizable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.[201] There is a Danish minority (about 50,000) in the northernmost state of Schleswig-Holstein.[201] The Sorbs, a Slavic population of about 60,000, are in the Lusatia
Lusatia
region of Saxony
Saxony
and Brandenburg. The Roma and Sinti
Sinti
live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians
Frisians
live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.[201] Approximately 5 million Germans
Germans
live abroad.[202] Immigrant population Main article: Immigration to Germany After the United States, Germany
Germany
is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.[203][204] As of 2016[update], about ten million of Germany's 82 million residents did not have German citizenship, which makes up 12% of the country's population.[205] The majority of migrants live in western Germany, in particular in urban areas.[206][207]

Germany
Germany
is home to the second-highest number of international migrants.[208]

The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, 22.5% of the country's residents, or more than 18.6 million people, were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent in 2016 (including persons descending or partially descending from ethnic German repatriates).[209] In 2015, 36% of children under 5 were of immigrant or partially immigrant descent.[210] In 2011 census, as people with immigrant background (Personen mit Migrationshintergrund) were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans
Germans
that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after 1955. The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans
Germans
( Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler), followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.[211] In the 1960s and 1970s, the German governments invited "guest workers" (Gastarbeiter) to migrate to Germany
Germany
for work in the German industries. Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany
Germany
after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.[193] In 2015, the Population Division of the United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs listed Germany
Germany
as host to the second-highest number of international migrants worldwide, about 5% or 12 million of all 244 million migrants.[212] Germany
Germany
ranks 7th amongst EU countries and 37th globally in terms of the per centage of migrants who made up part of the country's population. As of 2014[update], the largest national group was from Turkey
Turkey
(2,859,000), followed by Poland
Poland
(1,617,000), Russia
Russia
(1,188,000), and Italy (764,000).[213] 740,000 people have African origins, an increase of 46% since 2011.[209] Since 1987, around 3 million ethnic Germans, mostly from the former Eastern Bloc
Eastern Bloc
countries, have exercised their right of return and emigrated to Germany.[214] Religion Main article: Religion in Germany Upon its establishment in 1871, Germany
Germany
was about two-thirds Protestant[f] and one-third Roman Catholic, with a notable Jewish minority. Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany
Germany
lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following 1945, with West Germany
West Germany
becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany
East Germany
becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies. It continues to diversify after the German reunification in 1990, with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany
Germany
and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants
Protestants
and Muslims.[215]

Baroque
Baroque
Dresden
Dresden
Frauenkirche (Evangelical)

Gothic Cologne
Cologne
Cathedral (Roman Catholic)

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country.[g] These are mostly members of the EKD, which encompasses Lutheran, Reformed
Reformed
and administrative or confessional unions of both traditions dating back to the Prussian Union of 1817.[h] Roman Catholicism is concentrated in the south and west. According to the 2011 German Census, Christianity
Christianity
is the largest religion in Germany, claiming 66.8% of the total population.[216] Relative to the whole population, 31.7% declared themselves as Protestants, including members of the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) (30.8%) and the free churches (German: Evangelische Freikirchen) (0.9%), and 31.2% declared themselves as Roman Catholics.[217] Orthodox believers constituted 1.3%. Other religions accounted for 2.7%. According to the most recent data from 2016, the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively 28.5% and 27.5% of the population.[218][219] Both large churches have lost significant numbers of adherents in recent years. In 2011, 33% of Germans
Germans
were not members of officially recognised religious associations with special status.[217][i] Irreligion in Germany
Germany
is strongest in the former East Germany, which used to be predominantly Protestant
Protestant
before state atheism, and major metropolitan areas.[221][222][223] Islam
Islam
is the second largest religion in the country.[217] In the 2011 census, 1.9% of the census population (1.52 million people) gave their religion as Islam, but this figure is deemed unreliable because a disproportionate number of adherents of this religion (and other religions, such as Judaism) are likely to have made use of their right not to answer the question.[224] Figures from Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst suggest a figure of 4.4 to 4.7 million (around 5.5% of the population) in 2015.[225] A study conducted by the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees found that between 2011 and 2015 the Muslim population rose by 1.2 million people, mostly due to immigration.[226] Most of the Muslims
Muslims
are Sunnis and Alevites
Alevites
from Turkey, but there are a small number of Shi'ites, Ahmadiyyas and other denominations.[227] Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population[217] are Buddhism
Buddhism
with 270,000 adherents, Judaism
Judaism
with 200,000 adherents, and Hinduism
Hinduism
with some 100,000 adherents. All other religious communities in Germany
Germany
have fewer than 50,000 adherents each.[228] Languages Main articles: German language
German language
and Languages of Germany

The Goethe Institut, a German language
German language
academy, in São Paulo, Brazil

German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.[229] Standard German
Standard German
is a West Germanic language and is closely related to and classified alongside Low German, Dutch, Afrikaans, Frisian and English. To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.[230] Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin
Latin
and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most recently English (known as Denglisch). German is written using the Latin
Latin
alphabet. German dialects, traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon, phonology, and syntax.[231] It is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union,[232] and one of the three working languages of the European Commission. German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union, with around 100 million native speakers.[233] Recognised native minority languages in Germany
Germany
are Danish, Low German, Low Rhenish, Sorbian, Romany, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian; they are officially protected by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Kurdish, Polish, the Balkan languages, and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language and 27% in at least two.[229] The Goethe-Institut
Goethe-Institut
is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with 159 institutes. It is offering the study of the German language
German language
and encouraging global cultural exchange.[234] Education Main article: Education in Germany

The Heidelberg University, established in 1386, is a German university of excellence.

Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany
Germany
is primarily organised within the individual federal states. Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years. Primary education usually lasts for four to six years.[235] Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the Gymnasium enrols the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the Realschule
Realschule
for intermediate students lasts six years and the Hauptschule
Hauptschule
prepares pupils for vocational education.[236] The Gesamtschule unifies all secondary education. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree. It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school.[235] This model is well regarded and reproduced all around the world.[237] Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.[238] The general requirement for university is the Abitur. However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.[239][240] According to an OECD
OECD
report in 2014, Germany
Germany
is the world's third leading destination for international study.[241] Germany
Germany
has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany
Germany
include some of the oldest in the world, with Heidelberg University
Heidelberg University
(established in 1386) being the oldest.[242] It is followed by the Leipzig
Leipzig
University (1409), the Rostock University (1419) and the Greifswald
Greifswald
University (1456).[243] The University of Berlin, founded in 1810 by the liberal educational reformer Wilhelm von Humboldt, became the academic model for many European and Western universities. In the contemporary era Germany
Germany
has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Humboldt University Berlin, the University of Bremen, the University of Cologne, TU Dresden, the University of Tübingen, RWTH Aachen, FU Berlin, Heidelberg University, the University of Konstanz, LMU Munich, and the Technical University of Munich.[244] Health Main article: Healthcare in Germany

The Hospice of the Holy Spirit in Lübeck, established in 1286, is a precursor to modern hospitals.[245]

Germany's system of hospices, called spitals, dates from medieval times, and today, Germany
Germany
has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the 1880s,[246] Since the 1880s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system. Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract. According to the World Health Organization, Germany's health care system was 77% government-funded and 23% privately funded as of 2013[update].[247] In 2014, Germany spent 11.3% of its GDP on health care.[248] Germany
Germany
ranked 20th in the world in life expectancy with 77 years for men and 82 years for women, and it had a very low infant mortality rate (4 per 1,000 live births).[247] In 2010[update], the principal cause of death was cardiovascular disease, at 41%, followed by malignant tumours, at 26%.[249] In 2008[update], about 82,000 Germans
Germans
had been infected with HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
and 26,000 had died from the disease (cumulatively, since 1982).[250] According to a 2005 survey, 27% of German adults are smokers.[250] Obesity
Obesity
in Germany
Germany
has been increasingly cited as a major health issue. A 2007 study shows Germany
Germany
has the highest number of overweight people in Europe.[251][252] Culture Main article: Culture of Germany

A typical German Weihnachtsmarkt (Christmas market) in Jena

Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Historically, Germany
Germany
has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker ("the land of poets and thinkers"),[253] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.[254] Germany
Germany
is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs, which include Advent wreaths, Christmas pageants, Christmas trees, Stollen
Stollen
cakes, and other practices.[255][256] As of 2016[update] UNESCO
UNESCO
inscribed 41 properties in Germany
Germany
on the World Heritage List.[257] There are a number of public holidays in Germany
Germany
determined by each state; 3 October has been a national day of Germany
Germany
since 1990, celebrated as the Tag der Deutschen Einheit (German Unity Day).[258] Prior to reunification, the day was celebrated on 17 June, in honor of the Uprising of 1953 in East Germany
East Germany
which was brutally suppressed on that date.[259] In the 21st century Berlin
Berlin
has emerged as a major international creative centre.[260] According to the Anholt– GfK
GfK
Nation Brands Index, in 2014 Germany
Germany
was the world's most respected nation among 50 countries (ahead of US, UK, and France).[261][262][263] A global opinion poll for the BBC
BBC
revealed that Germany
Germany
is recognised for having the most positive influence in the world in 2013 and 2014.[264][265] Music Main article: Music of Germany

Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
(1770–1827), composer Symphony No. 5

German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers. Dieterich Buxtehude
Dieterich Buxtehude
composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach
and Georg Friedrich Händel; these men were influential composers of the Baroque
Baroque
period. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart
Leopold Mozart
mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras. Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
and Felix Mendelssohn were important in the early Romantic period. Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss
was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer
Hans Zimmer
are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries.[266] Germany
Germany
is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.[267] German popular music of the 20th and 21st centuries includes the movements of Neue Deutsche Welle, pop, Ostrock, heavy metal/rock, punk, pop rock, indie and schlager pop. German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk
Kraftwerk
and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre.[268] DJs and artists of the techno and house music scenes of Germany
Germany
have become well known (e.g. Felix Jaehn, Paul van Dyk, Paul Kalkbrenner, and Scooter).[269]

Art Main article: German art

C.D. Friedrich, Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog
(1818)

Franz Marc, Roe Deer in the Forest
Forest
(1914)

German painters have influenced western art. Albrecht Dürer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Matthias Grünewald
Matthias Grünewald
and Lucas Cranach the Elder were important German artists of the Renaissance, Peter Paul Rubens and Johann Baptist Zimmermann
Johann Baptist Zimmermann
of the Baroque, Caspar David Friedrich and Carl Spitzweg
Carl Spitzweg
of Romanticism, Max Liebermann
Max Liebermann
of Impressionism
Impressionism
and Max Ernst
Max Ernst
of Surrealism.[270] Such German sculptors as Otto Schmidt-Hofer, Franz Iffland, and Julius Schmidt-Felling
Julius Schmidt-Felling
made important contributions to German art
German art
history in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[271][272] Several German art
German art
groups formed in the 20th century, such as the November Group or Die Brücke
Die Brücke
(The Bridge) and Der Blaue Reiter
Der Blaue Reiter
(The Blue Rider), by the Russian-born Wassily Kandinsky, influenced the development of Expressionism
Expressionism
in Munich
Munich
and Berlin. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Post-World War II art trends in Germany
Germany
can broadly be divided into Neo-expressionism, performance art and Conceptualism. Especially notable neo-expressionists include Georg Baselitz, Anselm Kiefer, Jörg Immendorff, A. R. Penck, Markus Lüpertz, Peter Robert Keil
Peter Robert Keil
and Rainer Fetting. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke, and Neo Rauch. Leading German conceptual artists include or included Bernd and Hilla Becher, Hanne Darboven, Hans-Peter Feldmann, Hans Haacke, Joseph Beuys, HA Schult, Aris Kalaizis, Neo Rauch (New Leipzig
Leipzig
School) and Andreas Gursky
Andreas Gursky
(photography). Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany
Germany
are the documenta, the Berlin Biennale, transmediale and Art Cologne.[270] Architecture Main article: Architecture of Germany Architectural contributions from Germany
Germany
include the Carolingian and Ottonian
Ottonian
styles, which were precursors of Romanesque. Brick Gothic
Brick Gothic
is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance
Renaissance
and Baroque
Baroque
art, regional and typically German elements evolved (e.g. Weser Renaissance
Renaissance
and Dresden
Dresden
Baroque). Among many renowned Baroque
Baroque
masters were Pöppelmann, Balthasar Neumann, Knobelsdorff and the Asam brothers. The Wessobrunner School
Wessobrunner School
exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany
Germany
in the 18th century. The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer, one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer
Feuchtmayer
family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann
Johann Baptist Zimmermann
and Dominikus Zimmermann.[273] Vernacular
Vernacular
architecture in Germany
Germany
is often identified by its timber framing (Fachwerk) traditions and varies across regions, and among carpentry styles.[274][275] When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism
Classicism
and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
style, due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century. Regional historicist styles include the Hanover
Hanover
School, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Style and Dresden's Semper-Nicolai School. Among the most famous of German buildings, the Schloss Neuschwanstein represents Romanesque Revival. Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing, Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring
Bruno Möhring
also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.[276]

Resort architecture
Resort architecture
on Rügen, timber framing in Bernkastel, Hohenzollern Castle
Hohenzollern Castle
in Swabia
Swabia
and the Elbe
Elbe
Philharmonic in Hamburg.

Expressionist architecture
Expressionist architecture
developed in the 1910s in Germany
Germany
and influenced Art Deco
Art Deco
and other modern styles, with e.g. Fritz Höger, Erich Mendelsohn, Dominikus Böhm, and Fritz Schumacher being influential architects. Germany
Germany
was particularly important in the early modernist movement: it is the home of Werkbund initiated by Hermann Muthesius
Hermann Muthesius
(New Objectivity), and of the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
movement founded by Walter Gropius. Consequently, Germany
Germany
is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. He conceived of the glass façade skyscraper.[277] Renowned contemporary architects and offices include Hans Kollhoff, Sergei Tchoban, KK Architekten, Helmut Jahn, Behnisch, GMP, Ole Scheeren, J. Mayer H., OM Ungers, Gottfried Böhm
Gottfried Böhm
and Frei Otto (the last two being Pritzker Prize
Pritzker Prize
winners).[278] Literature and philosophy Main articles: German literature
German literature
and German philosophy

The Brothers Grimm
Brothers Grimm
collected and published popular German folk tales.

German literature
German literature
can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide
Walther von der Vogelweide
and Wolfram von Eschenbach. Well-known German authors include Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
and Theodor Fontane. The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.[279] The Grimms also gathered and codified regional variants of the German language, grounding their work in historical principles; their Deutsches Wörterbuch, or German Dictionary, sometimes called the Grimm dictionary, was begun in 1838 and the first volumes published in 1854.[280] Influential authors of the 20th century include Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll
Heinrich Böll
and Günter Grass.[281] The German book market is the third largest in the world, after the United States and China.[282] The Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Book
Book
Fair is the most important in the world for international deals and trading, with a tradition spanning over 500 years.[283] The Leipzig
Leipzig
Book
Book
Fair also retains a major position in Europe.[284] German philosophy
German philosophy
is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz's contributions to rationalism; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant; the establishment of classical German idealism
German idealism
by Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling; Arthur Schopenhauer's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels; Friedrich Nietzsche's development of perspectivism; Gottlob Frege's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy; Martin Heidegger's works on Being; Oswald Spengler's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt
Frankfurt
School by Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, Herbert Marcuse
Herbert Marcuse
and Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
have been particularly influential.[285] Media Main article: Media of Germany

Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
headquarters in Bonn
Bonn
(centre).

The largest internationally operating media companies in Germany
Germany
are the Bertelsmann
Bertelsmann
enterprise, Axel Springer SE and ProSiebenSat.1 Media. The German Press Agency DPA is also significant. Germany's television market is the largest in Europe, with some 38 million TV households.[286] Around 90% of German households have cable or satellite TV, with a variety of free-to-view public and commercial channels.[287] There are more than 500 public and private radio stations in Germany, with the public Deutsche Welle
Deutsche Welle
being the main German radio and television broadcaster in foreign languages.[288] Germany's national radio network is the Deutschlandradio
Deutschlandradio
while ARD stations are covering local services. Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The papers (and internet portals) with the highest circulation are Bild
Bild
(a tabloid), Die Zeit, Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
and Die Welt, the largest magazines include Der Spiegel, Stern and Focus.[289] The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.[290] The Gamescom
Gamescom
in Cologne
Cologne
is the world's leading gaming convention.[291] Popular game series from Germany
Germany
include Turrican, the Anno series, The Settlers series, the Gothic series, SpellForce, the FIFA Manager series, Far Cry and Crysis. Relevant game developers and publishers are Blue Byte, Crytek, Deep Silver, Kalypso Media, Piranha Bytes, Yager Development, and some of the largest social network game companies like Bigpoint, Gameforge, Goodgame and Wooga.[292] Cinema Main article: Cinema of Germany German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in 1895. The renowned Babelsberg Studio
Babelsberg Studio
in Berlin's suburb Potsdam
Potsdam
was established in 1912, thus being the first large-scale film studio in the world. Today it is Europe's largest studio.[293] Other early and still active studios include UFA and Bavaria
Bavaria
Film. Early German cinema was particularly influential with German expressionists such as Robert Wiene
Robert Wiene
and Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau. Director Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1927) is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.[294] In 1930 Josef von Sternberg
Josef von Sternberg
directed The Blue Angel, the first major German sound film, with Marlene Dietrich.[295] Films of Leni Riefenstahl
Leni Riefenstahl
set new artistic standards, in particular Triumph of the Will.[296]

Babelsberg Studio
Babelsberg Studio
near Berlin, the world's first large-scale film studio

After 1945, many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm (rubble film). Such films included Wolfgang Staudte's Die Mörder sind unter uns (The Murderers are among us, 1946) and Irgendwo in Berlin
Berlin
(Somewhere in Berlin, 1946) by Werner Krien. Notable East German films were largely produced by DEFA and included Ehe im Schatten (Marriage in the Shadows) by Kurt Maetzig (1947), Der Untertan (1951); Die Geschichte vom kleinen Muck (The Story of Little Muck, 1953), Konrad Wolf's Der geteilte Himmel (Divided Heaven) (1964) and Frank Beyer's Jacob the Liar (1975). The defining film genre in West Germany
West Germany
of the 1950s was arguably the Heimatfilm ("homeland film"); these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.[297] Characteristic for the films of the 1960s were genre films including Edgar Wallace and Karl May adaptations. One of the most successful German movie series of the 1970s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report
Schulmädchen-Report
(Schoolgirl Report). During the 1970s and 1980s, New German Cinema directors such as Volker Schlöndorff, Werner Herzog, Wim Wenders, and Rainer Werner Fassbinder
Rainer Werner Fassbinder
brought West German auteur cinema to critical acclaim. Among the box office hits, there were films such as Chariots of the Gods (1970), Das Boot
Das Boot
(The Boat, 1981), The Never Ending Story (1984), Otto – The Movie (1985), Run Lola Run
Run Lola Run
(1998), Manitou's Shoe (2001), the Resident Evil series (2002–2016), Good Bye, Lenin!
Good Bye, Lenin!
(2003), Head On (2004), The White Ribbon
The White Ribbon
(2009), Animals United
Animals United
(2010), and Cloud Atlas (2012). The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film ("Oscar") went to the German production Die Blechtrommel (The Tin Drum) in 1979, to Nirgendwo in Afrika (Nowhere in Africa) in 2002, and to Das Leben der Anderen (The Lives of Others) in 2007. Various Germans
Germans
won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films.[298] The annual European Film Awards ceremony is held every other year in Berlin, home of the European Film Academy. The Berlin
Berlin
International Film Festival, known as "Berlinale", awarding the "Golden Bear" and held annually since 1951, is one of the world's leading film festivals.[299] The "Lolas" are annually awarded in Berlin, at the German Film Awards, that have been presented since 1951.[300] Cuisine Main article: German cuisine

Black Forest
Forest
Gâteau, a German dessert

German cuisine
German cuisine
varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities (e.g. the southern regions of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Swabia
Swabia
share some traditions with Switzerland
Switzerland
and Austria). International varieties such as pizza, sushi, Chinese food, Greek food, Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
and doner kebab are also popular and available, thanks to diverse ethnic communities. Bread is a significant part of German cuisine
German cuisine
and German bakeries produce about 600 main types of bread and 1,200 different types of pastries and rolls (Brötchen). German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.[301] In 2012 over 99% of all meat produced in Germany
Germany
was either pork, chicken or beef. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1,500 varieties, including Bratwursts, Weisswursts, and Currywursts.[302] In 2012, organic foods accounted for 3.9% of total food sales.[303] Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine
German wine
regions,[304] the national alcoholic drink is beer. German beer consumption per person stands at 110 litres (24 imp gal; 29 US gal) in 2013 and remains among the highest in the world.[305] German beer purity regulations date back to the 15th century.[306] The 2015 Michelin Guide
Michelin Guide
awarded eleven restaurants in Germany
Germany
three stars, the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and 233 one star.[307] German restaurants have become the world's second-most decorated after France.[308][309] Sports Main article: Sport in Germany

The German national football team after winning the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
for the fourth time in 2014. Football is the most popular sport in Germany.

Twenty-seven million Germans
Germans
are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually.[310] Association football is the most popular sport. With more than 6.3 million official members, the German Football Association
German Football Association
(Deutscher Fußball-Bund) is the largest sports organisation of its kind worldwide, and the German top league, the Bundesliga, attracts the second highest average attendance of all professional sports leagues in the world.[310] The German men's national football team won the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
in 1954, 1974, 1990, and 2014, the UEFA European Championship in 1972, 1980 and 1996, and the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2017. Germany
Germany
hosted the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
in 1974 and 2006 and the UEFA European Championship
UEFA European Championship
in 1988. Other popular spectator sports include winter sports, boxing, basketball, handball, volleyball, ice hockey, tennis, horse riding and golf. Water sports
Water sports
like sailing, rowing, and swimming are popular in Germany
Germany
as well.[310] Germany
Germany
is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world. Constructors like BMW
BMW
and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche
Porsche
has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans
24 Hours of Le Mans
race 19 times, and Audi
Audi
13 times (as of 2017[update]). The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships, more than any other. He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history.[311] Sebastian Vettel is also among the top five most successful Formula One drivers of all time.[312] Also Nico Rosberg
Nico Rosberg
won the Formula One World Championship. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games, ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games
Olympic Games
medal count (when combining East and West German medals). Germany
Germany
was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in 1936 the Berlin
Berlin
Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.[313] In Munich
Munich
it hosted the Summer Games of 1972.[314] Fashion and design Main article: German fashion

Claudia Schiffer, German supermodel

German designers became early leaders of modern product design, with the Bauhaus
Bauhaus
designers like Mies van der Rohe, and Dieter Rams
Dieter Rams
of Braun being essential pioneers.[315] Germany
Germany
is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1,300 companies with more than 130,000 employees in 2010, which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro. Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported.[316] The Berlin Fashion Week and the fashion trade fair Bread & Butter are held twice a year.[317] Munich, Hamburg, Cologne
Cologne
and Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.[318] Renowned fashion designers from Germany
Germany
include Karl Lagerfeld, Jil Sander, Wolfgang Joop, Philipp Plein
Philipp Plein
and Michael Michalsky. Important brands include Hugo Boss, Escada, Adidas, Puma, Esprit and Triumph. The German supermodels Claudia Schiffer, Heidi Klum, Tatjana Patitz, Nadja Auermann
Nadja Auermann
and Toni Garrn, among others, have come to international fame.[319] See also

Germany
Germany
portal Europe
Europe
portal

Index of Germany-related articles Outline of Germany Germany
Germany
– book

Notes

^ In the recognized minority languages and the most spoken minority language of Germany:

Danish: Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Zwjazkowa Republika Němska Lower Sorbian: Nimska Zwězkowa Republika Romani: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Bûnsrepublyk Dútslân Turkish: Almanya Federal Cumhuriyeti

^ From 1952 to 1990, the Deutschlandlied
Deutschlandlied
was the national anthem but only the third verse was sung on official occasions. Since 1991, the third verse alone has been the national anthem.[1] ^ Berlin
Berlin
is the sole constitutional capital and de jure seat of government, but the former provisional capital of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, has the special title of "federal city" (Bundesstadt) and is the primary seat of six ministries; all government ministries have offices in both cities. ^ Danish, Low German, Sorbian, Romany, and Frisian are recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages ^ IPA transcription of "Bundesrepublik Deutschland": [ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant] ^ German Protestantism has been overwhelmingly a mixture of Lutheran, Reformed
Reformed
(i.e. Calvinist), and United ( Lutheran
Lutheran
& Reformed/Calvinist) churches, with Baptists, Pentecostals, Methodists, and various other Protestants
Protestants
being only a recent development. ^ Lutheranism
Lutheranism
is found mostly throughout northern Germany, Württemberg
Württemberg
and parts of Franconia; Calvinism
Calvinism
in the extreme northwest and Lippe, while the United churches throughout the remainder of Germany. ^ Although the first such union between Lutheran
Lutheran
and Calvinist Protestants
Protestants
happened in August 1817 in the Duchy of Nassau
Duchy of Nassau
(a confessional union, see Unionskirche, Idstein); that is before the Prussian Union of September 1817. There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. ^ Such organizations are corporations under public law with the power to levy compulsory taxes on their members. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax (and certain other taxes) in Bavaria
Bavaria
and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.[220] Most people who leave the church do so in order to avoid paying these taxes.[220]

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Germany
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News. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011. Retrieved 28 March 2011.  ^ "Organization 1950–1954". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ "ZDB OPAC – start/text". d-nb.de. Retrieved 1 April 2015.  ^ Purchese, Robert (17 August 2009). "Germany's video game market". Eurogamer.net. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2012.  ^ "Press releases". gamescom Press Center. 2014. Archived from the original on 10 February 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ "Made in Germany: The most important games from Germany
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States

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Brandenburg
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Hesse
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(since 1990)    North Rhine-Westphalia
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Württemberg-Hohenzollern
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autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark

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autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921

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unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard
Svalbard
Treaty

United Kingdom

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country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
subject to the British-Irish Agreement

1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe
Europe
are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf. 2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe
Europe
are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links.

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Representative

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G8+5

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See also

Group of Six Group of Seven G7+1

v t e

G20
G20
major economies

 Argentina  Australia  Brazil  Canada  China  European Union  France  Germany  India  Indonesia  Italy  Japan  Mexico  Russia  Saudi Arabia  South Africa   Republic
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of Korea  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States

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Issues

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Ministerial Conferences

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People

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Roberto Azevêdo
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Members

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Special
Special
administrative regions of the People's Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Officially the Republic
Republic
of China, participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu", and "Chinese Taipei" in short.

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Council of Europe

Institutions

Secretary General Committee of Ministers Parliamentary Assembly Congress Court of Human Rights Commissioner for Human Rights Commission for the Efficiency of Justice Commission against Racism and Intolerance

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia1 Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

Observers

Canada Holy See Israel Japan Mexico United States Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Former members

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(1991–1992) Saar (assoc. 1950–1956)

1 Provisionally referred to by the Council of Europe
Europe
as "the former Yugoslav Republic
Republic
of Macedonia"; see Macedonia naming dispute.

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Organization for Security
Security
and Co-operation in Europe
Europe
(OSCE)

Members

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Canada Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Holy See Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Tajikistan Turkey Turkmenistan Ukraine United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan

Partners for Cooperation

Afghanistan Algeria Australia Egypt Israel Japan Jordan Morocco South Korea Thailand Tunisia

Bodies and posts

Parliamentary Assembly ODIHR Commissioner on National Minorities Representative on Freedom of the Media

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 127773629 LCCN: n80125931 GND: 4011882-4 HDS: 3352 NDL: 0056

.