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Bundahishn
Bundahishn[pronunciation?], meaning "Primal Creation", is the name traditionally given to an encyclopediaic collection of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology written in Book Pahlavi.[1] The original name of the work is not known. Although the Bundahishn draws on the Avesta
Avesta
and develops ideas alluded to in those texts, it is not itself scripture. The content reflects Zoroastrian scripture, which, in turn, reflects both ancient Zoroastrian and pre-Zoroastrian beliefs
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Roman Numerals
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals
Roman numerals
originated in ancient Rome
Rome
and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin
Latin
alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols:[1]Symbol I V X L C D MValue 1 5 10 50 100 500 1,000The use of Roman numerals
Roman numerals
continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire
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Recension
Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis.[1] When referring to manuscripts, this may be a revision by another author. The term is derived from Latin recensio "review, analysis". In textual criticism, particularly Biblical scholarship, the count noun "recension" may be used to refer to a family of manuscripts sharing similar traits;[2] for example, the Alexandrian text-type
Alexandrian text-type
may be referred to as the "Alexandrian recension"
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Zoroastrianism In The United States
This article focuses on Zoroastrianism in the United States. Overview[edit] The oldest fire temple in the United States was one purchased by Arbab Rustam Guiv in New Rochelle. The most notable fire temple in the United States is the Dar-e-Mehr temple located in Pomona, New York. It was purchased in 2001 and subsequently purpose-built with Zoroastriasn tenets and then inaugurated in April 2016.[1] Demographics[edit] In 2006, The United States had the world's third-largest Zoroastrian population at six thousand adherents.[2] Based on mailing addresses rather than congregations, there are two U.S. counties where Zoroastrians constitute the second-largest religion after Christianity
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Mazdak
Part of a series on Nizari-Ismāʿīli Batiniyya, Hurufiyya, Kaysanites and Twelver
Twelver
Shī‘ismAlevismBeliefsAllah Quran Haqq–Muhammad–Ali Prophet Muḥammad ibn `Abd Allāh Muhammad-Ali Islamic prophet Zahir Batin Buyruks Tariqat Haqiqa Marifat Wahdat al-wujud Wahdat al-mawjud Baqaa Fana Haal Ihsan Kashf Nafs Keramat Al-Insān al-Kāmil Lataif Four Doors Manzil Nûr Sulook Yaqeen Devriye Poetry Cosmology Philosophy PsychologyPracticesZakat Zeyārat Taqiyya Ashura Hıdırellez Nowruz Saya Mawlid Music Düşkünlük Meydanı Fasting MüsahiplikThe Twelve ImamsAli Hasan Husayn al-Abidin al-Baqir a
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Zoroastrian Cosmology
Zoroastrian cosmology is divided in four periods of 3,000 years. Zoroaster
Zoroaster
was born in the beginning of the fourth period, to be succeeded at the end of each next millennium by a new saviour. When Saoshyant, the third and last saviour would come the last judgment and the creation of a new world.[1] Creation of the universe[edit] Main article: Zoroastrianism According to the Zoroastrian story of creation, Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
existed in light and goodness above, while Angra Mainyu
Angra Mainyu
existed in darkness and ignorance below. They have existed independently of each other for all time, and manifest contrary substances. Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
first created seven abstract heavenly beings called Amesha Spentas, who support him and represent beneficent aspects, along with numerous yazads, lesser beings worthy of worship
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Cosmology
Cosmology
Cosmology
(from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe
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Book Pahlavi
Phli, 131  (Inscriptional Pahlavi) Prti, 130  (Inscriptional Parthian) Phlp, 132  (Psalter Pahlavi) Phlv, 133  (Book Pahlavi) Unicode
Unicode
aliasInscriptional Pahlavi Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10B60–U+10B7F Inscriptional Pahlavi U+10B40–U+10B5F Inscriptional Parthian U+10B80–U+10BAF Psalter PahlaviHistory of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c
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101 Names Of God
In Zoroastrianism, 101 names of God ( Pazand
Pazand
Sad-o-yak nam-i-khoda) is a list of names of God (Ahura Mazda). The list is preserved in Persian, Pazand
Pazand
and Gujarati
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Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Cosmogony
(or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.[1][2] Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Compared with cosmology 4 Theoretical scenarios 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Koine Greek
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Islam In Iran
The Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651) led to the end of the Sasanian Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity. Islam has been the official religion of Iran since then, except for a short duration after the Mongol raids and establishment of Ilkhanate. Iran became an Islamic republic after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. Before the Islamic conquest, the Persians had been mainly Zoroastrian; however, there were also large and thriving Christian and Jewish communities, especially in the territories of at that time northwestern, western, and southern Iran, mainly Caucasian Albania, Asōristān, Persian Armenia, and Caucasian Iberia. Eastern Sassanian Iran, what is now solely composed of Afghanistan and Central Asia, was predominantly Buddhist. There was a slow but steady movement of the population toward Islam
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Persecution Of Zoroastrians
Persecution of Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
is the religious persecution inflicted upon the followers of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
faith. The persecution of Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
occurred throughout the religion's history. The discrimination and harassment began in the form of sparse violence and forced conversions. Muslims
Muslims
are recorded to have destroyed fire temples. Zoroastrians
Zoroastrians
living under Muslim
Muslim
rule were required to pay a tax called Jizya.[1] Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
places of worship were desecrated, shrines were destroyed and mosques were built in their place. Many libraries were burned and much of their cultural heritage was lost
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Faravahar
The Faravahar
Faravahar
(Persian: فروهر‎), also known as Farr-e Kiyani (فر کیانی), is one of the best-known symbols of Iran. It symbolizes Zoroastrianism, the main religion of pre-Islamic Persia, and Iranian nationalism.[1][2] The Faravahar
Faravahar
is the most worn pendant among Iranians and has become a secular national symbol, rather than a religious symbol. It symbolizes good thoughts (پندار نیک pendār-e nik), good words (گفتار نیک goftār-e nik) and good deeds (کردار نیک kerdār-e nik), which are the basic tenets and principles of Zoroastrianism.Contents1 Etymology 2 In Iranian culture 3 Gallery 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The New Persian
New Persian
word فروهر is read as forouhar or faravahar (it was pronounced as furōhar in Classical Persian)
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Irani (India)
The Irani are an ethno-religious community in South Asia; they belong to the Zoroastrians who emigrated from Iran
Iran
to South Asia
South Asia
in the 19th and 20th centuries.[1] They are culturally, linguistically, ethnically and socially distinct from the Parsis, who – although also Zoroastrians – emigrated to the Indian subcontinent from Greater Iran
Iran
many centuries before the Iranis did.Contents1 Distinction from Parsis 2 History 3 Notable Iranis 4 See also 5 ReferencesDistinction from Parsis[edit] The Parsis
Parsis
and Iranis are considered legally distinct
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Ahura Mazda
Ahura Mazda
Mazda
(/əˌhʊərə ˈmæzdə/;[1] also known as Ohrmazd, Auramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz; Avestan: 𐬀𐬵𐬎𐬭𐬀 𐬨𐬀𐬰𐬛𐬁, Ahura Mazdā; Old Persian: 𐏈, A(h)uramazdā; Persian: اهورامزدا‬, Ahurâ-Mazdâ; Aramaic: 𐡀𐡄𐡅𐡓𐡌𐡆𐡃‬; Akkadian: 𒀭𒀀𒄷𒊒𒈠𒊍𒁕, Aḫurumazda-;[2] Elamite: 𒀭𒌋𒊏𒈦𒁕, Uramasda)[3] is the Avestan
Avestan
name for the creator and sole God
God
of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran. Ahura Mazda
Mazda
is described as the highest spirit of worship in Zoroastrianism, along with being the first and most frequently invoked spirit in the Yasna
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