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Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Tallinn
The Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
Cathedral
Cathedral
(Estonian: Aleksander Nevski katedraal) is an orthodox cathedral in the Tallinn
Tallinn
Old Town, Estonia. It was built to a design by Mikhail Preobrazhensky in a typical Russian Revival style between 1894 and 1900,[1] during the period when the country was part of the Russian Empire. The Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
Cathedral is Tallinn's largest and grandest orthodox cupola cathedral
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Vladimir The Great
Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great
(also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Old East Slavic: Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь,[3] Old Norse Valdamarr gamli;[4] c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
from 980 to 1015.[5][6] Vladimir's father was prince Sviatoslav of the Rurik dynasty.[7] After the death of his father in 972, Vladimir, who was then prince of Novgorod, was forced to flee to Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in 976 after his brother Yaropolk had murdered his other brother Oleg and conquered Rus'
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Kalevipoeg
Kalevipoeg
Kalevipoeg
(Estonian: [ˈkɑlʲeʋipoe̯k], Kalev's Son) is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald
held to be the Estonian national epic.Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 Characters 4 Synopsis 5 Structure5.1 Poetic structure 5.2 Contents and synopses6 Comparative mythology 7 Editions 8 Further reading 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksOrigins[edit] There existed an oral tradition within Ancient Estonia
Estonia
of legends explaining the origin of the world. Within old Estonian folklore, a malevolent giant by the name of Kalev, Kalevine, Kalevipoiss, Kalevine posikine and Kalevin Poika appears, battling with other giants or enemies of the nation
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Estonia
Estonia
Estonia
(/ɛˈstoʊniə/ ( listen);[11][12] Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsti]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Estonia
Estonia
(Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.[13] It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
with Finland
Finland
on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia
Latvia
(343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
and Russia
Russia
(338.6 km).[14] Across the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
lies Sweden
Sweden
in the west and Finland
Finland
in the north
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Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, Warsaw
The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Polish: Sobór św. Aleksandra Newskiego, Russian: Александро-Невский собор в Варшаве) was a Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Saxon Square[1] built in Warsaw, Poland, then a part of the Russian Empire. The cathedral was designed by distinguished Russian architect Leon Benois, and was built between 1894 and 1912. When it was finally completed, it was 70 metres in height, at that time, the tallest building in Warsaw. It was demolished in mid-1920s by the Polish authorities less than 15 years after its construction. The negative connotations in Poland associated with Russian imperial policy towards Poland, and belief it was built purposely to hurt Polish national feelings,[2] was cited as the major motive by the proponents of the demolition, especially since the church occupied one of Warsaw's main squares
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Iconostasis
In Eastern Christianity
Christianity
an iconostasis (plural: iconostases) is a wall of icons and religious paintings, separating the nave from the sanctuary in a church. Iconostasis
Iconostasis
also refers to a portable icon stand that can be placed anywhere within a church. The iconostasis evolved from the Byzantine templon, a process complete by the fifteenth century. A direct comparison for the function of the main iconostasis can be made to the layout of the great Temple in Jerusalem. That Temple was designed with three parts. The holiest and inner-most portion was that where the Ark of the Covenant was kept. This portion, the Holy of Holies, was separated from the second larger part of the building's interior by a curtain, the "veil of the temple". Only the High Priest was allowed to enter the Holy of Holies. The third part was the entrance court
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St. Sergius Of Radonezh
Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Russian: Се́ргий Ра́донежский, Sergii Radonezhsky; 14 May 1314 – 25 September 1392), also transliterated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh, was a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia. Together with Venerable Seraphim of Sarov, he is one of the Russian Orthodox Church's most highly venerated saints.Contents1 Early life 2 Monastic life 3 Death and canonization 4 Legacy 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit]Vision to the Youth Bartholomew, by Mikhail Nesterov (1890).The date of his birth is unclear: it could be 1314, 1319, or 1322
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Saint Petersburg
Saint
Saint
Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] ( listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with five million inhabitants in 2012.[9] An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city). Situated on the Neva
Neva
River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar
Tsar
Peter the Great
Peter the Great
on May 27 [O.S. 16] 1703
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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USSR
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Estonians
Estonians
Estonians
(Estonian: eestlased) are a Finnic ethnic group that mainly inhabit Estonia
Estonia
and speak Estonian language.Contents1 History1.1 Prehistoric roots 1.2 National consciousness2 Emigration2.1 Estonians
Estonians
in Canada3 See also 4 Notes and references 5 Further reading 6 External linksHistory[edit] Prehistoric roots[edit] Estonia
Estonia
was first inhabited about 10,000 years ago, just after the Baltic ice lake
Baltic ice lake
had retreated from Estonia
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Russification
Russification
Russification
(Russian: Русификация), or Russianization, is a form of cultural assimilation process during which non-Russian communities, voluntarily or not, give up their culture and language in favor of the Russian one. In a historical sense, the term refers to both official and unofficial policies of Imperial Russia
Imperial Russia
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with respect to their national constituents and to national minorities in Russia, aimed at Russian domination. The major areas of Russification
Russification
are politics and culture. In politics, an element of Russification
Russification
is assigning Russian nationals to leading administrative positions in national institutions
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Consecration
Consecration
Consecration
is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service, usually religious. The word consecration literally means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, and the term is used in various ways by different groups
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Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus[1] (Estonian: Peipsi-Pihkva järv; Russian: Псковско-Чудское озеро (Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero), German: Peipussee), the largest transboundary lake in Europe, lies on the border between Estonia
Estonia
and Russia. The lake is the fifth-largest in Europe
Europe
after Lake Ladoga
Lake Ladoga
and Lake Onega (in Russia
Russia
north of St. Petersburg), Lake Vänern
Vänern
(in Sweden), and Lake Saimaa
Lake Saimaa
(in Finland). Lake Peipus
Lake Peipus
represents a remnant of a body of water which existed in this area during an Ice Age
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Battle Of The Ice
Decisive Novgorodian victoryTeutonic order dropped all territorial claims over Russian landsBelligerents Novgorod Republic Grand Duchy of Vladimir Pskov Republic Livonian Order Bishopric of Dorpat Kingdom of DenmarkCommanders and leaders Alexander Nevsky Andrey Yaroslavich Hermann of DorpatStrength5,000[1] 2,600[2]Casualties and lossesNo exact figuresLivonian Rhymed Chronicle: 20 knights killed 6 knights captured Novgorod First Chronicle: 400 Germans killed 50 Germans imprisoned "Countless" Estonians killed[3]The Battle on the Ice (Russian: Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye; German: Schlacht auf dem Eise; Estonian: Jäälahing; German: Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus
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