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Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), is the second-largest city in Russia. It is situated on the
Neva River The Neva (russian: Нева́, ; fi, Neva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the ...

Neva River
, at the head of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
on the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, with a population of roughly 5.4 million residents. Saint Petersburg is the fourth-most populous city in Europe, the
most populous city The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities in all jurisdictions are classified using the same criteria. Cities may be defined as the city proper, cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or the ...
on the Baltic Sea, as well as the world's northernmost city with over 1 million residents. As Russia's Imperial capital, and a historically strategic port, it is governed as a
federal city The term federal city is a title for certain cities in Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , languages_type = Official language , languages = Ger ...

federal city
. The city was founded by Tsar
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
on 27 May 1703 on the site of a captured Swedish fortress, and was named after apostle
Saint Peter Saint Peter; he, שמעון בר יונה, Šimʿōn bar Yōnāh; ar, سِمعَان بُطرُس, translit=Simʿa̅n Buṭrus; grc-gre, Πέτρος, Petros; cop, Ⲡⲉⲧⲣⲟⲥ, Petros; lat, Petrus; ar, شمعون الصفـا, Sham ...

Saint Peter
. Saint Petersburg is historically and culturally associated with the birth of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and Russia's entry into modern history as a European great power. It served as a capital of the
Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, translit=Russkoye tsarstvo, later changed to: ), also externally referenced as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the centralized Russian state from the assumption of the ...
and the subsequent Russian Empire from 1713 to 1918 (being replaced by Moscow for a short period of time between 1728 and 1730). After the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
in 1917, the
Bolsheviks The Bolsheviks (Russian language, Russian: Большевики, from большинство ''bolshinstvo'', 'majority'),; derived from ''bol'shinstvo'' (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority". also know ...
moved their government to Moscow. Saint Petersburg is known as the "Cultural Capital of Russia," and received over 15 million tourists in 2018. It is considered an important economic, scientific, cultural, and tourism centre of Russia and Europe. In modern times, the city has the nickname of the "Northern Capital" and serves as a home to some federal government bodies such as the
Constitutional Court of Russia The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (russian: Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presid ...
and the Heraldic Council of the President of the Russian Federation. It is also a seat for the
National Library of Russia The National Library of Russia in St Petersburg, Saint Petersburg (known as the ''Imperial Public Library'' from 1795 to 1917; ''Russian Public Library'' from 1917 to 1925; ''State Public Library'' from 1925 to 1992 (since 1932 named after Mikh ...
and a planned location for the
Supreme Court of Russia The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (russian: links=no, Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, Private law, ...
, as well as the home to the headquarters of the
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship that serve ...
, and the
Western Military District The Western Military District (Russian: Западный военный округ) is a military district of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Nort ...
of the
Russian Armed Forces The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, commonly known as the Russian Armed Forces, are the military forces of the Russian Federation Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
. The
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments is the name used by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et ...
constitute a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. Saint Petersburg is home to the
Hermitage
Hermitage
, one of the largest
art museum An art museum is a building or space for the display of art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, ...

art museum
s in the world, the
Lakhta Center The Lakhta Center () is an 87-storey skyscraper built in the northwestern neighborhood of Lakhta in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Standing tall, it is the List of tallest buildings in Russia, tallest building in Russia, the List of tallest buildin ...

Lakhta Center
, the tallest skyscraper in Europe, and was one of the host cities of the 2018 FIFA World Cup and the
UEFA Euro 2020 The 2020 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2020 or simply Euro 2020, is scheduled to be the 16th UEFA European Championship, the Anniversary#Latin-derived numerical names, quadrennial international men's ass ...
.


Etymology

A proponent of westernising Russia,
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
, the then
Tsar Tsar ( or ), also spelled ''czar'', ''tzar'', or ''csar'', is a Royal and noble ranks, title used to designate Orthodox Slavs, East and South Slavic monarchs. In this last capacity it lends its name to a system of government, tsarist autocra ...

Tsar
, who established the city, originally named it () in Dutch manner and later its spelling was standardised as Sankt-Peterburg () under German influence. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the Imperial government renamed the city ''Petrograd'' ( rus, links=no, Петроград, p=pʲɪtrɐˈgrat), meaning 'Peter's city', in order to expunge the German words and . On 26 January 1924, shortly after the death of
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
, it was renamed to ''Leningrad'' ( rus, links=no, Ленинград, p=lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat), meaning 'Lenin's City'. On 6 September 1991, the original name, ''Sankt-Peterburg'', was returned by citywide referendum. Today, in English the city is known as ''Saint Petersburg''. Local residents often refer to the city by its shortened nickname, ''Piter'' ( rus, links=no, Питер, p=ˈpʲitʲɪr). A former spelling of the city's name in English was ''Saint Petersburgh'', under the influence of ''burgh''. This spelling survives in the name of a street in the
Bayswater Bayswater is an area within the City of Westminster City of Westminster is an Inner London, inner London City status in the United Kingdom, city and London boroughs, borough. It has been the capital city, ''de facto'', of multiple British g ...

Bayswater
district of London, near St Sophia's Cathedral, named after a visit by the Tsar to London in 1814. Saint Petersburg was traditionally called the "Window to the West" by the Russians. The northernmost metropolis in the world, Saint Petersburg is often called the "
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
of the North" or the "Russian Venice" due to its many water corridors, as the city is built on swamp and water. Furthermore, it has strongly Western European-inspired architecture and culture, which is combined with the city's Russian heritage. Another nickname of St. Petersburg is "The City of the White Nights" because of a natural phenomenon which arises due to the closeness to the
polar region Northern Hemisphere permafrost (permanently frozen ground) in purple The Polar Regions, also called the frigid zones Zone or The Zone may refer to: Places Climate and altitude zones * Death zone (originally the lethal zone), altitudes above a ...
and ensures that in summer the night skies of the city do not get completely dark for a month.


History


Imperial era (1703–1917)

Swedish colonists built Nyenskans, a fortress at the mouth of the
Neva The Neva (russian: Нева́, ; fi, Neva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the ...

Neva
River in 1611, which was later called Ingermanland, which was inhabited by Finnic tribe of
Ingrians The Ingrians ( fi, inkeriläiset / ; russian: Ингерманландцы, translit=Ingermanlandts'i), sometimes called Ingrian Finns, are the Finnish people, Finnish population of Ingria (now the central part of Leningrad Oblast in Russia), desce ...

Ingrians
. The small town of Nyen grew up around it. At the end of the 17th century, Peter the Great, who was interested in seafaring and maritime affairs, wanted Russia to gain a seaport to trade with the rest of Europe. He needed a better seaport than the country's main one at the time,
Arkhangelsk Arkhangelsk (, ; rus, Арха́нгельск, p=ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: P ...
, which was on the
White Sea The White Sea (russian: Белое море, ''Béloye móre''; Karelian language, Karelian and fi, Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; yrk, Сэрако ямʼ, ''Serako yam'') is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of ...
in the far north and closed to shipping during the winter. On , during the
Great Northern War The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia The Tsardom of Russia or Tsardom of Rus' (russian: Русское царство, ''Russkoye tsarstvo''; later changed to: , ''Rossiyskoy ...

Great Northern War
,
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
captured Nyenskans and soon replaced the fortress. On , closer to the
estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime envir ...

estuary
( inland from the
gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in all geographic areas so named. The term gulf was traditionally used for large highly-indented ...
), on Zayachy (Hare) Island, he laid down the
Peter and Paul Fortress The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for adminis ...
, which became the first brick and stone building of the new city. The city was built by conscripted peasants from all over Russia; several Swedish
prisoners of war A prisoner of war (POW) is a non-combatant Non-combatant is a term of art Jargon is the specialized terminology associated with a particular field or area of activity. Jargon is normally employed in a particular Context (language use), co ...
were also involved in some years under the supervision of Alexander Menshikov. Tens of thousands of serfs died building the city. Later, the city became the centre of the
Saint Petersburg Governorate Saint Petersburg Governorate (russian: Санкт-Петербу́ргская губе́рния, ''Sankt-Peterburgskaya guberniya''), or Government of Saint Petersburg, was an administrative division (a ''guberniya'') of the Tsardom of Russia, t ...
. Peter moved the capital from Moscow to Saint Petersburg in 1712, 9 years before the
Treaty of Nystad The Treaty of Nystad (russian: Ништадтский мир; fi, Uudenkaupungin rauha; sv, Freden i Nystad; et, Uusikaupunki rahu) was the last peace treaty of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721. It was concluded between the Tsardom of R ...

Treaty of Nystad
of 1721 ended the war; he referred to Saint Petersburg as the capital (or seat of government) as early as 1704. During its first few years, the city developed around Trinity Square on the right bank of the Neva, near the Peter and Paul Fortress. However, Saint Petersburg soon started to be built out according to a plan. By 1716 the
Swiss Italian The Italian language in Switzerland or Swiss Italian ( it, italiano svizzero) is the variety of the Italian language taught in the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , ...
Domenico Trezzini Image:SPB St. Peter and Paul Cathedral, photochrome 1896-1897 (LoC).jpg, 200px, Peter and Paul Cathedral is the most celebrated work by Domenico Trezzini (image, 1896-97). Domenico Trezzini (c. 1670 – 1734) was a Swiss people, Swiss architec ...
had elaborated a project whereby the city centre would be on
Vasilyevsky Island Vasilyevsky Island (russian: Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
and shaped by a rectangular grid of canals. The project was not completed but is evident in the layout of the streets. In 1716, Peter the Great appointed Frenchman
Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond Jean-Baptiste Alexandre Le Blond (1679 – 10 March 1719) was a French architect and garden designer who became the chief architect of Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leni ...
as the of Saint Petersburg. The style of
Petrine Baroque #REDIRECT Petrine Baroque Petrine Baroque (Rus. Петровское барокко) is a style of 17th and 18th century Baroque architecture Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy in the early 17t ...
, developed by Trezzini and other architects and exemplified by such buildings as the
Menshikov Palace 250px The Menshikov Palace (russian: Меншиковский дворец) is a Petrine Baroque edifice in Saint Petersburg, situated on Universitetskaya Embankment of the Bolshaya Neva on Vasilyevsky Island.It is not to be confused with the Mens ...
,
Kunstkamera The Kunstkamera (or Kunstkammer; russian: Кунсткамера) is the first museum in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List ...

Kunstkamera
,
Peter and Paul Cathedral The Peter and Paul Cathedral (russian: Петропавловский собор) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral located inside the Peter and Paul Fortress The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia ...

Peter and Paul Cathedral
,
Twelve Collegia 300px, The historic building of the Twelve Collegia now houses the Saint Petersburg State University. The Twelve Collegia, or Twelve Colleges (russian: Двeнaдцaть Коллегий), is the largest edifice from the Petrine era remaining in ...
, became prominent in the city architecture of the early 18th century. In 1724 the
Academy of Sciences An academy of sciences is a type of or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to s that may or may not be state funded. Some state funded academies are tuned into or royal (in case of the i.e. Royal ) as a form of honor. ...
,
University A university () is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in several Discipline (academia), academic disciplines. Universities typ ...
and Academic Gymnasium were established in Saint Petersburg by Peter the Great. In 1725, Peter died at age fifty-two. His endeavors to modernize Russia had met with opposition from the
Russian nobility #REDIRECT Russian nobility The Russian nobility (russian: дворянство ''dvoryanstvo'') originated in the 14th century. In 1914 it consisted of approximately 1,900,000 members (about 1.1% of the population). Up until the February Revolut ...
—resulting in several attempts on his life and a treason case involving his son. In 1728,
Peter II of Russia Peter II Alexeyevich (Russian: Пётр II Алексеевич, ''Pyotr II Alekseyevich'') ( – ) reigned as Emperor of Russia The emperor or empress of all the Russias or All Russia, ''Imperator Vserossiyskiy'', ''Imperatritsa Vserossiyskaya'' ( ...

Peter II of Russia
moved his seat back to Moscow. But four years later, in 1732, under Empress
Anna of Russia Anna Ioannovna (russian: Анна Иоанновна; ), also russified as Anna Ivanovna and sometimes anglicized Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying f ...

Anna of Russia
, Saint Petersburg was again designated as the capital of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
. It remained the seat of the
Romanov dynasty The House of Romanov (also transcribed Romanoff; rus, Рома́новы, Románovy, rɐˈmanəvɨ) was the reigning imperial house of Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country s ...
and the Imperial Court of the
Russian Tsars Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
, as well as the seat of the Russian government, for another 186 years until the . In 1736–1737 the city suffered from catastrophic fires. To rebuild the damaged boroughs, a committee under Burkhard Christoph von Münnich commissioned a new plan in 1737. The city was divided into five boroughs, and the city centre was moved to the Admiralty borough, on the east bank between the Neva and
Fontanka The Fontanka (russian: Фонтанка), a left branch of the river Neva, flows through the whole of Central Saint Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eas ...

Fontanka
. It developed along three radial streets, which meet at the Admiralty building and are now known as
Nevsky Prospect Nevsky Prospect ( rus, Не́вский проспе́кт, r=Nevsky Prospekt, p=ˈnʲɛfskʲɪj prɐˈspʲɛkt) is the main street ( high street) in the federal city of St. Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Пет ...
(which is considered the main street of the city),
Gorokhovaya StreetImage:Gorokhovaya Street SPB 02.jpg, 250px, Gorokhovaya Street, looking toward the Admiralty Gorokhovaya Street (russian: Горо́ховая у́лица) is a north-south thoroughfare in the Central Business District, Saint Petersburg, Central Bu ...
and
Voznesensky Avenue Voznesensky Prospekt (russian: Вознесенский проспект) is a 1.8 km long street in Admiralteysky District Admiralteysky District (russian: Адмиралте́йский райо́н) is a administrative divisions of Sai ...
.
Baroque architecture Baroque architecture is a highly decorative and theatrical style which appeared in Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsul ...
became dominant in the city during the first sixty years, culminating in the Elizabethan Baroque, represented most notably by Italian
Bartolomeo Rastrelli Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломе́евич) Растре́лли; 1700 in Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in Fra ...
with such buildings as the
Winter Palace The Winter Palace ( rus, Зимний дворец, Zimnij dvorets, p=ˈzʲimnʲɪj dvɐˈrʲɛts) is a palace in Saint Petersburg, which served as the official residence of the Russian Emperors from 1732 to 1917. the palace and its precincts ...

Winter Palace
. In the 1760s, Baroque architecture was succeeded by
neoclassical architecture Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of style in the visual arts ge ...
. Established in 1762, the Commission of Stone Buildings of Moscow and Saint Petersburg ruled no structure in the city can be higher than the Winter Palace and prohibited spacing between buildings. During the reign of
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
in the 1760s–1780s, the banks of the Neva were lined with
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
embankments. However, it was not until 1850 that the first permanent bridge across the Neva, Annunciation Bridge, was allowed to open. Before that, only
pontoon bridge A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft Draft, The Draft, or Draught may refer to: Watercraft dimensions * Draft (hull), the distance from waterline to keel of a vessel * Draft (sai ...
s were allowed.
Obvodny Canal Obvodny Canal (russian: Обводный канал, lit. Bypass Canal) is the longest canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which in the 19th century served as the southern limit of the city. It is long and flows from the Neva River near Alex ...
(dug in 1769–1833) became the southern limit of the city. The most prominent neoclassical and Empire-style architects in Saint Petersburg included: *
Jean-Baptiste Vallin de la Mothe Jean-Baptiste Michel Vallin de la Mothe (1729 – 7 May 1800) was a French architect whose major career was spent in Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg, where he became court architect to Catherine the Great, Catherine II. His students were Ivan ...
(
Imperial Academy of Arts The Russian Academy of Arts, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts was an art academy in Saint Petersburg, founded in 1757 by the founder of the Imperial Moscow University Ivan Shuvalov under the name ''Academy of the Three ...

Imperial Academy of Arts
, ,
Gostiny Dvor Gostinyi dvor ( rus, гостиный двор, p=ɡɐˈsʲtʲinɨj ˈdvor) is a historic Russian language, Russian term for an indoor market (place), market or shopping centre. It is translated from Russian either as "guest court" or "merchant yar ...
, New Holland Arch, Catholic Church of St. Catherine) * Antonio Rinaldi (
Marble Palace Marble Palace (Мраморный дворец) is one of the first Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, ...

Marble Palace
) *
Yury Felten Yury Matveyevich Felten (russian: Ю́рий Матве́евич Фе́льтен, German name Georg Friedrich Veldten) (1730–1801) was a court architect An architect is a person who plans, designs and oversees the construction of buildings ...
(,
Chesme Church The Chesme Church (russian: Чесменская церковь; full name ''Church of Saint John the Baptist at Chesme Palace'', also called the ''Church of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist'', russian: це́рковь Рождества́ И ...

Chesme Church
) *
Giacomo Quarenghi Giacomo Quarenghi (; rus, Джа́комо Кваре́нги, Džákomo Kvaréngi, ˈdʐakəmə kvɐˈrʲenʲɡʲɪ; 20 or 21 September 1744) was an Italian architect who was the foremost and most prolific practitioner of Neoclassical architecture ...
(Academy of Sciences,
Hermitage Theatre of Neva River Image:Ermitazhteatr.jpg, Hermitage Bridge in front of the theatre The Hermitage Theatre ( rus, Эрмитажный Театр, Èrmitážnyj Teátr, ɪrʲmʲɪˈtaʐnɨj tʲɪˈatər) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is one of five Her ...
, Yusupov Palace) * Andrey Voronikhin (Saint Petersburg Mining University, Mining Institute, Kazan Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Kazan Cathedral) * Andreyan Zakharov ( Admiralty building) * Jean-François Thomas de Thomon (Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns, Spit of Vasilievsky Island) * Carlo Rossi (architect), Carlo Rossi (Yelagin Palace, Russian Museum, Mikhailovsky Palace, Alexandrinsky Theatre, Alexandrine Theatre, Senate Square (Saint Petersburg), Senate and Synod Buildings, General Staff Building (Saint Petersburg), General staff Building, design of many streets and squares) * Vasily Stasov (Moscow Triumphal Gate, Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Trinity Cathedral) * Auguste de Montferrand (Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Alexander Column) In 1810, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander I established the first engineering Higher education, the Military Engineering-Technical University, Saint Petersburg Main military engineering School in Saint Petersburg. Many monuments commemorate the Russian victory over First French Empire, Napoleonic France in the French invasion of Russia, Patriotic War of 1812, including the Alexander Column by Montferrand, erected in 1834, and the Narva Triumphal Arch. In 1825, the suppressed Decembrist revolt against Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas I took place on the Senate Square (Saint Petersburg), Senate Square in the city, a day after Nicholas assumed the throne. By the 1840s, neoclassical architecture had given way to various romanticist styles, which dominated until the 1890s, represented by such architects as Andrei Stackenschneider (Mariinsky Palace, Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace, Nicholas Palace, Andrei Stackenschneider, New Michael Palace) and Konstantin Thon (Moskovsky railway station (Saint Petersburg), Moskovsky railway station). With the Emancipation reform of 1861, emancipation of the serfs undertaken by Alexander II of Russia, Alexander II in 1861 and an Industrial Revolution, the influx of former peasants into the capital increased greatly. Poor boroughs spontaneously emerged on the outskirts of the city. Saint Petersburg surpassed Moscow in population and industrial growth; it developed as one of the largest industrial cities in Europe, with a major naval base (in Kronstadt), river, and seaport. The names of Saints Saint Peter, Peter and Paul the Apostle, Paul, bestowed upon Peter and Paul Fortress, original city's citadel and its Saints Peter and Paul Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, cathedral (from 1725—a Burial vault (tomb), burial vault of Russian emperors) coincidentally were the names of the first two assassinated Russian Emperors, Peter III of Russia, Peter III (1762, supposedly killed in a conspiracy led by his wife,
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
) and Paul I of Russia, Paul I (1801, Nikolay Alexandrovich Zubov and other conspirators who brought to power Alexander I of Russia, Alexander I, the son of their victim). The third emperor's assassination took place in Saint Petersburg in 1881 when Alexander II of Russia, Alexander II fell victim to Narodnaya Volya, terrorists (see the Church of the Savior on Blood). The 1905 Russian Revolution, Revolution of 1905 began in Saint Petersburg and spread rapidly into the provinces. On 1 September 1914, after the outbreak of
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, the Imperial government renamed the city ''Petrograd'', meaning "Peter's City", to remove the German words ''wikt:Sankt#German, Sankt'' and ''wikt:Burg#German, Burg''.


Revolution and Soviet era (1917–1941)

In March 1917, during the February Revolution Nicholas II abdicated for himself and on behalf of his son, ending the Russian monarchy and over three hundred years of Romanov dynasty, Romanov dynastic rule. On , the Bolsheviks, led by
Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov. ( 1870 – 21 January 1924), better known by his alias Lenin,. was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government The head of government is e ...

Vladimir Lenin
, stormed the
Winter Palace The Winter Palace ( rus, Зимний дворец, Zimnij dvorets, p=ˈzʲimnʲɪj dvɐˈrʲɛts) is a palace in Saint Petersburg, which served as the official residence of the Russian Emperors from 1732 to 1917. the palace and its precincts ...

Winter Palace
in an event known thereafter as the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
, which led to the end of the post-Tsarist Russian Provisional Government, provisional government, the transfer of all political power to the Worker's council, Soviets, and the rise of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party. After that the city acquired a new descriptive name, "the city of three revolutions", referring to the three major developments in the political history of Russia of the early 20th century. In September and October 1917, German troops Operation Albion, invaded the West Estonian archipelago and threatened Petrograd with bombardment and invasion. On 12 March 1918, the Soviets transferred the government to Moscow, to keep it away from the state border. During the ensuing Russian Civil War, Civil War, in 1919 general Nikolai Yudenich, Yudenich advancing from Estonia repeated the attempt to capture the city, but Leon Trotsky mobilized the army and forced him to retreat. On 26 January 1924, five days after Lenin's death, Petrograd was renamed ''Leningrad''. Later some streets and other wikt:toponym, toponyms were renamed accordingly. The city has over 230 places associated with the life and activities of Lenin. Some of them were turned into museums, including the Russian cruiser Aurora, cruiser ''Aurora''—a symbol of the October Revolution and the oldest ship in the
Russian Navy )Slow – "''Гвардейский встречный марш Военно-морского флота''" () , mascot = , equipment = 1 aircraft carrier An aircraft carrier is a warship that serve ...
. In the 1920s and 1930s, the poor outskirts were reconstructed into regularly planned boroughs. Constructivist architecture flourished around that time. Housing became a government-provided social utility, amenity; many "bourgeois" apartments were so large that numerous families were assigned to what were called "communal" apartments (''kommunal apartment, kommunalkas''). By the 1930s, 68% of the population lived in such housing. In 1935 a new general plan was outlined, whereby the city should expand to the south. Constructivism was rejected in favour of a more pompous Stalinist architecture. Moving the city centre further from the border with Finland, Joseph Stalin, Stalin adopted a plan to build a new city hall with a huge adjacent square at the southern end of Moskovsky Prospekt, designated as the new main street of Leningrad. After the Winter War, Winter (Soviet-Finnish) war in 1939–1940, the Soviet–Finnish border moved northwards. Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Square maintained the functions and the role of a city centre. In December 1931, Leningrad was administratively separated from Leningrad Oblast. At that time it included the Leningrad Suburban District, some parts of which were transferred back to Leningrad Oblast in 1936 and turned into Vsevolozhsky District, Krasnoselsky District, Saint Petersburg, Krasnoselsky District, Pargolovsky District and Slutsky District (renamed Pavlovsky District in 1944). On 1 December 1934, Sergey Kirov, the popular communist leader of Leningrad, was assassinated, which became the pretext for the Great Purge. In Leningrad, approximately 40,000 were executed during Stalin's purges.


World War II (1941–1945)

During World War II, Nazi Germany, German forces besieged Leningrad following the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941.Siege of Leningrad
Encyclopædia Britannica
/ref> The siege lasted 872 days, or almost two and a half years, from 8 September 1941 to 27 January 1944. The Siege of Leningrad proved one of the longest, most destructive, and Most lethal battles in world history#Sieges and urban combat, most lethal sieges of a major city in modern history. It isolated the city from food supplies except those provided through the Road of Life across Lake Ladoga, which could not make it through until the lake literally froze. More than one million civilians were killed, mainly from starvation. Many others escaped or were evacuated, so the city became largely depopulated. On 1 May 1945 Joseph Stalin, in his Supreme Commander Order No. 20, named Leningrad, alongside Stalingrad, Sevastopol, and Odessa, Hero City, hero cities of the war. A law acknowledging the honorary title of "Hero City" passed on 8 May 1965 (the 20th anniversary of the victory in the Great Patriotic War), during the Leonid Brezhnev, Brezhnev era. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR awarded Leningrad as a Hero City the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star medal "for the heroic resistance of the city and tenacity of the survivors of the Siege". The Hero-City Obelisk bearing the Gold Star medal, Gold Star sign was installed in April 1985.


Post-war Soviet era (1945–1991)

In October 1946 some territories along the northern coast of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
, which had passed to the USSR from Finland in 1940 under the Moscow Peace Treaty, peace treaty following the Winter War, were transferred from Leningrad Oblast to Leningrad and divided into Sestroretsk, Sestroretsky District and Kurortny District. These included the town of Zelenogorsk, Saint Petersburg, Terijoki (renamed Zelenogorsk in 1948). Leningrad and many of its suburbs were rebuilt over the post-war decades, partially according to pre-war plans. The 1948 general plan for Leningrad featured radial urban planning, urban development in the north as well as in the south. In 1953 Pavlovsky District in Leningrad Oblast was abolished, and parts of its territory, including Pavlovsk, merged with Leningrad. In 1954 the settlements Levashovo, Saint Petersburg, Levashovo, Pargolovo and Pesochny, Russia, Pesochny merged with Leningrad. Leningrad gave its name to the Leningrad Affair (1949–1952), a notable event in the postwar political struggle in the USSR. It was a product of rivalry between Stalin's potential successors where one side was represented by the leaders of the city Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party organization—the second most significant one in the country after Moscow. The entire elite leadership of Leningrad was destroyed, including the former mayor Alexey Kuznetsov, Kuznetsov, the acting mayor Pyotr Sergeevich Popkov, and all their deputies; overall 23 leaders were sentenced to the death penalty, 181 to prison or exile (exonerated in 1954). About 2,000 ranking officials across the USSR were expelled from the party and the Komsomol and removed from leadership positions. They were accused of Russian nationalism. The Saint Petersburg Metro, Leningrad Metro underground rapid transit, rapid transit system, designed before the war, opened in 1955 with its first eight stations decorated with marble and bronze. However, after Stalin's death in 1953, the perceived ornamental excesses of the Stalinist architecture were abandoned. From the 1960s to the 1980s many new residential boroughs were built on the outskirts; while the functionalism (architecture), functionalist apartment blocks were nearly identical to each other, many families moved there from ''kommunalkas'' in the city centre to live in separate apartments.


Contemporary era (1991–present)

On 12 June 1991, simultaneously with the 1991 Russian presidential election, first Russian presidential elections, the city authorities arranged for the mayoral elections and a referendum upon the city's name, when the name reverted to Saint Petersburg. The turnout was 65%; 66.13% of the total count of votes went to Anatoly Sobchak, who became the first directly elected list of heads of Saint Petersburg government, mayor of the city. Meanwhile, economic conditions started to deteriorate as the country tried to adapt to major changes. For the first time since the 1940s, food rationing was introduced, and the city received humanitarian World Food Programme, food aid from abroad. This dramatic time was depicted in photographic series of Russian photographer Alexey Titarenko. Economic conditions began to improve only at the beginning of the 21st century. In 1995 a northern section of the Line 1 of Saint Petersburg Metro, Kirovsko-Vyborgskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro was cut off by underground flooding, creating a major obstacle to the city development for almost ten years. On 13 June 1996 Saint Petersburg, alongside Leningrad Oblast and Tver Oblast, signed a power-sharing agreement with the federal government, granting it autonomy. This agreement was abolished on 4 April 2002. In 1996, Vladimir Anatolyevich Yakovlev, Vladimir Yakovlev defeated Anatoly Sobchak in the elections for the head of the Saint Petersburg City Administration, city administration. The title of the city head was changed from "mayor" to "governor". In 2000 Yakovlev won re-election. His second term expired in 2004; the long-awaited restoration of the broken subway connection was expected to finish by that time. But in 2003 Yakovlev suddenly resigned, leaving the governor's office to Valentina Matviyenko. The law on election of the City Governor was changed, breaking the tradition of democratic election by universal suffrage. In 2006 the Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg, city legislature re-approved Matviyenko as governor. Residential building had intensified again; real estate pricing, real-estate prices inflated greatly, which caused many new problems for the preservation of the historical part of the city. Although the central part of the city has a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
designation (there are about 8,000 architectural monuments in Petersburg), the preservation of its historical and architectural environment became controversial. After 2005, the demolition of older buildings in the historical centre was permitted. In 2006 Gazprom announced an ambitious project to erect a skyscraper (the Okhta Center) opposite to Smolny, which could result in the loss of the unique line of Petersburg landscape. Urgent protests by citizens and prominent public figures of Russia against this project were not considered by Governor Valentina Matviyenko and the city authorities until December 2010, when after the statement of President Dmitry Medvedev, the city decided to find a more appropriate location for this project. In the same year, the new location for the project was relocated to Lakhta, Saint Petersburg, Lakhta, a historical area northwest of the city centre, and the new project would be named
Lakhta Center The Lakhta Center () is an 87-storey skyscraper built in the northwestern neighborhood of Lakhta in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Standing tall, it is the List of tallest buildings in Russia, tallest building in Russia, the List of tallest buildin ...

Lakhta Center
. Construction was approved by Gazprom and the city administration and commenced in 2012. The high Lakhta Center has become the first List of tallest buildings in Russia, tallest skyscraper in Russia and List of tallest buildings in Europe, Europe outside of Moscow.


Geography

The area of Saint Petersburg city proper is . The area of the federal subject is , which contains Saint Petersburg proper (consisting of eighty-one municipal ''okrugs''), nine municipal towns – (Kolpino, Krasnoye Selo, Kronstadt, Lomonosov, Russia, Lomonosov, Pavlovsk, Saint Petersburg, Pavlovsk, Petergof, Pushkin (town), Pushkin, Sestroretsk, Zelenogorsk, Saint Petersburg, Zelenogorsk) – and twenty-one municipal settlements. Petersburg is on the middle taiga lowlands along the shores of the Neva Bay of the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
, and islands of the river delta. The largest are
Vasilyevsky Island Vasilyevsky Island (russian: Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
(besides the artificial island between Obvodny canal and
Fontanka The Fontanka (russian: Фонтанка), a left branch of the river Neva, flows through the whole of Central Saint Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eas ...

Fontanka
, and Kotlin Island, Kotlin in the Neva Bay), Petrogradsky Island, Petrogradsky, Dekabristov Island, Dekabristov and Krestovsky Island, Krestovsky. The latter together with Yelagin Island, Yelagin and Kamenny Island are covered mostly by parks. The Karelian Isthmus, North of the city, is a popular Tourist destination, resort area. In the south, Saint Petersburg crosses the Baltic Klint, Baltic-Ladoga Klint and meets the Izhora Plateau. The elevation of Saint Petersburg ranges from the sea level to its highest point of at the Orekhovaya Hill in the Duderhof Heights in the south. Part of the city's territory west of Liteyny Prospekt is no higher than above mean sea level, above sea level, and has suffered from numerous floods. Floods in Saint Petersburg are triggered by a long wave in the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
, caused by meteorological conditions, winds and shallowness of the Neva Bay. The five most disastrous floods occurred in 1824 ( above sea level, during which over 300 buildings were destroyed); 1924 (); 1777 (); 1955 (); and 1975 (). To prevent floods, the Saint Petersburg Dam has been constructed. Since the 18th century, the city's terrain has been raised artificially, at some places by more than , making mergers of several islands, and changing the hydrology of the city. Besides the Neva and its tributaries, other important rivers of the federal subject of Saint Petersburg are Sestra River (Leningrad Oblast), Sestra, Okhta River (Neva basin), Okhta and Izhora River, Izhora. The largest lake is Sestroretsky Razliv in the north, followed by Lakhtinsky Razliv, Suzdal Lakes, and other smaller lakes. Due to its northerly location at c. 60° N latitude the day length in Petersburg varies across seasons, ranging from 5 hours 53 minutes to 18 hours 50 minutes. A period from mid-May to mid-July during which twilight may last all night is called ''the Midnight sun, white nights''. Saint Petersburg is about from the border with Finland, connected to it via the M10 highway (Russia), M10 highway (European route E18, E18), along which there is also a connection to the historic city of Vyborg.


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Saint Petersburg is classified as ''Dfb'', a humid continental climate. The distinct moderating influence of
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
cyclones results in warm, humid, and short summers and long, moderately cold wet winters. The climate of Saint Petersburg is close to that of Helsinki, although colder in winter and warmer in summer because of its more eastern location. The average maximum temperature in July is , and the average minimum temperature in February is ; an extreme temperature of occurred during the 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. A winter minimum of was recorded in 1883. The average annual temperature is . The Neva River within the city limits usually freezes up in November–December and break-up occurs in April. From December to March there are 118 days on average with snow cover, which reaches an average snow depth of by February. The frost-free period in the city lasts on average for about 135 days. Despite St. Petersburg's northern location, its winters are warmer than Moscow#Climate, Moscow's due to the
Gulf of Finland The Gulf of Finland ( fi, Suomenlahti; et, Soome laht; rus, Фи́нский зали́в, r=Finskiy zaliv, p=ˈfʲinskʲɪj zɐˈlʲif; sv, Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland to the north and E ...
and some Gulf Stream influence from Scandinavian winds that can bring temperature slightly above freezing. The city also has a slightly warmer climate than its suburbs. Weather conditions are quite variable all year round. Average annual precipitation (meteorology), precipitation varies across the city, averaging per year and reaching maximum in late summer. Due to the cool climate, soil moisture is almost always high because of lower evapotranspiration. Relative humidity, Air humidity is 78% on average, and there are, on average, 165 overcast days per year.


Toponymy

The first and fairly rich chapter of the history of the local wikt:toponym, toponymy is the story of the city's name. The name day of Saint Peter, Peter I falls on 29 June, when the Russian Orthodox Church observes the memory of saint apostles Saint Peter, Peter and Paul the Apostle, Paul. The consecration of the small wooden church in their names (its construction began at the same time as the citadel) made them the heavenly patrons of the
Peter and Paul Fortress The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for adminis ...
, while St. Peter at the same time became the eponym of the whole city. In June 1703
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
gave the site the name ''Sankt Pieter Burkh'' (an emulation of Dutch topographical suffix ''-burg'', which refers to fortified towns and places, as Peter was a Netherlands, Neerlandophile) which was subsequently Russification, russified. A 14- to 15-letter-long name, composed of the three word root, roots proved too cumbersome, and many shortened versions were used. The first General Governor of the city Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov, Menshikov is maybe also the author of the first nickname of Petersburg which he called Петри (''Petri''). It took some years until the known Russian spelling of this name finally settled. In 1740s Mikhail Lomonosov uses a derivative of el, link=no, Πετρόπολις (Петрополис, ''Petropolis'') in a Russified form ''Petropol'' (Петрополь). A combo ''Piterpol'' (Питерпол) also appears at this time.Nesterov, V. ''Знаешь ли ты свой город'' ("Do you know your city?"). Leningrad, 1958, p. 58. In any case, eventually the usage of prefix "''Sankt-''" ceased except for the formal official documents, where a three-letter abbreviation "СПб" (''SPB'') was very widely used as well. In the 1830s Alexander Pushkin translated the "foreign" city name of "Saint Petersburg" to the more Russian ''Petrograd'' in one of his poems. However, it was only on , after World War I, the war with Germany had begun, that Tsar Nicholas II of Russia, Nicholas II renamed the capital to Petrograd. Since the prefix "Saint" was omitted, this act also changed the eponym and the "patron" of the city, from Apostle Peter to Peter the Great, its founder. After the
October Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence ...

October Revolution
the name ''Red Petrograd'' (Красный Петроград, ''Krasny Petrograd'') was often used in newspapers and other prints until the city was renamed ''Leningrad'' in January 1924. A referendum on reversing the renaming of ''Leningrad'' was held on 12 June 1991, with 54.86% of voters (with a turnout of 65%) supporting "''Saint Petersburg''". Renaming the city ''Petrograd'' was not an option. This change officially took effect on 6 September 1991. Meanwhile, the oblast whose administrative center is also in Saint Petersburg is still named Leningrad Oblast, Leningrad. Having passed the role of capital to Petersburg, Moscow never relinquished the title of "capital", being called ''pervoprestolnaya'' ("first-throned") for 200 years. An equivalent name for Petersburg, the "Northern Capital", has re-entered usage today since several federal institutions were recently moved from Moscow to Saint Petersburg. Solemn descriptive names like "the city of three revolutions" and "the cradle of the October revolution" used in the Soviet era are reminders of the pivotal events in national history that occurred here. For their part, poetic names of the city, like the "Venice of the North" and the "Northern Palmyra" emphasize town-planning and architectural features contrasting these parallels to the northern location of this megalopolis (city type), megalopolis. ''Petropolis'' is a translation of a city name to Greek, and is also a kind of descriptive name: :el:Πέτρωμα, Πέτρ- is a Greek root for "stone", so the "city from stone" emphasizes the material that had been forcibly made obligatory for construction from the first years of the city. (The proper Greek translation is Αγία Πετρούπολη, ''Agia Petroupoli''.)


Demographics

Saint Petersburg is the second largest city in Russia. As of the 2017 Rosstat, the federal subject's population is 5,281,579 or 3.6% of the total population of Russia; up from 4,879,566 (3.4%) recorded in the Russian Census (2010), 2010 Census, and up from 5,023,506 recorded in the Soviet Census (1989), 1989 Census. ;Vital statistics for 2016 * Births: 72 879 (13.9 per 1000) * Deaths: 61 459 (11.7 per 1000) * Total fertility rate: The 2010 Census recorded the ethnic composition as follows: Russian 80.1%, Ukrainians in Russia, Ukrainian 1.3%, Belarusians in Russia, Belarusians 0.8%, Tatars, Tatar 0.6%, Armenians in Russia, Armenian 0.6%, Jewish 0.5%, Uzbeks, Uzbek 0.4%, Tajiks, Tajik 0.3%, Azeris in Russia, Azeri 0.3%, Georgians, Georgian 0.2%, Moldovans, Moldovan 0.2%, Ingrian Finns, Finns 0.1%, other – 1.3%. The ethnicity of the remaining 13.4% of the inhabitants was not specified. During the 20th century, the city experienced dramatic population changes. From 2.4 million residents in 1916, its population dropped to less than 740,000 by 1920 during the Russian Revolution (1917), Russian Revolution of 1917 and Russian Civil War. The minorities of Germans, Poles, Finns, Estonians and Latvians were almost completely population transfer in the Soviet Union, transferred from Leningrad during the 1930s. From 1941 to the end of 1943, population dropped from 3 million to less than 600,000, as people died in battles, starved to death or were evacuated during the Siege of Leningrad. Some evacuees returned after the siege, but most influx was due to migration from other parts of the Soviet Union. The city absorbed about 3 million people in the 1950s and grew to over 5 million in the 1980s. From 1991 to 2006 the city's population decreased to 4.6 million, while the suburban population increased due to privatization of land and massive move to suburbs. Based on the 2010 census results the population is over 4.8 million.Chistyakova, N
Третье сокращение численности населения... и последнее?
''Demoscope Weekly'' 163 – 164, 1–15 August 2004.
For the first half of 2007, the birth rate was 9.1 per 1000 and remained lower than the Mortality rate, death rate (until 2012); people over 65 constitute more than twenty percent of the population; and the median age is about 40 years. Since 2012 the birth rate became higher than the Mortality rate, death rate. But in 2020 the COVID-19 pandemic in Russia, COVID-19 pandemic caused a drop in birth rate, and the city population decreased to 5,395,000 people.


Religion

According to various opinion polls, more than half of the residents of Saint Petersburg "believe in God" (up to 67% according to Russian Public Opinion Research Center, VTsIOM data for 2002). Among the believers, the overwhelming majority of the residents of the city are Eastern Orthodox Church, Orthodox (57.5%), followed by small minority communities of Muslims (0.7%), Protestantism, Protestants (0.6%), and Catholic Church, Catholics (0.5%), and Buddhism, Buddhists (0.1%). In total, roughly 59% of the population of the city is Christians, Christian, of which over 90% are Orthodox. Non-Abrahamic religions and other faiths are represented by only 1.2% of the total population. There are 268 communities of confessions and religious associations in the city: the Russian Orthodox Church (130 associations), Pentecostalism (23 associations), the Lutheranism (19 associations), Baptism (13 associations), as well as Old Believers, Roman Catholic Church, Armenian Apostolic Church, Georgian Orthodox Church, Seventh-day Adventist Church, Judaism, Buddhist, Muslim, Baháʼí Faith, Bahá'í and others. 229 religious buildings in the city are owned or run by religious associations. Among them are architectural monuments of federal significance. The oldest cathedral in the city is the Peter and Paul Cathedral, built between 1712–1733, and the largest is the Kazan Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Kazan Cathedral, completed in 1811.


Government

Saint Petersburg is a federal subjects of Russia, federal subject of Russia (a federal cities of Russia, federal city). The political life of Saint Petersburg is regulated by the Charter of Saint Petersburg adopted by the city legislature in 1998. The superior executive body is the Saint Petersburg City Administration, led by the Governor of Saint Petersburg, city governor (mayor before 1996). Saint Petersburg has a unicameralism, single-chamber legislature, the Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Legislative Assembly, which is the city's Regional parliaments of Russia, regional parliament. According to the federal law passed in 2004, heads of federal subjects, including the governor of Saint Petersburg, were nominated by the President of Russia and approved by local legislatures. Should the legislature disapprove the nominee, the President could dissolve it. The former governor, Valentina Matviyenko, was approved according to the new system in December 2006. She was the only woman governor in the whole of Russia until her resignation on 22 August 2011. Matviyenko stood for elections as member of the Regional Council of Saint Petersburg and won comprehensively with allegations of rigging and ballot stuffing by the opposition. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has already backed her for the position of Speaker to the Federation Council of Russia, Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation and her election qualifies her for that job. After her resignation, Georgy Poltavchenko was appointed as the new acting governor the same day. In 2012, following passage of a new federal law, restoring direct elections of heads of federal subjects, the city charter was again amended to provide for direct elections of governor. On 3 October 2018, Poltavchenko resigned, and Alexander Beglov was appointed acting governor. Saint Petersburg is also the unofficial but ''de facto'' administrative centre of Leningrad Oblast, and of the Northwestern Federal District. The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, Constitutional Court of Russia moved to Saint Petersburg from Moscow in May 2008. Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, being two different federal subjects, share a number of local departments of federal executive agencies and courts, such as court of arbitration, police, Federal Security Service (Russia), FSB, postal service, drug enforcement administration, penitentiary service, federal registration service, and other federal services.


Administrative divisions


Economy

Saint Petersburg is a major trade gateway, serving as the financial and industrial centre of Russia, with specializations in oil and gas trade; shipbuilding yards; aerospace, aerospace industry; technology, including radio, electronics, software, and computers; machine building, heavy machinery and transport, including tanks and other military technology and equipment, military equipment; mining; Tool, instrument manufacture; ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy (production of aluminium alloys); chemicals, Drug, pharmaceuticals, and medical equipment; publishing and printing; food and catering; wholesale and retail; textile and clothing, apparel industries; and many other businesses. It was also home to Lessner, one of Russia's two pioneering automobile manufacturers (along with Russo-Baltic); it was founded by machine tool and boilermaker G.A. Lessner in 1904, with designs by Boris Loutsky, and it survived until 1910. Ten per cent of the world's power turbines are made there at the Leningradsky Metallichesky Zavod, LMZ, which built over two thousand turbines for power station, power plants across the world. Major local industries are Admiralty Shipyard, Baltic Shipyard, LOMO, Kirov Plant, Elektrosila, Izhorskiye Zavody; also registered in Saint Petersburg are Sovcomflot, Sovkomflot, Petersburg Fuel Company and Sibur, SIBUR among other major Russian and international companies. The Great Port of Saint Petersburg, Port of Saint Petersburg has three large cargo ports of the Baltic Sea, terminals, Bolshoi Port Saint Petersburg, Kronstadt, and Lomonosov, Russia, Lomonosov terminal. International cruise ship, cruise liners have been served at the passenger port at Morskoy Vokzal on the south-west of
Vasilyevsky Island Vasilyevsky Island (russian: Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
. In 2008 the first two berths opened at the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg, New Passenger Port on the west of the island. The new passenger terminal is part of the city's "Marine Facade" development project and was due to have seven berths in operation by 2010. A complex system of riverports on both banks of the Neva River are interconnected with the system of seaports, thus making Saint Petersburg the main link between the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark Denmark ( da, Danmark, ) is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that a ...

Baltic Sea
and the rest of Russia through the Volga–Baltic Waterway, Volga-Baltic Waterway. The Saint Petersburg Mint (Monetny Dvor), founded in 1724, is one of the largest mint (coin), mints in the world, it mints Russian ruble, Russian coins, medals and badges. Saint Petersburg is also home to the oldest and largest Russian foundry, Monumentskulptura, which made thousands of sculptures and statues that now grace the public parks of Saint Petersburg and many other cities. Monuments and bronze sculpture, bronze statues of the Tsars, as well as other important historic figures and dignitaries, and other world-famous monuments, such as the sculptures by Peter Clodt von Jürgensburg, Paolo Troubetzkoy, Mark Antokolsky, and others, were made there. In 2007, Toyota opened a Toyota Camry, Camry plant after investing 5 billion roubles (approx. 200 mln dollars) in Shushary, one of the southern suburbs of Saint Petersburg. Opel, Hyundai Motor Company, Hyundai and Nissan have also signed deals with the Politics of Russia, Russian government to build their automotive plants in Saint Petersburg. The automotive and auto-parts industry is on the rise there during the last decade. Saint Petersburg has a large brewery and distillery industry. Known as Russia's "beer capital" due to the supply and quality of local water, its five large breweries account for over 30% of the country's domestic beer production. They include Europe's second-largest brewery Baltika Breweries, Baltika, Vena (both operated by BBH), Heineken International, Heineken Brewery, Stenka Razin, Stepan Razin (both by Heineken Pilsener, Heineken) and Tinkoff brewery (SUN-InBev). The city's many local distillery, distilleries produce a broad range of vodka brands. The oldest ones is :ru:Ливиз, LIVIZ (founded in 1897). Among the youngest is Russian Standard Vodka introduced in Moscow in 1998, which opened in 2006 a new $60 million distillery in Petersburg (an area of , production rate of 22,500 bottles per hour). In 2007 this brand was exported to over 70 countries. Saint Petersburg has the second-largest construction, construction industry in Russia, including commercial, housing, and road construction. In 2006, Saint Petersburg's city budget was 180 billion rubles (about 7 billion US$ at Tables of historical exchange rates to the USD, 2006 exchange rates),. The federal subject's Gross Regional Product was 3.7 trillion Russian rubles (or around US$70 billion), ranked 2nd in Russia, after Moscow and per capita of US$13,000, ranked 12th among Russia's federal subjects, contributed mostly by wholesale and retailing, retail trade and repair services (24.7%) as well as processing industry (20.9%) and transportation and telecommunications (15.1%). Budget revenues of the city in 2009 amounted to 294.3 billion rubles (about 10.044 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates), expenses – 336.3 billion rubles (about 11.477 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates). The budget deficit amounted to about 42 billion rubles. (about 1.433 billion US$ at 2009 exchange rates) In 2015, St. Petersburg was ranked in 4th place economically amongst all federal subjects of the Russian Federation, surpassed only by Moscow, the Tyumen and Moscow Region.


Cityscape

Saint Petersburg has three skyscrapers: Leader Tower (140 m), Alexander Nevsky (124 m) and Atlantic City (105 m) all far from the historical centre. Regulations forbid the construction of tall buildings in the city centre. The tall Saint Petersburg TV Tower is the tallest completed structure in the city. However, there was a controversial project endorsed by the city authorities, and known as the Okhta Center, to build a list of tallest buildings and structures in the world, supertall skyscraper. In 2008, the World Monuments Fund included the Saint Petersburg historic skyline on the watch list of the 100 most endangered sites due to the expected construction, which threatens to alter it drastically. The Okhta Center project was cancelled at the end of 2010 and the
Lakhta Center The Lakhta Center () is an 87-storey skyscraper built in the northwestern neighborhood of Lakhta in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Standing tall, it is the List of tallest buildings in Russia, tallest building in Russia, the List of tallest buildin ...

Lakhta Center
project began in the city's outskirts. The complex includes office skyscraper and several low rise mixed-use buildings. The Lakhta Center project has caused much less controversy. Unlike the previous unbuilt project, it is not seen by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
as a potential threat to the city's cultural heritage because it is far from the historical centre. The skyscraper was completed in 2019, and at 462.5 metres, it is currently the List of tallest buildings in Europe, tallest in Russia and Europe. Unlike in Moscow, the historic architecture of Saint Petersburg's city centre, mostly Baroque architecture, Baroque and Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassical buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries, has been largely preserved; although a number of buildings were demolished after the Bolsheviks' seizure of power, during the Siege of Leningrad and in recent years. The oldest of the remaining building is a wooden house built for Peter the Great, Peter I in 1703 on the shore of the
Neva The Neva (russian: Нева́, ; fi, Neva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the ...

Neva
near Trinity Square. Since 1991 the
Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments is the name used by UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et ...
in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast have been listed by
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
as a
World Heritage Site A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for h ...
. The ensemble of
Peter and Paul Fortress The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for adminis ...
with the Peter and Paul Cathedral takes a dominant position on Zayachy Island along the right bank of the Neva River. Each noon a cannon fires a blank shot from the fortress. The Saint Petersburg Mosque, the largest mosque in Europe when opened in 1913, is on the right bank nearby. The Spit of Vasilievsky Island, which splits the river into two largest armlets, the Bolshaya Neva and Malaya Neva, is connected to the northern bank (Petrogradsky Island) via the Exchange Bridge and occupied by the Old Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns. The southern coast of
Vasilyevsky Island Vasilyevsky Island (russian: Васи́льевский о́стров, Vasilyevsky Ostrov, V.O.) is an island in St. Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning E ...
along the Bolshaya Neva features some of the city's oldest buildings, dating from the 18th century, including the
Kunstkamera The Kunstkamera (or Kunstkammer; russian: Кунсткамера) is the first museum in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List ...

Kunstkamera
,
Twelve Collegia 300px, The historic building of the Twelve Collegia now houses the Saint Petersburg State University. The Twelve Collegia, or Twelve Colleges (russian: Двeнaдцaть Коллегий), is the largest edifice from the Petrine era remaining in ...
, Menshikov Palace and
Imperial Academy of Arts The Russian Academy of Arts, informally known as the Saint Petersburg Academy of Arts was an art academy in Saint Petersburg, founded in 1757 by the founder of the Imperial Moscow University Ivan Shuvalov under the name ''Academy of the Three ...

Imperial Academy of Arts
. It hosts one of two campuses of Saint Petersburg State University. On the southern, left bank of the Neva, connected to the spit of Vasilyevsky Island via the Palace Bridge, lie the Admiralty building, Saint Petersburg, Admiralty building, the vast Hermitage Museum complex stretching along the Palace Embankment, which includes the Baroque
Winter Palace The Winter Palace ( rus, Зимний дворец, Zimnij dvorets, p=ˈzʲimnʲɪj dvɐˈrʲɛts) is a palace in Saint Petersburg, which served as the official residence of the Russian Emperors from 1732 to 1917. the palace and its precincts ...

Winter Palace
, former official residence of Russian emperors, as well as the neoclassical
Marble Palace Marble Palace (Мраморный дворец) is one of the first Neoclassical Neoclassical or neo-classical may refer to: * Neoclassicism or New Classicism, any of a number of movements in the fine arts, literature, theatre, music, language, ...

Marble Palace
. The Winter Palace faces Palace Square, the city's main square with the Alexander Column. Nevsky Prospekt, also on the left bank of the
Neva The Neva (russian: Нева́, ; fi, Neva) is a river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the ...

Neva
, is the city's main avenue. It starts at the Admiralty and runs eastwards next to Palace Square. Nevsky Prospekt crosses the Moyka River, Moika (Green Bridge (Saint Petersburg), Green Bridge), Griboyedov Canal (Kazansky Bridge), Sadovaya Street, Garden Street, the
Fontanka The Fontanka (russian: Фонтанка), a left branch of the river Neva, flows through the whole of Central Saint Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eas ...

Fontanka
(Anichkov Bridge), meets Liteyny Prospekt and proceeds to Vosstaniya Square, Uprising Square near the Moskovsky Rail Terminal (Saint Petersburg), Moskovsky railway station, where it meets Ligovsky Prospekt and turns to the Alexander Nevsky Lavra. Passage (department store), The Passage, Catholic Church of St. Catherine (Saint Petersburg), Catholic Church of St. Catherine, Singer House, Book House (former Singer Corporation, Singer Manufacturing Company Building in the Art Nouveau style), Grand Hotel Europe, Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul, Great Gostiny Dvor, National Library of Russia, Russian National Library, Alexandrinsky Theatre, Alexandrine Theatre behind Mikhail Mikeshin, Mikeshin's statue of
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...
, Kazan Cathedral, St. Petersburg, Kazan Cathedral, Stroganov Palace, Anichkov Palace and Beloselsky-Belozersky Palace are all along that avenue. The Alexander Nevsky Lavra, intended to house the relics of Alexander Nevsky, St. Alexander Nevsky, is an important centre of Religious studies, Christian education in Russia. It also contains the Tikhvin Cemetery with graves of many notable Petersburgers. On the territory between the Neva and Nevsky Prospekt the Church of the Savior on Blood, Mikhailovsky Palace housing the Russian Museum, Field of Mars (Saint Petersburg), Field of Mars, Saint Michael's Castle, St. Michael's Castle, Summer Garden, Tauride Palace, Smolny Institute and Smolny Convent are located. Many notable landmarks are to the west and south of the Admiralty Building, including the Trinity Cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Trinity Cathedral, Mariinsky Palace, Hotel Astoria (Saint Petersburg), Hotel Astoria, famous Mariinsky Theatre, New Holland Island, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, the largest in the city, and Senate Square (Saint Petersburg), Senate Square, with the Bronze Horseman, 18th-century equestrian monument to
Peter the Great Peter the Great ( rus, Пётр Вели́кий, Pyotr Velíkiy, ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I ( rus, Пётр Первый, Pyotr Pyervyy, ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Pyotr Alekséyevich ( rus, Пётр Алексе́евич, p=ˈp ...

Peter the Great
, which is considered among the city's most recognisable symbols. Other symbols of Saint Petersburg include the weather vane in the shape of a small ship on top of the Admiralty's golden spire and the golden angel on top of the Peter and Paul Cathedral. The Palace Bridge drawbridge, drawn at night is yet another symbol of the city. From April to November, 22 bridges across the Neva and main canals are drawn to let ships pass in and out of the Baltic Sea according to a schedule. It was not until 2004 that the first high bridge across the Neva, which does not need to be drawn, Big Obukhovsky Bridge, was opened. The most remarkable bridges of our days are Korabelny and Petrovsky cable-stayed bridges, which form the most spectacular part of the city toll road, Western High-Speed Diameter. There are hundreds of smaller List of bridges in Saint Petersburg, bridges in Saint Petersburg spanning numerous canals and distributaries of the Neva, some of the most important of which are the Moyka River, Moika,
Fontanka The Fontanka (russian: Фонтанка), a left branch of the river Neva, flows through the whole of Central Saint Petersburg, Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eas ...

Fontanka
, Griboyedov Canal,
Obvodny Canal Obvodny Canal (russian: Обводный канал, lit. Bypass Canal) is the longest canal in Saint Petersburg, Russia, which in the 19th century served as the southern limit of the city. It is long and flows from the Neva River near Alex ...
, Karpovka River, Karpovka and Smolenka River, Smolenka. Due to the intricate web of canals, Saint Petersburg is often called ''Venice of the North''. The rivers and canals in the city centre are lined with granite embankments. The embankments and bridges are separated from rivers and canals by
granite Granite () is a coarse-grained (phanerite, phaneritic) intrusive rock, intrusive igneous rock composed mostly of quartz, alkali feldspar, and plagioclase. It forms from magma with a high content of silica and alkali metal oxides that slowly cool ...

granite
or cast iron parapets. Southern suburbs of the city feature former imperial residences, including Petergof, with majestic fountain cascades and parks, Tsarskoye Selo, Tsarskoe Selo, with the baroque Catherine Palace and the neoclassical Alexander Palace, and Pavlovsk Palace, Pavlovsk, which has a domed palace of Paul I of Russia, Emperor Paul and one of Europe's largest English-style parks. Some other residences nearby and making part of the world heritage site, including a castle and park in Gatchina, actually belong to Leningrad Oblast rather than Saint Petersburg. Another notable suburb is Kronstadt with its 19th-century fortifications and naval monuments, occupying the Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland. Since around the end of the 20th century a great deal of active building and restoration works have been carried out in a number of the city's older districts. The authorities have recently been compelled to transfer the ownership of state-owned private residences in the city centre to private lessors. Many older buildings have been reconstructed to allow their use as apartments and penthouses. Some of these structures, such as the Saint Petersburg Commodity and Stock Exchange have been recognised as town-planning errors.


Parks

Saint Petersburg is home to many parks and gardens. Some of the most well-known are in the southern suburbs, including Pavlovsk Palace, Pavlovsk, one of Europe's largest English gardens. Sosnovka is the largest park within the city limits, occupying 240 ha. The Summer Garden is the oldest, dating back to the early 18th century and designed in the regular style. It is on the Neva's southern bank at the head of the Fontanka and is famous for its cast iron railing and marble sculptures. Among other notable parks are the Maritime Victory Park on Krestovsky Island and the Moscow Victory Park in the south, both commemorating the victory over Nazi Germany in the Second World War, as well as the Central Scherbakov Park of Culture and Leisure, Central Park of Culture and Leisure occupying Yelagin Island and the Tauride Garden around the Tauride Palace. The most common trees grown in the parks are the Quercus robur, English oak, Acer platanoides, Norway maple, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, green ash, Betula pendula, silver birch, Siberian Larch, Picea pungens, blue spruce, Salix fragilis, crack willow, Tilia, limes, and Populus, poplars. Important Xylotheque, dendrological collections dating back to the 19th century are hosted by the Saint Petersburg Botanical Garden and the Park of the Forestry Academy. In order to commemorate 300 years anniversary of Saint Petersburg a new park was laid out. The park is in the northwestern part of the city. The construction was started in 1995. It is planned to connect the park with the pedestrian bridge to the territory of
Lakhta Center The Lakhta Center () is an 87-storey skyscraper built in the northwestern neighborhood of Lakhta in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Standing tall, it is the List of tallest buildings in Russia, tallest building in Russia, the List of tallest buildin ...

Lakhta Center
's recreation areas. In the park 300 trees of valuable sorts, 300 decorative apple trees, 70 limes. 300 other trees and bushes were planted. These trees were presented to Saint Petersburg by non-commercial and educational organizations of the city, its sister-cities, the city of Helsinki, heads of other regions of Russia, German Savings Bank and other people and organizations.


Tourism

Saint Petersburg has a significant historical and cultural heritage. The city's 18th and 19th-century architectural ensemble and its environs is preserved in virtually unchanged form. For various reasons (including large-scale destruction during World War II and construction of modern buildings during the postwar period in the largest historical centres of Europe), Saint Petersburg has become a unique reserve of European architectural styles of the past three centuries. Saint Petersburg's loss of capital city status helped it retain many of its pre-revolutionary buildings, as modern architectural 'prestige projects' tended to be built in Moscow; this largely prevented the rise of mid-to-late-20th century architecture and helped maintain the architectural appearance of the historic city centre. Saint Petersburg is inscribed on the
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous orga ...

UNESCO
World Heritage list as an area with 36 historical architectural complexes and around 4000 outstanding individual monuments of architecture, history and culture. New tourist programs and sightseeing tours have been developed for those wishing to see Saint Petersburg's cultural heritage. The city has 221 museums, 2,000 libraries, more than 80 theatres, 100 concert organizations, 45 galleries and exhibition halls, 62 cinemas, and 80 other cultural establishments. Every year the city hosts around 100 festivals and various competitions of art and culture, including more than 50 international ones. Despite the Economic history of the Russian Federation, economic instability of the 1990s, not a single major theatre or museum was closed in Saint Petersburg; on the contrary many new ones opened, for example a private museum of puppets (opened in 1999) is the third museum of its kind in Russia, where collections of more than 2000 dolls are presented including 'The multinational Saint Petersburg' and Pushkin's Petersburg. The museum world of Saint Petersburg is incredibly diverse. The city is not only home to the world-famous Hermitage Museum and the Russian Museum with its rich collection of Russian art, but also the palaces of Saint Petersburg and its suburbs, so-called small-town museums and others like the museum of famous Russian writer Dostoyevsky; Museum of Musical Instruments, the museum of decorative arts and the museum of professional orientation. The Music of Russia, musical life of Saint Petersburg is rich and diverse, with the city now playing host to a number of annual carnivals. Ballet performances occupy a special place in the cultural life of Saint Petersburg. The Petersburg School of Ballet is named as one of the best in the world. Traditions of the Russian classical school have been passed down from generation to generation among outstanding educators. The art of famous and prominent Saint Petersburg dancers like Rudolf Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Mikhail Baryshnikov was, and is, admired throughout the world. Contemporary Petersburg ballet is made up not only of traditional Russian classical school but also ballets by those like Boris Eifman, who expanded the scope of strict classical Russian ballet to almost unimaginable limits. Remaining faithful to the classical basis (he was a choreographer at the Vaganova Academy of Russian Ballet), he combined classical ballet with the avant-garde, avant-garde style, and then, in turn, with acrobatics, rhythmic gymnastics, dramatic expressiveness, Cinema of Russia, cinema, color, light, and finally with spoken word.


Media and communications

All major Russian newspapers are active in Saint Petersburg. The city has a developed telecommunications system. In 2014, Rostelecom, the national operator, announced the beginning of a major modernization of the fixed-line network in the city.


Culture


Museums

Saint Petersburg is home to more than two hundred museums, many of them in historic buildings. The largest is the Hermitage Museum that features the interiors of the former imperial residence and a vast collection of art. The Russian Museum is a large museum devoted to Russian fine art. The apartments of some famous Petersburgers, including Alexander Pushkin, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Feodor Chaliapin, Alexander Blok, Vladimir Nabokov, Anna Akhmatova, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Joseph Brodsky, as well as some palace and park ensembles of the southern suburbs and notable architectural monuments such as St. Isaac's Cathedral, have also been turned into public museums. The
Kunstkamera The Kunstkamera (or Kunstkammer; russian: Кунсткамера) is the first museum in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List ...

Kunstkamera
, with its collection established in 1714 by Peter the Great to collect curiosities from all over the world, is sometimes considered the first museum in Russia, which has evolved into the present-day Kunstkamera, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography. The Russian Ethnography Museum, which has been split from the Russian Museum, is devoted to the cultures of the people of Russia, the Post-Soviet states, former Soviet Union and Russian Empire. A number of museums provide insight into the Soviet history of Saint Petersburg, including the Museum of the Blockade, which describes the Siege of Leningrad and the Museum of Political History, which explains many authoritarian features of the USSR. Other notable museums include the Central Naval Museum, and Zoological Museum of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Museum, The Central Soil Museum by V. V. Dokuchaev, Central Soil Museum, the Russian Railway Museum, Suvorov Museum, Museum of the Siege of Leningrad, Erarta, Erarta Museum of Contemporary Art, the largest non-governmental museum of contemporary art in Russia, Saint Petersburg Museum of History in the
Peter and Paul Fortress The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city. It may be a castle in East Sussex East Sussex is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for adminis ...
and Military Historical Museum of Artillery, Engineers and Signal Corps, Artillery Museum, which includes not only artillery items, but also a huge collection of other military equipment, uniforms, and decorations. Amongst others, Saint Petersburg also hosts State Museum of the History of Religion, one of the eldest museums in Russia about religion depicting cultural representations from various parts of the globe.


Music

Among the city's more than fifty theatres is the Mariinsky Theatre (formerly known as the Kirov Theatre), home to the Mariinsky Ballet company and opera. Leading ballet dancers, such as Vaslav Nijinsky, Anna Pavlova, Rudolf Nureyev, Rudolph Nureyev, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Galina Ulanova and Natalia Makarova, were principal stars of the Mariinsky ballet. The first music school, the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, was founded in 1862 by the Russian pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein. The school alumni have included such notable composers as Pyotr Tchaikovsky, Sergei Prokofiev, Artur Kapp, Rudolf Tobias and Dmitri Shostakovich, who taught at the conservatory during the 1960s, bringing it additional fame. The renowned Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov also taught at the conservatory from 1871 to 1905. Among his students were Igor Stravinsky, Alexander Glazounov, Anatoly Liadov and others. The former St. Petersburg apartment of Rimsky-Korsakov has been faithfully preserved as the Rimsky-Korsakov Apartment and Museum, composer's only museum. Dmitri Shostakovich, who was born and raised in Saint Petersburg, dedicated his Symphony No. 7 (Shostakovich), Seventh Symphony to the city, calling it the "Leningrad Symphony". He wrote the symphony while based in the city during the siege of Leningrad. It was premiered in Samara in March 1942; a few months later, it received its first Leningrad première of Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7, performance in the besieged Leningrad at the Bolshoy Philharmonic Hall under the baton of conductor Karl Eliasberg. It was heard over the radio and was said to have lifted the spirits of the surviving population. In 1992, the 7th Symphony was performed by the 14 surviving orchestral players of the Leningrad premiere in the same hall as half a century before. The Saint Petersburg Philharmonic Orchestra, Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra remained one of the best known orchestra, symphony orchestras in the world under the leadership of conductors Yevgeny Mravinsky and Yuri Temirkanov. Mravinsky's term as artistic director of the Leningrad Philharmonic—a term that is possibly the longest of any conductor with any orchestra in modern times—led the orchestra from a little-known provincial ensemble to one of the world's most highly regarded orchestras, especially for the performance of Russian music. The Imperial Choral Capella was founded and modelled after the royal courts of other European capitals. Saint Petersburg has been home to the newest movements in popular music in the country. The first jazz band in the Soviet Union was founded here by Leonid Utyosov in the 1920s, under the patronage of Isaak Dunayevsky. The first jazz club in the Soviet Union was founded here in the 1950s and was later named jazz club Kvadrat. In 1956 the popular ensemble Druzhba was founded by Aleksandr Bronevitsky and Edita Piekha to become the first popular band in the USSR during the 1950s. In the 1960s student rock-groups Argonavty, Kochevniki and others pioneered a series of unofficial and underground music, underground rock concerts and festivals. In 1972 Boris Grebenshchikov founded the band Aquarium (band), Aquarium, which later grew to huge popularity. Since then "Peter's rock" music genre, music style was formed. In the 1970s many bands came out from the "underground" scene and eventually founded the Leningrad Rock Club, which provided a stage to bands such as DDT (band), DDT, Kino (band), Kino, Alisa (Russian band), Alisa, Zemlyane, Zoopark, Piknik, and Secret (Russian band), Secret. The first Russian-style happening show Pop-Mechanics, Pop Mekhanika, mixing over 300 people and animals on stage, was directed by the multi-talented Sergey Kuryokhin in the 1980s. The Sergey Kuryokhin International Festival (SKIF) is named after him. In 2004 the Kuryokhin Center was founded, where the SKIF and the Electro-Mechanica and Ethnomechanica festivals take place. SKIF focuses on experimental pop music and avant garde music, Electro-Mechanica on electronic music, and Ethnomechanica on world music. Today's Saint Petersburg boasts many notable musicians of various genres, from popular Leningrad's Sergei Shnurov, Tequilajazzz, Splean, and Korol i Shut, to rock veterans Yuri Shevchuk, Vyacheslav Butusov, and Mikhail Boyarsky. In the early 2000s the city saw a wave of popularity of metalcore, rapcore, and emocore, and there are bands such as Amatory (band), Amatory, Kirpichi, Psychea, Stigmata (Russian band), Stigmata, Grenouer and Animal Jazz. The White Nights Festival in Saint Petersburg is famous for spectacular fireworks and a massive show celebrating the end of the Academic term, school year. The rave band Little Big (group), Little Big also hails from Saint Petersburg. Their music video for "Skibidi" was filmed in the city, starting at Akademicheskiy Pereulok.


Literature

Saint Petersburg has a longstanding and world-famous tradition in literature. Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Dostoyevsky called it "The most abstract and intentional city in the world", emphasizing its artificiality, but it was also a symbol of modern disorder in a changing Russia. It often appeared to List of Russian language writers, Russian writers as a menacing and inhuman mechanism. The grotesque and often nightmarish image of the city is featured in Pushkin's last poems, the Petersburg stories of Nikolai Gogol, Gogol, the novels of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Dostoyevsky, the verse of Alexander Blok and Osip Mandelstam, Osip Mandelshtam, and in the symbolist novel ''Petersburg (novel), Petersburg'' by Andrei Bely, Andrey Bely. According to Lotman in his chapter, 'The Symbolism of Saint Petersburg' in ''Universe and the Mind'', these writers were inspired by symbolism from within the city itself. The effect of life in Saint Petersburg on the plight of the poor clerk in a society obsessed with hierarchy and status also became an important theme for authors such as Alexander Pushkin, Pushkin, Gogol, and Dostoyevsky. Another important feature of early Saint Petersburg literature is its mythical element, which incorporates urban legends and popular ghost story, ghost stories, as the stories of Pushkin and Gogol included ghosts returning to Saint Petersburg to haunt other characters as well as other fantastical elements, creating a surreal and abstract image of Saint Petersburg. 20th-century writers from Saint Petersburg, such as Vladimir Nabokov, Ayn Rand, Andrey Bely and Yevgeny Zamyatin, along with his apprentices, The Serapion Brothers created entirely new styles in literature and contributed new insights to the understanding of society through their experience in this city. Anna Akhmatova became an important leader for List of Russian language poets, Russian poetry. Her poem ''Requiem'' adumbrates the perils encountered during the Stalinist era. Another notable 20th-century writer from Saint Petersburg is Joseph Brodsky, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1987). While living in the United States, his writings in English reflected on life in Saint Petersburg from the unique perspective of being both an insider and an outsider to the city in essays such as, "A Guide to a Renamed City" and the nostalgic "In a Room and a Half".


Film

Over 250 international and Russian movies were filmed in Saint Petersburg. Well over a thousand feature films about tsars, revolution, people and stories set in Saint Petersburg have been produced worldwide but not filmed in the city. The first Movie studio, film studios were founded in Saint Petersburg in the 20th century and since the 1920s Lenfilm has been the largest film studio based in Saint Petersburg. The first foreign feature movie filmed entirely in Saint Petersburg was the 1997 production of Tolstoy's ''Anna Karenina (1997 film), Anna Karenina'', starring Sophie Marceau and Sean Bean and made by an international team of British, American, French and Russian filmmakers. The cult comedy ''The Irony of Fate, Irony of Fate'' (also Ирония судьбы, или С лёгким паром!) is set in Saint Petersburg and pokes fun at Soviet city planning. The 1985 film ''White Nights (1985 film), White Nights'' received considerable Western attention for having captured genuine Leningrad street scenes at a time when filming in the Soviet Union by Western production companies was generally unheard of. Other movies include ''GoldenEye'' (1995), ''Midnight in Saint Petersburg'' (1996), ''Brother (1997 film), Brother'' (1997) and Tamil cinema, Tamil romantic thriller (genre), thriller film-''Dhaam Dhoom'' (2008). ''Eugene Onegin#Film, Onegin'' (1999) is based on the Alexander Pushkin, Pushkin poem and showcases many tourist attractions. In addition, the Russian romantic comedy, ''Piter FM'', intricately showcases the cityscape, almost as if it were a main character in the film. Several international film festivals are held annually, such as the Festival of Festivals, Saint Petersburg, as well as the Message to Man International Documentary Film Festival, since its inauguration in 1988 during the White Nights.


Dramatic theatre

St Petersburg has a number of dramatic theatres and drama schools. These include the Student Theatre on Mokhovaya Street (Saint Petersburg), Mokhovaya Street. :ru:Учебный театр «На Моховой», Учебный театр «На Моховой»
Leteiny Theatre
an
Youth Theatre on the Fontanka


Education

–2007, there were 1,024 kindergartens, 716 public school (government funded), public schools and 80 vocational education, vocational schools in Saint Petersburg. The largest of the public higher education institutions is Saint Petersburg State University, enrolling approximately 32,000 undergraduate students; and the largest non-governmental higher education institutions is the St. Petersburg Institute of International Trade, Economics and Law, Institute of International Economic Relations, Economics, and Law. Other famous universities are Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Herzen University, Saint Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance and Military engineering-technical university, Saint Petersburg Military engineering-technical university. However, the public universities are all federal property and do not belong to the city.


Sports

Leningrad hosted part of the association football tournament during the 1980 Summer Olympic Games, Summer Olympics. The 1994 Goodwill Games were also held here. In boating, the first competition here was the 1703 rowing (sport), rowing event initiated by Peter the Great, after the victory over the Swedish Navy, Swedish fleet. The Russian Navy held Yachting events since the foundation of the city. Yacht clubs: St. Petersburg River Yacht Club, Neva Yacht Club, the latter is the oldest yacht club in the world. In the winter, when the sea and lake surfaces are frozen and yachts and dinghies cannot be used, local people sail ice boats. Equestrianism has been a long tradition, popular among the Tsars and aristocracy, as well as part of military education and training, military training. Several historic sports arenas were built for equestrianism since the 18th century to maintain training all year round, such as the Zimny Stadion and Konnogvardeisky Manezh. Chess tradition was highlighted by the 1914 international tournament, partially funded by the Tsar, in which the title "Grandmaster" was first formally conferred by Nicholas II of Russia, Russian Tsar Nicholas II to five players: Emanuel Lasker, Lasker, José Raúl Capablanca, Capablanca, Alexander Alekhine, Alekhine, Siegbert Tarrasch, Tarrasch and Frank Marshall (chess player), Marshall. Kirov Stadium with a capacity of 70 thousand seats (now a modern New Zenit Stadium, Gazprom Arena since 2017) which will host 2018 FIFA World Cup matches was one of the largest stadiums in the world and home to FC Zenit Saint Petersburg from 1950 to 1993 and again in 1995. In 1951 a crowd of 110,000 set the single-game attendance record for Soviet football. In 1984, 2007, 2010 and 2011/2012, Zenit were the champions of the Soviet Top League, Soviet and Russian Premier League, Russian leagues, respectively, and won the Russian Cup in 1999 and 2010, the 2007–08 UEFA Cup, UEFA Cup 2007–08 season and the 2008 UEFA Super Cup. The team leader was local player Andrei Arshavin. Hockey teams in the city include SKA Saint Petersburg in the KHL, HC VMF St. Petersburg in the VHL, and junior clubs SKA-1946 and Silver Lions in the Russian Major League. SKA Saint Petersburg is one of the most popular in the KHL, consistently being at or near the top of the league in attendance. Along with their popularity, they are one of the best teams in the KHL right now, as they have won the Gagarin Cup twice. Well-known players on the team include Pavel Datsyuk, Ilya Kovalchuk, Nikita Gusev, Sergei Shirokov and Viktor Tikhonov (ice hockey b. 1988), Viktor Tikhonov. During the NHL lockout, stars Ilya Kovalchuk, Sergei Bobrovsky and Vladimir Tarasenko also played for the team. They play their home games at Ice Palace Saint Petersburg. The city's long-time basketball team is BC Spartak Saint Petersburg, which launched the career of Andrei Kirilenko. BC Spartak Saint Petersburg won two championships in the USSR Premier Basketball League, USSR Premier League (1975 and 1992), two USSR Basketball Cup, USSR Cups (1978 and 1987), and a Russian Basketball Cup, Russian Cup title (2011). They also won the Saporta Cup twice (1973 and 1975). Legends of the club include Alexander Belov and Vladimir Kondrashin. The city also has a new basketball team, BC Zenit Saint Petersburg.


Transport

Saint Petersburg is a major transport hub. The first Russian railway was built here in 1837, and since then the city's transport infrastructure has kept pace with the city's growth. Petersburg has an extensive system of local roads and railway services, maintains a large public transport system that includes the Tramways in Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg tram and the Saint Petersburg Metro, and is home to several riverine services that convey passengers around the city efficiently and in relative comfort. The city is connected to the rest of Russia and the wider world by several federal highways and national and international rail routes. Pulkovo Airport serves most of the air passengers departing from or arriving to the city.


Roads and public transport

Saint Petersburg has an extensive city-funded network of public transport (buses, Tramways in Saint Petersburg, trams, trolleybuses) and several hundred routes served by ''marshrutkas''. Tramways in Saint Petersburg, Trams in Saint Petersburg used to be the main means of transport; in the 1980s this was the largest tram network globally, but many tracks were dismantled in the 2000s. Buses carry up to three million passengers daily, serving over 250 urban and a number of suburban bus routes. Saint Petersburg Metro underground rapid transit system was opened in 1955; it now has 5 lines with 69 stations, connecting all five railway terminals, and carrying 2.3 million passengers daily. Metro stations are often elaborately decorated with materials such as marble and bronze. As of 2018, the Saint Petersburg Metro will include new stations: Prospekt Slavy, Dunayskaya, Shushary, Begovaya, and Novokrestovskaya, the latter built specifically to offer convenient access to the stadium during the 2018 FIFA World Cup games and games played by FC Zenit. Traffic congestion, Traffic jams are common in the city due to daily commuter traffic volumes, intercity traffic and excessive winter snow. The construction of Controlled-access highway, freeways such as the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, completed in 2011, and the Western Rapid Diameter, Western High-Speed Diameter, completed in 2017, helped reduce the traffic in the city. The Moscow–Saint Petersburg motorway, M11 Neva, also known as the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Motorway, is a Russian federal highway, federal highway, and connects Saint Petersburg to Moscow by a freeway. Saint Petersburg is an important transport corridor linking Scandinavia to Russia and Eastern Europe. The city is a node of the International E-road network, international European routes European route E18, E18 towards Helsinki, European route E20, E20 towards Tallinn, European route E95, E95 towards Pskov, Kyiv and Odessa and European route E105, E105 towards Petrozavodsk, Murmansk and Kirkenes (north) and towards Moscow and Kharkiv (south).


Saint Petersburg public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Saint Petersburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 69 minutes. 19.6% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 minutes, while 16.1% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 15% travel for over in a single direction.


Waterways

The city is also served by passenger and cargo seaports in the Neva Bay of the
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Baltic Sea
, the river port higher up the Neva and tens of smaller passenger stations on both banks of the Neva river. It is a terminus of both the Volga–Baltic Waterway, Volga-Baltic and White Sea-Baltic Canal, White Sea-Baltic waterways. The first high bridge that does not need to be drawn, the Big Obukhovsky Bridge opened in 2004. Meteor hydrofoils link the city centre to the coastal towns of Kronstadt and Shlisselburg from May through October. In the warmer months many smaller boats and water-taxis navigate the city's canals. The shipping company St. Peter Line operates two ferries that sail from Helsinki to Saint Petersburg and from Stockholm to Saint Petersburg.


Rail

The city is the final destination for a web of intercity and suburban railways, served by five different railway terminals (Baltiysky Rail Terminal, Baltiysky, Finlyandsky Rail Terminal, Finlyandsky, Ladozhsky Rail Terminal, Ladozhsky, Moskovsky Rail Terminal (Saint Petersburg), Moskovsky and Vitebsky Rail Terminal, Vitebsky), as well as dozens of non-terminal Train station, railway stations within the federal subject. Saint Petersburg has international railway connections to Helsinki, Finland, Berlin, Germany, and many former republics of the USSR. The Riihimäki – Saint Petersburg Railway, Helsinki railway, built in 1870 and long, has trains running five times a day, in a journey lasting about three and a half hours with the Karelian Trains Class Sm6, Allegro train. The Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway opened in 1851, and is long; the commute to Moscow now requires from three and a half to nine hours. In 2009 Russian Railways launched a high speed service for the Moscow–Saint Petersburg route. The new train, known as Sapsan, is a derivative of the popular Siemens Velaro train; various versions of this already operate in some European countries. It set records for the fastest train in Russia on 2 May 2009, travelling at and on 7 May 2009, traveling at . Since 12 December 2010 Karelian Trains, a joint venture between Russian Railways and VR Group, VR (Finnish Railways), has been running Karelian Trains Class Sm6, Alstom Pendolino operated high-speed services between Saint Petersburg's Finlyandsky Rail Terminal, Finlyandsky and Helsinki's Helsinki Central railway station, Central railway stations. These services are branded as "Allegro" trains. "Allegro" is known for suffering some big technical problems from time to time, which sometimes result in significant delays and even cancellation of tourists' trips.


Air

Saint Petersburg is served by Pulkovo Airport, Pulkovo International Airport. Pulkovo airport was opened to passengers as a small aerodrome in 1931. , the Pulkovo airport, which handles over 12 million passengers annually, is the 3rd busiest in Russia after Moscow's Sheremetyevo International Airport, Sheremetyevo and Domodedovo International Airport, Domodedovo. As a result, the steadily increasing passenger traffic has triggered a massive modernization of the entire airport infrastructure. A newly built Terminal 1 of the Pulkovo airport was put into operation on 4 December 2013 and integrated international flights of the former terminal Pulkovo-2. The renovated terminal Pulkovo-1 has been opened for domestic flights as an extension of Terminal 1 in 2015. One of the oldest air carriers of the Russian Federation Rossiya is registered in Saint Petersburg and is the largest and the base carrier of Pulkovo Airport. There is a regular rapid-bus connection (buses 39, 39E, K39) between Pulkovo airport and the Moskovskaya (Saint Petersburg Metro), Moskovskaya metro station as well as 24/7 taxi service.


Notable people


International relations

List of sister cities to Saint Petersburg as it appears on the official portal of the City Government, listing both sister cities and partnership ties: Non CIS/Baltic states sister cities of Saint Petersburg (from official government list) Sister cities in the Commonwealth of Independent States and Baltic states Sister cities of Saint Petersburg (not included on official government list) Milan and
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
were formerly twin cities of Saint Petersburg, but suspended this link due to St Petersburg's ban on "gay propaganda". Milan suspended the relationship with Saint Petersburg on 23 November 2012 and Venice did so on 28 January 2013.


See also

* Fences in Saint Petersburg * Hotels in Saint Petersburg * List of buildings and structures in Saint Petersburg * List of museums in Saint Petersburg * List of people from Saint Petersburg, List of notable people from Saint Petersburg * List of Saint Petersburg Metro stations * List of sister cities to Saint Petersburg, List of Saint Petersburg sister cities * List of theatres in Saint Petersburg * Outline of Saint Petersburg * Timeline of Saint Petersburg


Notes


References


Citations


Sources

* Amery, Colin, Brian Curran & Yuri Molodkovets. ''St. Petersburg''. London: Frances Lincoln, 2006. . * Bater, James H. ''St. Petersburg: Industrialization and Change''. Montreal: McGuill-Queen's University Press, 1976. . * Berelowitch, Wladimir & Olga Medvedkova. ''Histoire de Saint-Pétersbourg''. Paris: Fayard, 1996. . * Brumfield, William Craft. ''The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture''. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991. . * Buckler, Julie. ''Mapping St. Petersburg: Imperial Text and Cityshape''. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005 . * Clark, Katerina, ''Petersburg, Crucible of Revolution''. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. * Cross, Anthony (ed.). ''St. Petersburg, 1703–1825''. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. . * "San Pietroburgo, la capitale del nord" by Giuseppe D'Amato in ''Viaggio nell'Hansa baltica.'' L'Unione europea e l'allargamento ad Est. Greco&Greco editori, Milano, 2004. pp. 27–46. .
Travel to the Baltic Hansa
The European Union and its enlargement to the East) Book in Italian. * George, Arthur L. & Elena George. ''St. Petersburg: Russia's Window to the Future, The First Three Centuries''. Lanham: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. . * Glantz, David M. ''The Battle for Leningrad, 1941–1944''. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002. . * Hellberg-Hirn, Elena. ''Imperial Imprints: Post-Soviet St. Petersburg''. Helsinki: SKS Finnish literature Society, 2003. . * * Duncan Fallowell, ''One Hot Summer in St Petersburg'' (London, Jonathan Cape,1995) * ''Knopf Guide: Sat. Petersburg''. New York: Knopf, 1995. . * Eyewitness Guide: St. Petersburg. * Lincoln, W. Bruce. ''Sunlight at Midnight: St. Petersburg and the Rise of Modern Russia''. New York: Basic Books, 2000. . * Orttung, Robert W. ''From Leningrad to St. Petersburg: Democratization in a Russian City''. New York: St. Martin's, 1995. . * * Ruble, Blair A. ''Leningrad: Shaping a Soviet City''. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. . * Shvidkovsky, Dmitry O. & Alexander Orloff. ''St. Petersburg: Architecture of the Tsars''. New York: Abbeville Press, 1996. . * Volkov, Solomon. ''St. Petersburg: A Cultural History''. New York: Free Press, 1995. . * St. Petersburg:Architecture of the Tsars. 360 pages. Abbeville Press, 1996. * Saint Petersburg: Museums, Palaces, and Historic Collections: A Guide to the Lesser Known Treasures of St. Petersburg. 2003. . * . * *


External links


City Tourist Portal
* by FIFA *
St-Petersburg, Virtual Tour • 360° Aerial Panorama
* * *
Байков В.Д. Ленинградские хроники: от послевоенных 50-х до "лихих 90-х". М. Карамзин, 2017. – 486 с., илл. – in English: Leningrad Chronicles: from the postwar fifties to the "wild nineties"


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