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Stephen Gary Wozniak (; born August 11, 1950), also known by his nickname "Woz", is an American
electronics engineer Image:Silego clock generator.JPG, Printed circuit board Electronic engineering (also called electronics and communications engineering) is an electrical engineering discipline which utilizes nonlinear and active component, active electrical compon ...
,
computer programmer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more informal contexts), is a person who creates computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science ...
,
philanthropist Philanthropy consists of "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a list of specialized agencies of the ...
, and
technology entrepreneur
technology entrepreneur
. In 1976, with business partner
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
, he co-founded
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...
, which later became the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the largest company in the world by market capitalization. Through his work at Apple in the 1970s and 1980s, he is widely recognized as one of the prominent pioneers of the personal-computer revolution. In 1975, Wozniak started developing the
Apple I
Apple I
into the computer that launched Apple when he and Jobs first began marketing it the following year. He primarily designed the
Apple II The Apple II (stylized as apple ][) is an and one of the world's first highly successful mass-produced products. It was designed primarily by ; oversaw the development of Apple II's foam-molded plastic case and developed the . It was in ...

Apple II
, introduced in 1977, known as one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputers, while Jobs oversaw the development of its foam-molded plastic case and early Apple employee Rod Holt developed its switched-mode power supply, switching power supply. With software engineer
Jef Raskin Jef Raskin (born Jeff Raskin; March 9, 1943 – February 26, 2005) was an American human–computer interface expert best known for conceiving and starting the Macintosh File:Steve_Jobs_and_Macintosh_computer,_January_1984,_by_Bernard_Gotfr ...

Jef Raskin
, Wozniak had a major influence over the initial development of the original
Apple Macintosh Macintosh 128k The Macintosh 128K, originally released as the Apple Macintosh, is the original Apple Inc., Apple Macintosh personal computer. Its beige case consisted of a CRT monitor and came with a keyboard and mouse. A handle built into ...

Apple Macintosh
concepts from 1979 to 1981, when Jobs took over the project following Wozniak's brief departure from the company due to a traumatic airplane accident. After permanently leaving Apple in 1985, Wozniak founded and created the first programmable
universal remote 120px, Harmony 670, a universal remote. A universal remote is a remote control In electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vac ...
, released in 1987. He then pursued several other businesses and philanthropic ventures throughout his career, focusing largely on
technology Technology ("science of craft", from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''wikt:-logia, -logia'') is the sum of any Art techniques and materials, techniques, skills, Scientific method, methods, and Business ...

technology
in
K–12 K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), from kindergarten Kindergarten (, ) is a preschool educational approach based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of t ...
schools. , Wozniak has remained an employee of Apple in a ceremonial capacity since stepping down in 1985. In recent years, he has helped fund multiple entrepreneurial efforts dealing in areas such as
telecommunications Telecommunication is the transmission of information by various types of technologies over , radio, , or other systems. It has its origin in the desire of humans for communication over a distance greater than that feasible with the , but with ...
,
flash memory Flash memory is an electronic Electronic may refer to: *Electronics Electronics comprises the physics, engineering, technology and applications that deal with the emission, flow and control of electrons in vacuum and matter. It uses acti ...
, technology and pop culture conventions,
ecology Ecology (from el, οἶκος, "house" and el, -λογία, label=none, "study of") is the study of the relationships between living organisms, including humans, and their physical environment. Ecology considers at the individual, , , , an ...
,
satellites alt=, A full-size model of the Earth observation satellite ERS 2 ">ERS_2.html" ;"title="Earth observation satellite ERS 2">Earth observation satellite ERS 2 In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object that has been intentionally ...
, technical education and more.


Early life

Stephen Gary Wozniak was born on August 11, 1950, in
San Jose, California San Jose, officially San José (; ; ), is the largest city in Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of Califor ...
. His mother, Margaret Louise Wozniak (née Kern) (1923–2014), was from
Washington state Washington (), officially the State of Washington, is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. Named for George Washington—the first President of the United States, U.S. president—the state was form ...
, and his father, Francis Jacob "Jerry" Wozniak (1925–1994) of
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
, was an engineer for the
Lockheed Corporation The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer. Lockheed was founded in 1926 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995. Its founder, Allan Lockheed, had earlier founded the similarly named but ot ...
. Wozniak graduated from Homestead High School in 1968, in
Cupertino, California Cupertino ( ) is a city in Santa Clara County, California, United States, directly west of San Jose, California, San Jose on the western edge of the Santa Clara Valley with portions extending into the foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains. The p ...
. Steve has one brother, Mark Wozniak, a former tech executive who lives in Menlo Park. He also has one sister, Leslie Wozniak. She attended Homestead High School in Cupertino. She is a grant adviser at Five Bridges Foundation, which helps at-risk youths in San Francisco. She once said it was her mother who introduced activism to her and her siblings. The name on Wozniak's birth certificate is "Stephan Gary Wozniak", but his mother said that she intended it to be spelled "Stephen", which is what he uses. Wozniak has mentioned his surname being Polish. In the early 1970s, Wozniak's
blue box A blue box is an electronic device The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose elect ...

blue box
design earned him the nickname "Berkeley Blue" in the
phreaking Phreaking is a slang Slang is vocabulary A vocabulary, also known as a wordstock or word-stock, is a set of familiar words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool fo ...
community. Wozniak has credited watching ''
Star Trek ''Star Trek'' is an American science fiction File:Imagination 195808.jpg, Space exploration, as predicted in August 1958 by the science fiction magazine ''Imagination (magazine), Imagination'' Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci- ...

Star Trek
'' and attending ''Star Trek'' conventions while in his youth as a source of inspiration for his starting
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a ...


Career

In 1969, Wozniak returned to the
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Pablo Bay, San Pablo, and Suisun Bay estuary, estuaries in Northern California. Although the exact bou ...
after being expelled from the
University of Colorado Boulder , mottoeng = Let Your Light Shine , established = , type = Public In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This ...
in his first year for hacking the university's computer system. He re-enrolled at
De Anza College De Anza College is a public community college A community college is a type of educational institution An educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary s ...
in Cupertino before transferring to the
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the University of California ...

University of California, Berkeley
, in 1971. In June of that year, for a self-taught engineering project, Wozniak designed and built his first computer with his friend
Bill Fernandez Bill Fernandez is a user interface, user-interface architect and innovator who was Apple Inc., Apple Computer's first employee when they incorporated in 1977 and is Apple employee #4. He is the son of Jeryy Fernandez and Bambi Fernandez (both St ...

Bill Fernandez
. Predating useful microprocessors, screens, and keyboards, and using
punch card A punched card (also punch cardSteven Pinker, in ''The Stuff of Thought'', Viking, 2007, p.362, notes the loss of ''-ed'' in pronunciation ''as it did in ice cream, mincemeat, and box set, formerly iced cream, minced meat, and boxed set.'' or pu ...
s and only 20 TTL chips donated by an acquaintance, they named it "Cream Soda" after their favorite beverage. A newspaper reporter stepped on the power supply cable and blew up the computer, but it served Wozniak as "a good prelude to my thinking 5 years later with the Apple I and Apple II computers". Before focusing his attention on Apple, he was employed at
Hewlett-Packard The Hewlett-Packard Company, commonly shortened to Hewlett-Packard ( ) or HP, was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. HP developed and provided a wide variety of hardware compone ...

Hewlett-Packard
(HP), where he designed calculators. It was during this time that he dropped out of Berkeley and befriended
Steve Jobs Steven Paul Jobs (; February 24, 1955 – October 5, 2011) was an American business magnate A business magnate is someone who has achieved great success and enormous wealth through the ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term ch ...

Steve Jobs
. Wozniak was introduced to Jobs by Fernandez, who attended Homestead High School with Jobs in 1971. Jobs and Wozniak became friends when Jobs worked for the summer at HP, where Wozniak, too, was employed, working on a
mainframe computer A mainframe computer, informally called a mainframe or big iron, is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform gener ...
. file:Blue Box in museum.jpg, Wozniak's
blue box A blue box is an electronic device The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose elect ...

blue box
at the Computer History Museum Their first business partnership began later that year when Wozniak read an article titled "Secrets of the Little Blue Box" from the October 1971 issue of ''Esquire (magazine), Esquire'', and started to build his own "
blue box A blue box is an electronic device The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or , whose elect ...

blue box
es" that enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no cost. Jobs, who handled the sales of the blue boxes, managed to sell some two hundred of them for $150 each, and split the profit with Wozniak. Jobs later told his biographer that if it hadn't been for Wozniak's blue boxes, "there wouldn't have been an Apple." In 1973, Jobs was working for
arcade game An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are presented as primarily game of skill, games of skill and in ...

arcade game
company Atari, Inc. in
Los Gatos, California Los Gatos (; ) is an List of cities in California, incorporated town in Santa Clara County, California, United States. The population is 30,222 according to the 2019 United States Census Bureau. It is located in the San Francisco Bay Area at the ...
. He was assigned to create a
circuit board A printed circuit board (PCB) is a laminated sandwich structure of conductive and insulating layers. PCBs have two complementary functions. The first is to affix electronic components An electronic component is any basic discrete device or ...

circuit board
for the arcade video game '' Breakout''. According to Atari co-founder
Nolan Bushnell Nolan Kay Bushnell (born February 5, 1943) is an American businessman and electrical engineer. He established Atari, Inc. and the Chuck E. Cheese's Pizza Time Theatre chain. Bushnell has been inducted into the Video Game Hall of Fame and the Co ...

Nolan Bushnell
, Atari offered $100 () for each chip that was eliminated in the machine. Jobs had little knowledge of circuit board design and made a deal with Wozniak to split the fee evenly between them if Wozniak could minimize the number of chips. Wozniak reduced the number of chips by 50, by using
RAM Random-access memory (RAM; ) is a form of computer memory In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic proces ...
for the brick representation. Too complex to be fully comprehended at the time, the fact that this prototype also had no scoring or coin mechanisms meant Woz's prototype could not be used. Jobs was paid the full bonus regardless. Jobs told Wozniak that Atari gave them only $700 and that Wozniak's share was thus $350 ()., Woz.org
Kent, Stevn: "The Ultimate History of Video Games", pp. 71–73. Three Rivers, 2001.

Wozniak did not learn about the actual $5,000 bonus () until ten years later. While dismayed, he said that if Jobs had told him about it and had said he needed the money, Wozniak would have given it to him. In 1975, Wozniak began designing and developing the computer that would eventually make him famous, the
Apple I The Apple Computer 1, originally released as the Apple Computer and known later as the Apple I, or Apple-1, is a desktop computer released by the Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc.) in 1976. It was designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. T ...

Apple I
. On June 29 of that year, he tested his first working prototype, displaying a few letters and running sample programs. It was the first time in history that a
character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of character sketches attributed to Theophrastus M ...
displayed on a TV screen was generated by a home computer. With the Apple I, Wozniak was largely working to impress other members of the
Palo Alto Palo Alto (; for "tall stick") is a located in the northwestern corner of , United States, in the . The city is named after a known as . The city was established by when he founded , following the death of his son, Palo Alto includes port ...

Palo Alto
-based
Homebrew Computer Club The Homebrew Computer Club was an early computer hobbyist group in Menlo Park, California Menlo Park is a city located at the eastern edge of San Mateo County within the San Francisco Bay Area of California in the United States. It is border ...
, a local group of electronics hobbyists interested in computing. The club was one of several key centers which established the home hobbyist era, essentially creating the microcomputer industry over the next few decades. Unlike other custom Homebrew designs, the Apple had an easy-to-achieve video capability that drew a crowd when it was unveiled.


Apple formation and success

By March 1, 1976, Wozniak completed the basic design of the Apple I computer. He alone designed the hardware, circuit board designs, and operating system for the computer. Wozniak originally offered the design to while working there, but was denied by the company on five occasions. Jobs then advised Wozniak to start a business of their own to build and sell bare
printed circuit board A printed circuit board (PCB) is a laminated sandwich structure of conductive and insulating layers. PCBs have two complementary functions. The first is to affix electronic components An electronic component is any basic discrete device or ...

printed circuit board
s of the Apple I. Wozniak, at first skeptical, was later convinced by Jobs that even if they were not successful they could at least say to their grandchildren that they had had their own company. To raise the money they needed to build the first batch of the circuit boards, Wozniak sold his while Jobs sold his Volkswagen van. On April 1, 1976, Jobs and Wozniak formed the Apple Computer Company (now called Apple Inc.) along with administrative supervisor
Ronald Wayne Ronald Wayne (born May 17, 1934) is a retired American electronics industry businessman. He co-founded Apple Computer Company (now Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporatio ...
, whose participation in the new venture was short-lived. The two decided on the name "Apple" shortly after Jobs returned from Oregon and told Wozniak about his time spent on an there. After the company was formed, Jobs and Wozniak made one last trip to the Homebrew Computer Club to give a presentation of the fully assembled version of the Apple I.
Paul Terrell Paul Terrell is an American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States ( ...

Paul Terrell
, who was starting a new computer shop in
Mountain View, California Mountain View is a city in Santa Clara County, California Santa Clara County, officially the County of Santa Clara, is California's List of counties in California, 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 United ...
, called the Byte Shop, saw the presentation and was impressed by the machine. Terrell told Jobs that he would order 50 units of the Apple I and pay $500 each on delivery, but only if they came fully assembled, as he was not interested in buying bare printed circuit boards. Together the duo assembled the first boards in Jobs's parents' Los Altos home; initially in his bedroom and later (when there was no space left) in the garage. Wozniak's apartment in San Jose was filled with monitors, electronic devices, and computer games that he had developed. The Apple I sold for $666.66. Wozniak later said he had no idea about the relation between the number and the
mark of the beastThe mark of the beast is a symbol in the Book of Revelation in the Bible. Mark of the Beast may also refer to: Film * Mark of the Beast (film), ''Mark of the Beast'' (film), a 1923 American silent drama film * The Mark of the Beast (film), ''The M ...
, and that he came up with the price because he liked "repeating digits". They sold their first 50 system boards to Terrell later that year. In November 1976, Jobs and Wozniak received substantial funding from a then-semi-retired
Intel Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co., is a Legal personalit ...

Intel
product marketing manager and engineer named
Mike Markkula Armas Clifford "Mike" Markkula Jr. (; born February 11, 1942) is an American electrical engineer, businessman and investor. He was an angel investor and the second CEO of Apple Computer, Inc., providing critical early funding and managerial supp ...
. At the request of Markkula, Wozniak resigned from his job at HP and became the vice president in charge of research and development at Apple. Wozniak's Apple I was similar to the
Altair 8800 The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems, MITS and based on the Intel 8080 central processing unit, CPU. Interest grew quickly after it was featured on the cover of the January 1975 issue o ...

Altair 8800
, the first commercially available microcomputer, except the Apple I had no provision for internal expansion cards. With expansion cards, the Altair could attach to a computer terminal and be programmed in
BASIC BASIC (Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming language In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the ar ...

BASIC
. In contrast, the Apple I was a hobbyist machine. Wozniak's design included a $25
CPU A central processing unit (CPU), also called a central processor, main processor or just processor, is the electronic circuit File:PExdcr01CJC.jpg, 200px, A circuit built on a printed circuit board (PCB). An electronic circuit is composed of ...

CPU
(
MOS 6502 The MOS Technology 6502 (typically pronounced "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as ''"sixty-five-oh-two"''. is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by a small tea ...
) on a single circuit board with 256
byte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
s of
ROM Rom, or ROM may refer to: Biomechanics and medicine * Risk of mortality The risk of mortality (ROM) provides a medical classification to estimate the likelihood of inhospital death for a patient. The ROM classes are minor, moderate, major, and ex ...
, 4K or 8K bytes of
RAM Random-access memory (RAM; ) is a form of computer memory In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic proces ...
, and a 40-character by 24-row display controller. Apple's first computer lacked a case, power supply, keyboard, and displayall components that had to be provided by the user. Eventually about 200 Apple I computers were produced in total. After the success of the Apple I, Wozniak designed the Apple II, the first personal computer with the ability to display color graphics, and BASIC programming language built in. Inspired by "the technique
Atari Atari () is a brand name owned by several entities since its inception in 1972, currently by Atari Interactive Atari Interactive is a name used by several separate groups and corporations since the mid-1990s. In 1996, it was the name of Ata ...

Atari
used to simulate colors on its first
arcade game An arcade game or coin-op game is a coin-operated entertainment machine typically installed in public businesses such as restaurants, bars and amusement arcades. Most arcade games are presented as primarily game of skill, games of skill and in ...

arcade game
s", Wozniak found a way of putting colors into the
NTSC The National Television System Committee (NTSC)National Television System Committee (1951–1953), Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transm ...
system by using a chip, while colors in the
PAL PAL 300px, upright=1.2, Analog television encoding systems by nation; SECAM.html"_;"title="NTSC_(green),_SECAM">NTSC_(green),_SECAM_(orange),_and_PAL_(blue). Phase_Alternating_Line_(PAL)_is_a_colour_encoding_system_for_Analog_television.html" ...
system are achieved by "accident" when a dot occurs on a line, and he says that to this day he has no idea how it works. During the design stage, Jobs argued that the Apple II should have two
expansion slot Expansion may refer to: Arts, entertainment and media * ''L'Expansion ''L'Expansion'' was a French former monthly business magazine based in Paris, France, which existed between 1967 and 2017. History and profile ''L'Expansion'' was founded by ...
s, while Wozniak wanted eight. After a heated argument, during which Wozniak threatened that Jobs should "go get himself another computer", they decided to go with eight slots. Jobs and Wozniak introduced the Apple II at the April 1977
West Coast Computer Faire The West Coast Computer Faire was an annual computer industry A computer is a machine A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molec ...
. Wozniak's first article about the Apple II was in ''
Byte The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bit The bit is a basic unit of information in computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It ...
'' magazine in May 1977. It became one of the first highly successful mass-produced personal computers in the world. Wozniak also designed the
Disk II The Disk II Floppy Disk Subsystem, often rendered as Disk ] '', is a -inch Floppy disk, floppy disk drive designed by Steve Wozniak'', is a -inch Floppy disk, floppy disk drive designed by Steve Wozniak" > at the recommendation of Mike Markkula ...

Disk II
floppy disk drive A floppy disk or floppy diskette (sometimes casually referred to as a floppy or diskette) is a type of disk storage composed of a thin and flexible disk of a magnetic storage medium in a square or nearly square plastic enclosure lined with a ...
, released in 1978 specifically for use with the
Apple II series The Apple II series (trademarked with square brackets as "Apple ][" and rendered on later models as "Apple //") is a family of home computers, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily b ...
to replace the slower Cassette tape#Data recording, cassette tape storage. In 1980, Apple went public to instant and significant financial profitability, making Jobs and Wozniak both millionaires. The Apple II's intended successor, the Apple III, released the same year, was a commercial failure and was discontinued in 1984. According to Wozniak, the Apple III "had 100 percent hardware failures", and that the primary reason for these failures was that the system was designed by Apple's marketing department, unlike Apple's previous engineering-driven projects. During the early design and development phase of the original Macintosh, Wozniak had a heavy influence over the project. Later named the "Macintosh 128k", it would become the first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral
graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
and
mouse A mouse, plural mice, is a small mammal Mammals (from Latin language, Latin , 'breast') are a group of vertebrate animals constituting the class (biology), class Mammalia (), and characterized by the presence of mammary glands which ...
. The Macintosh would also go on to introduce the
desktop publishing Desktop publishing (DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout software on a personal ("desktop") personal computer, computer. It was first used almost exclusively for print publications, but now it also assists in the creation of various ...
industry with the addition of the Apple
LaserWriter The LaserWriter is a laser printer with built-in PostScript interpreter sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1985 to 1988. It was one of the first laser printers available to the mass market. In combination with WYSIWYG publishing software like ...
, the first
laser printer Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively Electric charge, charged cylinder call ...

laser printer
to feature
vector graphics Vector graphics, as a form of computer graphics, is the set of mechanisms for creating visual images directly from Geometric primitive , geometric shapes defined on a Cartesian coordinate system, Cartesian plane, such as Point (geometry), po ...
. In a 2013 interview, Wozniak said that in 1981, "Steve really took over the project when I had a plane crash and wasn't there."


Plane crash and temporary leave from Apple

On February 7, 1981, the
Beechcraft Bonanza The Beechcraft Bonanza is an American general aviation aircraft introduced in 1947 by Beechcraft, Beech Aircraft Corporation of Wichita, Kansas. The six-seater, single-engined aircraft is still being produced by Beechcraft and has been in conti ...
A36TC which Wozniak was piloting (and not qualified to operat

crashed soon after takeoff from the Santa Cruz Sky Park, Sky Park Airport in Scotts Valley,
California California is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper i ...

California
. The airplane stalled while climbing, then bounced down the runway, broke through two fences, and crashed into an embankment. Wozniak and his three passengers—then-fiancée
Candice Clark Candice Clark is an American former slalom canoeist who competed in the 1970s. She was once married to Apple An apple is an edible fruit produced by an apple tree (''Malus domestica''). Apple fruit tree, trees are agriculture, cultivated w ...
, her brother Jack Clark, and Jack's girlfriend, Janet Valleau—were injured. Wozniak sustained severe face and head injuries, including losing a tooth, and also suffered for the following five weeks from
anterograde amnesia Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia Amnesia is a deficit in memory Memory is the faculty of the brain by which data or information is encoded, stored, and retrieved when ...
, the inability to create new memories. He had no memory of the crash, and did not remember his name while in the hospital or the things he did for a time after he was released. He would later state that Apple II computer games were what helped him regain his memory. The
National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transportation (used in the U.S.), is the Motion, moveme ...
investigation report cited premature liftoff and pilot inexperience as probable causes of the crash. Wozniak did not immediately return to Apple after recovering from the airplane crash, seeing it as a good reason to leave. ''Infinite Loop'' characterized this time: "Coming out of the semi-coma had been like flipping a reset switch in Woz's brain. It was as if in his thirty-year old body he had regained the mind he'd had at eighteen before all the computer madness had begun. And when that happened, Woz found he had little interest in engineering or design. Rather, in an odd sort of way, he wanted to start over fresh."


UC Berkeley and US Festivals

Later in 1981, after recovering from the plane crash, Wozniak enrolled back at UC Berkeley to complete his degree. Because his name was well known at this point, he enrolled under the name Rocky Raccoon Clark, which is the name listed on his diploma, although he did not officially receive his degree in electrical engineering and computer science until 1987. In May 1982 and 1983, Wozniak, with help from professional concert promoter Bill Graham, founded the company Unuson, an abbreviation of "unite us in song", which sponsored two
US Festival The US Festival (''US'' pronounced like the pronoun, not as initials) was the name of two early 1980s music and culture festivals in southern California Southern California (popularly known as SoCal; es, Sur de California) is a geographic a ...
s, with "US" pronounced like the pronoun, not as initials. Initially intended to celebrate evolving technologies, the festivals ended up as a technology exposition and a rock festival as a combination of music, computers, television, and people. After losing several million dollars on the 1982 festival, Wozniak stated that unless the 1983 event turned a profit, he would end his involvement with rock festivals and get back to designing computers. Later that year, Wozniak returned to Apple product development, desiring no more of a role than that of an engineer and a motivational factor for the Apple workforce.


Return to Apple product development

In the mid-1980s he designed the
Apple Desktop Bus Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) is a proprietary bit-serial peripheral bus connecting low-speed devices to computers. It was introduced on the Apple IIGS in 1986 as a way to support low-cost devices like keyboards and mice, allowing them to be connecte ...
, a
proprietary {{Short pages monitor