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Scientific transliteration, variously called ''academic'', ''linguistic'', ''international'', or ''scholarly transliteration'', is an international system for
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of h ...

transliteration
of text from the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
to the
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
(
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
). This system is most often seen in
linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguistics
publications on
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
. Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic into Latin was first introduced in 1898 as part of the standardization process for the (PI) in 1899.


Details

The scientific transliteration system is roughly as
phonemic In phonology Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also refers to the sound or sign system of any partic ...
as is the orthography of the language transliterated. The deviations are with щ, where the transliteration makes clear that two phonemes are involved, and џ, where it fails to represent the (monophonemic) affricate with a single letter. The transliteration system is based on the
Gaj's Latin alphabet Gaj's Latin alphabet ( sh, abeceda, latinica, gajica) is the form of the Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (Writing system#General properties, script) based on the letters of the classical Latin ...
used in
Serbo-Croatian Serbo-Croatian () – also called Serbo-Croat (), Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), and Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS) – is a South Slavic language The South Slavic languages are one of three branche ...
, in which each letter corresponds directly to a Cyrillic letter in
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
, Montenegrin and
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...
official standards, and was heavily based on the earlier
Czech alphabetCzech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writi ...
. The Cyrillic letter х, representing the sound as in ''Bach'', was romanized ''h'' in Serbo-Croatian, but in German-speaking countries the native digraph ''ch'' was used instead. It was codified in the 1898 ''Prussian Instructions'' for libraries, or ''Preußische Instruktionen'' (PI), which were adopted in Central Europe and Scandinavia. Scientific transliteration can also be used to romanize the early
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
, which has a close correspondence to Cyrillic. Scientific transliteration is often adapted to serve as a phonetic alphabet.Timberlake 2004, p 24. Scientific transliteration was the basis for the
ISO 9 The ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technica ...
transliteration standard. While linguistic transliteration tries to preserve the original language's
pronunciation Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in relation with") is "an apparent answer to the painful d ...
to a certain degree, the latest version of the ISO standard (ISO 9:1995) has abandoned this concept, which was still found in ISO/R 9:1968 and is now restricted to a one-to-one mapping of letters. It thus allows for unambiguous reverse transliteration into the original Cyrillic text and is language-independent. The previous official Soviet romanization system,
GOST 16876-71GOST 16876-71 (russian: ГОСТ 16876-71) is a romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Latin script, Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of ...
, is also based on scientific transliteration but used Latin ''h'' for Cyrillic х instead of Latin ''x'' or ''ssh'' and ''sth'' for Cyrillic Щ, and had a number of other differences. Most countries using Cyrillic script now have adopted GOST 7.79 instead, which is not the same as ISO 9 but close to it. Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
,
Latin-2 ISO/IEC 8859-2:1999, ''Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 2: Latin alphabet No. 2'', is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1987. It ...
,
Latin-4 ISO/IEC 8859-4:1998, ''Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 4: Latin alphabet No. 4'', is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988. It ...
, or
Latin-7 ISO/IEC 8859-13:1998, ''Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 13: Latin alphabet No. 7'', is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1998. ...
encoding.


Table

( ) Letters in parentheses are older or alternative transliterations. Ukrainian and Belarusian apostrophe are not transcribed. The early Cyrillic letter koppa (Ҁ, ҁ) was used only for transliterating Greek and its numeric value and was thus omitted. Prussian Instructions and ISO 9:1995 are provided for comparison. Unicode encoding is: * for the Cyrillic apostrophe * to transliterate the soft signThe templates and may be used for the proper character. * to transliterate the hard sign


See also

*
Romanization of Belarusian Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' ...
*
Romanization of Bulgarian Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specif ...
*
Romanization of Greek Romanization of Greek is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or ...
*
Romanization of Macedonian The romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elemen ...
*
Romanization of Russian Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping Letter (alphabet), letters (thus ''wikt:trans-#Prefix, trans-'' + ''wikt:littera#L ...
*
Romanization of Serbian The romanization of Serbo-Croatian or latinization of Serbo-Croatian is the representation of the Serbo-Croatian language using Latin letters. In Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro (where a slightly modified Montenegrin alphabet is used) Serbo-Croati ...
*
Romanization of Ukrainian The romanization of Ukrainian (or sometimes Latinization) is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin alphabet, Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Rom ...
* (PI) *
ALA-LC romanization for Russian The American Library Association and Library of Congress Romanization Tables for Russian, or the Library of Congress system, are a set of rules for the romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienti ...


Notes


References

* (Winter 2003) "Transliteration", in ''
Slavic and East European Journal The ''Slavic and East European Journal'' (SEEJ) is a major Peer review, peer-reviewed academic journal publishing original research and review essays in the areas of Slavic languages, Slavic and East European languages, literatures, cultures, lingu ...
'', 47 (4):backmatter—every issue of this journal has a transliteration reference in the back, including a table labelled “ISO Transliteration System”, although it is different from the latest version of ISO 9:1995. * IDS (Informationsverbund Deutschschweiz, 2001) ''Katalogisierungsregeln IDS (KIDS), Anhänge,
IDS G.4: Transliteration der slavischen kyrillischen Alphabete
''
Archive
.
Universität Zürich The University of Zurich (UZH, german: Universität Zürich) is a public university, public research university located in the city of Zürich, Switzerland. It is the largest university in Switzerland, with its 28,000 enrolled students. It was ...
. URL accessed on 2009-05-27 (PDF format, in German)—ISO/R 9 1968 standardization of scientific transliteration * Timberlake, Alan (2004), ''A Reference Grammar of Russian'',
Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge , mottoeng = Literal: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowled ...
, .


External links


Transliteration history
history of the transliteration of Slavic languages into Latin alphabets *
Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts

CyrAcademisator
Bi-directional online transliteration of Russian for ALA-LC (diacritics), scientific, ISO/R 9, ISO 9, GOST 7.79B and others. Supports Old Slavonic characters
Ukrainian Transliteration
— online service of scientific transliteration to and from Ukrainian. Also supports ISO 9, BGN/PCGN, ALA-LC and other standards of Ukrainian transliteration. (in Ukrainian) {{Cyrillization * Slavic languages