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Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also known Kokonor, is a landlocked
province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are g ...
in
the northwest
the northwest
of the
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
. It is one of the largest
provinces of China The provincial level administrative divisions () are the highest-level administrative divisions of China Due to China's large Demographics of China, population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consiste ...
by area, and is
ranked A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either "ranked higher than", "ranked lower than" or "ranked equal to" the second. In order theory, mathematics, this is known as a Strict weak ordering# ...
fourth largest in area and has the third smallest population. Its capital and largest city is
Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
. Qinghai borders
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
on the northeast,
Xinjiang Xinjiang (),, SASM/GNC: ''Xinjang''; zh, c=, p=Xīnjiāng; alternately romanized as Sinkiang officially the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) and formerly romanized as Sinkiang, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous ...

Xinjiang
on the northwest,
Sichuan Sichuan (; , ; alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, admini ...

Sichuan
on the southeast and the
Tibet Autonomous Region The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, often shortened to Tibet or Xizang, is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , count ...
on the southwest. Qinghai province was established in 1928 during the period of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
, and until 1949 was ruled by Chinese Muslim warlords known as the
Ma clique The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "chi ...
. The
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
name "Qinghai" is after
Qinghai Lake Qinghai Lake or Ch'inghai Lake, also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon n ...

Qinghai Lake
, the largest lake in China. The lake is known as Tso ngon in Tibetan, and as Kokonor Lake in English, derived from the Mongol Oirat name for Qinghai Lake. Both Tso ngon and Kokonor are names found in historic documents to describe the region. Gangchen Khishong, 2001. ''Tibet and Manchu: An Assesment of Tibet-Manchu Relations in Five Phases of Development''. Dharmasala: Narthang Press, p.1-70. Located mostly on the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and - ...
, the province has long been inhabited by a number of peoples including the
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
s,
Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian people, East Asian ethnic group indigenous peoples, native to the Inner Mongolia, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China, Mongolia an ...

Mongols
,
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
(concentrated in the provincial capital of Xining and nearby Haidong),
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
, Monguors, and Salars. According to 2021 census reports, Tibetans constitute a fifth of the population of Qinghai and the Hui compose roughly a sixth of the population. There are over 37 recognized ethnic groups among Qinghai's population of 5.6 million, with
national minorities A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...
making up a total of 45.5% of the population. The area of Qinghai was controlled by Manchu-led Qing China around 1724, after their defeat of
Khoshut The Khoshut (Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * ...
Mongols, which controlled most of the area that is now Qinghai. After the internal overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qinghai came under Chinese Muslim warlord
Ma Qi Ma Qi (, Xiao'erjing: ; 23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) was a Chinese Muslim General in early 20th-century China. Early life A Hui people, Hui, Ma was born on 23 September 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Linxia, ...

Ma Qi
's control until the
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
consolidated central control in 1928. In the same year, the province of Qinghai was established by the Nationalist Government, with Xining as its capital.


History

During the
Bronze Age The Bronze Age is a prehistoric Periodization, period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the Three-age sys ...
, Qinghai was home to the
Qiang people The Qiang people ( Qiangic: ''Rrmea''; ) are an ethnic group in China. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognised by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a co ...
who traditionally made a living in
agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Exercise trends, Increases in sedentary behaviors su ...

agriculture
and
husbandry Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary Image:Family watching television 1958.jpg, Ex ...
, the Kayue culture. The eastern part of the area of Qinghai was under the control of the
Han dynasty#REDIRECT Han dynasty The Han dynasty () was the second Dynasties in Chinese history, imperial dynasty of China (202 BC – 220 AD), established by the rebel leader Liu Bang and ruled by the House of Liu. Preceded by the short-lived Qin dynas ...

Han dynasty
about 2,000 years ago. It was a battleground during the Tang and subsequent Chinese dynasties when they fought against successive Tibetan tribes. In the middle of 3rd century CE, nomadic people related to the
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...

Mongol
ic
Xianbei The Xianbei (; ) were a Proto-Mongolic Proto-Mongolic is the hypothetical ancestor language of the modern Mongolic languages. It is very close to the Middle Mongol language, the language spoken at the time of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empir ...
migrated to pasture lands around the
Qinghai Lake Qinghai Lake or Ch'inghai Lake, also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon n ...

Qinghai Lake
(Koko Nur) and established the
Tuyuhun Kingdom Tuyuhun (; Eastern Han Chinese, LHC: *''tʰɑʔ-jok-guənʔ''; Wade-Giles: ''T'u-yühun''), also known as Azha (Standard Tibetan, Tibetan: ''‘A-zha''), was a dynastic kingdom established by the Nomads, nomadic peoples related to the Xianbei in t ...
. In the 7th century, the Tuyuhun Kingdom was attacked by both the
Tibetan Empire The Tibetan Empire (, ; ) was an empire centered on the Tibetan Plateau, formed as a result of imperial expansion under the Yarlung dynasty heralded by its 33rd king, Songsten Gampo in the 7th century. The empire further expanded under the 38th ...

Tibetan Empire
and the Tang dynasty as both sought control over the
Silk Road The Silk Road () was and is a network of trade routes connecting the Eastern world, East and Western culture, West, from the 2nd century BCE to the 18th century CE. It was central to the economic, cultural, political, and religious interactions ...

Silk Road
trade routes. Tibetan King Songsten Gampo was victorious, and settled the area around Tso ngon (Lake Go, or Kokonor Lake). Military conflicts had severely weakened the Tuhuyun kingdom and it was incorporated into the Tibetan Empire. The Tibetan Empire continued expanding beyond Tso ngon during
Trisong Detsen Trisong Detsen () was the son of Me Agtsom, the 38th List of emperors of Tibet, emperor of Tibet. He ruled from AD 755 until 797 or 804. Trisong Detsen was the second of the Three Dharma Kings of Tibet, playing a pivotal role in the introduction of ...

Trisong Detsen
's and Ralpachen's reigns, and the empire controlled vast areas north and east of Tso ngon until 848, which included
Xian Xi'an ( , ; ; Chinese: ), sometimes romanized as Sian, is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ( ...

Xian
. After the disintegration of the Tibetan Empire, small local factions emerged, some under the titular authority of China. The
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
defeated the Tibetan Kokonor Kingdom in the 1070s. During the Mongol
Yuan dynasty The Yuan dynasty (), officially the Great Yuan (; xng, , , literally "Great Yuan State"), was a successor state Successor is someone who, or something which succeeds or comes after (see success and succession) Film and TV * ''The Succ ...
's administrative rule of Tibet, the region comprised the headwaters of the Ma chu (Machu River,
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
) and the Yalong (
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
) rivers and was known as
Amdo Amdo ( Help:IPA/Tibetan, am˥˥.to˥˥ ) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the others being U-Tsang in the west, Kham in the east. Ngari (including former Guge kingdom) in the north-west was incorporated into Ü-Tsang. Amdo ...

Amdo
, but apportioned to different administrative divisions than Tibet proper. Most of Qinghai was once also a short time under the control of early
Ming dynasty The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the Dynasties in Chinese history, ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol Empire, Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynas ...

Ming dynasty
, but later gradually lost to the
Khoshut Khanate The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirats, Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau from 1642 to 1717. Name It is also referred to as Heshuote Khanate (和碩特汗國), State of Khoshut, or Quoshote Khanate. In Cyrillic it is spelled Хошууд ...

Khoshut Khanate
founded by the
Oirats Oirats ( mn, Ойрад, ''Oirad'', or , Oird; ; xal-RU, Өөрд; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East ...
. The
Xunhua Salar Autonomous County Xunhua Salar Autonomous County ( zh, s=循化撒拉族自治县, p=Xúnhuà Sǎlázú Zìzhìxiàn; slr, Göxdeñiz Velayat Yisır Salır Özbaşdak Yurt) is an autonomous Salar county A county is a geographical region of a country used fo ...
is where most
Salar people The Salar people ( zh, c=撒拉族, p=Sālāzú) are a Turkic languages, Turkic-speaking Ethnic minorities in China, ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz languages, Oghuz language. The Salar people numbered 1 ...
live in Qinghai. The Salars migrated to Qinghai from
Samarkand fa, سمرقند , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = City , image_skyline = , image_alt = , image_caption = Clockwise from the top: The Reg ...

Samarkand
in 1370. The chief of the four upper clans around this time was Han Pao-yuan and Ming granted him office of centurion, it was at this time the people of his four clans took Han as their surname. The other chief Han Shan-pa of the four lower Salar clans got the same office from Ming, and his clans were the ones who took Ma as their surname. From 1640 to 1724, a big part of the area that is now Qinghai was under
Khoshut The Khoshut (Mongolian Mongolian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Mongolia, a country in Asia * Mongolian people, or Mongols * Mongolia (1911–24), the government of Mongolia, 1911–1919 and 1921–1924 * Mongolian language * ...
Mongol control, but in 1724 it was conquered by the armies of the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
.
Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
, the capital of modern Qinghai province, began to function as the administrative center, although the city itself was then part of
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
province within the "Tibetan frontier district". In 1724, 13-Article for the Effective Governing of Qinghai (Chinese:青海善后事宜十三条) was proposed by Nian Gengyao and adopted by the Central Government to gain full control of Qinghai. During the rule of the Qing dynasty, the governor was a viceroy of the Qing Emperor, but the local ethnic groups enjoyed much autonomy. Many chiefs retained their traditional authority, participating in local administrations. The
Dungan revolt (1862–77)Dungan revolt may refer to: * Dungan revolt (1862–77), rebellion of various Muslim ethnic groups in Shaanxi and Gansu, China * Dungan revolt (1895–96), rebellion of various Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu, China {{disambiguation ...
devastated the
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
Muslim population of
Shaanxi Shaanxi (; , ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately Shensi) is a landlocked Provinces of China, province of the China, People's Republic of China. Officially part of Northwest China, it borders the province-level divisions of Shanxi (NE, ...

Shaanxi
, shifting the Hui center of population to
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
and Qinghai. Another Dungan revolt broke out in Qinghai in 1895 when various Muslim ethnic groups in Qinghai and Gansu rebelled against the Qing. Following the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the region came under Chinese Muslim warlord
Ma Qi Ma Qi (, Xiao'erjing: ; 23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) was a Chinese Muslim General in early 20th-century China. Early life A Hui people, Hui, Ma was born on 23 September 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Linxia, ...

Ma Qi
control until the
Northern Expedition The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the "Chinese Nationalist Party", against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926. The p ...
by the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...
consolidated central control in 1928. In July–August 1912, General
Ma Fuxiang Ma Fuxiang (, Xiao'erjing: , French romanization: Ma-Fou-hiang or Ma Fou-siang; 4 February 1876 – 19 August 1932) was a Chinese military and political leader spanning the Qing dynasty, Qing Dynasty through the early Republic of China (1912– ...

Ma Fuxiang
was "Acting Chief Executive Officer of Kokonur" (de facto Governor of the region that later became Qinghai). In 1928, Qinghai province was created. The Muslim warlord and General
Ma Qi Ma Qi (, Xiao'erjing: ; 23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) was a Chinese Muslim General in early 20th-century China. Early life A Hui people, Hui, Ma was born on 23 September 1869 in Daohe, now part of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Linxia, ...

Ma Qi
became military governor of Qinghai, followed by his brother
Ma Lin (warlord) Ma Lin ( Xiao'erjing: , ; 1873 – 26 January 1945) was the governor of Qinghai 1931–38 and the brother of Ma Qi. A Muslim born in 1873, Linxia County, Gansu Gansu (; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Kansu) is a land ...
and then Ma Qi's son
Ma Bufang Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (, Xiao'erjing: ) was a Chinese Islamism, Islamist who was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai. His rank ...

Ma Bufang
. In 1932 Tibet invaded Qinghai, attempting to capture southern parts of Qinghai province, following contention in Yushu, Qinghai, over a monastery in 1932. The army of Ma Bufang defeated the Tibetan armies. Governor of Qinghai
Ma Bufang Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (, Xiao'erjing: ) was a Chinese Islamism, Islamist who was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai. His rank ...

Ma Bufang
was described as a
socialist Socialism is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the Cognition, cognitive pr ...
by American journalist John Roderick and friendly compared to the other Ma Clique warlords. Ma Bufang was reported to be good humoured and jovial in contrast to the brutal reign of
Ma Hongkui Ma Hongkui (, Xiao'erjing: ; March 14, 1892 – January 14, 1970) was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia. His rank was lieutenant general. His court ...

Ma Hongkui
. Most of eastern China was ravaged by the
Second Sino-Japanese War The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was a military conflict that was primarily waged between the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China and the Empire of Japan. The war made up the Chinese theater of the wider Pacific War, Pac ...
and the
Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led Nationalist government, government of the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China (ROC) and forces of the Communist Party of China (CPC) lastin ...
, by contrast, Qinghai was relatively untouched. Ma Bufang increased the prominence of the Hui and
Salar people The Salar people ( zh, c=撒拉族, p=Sālāzú) are a Turkic languages, Turkic-speaking Ethnic minorities in China, ethnic minority of China who largely speak the Salar language, an Oghuz languages, Oghuz language. The Salar people numbered 1 ...
in Qinghai's politics by heavily recruiting to his army from the counties in which those ethnic groups predominated. General Ma started a state run and controlled industrialization project, directly creating educational, medical, agricultural, and sanitation projects, run or assisted by the state. The state provided money for food and uniforms in all schools, state run or private. Roads and a theater were constructed. The state controlled all the press, no freedom was allowed for independent journalists. As the 1949 Chinese revolution approached Qinghai, Ma Bufang abandoned his post and flew to
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
, traveling abroad but never returning to China. On January 1, 1950, the Qinghai Province People's Government was declared, owing its allegiance to the new
People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

People's Republic of China
. Aside from some minor adjustments to suit the geography, the PRC maintained the province's territorial integrity. Resistance to Communist rule continued in the form of the Huis' Kuomintang Islamic insurgency (1950–58), spreading past traditionally Hui areas to the ethnic-Tibetan south. Although the Hui composed 15.6% of Qinghai's population in 1949, making the province the second-largest concentration of Hui after
Ningxia Ningxia (, ; Chinese postal romanization, alternately romanized as Ninghsia), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is a landlocked Autonomous regions of China, autonomous region in the Northwest China, northwest of the China, Pe ...

Ningxia
, the state denied the Hui ethnic autonomous townships and counties that their numbers warranted under Chinese law until the 1980s. File:Khoshut Khanate.png, The
Khoshut Khanate The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirats, Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau from 1642 to 1717. Name It is also referred to as Heshuote Khanate (和碩特汗國), State of Khoshut, or Quoshote Khanate. In Cyrillic it is spelled Хошууд ...

Khoshut Khanate
(1642–1717) based in the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and - ...
File:Chiang Kai-shek on right Ma Buqing on left Ma Bufang second from left.png,
Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also known as Chiang Chung-cheng and romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured syst ...

Chiang Kai-shek
, leader of Nationalist China (right), meets with the Muslim generals
Ma Bufang Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (, Xiao'erjing: ) was a Chinese Islamism, Islamist who was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai. His rank ...

Ma Bufang
(second from left), and
Ma Buqing Ma Buqing (1901–1977) (, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the original Perso-Arabic script; ...

Ma Buqing
(first from left) in
Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
, Qinghai, in August 1942


Geography

Qinghai is located on the northeastern part of the
Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (, also known as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau In geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, ''gē'' ("earth") and - ...
. The
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
originates in the southern part of the province, while the
Yangtze The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
and
Mekong The Mekong or Mekong River is a trans-boundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these river ...

Mekong
have their sources in the southwestern part. Qinghai is separated by the into pastoral and agricultural zones in the west and east. The average elevation of Qinghai is over above sea level. Mountain ranges include the
Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese: , p ''Tánggǔlāshān'', or , p ''Tánggǔlāshānmài''), Tangla, Tanglha, or Dangla Mountains ( Tibetan: , w ''Gdang La'', z ''Dang La'') are a mountain range in the central part of the ...
and
Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun Mountains ( zh, s=昆仑山, t=崑崙山, p=Kūnlún Shān, ; ug, كۇئېنلۇن تاغ تىزمىسى) constitute one of the longest mountain chain A mountain chain is a row of high mountain summit A summit is a point on a su ...

Kunlun Mountains
, with the highest point being
Bukadaban Feng Bukadaban Feng or Buka Daban Feng (), Syn Qing Feng () or Bokalik Tagh (), is a remote peak on the border between Ruoqiang County Ruoqiang County () as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Uyghur as Qakilik County (; ), is a cou ...
at . Due to the high altitude, Qinghai has quite cold winters (harsh in the highest elevations), mild summers, and a large
diurnal temperature variation In meteorology Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting. The study of meteorology dates back millennia, though significant progr ...
. Its mean annual temperature is approximately , with January temperatures ranging from and July temperatures ranging from . It is also prone to heavy winds as well as from February to April. Significant rainfall occurs mainly in summer, while precipitation is very low in winter and spring, and is generally low enough to keep much of the province
semi-arid A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate Climate is the long-term pattern of weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning ' ...
or
arid A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development Development or developing may refer to: Arts *Development hell, when a project is stuck in d ...

arid
. By area, Qinghai is the largest province in the People's Republic of China (excluding the
autonomous regions An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnational administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country sub ...
).
Qinghai Lake Qinghai Lake or Ch'inghai Lake, also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon n ...

Qinghai Lake
is the largest salt water lake in China, and the second largest in the world. The
Qaidam basin The Qaidam, Tsaidam, or Chaidamu Basin is a hyperarid basin that occupies a large part of Haixi Prefecture in Qinghai Province, China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of cou ...
lies in the northwest part of the province. About a third of this resource rich basin is desert. The basin has an altitude between 3000 and 3500 meters. The
Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve The Sanjiangyuan (), is an area of the Tibetan Plateau The Tibetan Plateau (), also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau () or as the Himalayan Plateau in India, is a vast elevated plateau in South Asia, Cen ...
, is located in Qinghai and contains the headwaters of the
Yellow River The Yellow River (Chinese: , Jin: uə xɔ Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureaucrat is ...
,
Yangtze River The Yangtze or Yangzi ( or ) is the longest river in Asia, the third-longest in the world and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains The Tanggula ( Chinese:  ...
, and
Mekong River The Mekong or Mekong River is a trans-boundary river A transboundary river is a river that crosses at least one political border, either a border within a nation or an international boundary. Bangladesh has the highest number of these rive ...

Mekong River
. The reserve was established to protect the headwaters of these three rivers and consists of 18 subareas, each containing three zones which are managed with differing degrees of strictness. File:Nianbaoyuze Geopark 2015.jpeg, Nyenpo Yurtse,
Jigzhi County Jigzhi County or Chik Dril (; ) is a county of Qinghai Province, China, bordering Sichuan Sichuan (, Standard Chinese, Standard Mandarin pronunciation: ; Postal romanization, alternatively romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan) is a landlocke ...
, Qinghai File:青海日月山 - panoramio - Tiger@西北 (3).jpg, in Qinghai


Politics


Administrative divisions

Because the Han form Qinghai's ethnic majority and because none of its many ethnic minorities have clear dominance over the rest, the province is not administered as an autonomous region. Instead, the province has many ethnic autonomous areas at the district and county levels. Qinghai is administratively divided into eight prefecture-level divisions: two
prefecture-level cities A road sign shows distance to the "Huangshi urban area" () rather than simply " Yangxin County from the neighboring Xianning), but still from the Huangshi main urban area. A prefectural-level municipality (), prefectural-level city or prefectu ...
and six
autonomous prefecture Autonomous prefectures () are one type of autonomous administrative divisions of China, existing at the Administrative divisions of China#Prefectural level (2nd), prefectural level, with either list of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, ethnic m ...
s: The eight prefecture-level divisions of Qinghai are subdivided into 44 county-level divisions (6
districts A district is a type of administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, are generic ...
, 4
county-level cities A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a county-level administrative division of the People's Republic of China China ...
, 27
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
and 7 autonomous counties).


Urban areas


Population


Demographics


Ethnicity

There are over 37 recognized ethnic groups among Qinghai's population of 5.2 million, with
national minorities A minority group, by its original definition, refers to a group of people whose practices, race, religion, ethnicity, or other characteristics are lesser in numbers than the main groups of those classifications. However, in present-day sociology, ...
making up 45.5% of the population. The demographic mix is similar to
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
province, with
Han Han may refer to: Ethnic groups * Han Chinese The Han Chinese,
. Huayuqiao.org. Retrieved on ...
(54.5%),
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
(20.7%),
Hui The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
(16%), Tu (Monguor) (4%),
Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an East Asian East Asia is the eastern region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") ...
, and Salar being the most populous groups.
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
predominate in the cities of
Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
,
Haidong Haidong (; Wylie transliteration, Wylie: Haitung) is a prefecture-level city of Qinghai province in Western China. Its name literally means "east of the Qinghai Lake, (Qinghai) Lake." On 8 February 2013 Haidong was upgraded from a prefecture () i ...

Haidong
,
Delingha Delingha (; ), or Delhi (SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Mongolian: ''Delhi hot''), is the seat of the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (; mn, File:Qayisi-yin mongɣol-un -12..PNG; bo, ...

Delingha
and
Golmud Golmud, also known by various other romanizations, is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a coun ...

Golmud
, and elsewhere in the northeast. The Hui are concentrated in Xining, Haidong, Minhe County, Hualong County, and Datong County. The
Tu people#REDIRECT TU
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation {{R from ambiguous term ...
predominate in
Huzhu County Huzhu Tu Autonomous County (), or in short Huzhu County (), is an autonomous county Autonomous counties and autonomous banners are Counties of China, county-level autonomous administrative divisions of China. The two are essentially identical ex ...
and the Salars in Xunhua County; Tibetans and Mongols are sparsely distributed across the rural western part of the province. Of the Muslim ethnic groups in China, Qinghai has communities of Hui, Salar, Dongxiang, and Bao'an. The Hui dominate the wholesale business in Qinghai.


Religion

The predominant religions in Qinghai are
Chinese folk religion Chinese folk religion, also known as Chinese popular religion, is a general term covering a range of traditional religious practices of Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the ...
s (including Taoist traditions and
Confucianism Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of thought and behavior originating in ancient China The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC ...
) and
Chinese Buddhism Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings speci ...

Chinese Buddhism
among the
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
. The large
Tibetan Tibetan may mean: * of, from, or related to Tibet * Tibetan people, an ethnic group * Tibetan language: ** Classical Tibetan, the classical language used also as a contemporary written standard ** Standard Tibetan, the most widely used spoken dialec ...
population practices Tibetan schools of Buddhism or traditional Tibetan Bön religion, while the
Hui Chinese The Hui people ( zh, c=, p=Huízú, w=Hui2-tsu2, Xiao'erjing Xiao'erjing or Xiao'erjin or Xiaor jin or in its shortened form, Xiaojing, literally meaning "children's script" or "minor script" (cf. "original script" referring to the origina ...
practice
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
.
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
is the religion of 0.76% of the province's population according to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2004.China General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009. Report by
Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15)
According to a survey of 2010, 17.51% of the population of Qinghai follow Islam.Min Junqing. ''The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China''. JISMOR, 8
2010 Islam by province, page 29
Data from: Yang Zongde, ''Study on Current Muslim Population in China'', Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010.
From September 1848, the city was the seat of a short-lived Latin Catholic
Apostolic Vicariate An apostolic vicariate is a territorial jurisdiction of the Catholic Church under a titular bishop centered in missionary regions and countries where dioceses or parishes have not yet been established. It is essentially provisional, though it may ...
(pre-diocesan missionary jurisdiction) of Kokonur (alias Khouhkou-noor, Kokonoor), but it was suppressed in 1861. No incumbent(s) recorded.


Culture

Qinghai has been influenced by the interactions "between Mongol and Tibetan culture, north to south, and Han Chinese and Inner Asia Muslim culture, east to west". The languages of Qinghai have for centuries formed a
Sprachbund A sprachbund (, lit. "language federation"), also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads, is a group of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, inc ...
, with
Zhongyuan Mandarin Central Plains Mandarin, or ''Zhongyuan'' Mandarin (), is a variety of Mandarin Chinese Mandarin (; ) is a group of Sinitic (Chinese) languages natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China China (), officially the ...
,
Amdo Tibetan The Amdo Tibetan (; also called ''Am kä'') is the Tibetic language spoken by the majority of Amdowa, mainly in Qinghai Qinghai (; alternately romanized as Tsinghai, Ch'inghai), also called Kokonur, is a landlocked province A province is a ...
, Salar,
Yugur The Yugurs, Yughurs, Yugu (; Western Yugur Western Yugur (Western Yugur: (Yugur speech) or (Yugur word)) is the Turkic languages, Turkic language spoken by the Yugur people. It is contrasted with Eastern Yugur language, Eastern Yugur, the Mo ...
, and Monguor borrowing from and influencing one another. In mainstream
Chinese culture Chinese culture () is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago. The culture prevails across a large geographical region in East Asia and is extremely diverse and varying, with customs and traditions varying grea ...
, Qinghai is most associated with the '' Tale of King Mu, Son of Heaven''. According to this legend,
King Mu of Zhou King Mu of Zhou (), personal name Ji Man, was the fifth king of the Zhou dynasty of China. The dates of his reign are 976–922 BC or 956–918 BC. Life King Mu came to the throne after his father King Zhao of Zhou, King Zhao’s death during his ...
(r. 976–922 BCE) pursued hostile
Quanrong The Quanrong () or Dog Rong were an ethnic group, classified by the ancient Chinese as " Qiang", active in the northwestern part of China during and after the Zhou dynasty The Zhou dynasty ( ; Old Chinese Old Chinese, also called Archaic Ch ...
nomads to eastern Qinghai, where the goddess
Xi Wangmu The Queen Mother of the West, known by #Names, various local names, is a mother goddess in Chinese folk religion, Chinese religion and Chinese mythology, mythology, also worshipped in neighbouring Asian countries, and attested from ancient times. ...
threw the king a banquet in the
Kunlun Mountains The Kunlun Mountains ( zh, s=昆仑山, t=崑崙山, p=Kūnlún Shān, ; ug, كۇئېنلۇن تاغ تىزمىسى) constitute one of the longest mountain chain A mountain chain is a row of high mountain summit A summit is a point on a su ...

Kunlun Mountains
. The main religions in Qinghai are
Tibetan Buddhism Tibetan Buddhism (also referred to as Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, Himalayan Buddhism, and Northern Buddhism) is the form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet and Bhutan, where it is the dominant religion. It also has adherents in the regions surrounding ...
,
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
and Chinese Folk Religions. The Dongguan Mosque has been continuously operating since 1380.Cooke, Susette. "Surviving State and Society in Northwest China: The Hui Experience in Qinghai Province under the PRC." ''Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs'' 28.3 (2008): 401–420. Measures of education in Qinghai are low, particularly among the Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and Salar, who sometimes prefer to send their children to madrasahs rather than secular schools. The yak, which is native to Qinghai, is widely used in the province for transportation and its meat. The Mongols of Qinghai celebrate the Naadam festival on the Qaidam Basin every year.


Economy

Qinghai's economy is amongst the smallest in all of China. Its nominal GDP for 2011 was just 163.4 billion RMB (US$25.9 billion) and contributes to about 0.35% of the entire country's economy. Per capita GDP was 19,407 RMB (US$2,841), the second lowest in China. Its heavy industry includes iron and steel production, located near its capital city of Xining. Oil and natural gas from the Qaidam Basin have also been an important contributor to the economy. Salt works operate at many of the province's numerous salt lakes. Outside of the provincial capital, Xining, most of Qinghai remains underdeveloped. Qinghai ranks second lowest in China in terms of highway length, and will require a significant expansion of its infrastructure to capitalize on the economic potential of its rich natural resources.


Economic and technological development zone

Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
Economic & Technological Development Zone (XETDZ) was approved as state-level development zone in July 2000. It has a planned area of . XETDZ lies in the east of Xining, from downtown. In the east of the province, Xining stands at the upper reaches of the Huangshui River—one of the Yellow River's branches. The city is surrounded by the mountains with an average elevation of 2261 meters and the highest at 4393 meters. XETDZ is the first of its kind at the national level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is established to fulfill the nation's strategy of developing the west. XETDZ enjoys a convenient transportation system, connected by the Xining-Lanzhou expressway and running through by two main roads, the broadest in the city. It is 4 kilometers from the railway station, 15 kilometers from Xi'ning Airport — a grade 4D airport with 14 airlines to cities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Chengdu and Xi'an. Xining is Qinghai province's passage to the outside world, a transportation center with more than ten highways, over 100 roads and two railways, Lanzhou-Qinghai and Qinghai-Tibet Railways in and out of the city. It focuses on the development of following industries: chemicals based on salt lake resources, nonferrous metals, and petroleum and natural gas processing; special medicine, foods and bio-chemicals using local plateau animals and plants; new products involving ecological and environmental protection, high technology, new materials as well as information technology; and services such as logistics, banking, real estate, tourism, hotel, catering, agency and international trade.


Tourism

Many tourist attractions center on
Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
, the provincial seat of Qinghai. During the hot summer months, many tourists from the hot Southern and Eastern parts of China travel to Xining, as the climate of Xining in July and August is quite mild and comfortable, making the city an ideal summer retreat.
Qinghai Lake Qinghai Lake or Ch'inghai Lake, also known by other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon novel), ''The Other'' (Tryon n ...

Qinghai Lake
() is another tourist attraction, albeit further from Xining than Kumbum Monastery (Ta'er Si). The lake is the largest saltwater lake in China, and is also located on the "Roof of the World", the Tibetan Plateau. The lake itself lies at 3,600m elevation. The surrounding area is made up of rolling grasslands and populated by ethnic Tibetans. Most pre-arranged tours stop at Bird Island (). An international bicycle race takes place annually from Xining to Qinghai Lake.


Transportation

The Lanqing Railway, running between Lanzhou,
Gansu Gansu (, ; alternately romanized as Kansu) is a landlocked province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnatio ...

Gansu
and
Xining Xining (; ), Chinese postal romanization, alternatively known as Sining, is the Capital (political), capital of Qinghai province in western China and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. As of the 2020 census, it had 2,467,965 inhabitants (2, ...

Xining
, the province's capital, was completed in 1959 and is the major transportation route in and out of the province. A continuation of the line, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway via
Golmud Golmud, also known by various other romanizations, is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a coun ...

Golmud
and western Qinghai, has become one of the most ambitious projects in PRC history. It was completed in October 2005 and now links Tibet with the rest of China through Qinghai. Construction on the Golmud–Dunhuang Railway, in the province's northwestern part, started in 2012. Six China National Highways, National Highways run through the province. Xining Caojiabao International Airport provides service to Beijing, Lanzhou,
Golmud Golmud, also known by various other romanizations, is a county-level city A county-level municipality (), county-level city or county city, formerly known as prefecture-controlled city (1949–1970: ; 1970–1983: ), is a coun ...

Golmud
and
Delingha Delingha (; ), or Delhi (SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Mongolian: ''Delhi hot''), is the seat of the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture (; mn, File:Qayisi-yin mongɣol-un -12..PNG; bo, ...

Delingha
. Smaller regional airports, Delingha Airport, Golog Maqin Airport, Huatugou Airport, Qilian Airport and Yushu Batang Airport, serve some of the local centers of the far-flung province; plans exist for the construction of three more by 2020.Qinghai to build 3 new airports before 2020
/ref>


Telecommunications

Since the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology began its "Access to Telephones Project", Qinghai has invested 640 million yuan to provide telephone access to 3860 out its 4133 administrative villages. At the end of 2006, 299 towns had received Internet access. However, 6.6 percent of villages in the region still have no access to the telephone. These villages are mainly scattered in Qingnan, Qinghai, Qingnan Area, with 90 percent of them located in Yushu and Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Guoluo. The average altitude of these areas exceeds 3600 meters, and the poor natural conditions hamper the establishment of telecommunication facilities in the region. Satellite phones have been provided to 186 remote villages in Qinghai Province as of September 14, 2007. The areas benefited were Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. Qinghai has recently been provided with satellite telephone access. In June 2007, China Satcom carried out an in-depth survey in Yushu and Guoluo, and made a special satellite phones for these areas. Two phones were provided to each village for free, and calls were charged at the rate of 0.2 Renminbi, yuan (about a quarter of a US cent at that time) per minute for both local and national calls, with the extra charges assumed by China Satcom. No monthly rent was charged on the satellite phone. International calls were also available.


Colleges and universities

* Qinghai University () * Qinghai Normal University () * Qinghai University for Nationalities () * Qinghai Medical College () * Qinghai Radio & Television University ()


See also

* 2010 Yushu earthquake *
Amdo Amdo ( Help:IPA/Tibetan, am˥˥.to˥˥ ) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the others being U-Tsang in the west, Kham in the east. Ngari (including former Guge kingdom) in the north-west was incorporated into Ü-Tsang. Amdo ...

Amdo
* Geladandong * Haplogroup D-M15 (Y-DNA) * Haplogroup O3 (Y-DNA) * ''Iris qinghainica'' (native plant of Qinghai) * Major national historical and cultural sites (Qinghai), Major national historical and cultural sites in Qinghai * Tectonic summary of Qinghai


References


Citations


General sources


Economic profile for Qinghai
at Hong Kong Trade Development Council, HKTDC


External links

*
Memorials from Qinghai
from the 19th century. {{Authority control Qinghai, 1928 establishments in China Amdo Inner Asia Provinces of the People's Republic of China States and territories established in 1928 Tibetan Plateau Western China