DIN 31635 is a
Deutsches Institut für Normung ' (DIN; in English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the Wor ...
(DIN) standard for the
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

of the
Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the as it is codified for writing . It is written from right to left in a style and includes 28 letters. Most letters hav ...

Arabic alphabet
adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with ''
'', because it stood for in the English-speaking world and for in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like ''th, dh, kh, gh, sh''. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the ''Geschichte der arabischen Literatur'' manuscript catalogue of
Carl Brockelmann Carl Brockelmann (17 September 1868 – 6 May 1956) German Semiticist, was the foremost orientalist of his generation. He was a professor at the universities in Breslau, Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in ...
and the dictionary of
Hans Wehr Hans Bodo Gerhardt Wehr (; 5 July 1909, Leipzig24 May 1981, Münster) was a German Arabist. A professor at the University of Münster from 1957–1974, he published the ''Arabisches Wörterbuch'' (1952), which was later published in an Englis ...
. Today it is used in most German-language publications of Arabic and Islamic studies.


:The 28 letters:


The ' (', ' and ') are transliterated as ', ' and '. A ' results in a
geminate In phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of eve ...
(consonant written twice). The article is written with the
sun letters In Arabic language, Arabic and Maltese language, Maltese, the consonants are divided into two groups, called the sun letters or solar letters ( ar, حروف شمسية ') and moon letters or lunar letters ( '), based on whether they assimilation ...
assimilated. An ' marking is transliterated as '. The letter () ' is transliterated as word-final ' normally, or ' in a word in the
construct state In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphology (linguistics), morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin ''status constructus'' ...
. ' has many variants, ; depending on its position, all of them are transliterated as . The initial ' () without a ' isn't transliterated using initially, only the initial vowel is transliterated (if pronounced): ''.'' () ' appears as '','' transliterating it indistinguishable from ''.'' for final is also known as ' "flexible '". Long vowels and are transliterated as ' and ''.'' The ' suffix appears as ' although the former is normally transliterated as ', and
nunation Nunation ( ar, تَنوِين, ' ), in some Semitic languages The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental countries, transcontinenta ...
is ignored in transliteration. A hyphen ' is used to separate
clitic In morphology and syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of Sentence (linguistics), sentences (sentence structure) in a given Natural language, language, usually including word ...
s (the article, the prepositions and the conjunction) from words to which they are attached. The
Eastern Arabic numerals The Eastern Arabic numerals, also called Arabic–Hindu numerals, are the symbols used to represent numerical digits in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّ ...

Eastern Arabic numerals
() are rendered as western
Arabic numerals Arabic numerals are the ten numerical digit A numerical digit (often shortened to just digit) is a single symbol used alone (such as "2") or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers in a Positional notation, positional numeral sy ...

Arabic numerals

See also

Romanization of Arabic The romanization of Arabic refers to the standard norms for rendering Modern Standard Arabic, written and varieties of Arabic, spoken Arabic language, Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a nu ...
ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task which is applied to a common and repeated use of rules, conditions ...
Hans Wehr transliteration The Hans Wehr transliteration system is a system for transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of ...
Arabic phonology While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology Phonology is a branch of that studies how languages or dialects systematically organize their sounds (or constituent parts of signs, in sign languages). The term also re ...
* Help:IPA/Arabic (Wikipedia help)



Reprint (Wiesbaden, 1969)

External links

Chart of Arabic transliteration systems (non-normative), including DIN 31635
Revision 2.2 (2008-02-25)
Deutsches Institut für Normung
{{Deutsches Institut für Normung Romanization of Arabic 31635