Hamming Code
In computer science and telecommunication, Hamming codes are a family of linear errorcorrecting codes. Hamming codes can detect onebit and twobit errors, or correct onebit errors without detection of uncorrected errors. By contrast, the simple parity code cannot correct errors, and can detect only an odd number of bits in error. Hamming codes are perfect codes, that is, they achieve the highest possible rate for codes with their block length and minimum distance of three. Richard W. Hamming invented Hamming codes in 1950 as a way of automatically correcting errors introduced by punched card readers. In his original paper, Hamming elaborated his general idea, but specifically focused on the Hamming(7,4) code which adds three parity bits to four bits of data. In mathematical terms, Hamming codes are a class of binary linear code. For each integer there is a codeword with block length and message length . Hence the rate of Hamming codes is , which is the highest p ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hamming(7,4)
In coding theory, Hamming(7,4) is a linear errorcorrecting code that encodes four bits of data into seven bits by adding three parity bits. It is a member of a larger family of Hamming codes, but the term ''Hamming code'' often refers to this specific code that Richard W. Hamming introduced in 1950. At the time, Hamming worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories and was frustrated with the errorprone punched card reader, which is why he started working on errorcorrecting codes. The Hamming code adds three additional check bits to every four data bits of the message. Hamming's (7,4) algorithm can correct any singlebit error, or detect all singlebit and twobit errors. In other words, the minimal Hamming distance between any two correct codewords is 3, and received words can be correctly decoded if they are at a distance of at most one from the codeword that was transmitted by the sender. This means that for transmission medium situations where burst errors do not occur, Hammin ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

ECC Memory
Error correction code memory (ECC memory) is a type of computer data storage that uses an error correction code (ECC) to detect and correct nbit data corruption which occurs in memory. ECC memory is used in most computers where data corruption cannot be tolerated, like industrial control applications, critical databases, and infrastructural memory caches. Typically, ECC memory maintains a memory system immune to singlebit errors: the data that is read from each word is always the same as the data that had been written to it, even if one of the bits actually stored has been flipped to the wrong state. Most nonECC memory cannot detect errors, although some nonECC memory with parity support allows detection but not correction. Description Error correction codes protect against undetected data corruption and are used in computers where such corruption is unacceptable, examples being scientific and financial computing applications, or in database and file servers. ECC can als ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Exclusive Or
Exclusive or or exclusive disjunction is a logical operation that is true if and only if its arguments differ (one is true, the other is false). It is symbolized by the prefix operator J and by the infix operators XOR ( or ), EOR, EXOR, , , , , , and . The negation of XOR is the logical biconditional, which yields true if and only if the two inputs are the same. It gains the name "exclusive or" because the meaning of "or" is ambiguous when both operands are true; the exclusive or operator ''excludes'' that case. This is sometimes thought of as "one or the other but not both". This could be written as "A or B, but not, A and B". Since it is associative, it may be considered to be an ''n''ary operator which is true if and only if an odd number of arguments are true. That is, ''a'' XOR ''b'' XOR ... may be treated as XOR(''a'',''b'',...). Truth table The truth table of A XOR B shows that it outputs true whenever the inputs differ: Equivalences, elimination, and introdu ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Hamming Distance
In information theory, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different. In other words, it measures the minimum number of ''substitutions'' required to change one string into the other, or the minimum number of ''errors'' that could have transformed one string into the other. In a more general context, the Hamming distance is one of several string metrics for measuring the edit distance between two sequences. It is named after the American mathematician Richard Hamming. A major application is in coding theory, more specifically to block codes, in which the equallength strings are vectors over a finite field. Definition The Hamming distance between two equallength strings of symbols is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different. Examples The symbols may be letters, bits, or decimal digits, among other possibilities. For example, the Hamming distance betwe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Code Rate
In telecommunication and information theory, the code rate (or information rateHuffman, W. Cary, and Pless, Vera, ''Fundamentals of ErrorCorrecting Codes'', Cambridge, 2003.) of a forward error correction code is the proportion of the datastream that is useful (non redundant). That is, if the code rate is k/n for every bits of useful information, the coder generates a total of bits of data, of which nk are redundant. If is the gross bit rate or data signalling rate (inclusive of redundant error coding), the net bit rate (the useful bit rate exclusive of error correction codes) is \leq R \cdot k/n. For example: The code rate of a convolutional code will typically be , , , , , etc., corresponding to one redundant bit inserted after every single, second, third, etc., bit. The code rate of the octet oriented Reed Solomon block code denoted RS(204,188) is 188/204, meaning that redundant octets (or bytes) are added to each block of 188 octets of useful information. A fe ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

ASCII
ASCII ( ), abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication. ASCII codes represent text in computers, telecommunications equipment, and other devices. Because of technical limitations of computer systems at the time it was invented, ASCII has just 128 code points, of which only 95 are , which severely limited its scope. All modern computer systems instead use Unicode, which has millions of code points, but the first 128 of these are the same as the ASCII set. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) prefers the name USASCII for this character encoding. ASCII is one of the IEEE milestones. Overview ASCII was developed from telegraph code. Its first commercial use was as a seven bit teleprinter code promoted by Bell data services. Work on the ASCII standard began in May 1961, with the first meeting of the American Standards Association's (ASA) (now the American National Standards ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Nomenclature
Nomenclature (, ) is a system of names or terms, or the rules for forming these terms in a particular field of arts or sciences. The principles of naming vary from the relatively informal conventions of everyday speech to the internationally agreed principles, rules and recommendations that govern the formation and use of the specialist terms used in scientific and any other disciplines. Naming "things" is a part of general human communication using words and language: it is an aspect of everyday taxonomy as people distinguish the objects of their experience, together with their similarities and differences, which observers identify, name and classify. The use of names, as the many different kinds of nouns embedded in different languages, connects nomenclature to theoretical linguistics, while the way humans mentally structure the world in relation to word meanings and experience relates to the philosophy of language. Onomastics, the study of proper names and their ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Repetition Code
In coding theory, the repetition code is one of the most basic errorcorrecting codes. In order to transmit a message over a noisy channel that may corrupt the transmission in a few places, the idea of the repetition code is to just repeat the message several times. The hope is that the channel corrupts only a minority of these repetitions. This way the receiver will notice that a transmission error occurred since the received data stream is not the repetition of a single message, and moreover, the receiver can recover the original message by looking at the received message in the data stream that occurs most often. Because of the bad error correcting performance coupled with the low code rate (ratio between useful information symbols and actual transmitted symbols), other error correction codes are preferred in most cases. The chief attraction of the repetition code is the ease of implementation. Code parameters In the case of a binary repetition code, there exist two code wor ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Odd Number
In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer of whether it is even or odd. An integer is even if it is a multiple of two, and odd if it is not.. For example, −4, 0, 82 are even because \begin 2 \cdot 2 &= 4 \\ 0 \cdot 2 &= 0 \\ 41 \cdot 2 &= 82 \end By contrast, −3, 5, 7, 21 are odd numbers. The above definition of parity applies only to integer numbers, hence it cannot be applied to numbers like 1/2 or 4.201. See the section "Higher mathematics" below for some extensions of the notion of parity to a larger class of "numbers" or in other more general settings. Even and odd numbers have opposite parities, e.g., 22 (even number) and 13 (odd number) have opposite parities. In particular, the parity of zero is even. Any two consecutive integers have opposite parity. A number (i.e., integer) expressed in the decimal numeral system is even or odd according to whether its last digit is even or odd. That is, if the last digit is 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, then it is odd; other ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Even Number
In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer of whether it is even or odd. An integer is even if it is a multiple of two, and odd if it is not.. For example, −4, 0, 82 are even because \begin 2 \cdot 2 &= 4 \\ 0 \cdot 2 &= 0 \\ 41 \cdot 2 &= 82 \end By contrast, −3, 5, 7, 21 are odd numbers. The above definition of parity applies only to integer numbers, hence it cannot be applied to numbers like 1/2 or 4.201. See the section "Higher mathematics" below for some extensions of the notion of parity to a larger class of "numbers" or in other more general settings. Even and odd numbers have opposite parities, e.g., 22 (even number) and 13 (odd number) have opposite parities. In particular, the parity of zero is even. Any two consecutive integers have opposite parity. A number (i.e., integer) expressed in the decimal numeral system is even or odd according to whether its last digit is even or odd. That is, if the last digit is 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, then it is odd; otherw ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Binary Digit
Binary may refer to: Science and technology Mathematics * Binary number, a representation of numbers using only two digits (0 and 1) * Binary function, a function that takes two arguments * Binary operation, a mathematical operation that takes two arguments * Binary relation, a relation involving two elements * Binarycoded decimal, a method for encoding for decimal digits in binary sequences * Finger binary, a system for counting in binary numbers on the fingers of human hands Computing * Binary code, the digital representation of text and data * Bit, or binary digit, the basic unit of information in computers * Binary file, composed of something other than humanreadable text ** Executable, a type of binary file that contains machine code for the computer to execute * Binary tree, a computer tree data structure in which each node has at most two children Astronomy * Binary star, a star system with two stars in it * Binary planet, two planetary bodies of comparable mas ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 

Punched Tape
Five and eighthole punched paper tape Paper tape reader on the Harwell computer with a small piece of fivehole tape connected in a circle – creating a physical program loop Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage that consists of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched. It developed from and was subsequently used alongside punched cards, differing in that the tape is continuous. Punched cards, and chains of punched cards, were used for control of looms in the 18th century. Use for telegraphy systems started in 1842. Punched tape was used throughout the 19th and for much of the 20th centuries for programmable looms, teleprinter communication, for input to computers of the 1950s and 1960s, and later as a storage medium for minicomputers and CNC machine tools. During the Second World War, highspeed punched tape systems using optical readout methods were used in code breaking systems. Punched tape was used to transmit data for manufacture ... [...More Info...] [...Related Items...] OR: [Wikipedia] [Google] [Baidu] 