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Gregorio Ricci-curbastro
Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro (; 12January 1925) was an Italian mathematician. He is most famous as the inventor of tensor calculus, but also published important works in other fields. With his former student Tullio Levi-Civita, he wrote his most famous single publication, a pioneering work on the calculus of tensors, signing it as Gregorio Ricci. This appears to be the only time that Ricci-Curbastro used the shortened form of his name in a publication, and continues to cause confusion. Ricci-Curbastro also published important works in other fields, including a book on higher algebra and infinitesimal analysis, and papers on the theory of real numbers, an area in which he extended the research begun by Richard Dedekind. Early life and education Completing privately his high school studies at only 16 years of age, he enrolled on the course of philosophy-mathematics at Sapienza University of Rome, Rome University (1869). The following year the Vatican State, Papal State fell and so Gr ...
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Lugo, Emilia-Romagna
Lugo ( rgn, Lùgh) is a town and ''comune'' in the northern Italy, Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, in the province of Ravenna. History A settlement in where is now the city is mentioned for the first time in 782 AD, but the names Lucus appears only in 1071. In 1161 it was a fief of the Counts of Cunio, but in 1202 it returned to the Papal States. It was later a possession of the Da Polenta family, da Polenta, Pepoli, Visconti of Milan, Visconti and House of Este, Este; the latter maintained it until 1597, when the city was again annexed to the Papal States. In 1424 the Castle of Zagonara (now destroyed) was the seat of the homonymous Battle of Zagonara, battle, in which a Milanese army defeated the Florentines. When in 1797 the French revolutionary forces invaded northern Italy, Barnaba Chiaramonti (later pope as Pius VII), then still Diocese of Imola, Bishop of Imola, addressed his flock to refrain from useless resistance to the overwhelming and threatening forces of the enemy ...
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Sapienza University Of Rome
The Sapienza University of Rome ( it, Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, and formally the Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza", is a research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ... located in Rome, Italy. It is one of the largest European universities by enrollments and one of the oldest in history, founded in 1303. The University is one of the most prestigious Italian universities and in the world, commonly ranking first in national rankings and in Southern Europe. In 2018, 2019 and 2021 it ranked first in the world for classics and ancient history. Most of the Italian ruling class studied at the Sapienza. The Sapienza educated numerous notable alumni, including many Nobel laureates The ...
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Elwin Bruno Christoffel
#REDIRECT Elwin Bruno Christoffel#REDIRECT Elwin Bruno Christoffel Elwin Bruno Christoffel (; November 10, 1829 – March 15, 1900) was a German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek ...
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Riemann
Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (; 17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers (arithmetic and number theory), formulas and related structures (algebra), shapes and spaces ... who made contributions to analysis Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composit ..., number theory Number theory (or arithmetic or higher arithmetic in older usage) is a branch of devoted primarily to the study of the s and . German mathematician (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen ..., and differential geometry Differential geometry is a Mathematics, mathematical ...
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Dynamical System
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a Function (mathematics), function describes the time dependence of a Point (geometry), point in a Manifold, geometrical space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, fluid dynamics, the flow of water in a pipe, and population dynamics, the number of fish each springtime in a lake. At any given time, a dynamical system has a State (controls), state given by a tuple of real numbers (a vector space, vector) that can be represented by a point in an appropriate state space (a geometrical manifold). The ''evolution rule'' of the dynamical system is a function that describes what future states follow from the current state. Often the function is Deterministic system (mathematics), deterministic, that is, for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state. However, some systems are stochastic system, stochastic, in that random events also affect the e ...
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Lagrange
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (born Giuseppe Luigi LagrangiaJoseph-Louis Lagrange, comte de l’Empire
''Encyclopædia Britannica''
or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier; 25 January 1736 – 10 April 1813), also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia, was an
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...


Ricci Tensor
In differential geometry, the Ricci curvature tensor, named after Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, is a geometric object which is determined by a choice of Riemannian manifold, Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian manifold, pseudo-Riemannian metric on a manifold. It can be considered, broadly, as a measure of the degree to which the geometry of a given metric tensor differs locally from that of ordinary Euclidean space or pseudo-Euclidean space. The Ricci tensor can be characterized by measurement of how a shape is deformed as one moves along geodesics in the space. In general relativity, which involves the pseudo-Riemannian setting, this is reflected by the presence of the Ricci tensor in the Raychaudhuri equation. Partly for this reason, the Einstein field equations propose that spacetime can be described by a pseudo-Riemannian metric, with a strikingly simple relationship between the Ricci tensor and the matter content of the universe. Like the metric tensor, the Ricci tensor assigns to each ...
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Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein ( ; ; 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest physicists of all time. Einstein is known for developing the theory of relativity The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity, proposed and published in 1905 and 1915, respectively. Special relativity applies to all physical phenomena in ..., but he also made important contributions to the development of the theory of quantum mechanics Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory A theory is a reason, rational type of abstraction, abstract thinking about a phenomenon, or the results of such thinking. The process of contemplative and rational thinking is often associated with .... Relativity and quantum mechanics are together the two pillars of modern physics Modern physics is a branch of physics Physics is the natural scien ...
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Lingua Franca
A lingua franca (; ; for plurals see ), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language, is a language or dialect The term dialect (from , , from the word , 'discourse', from , 'through' and , 'I speak') can refer to either of two distinctly different types of phenomena: * One usage refers to a of a that is a characteristic of a particular group of ... systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language A first language, native tongue, native language, or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), g ... or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages. Lingua francas have developed around the world throughout human histor ...
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Riemannian Geometry
#REDIRECT Riemannian geometry#REDIRECT Riemannian geometry Riemannian geometry is the branch of differential geometry Differential geometry is a Mathematics, mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and m ...
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Technical University Of Munich
The Technical University of Munich (TUM or TU Munich) (german: Technische Universität München) is a public research university A research university is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in v ... in Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ..., with additional campuses in Garching Garching bei München or Garching is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of ..., Freising Freising () is a Town#Germany, town in Bava ...
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Felix Klein
Christian Felix Klein (; 25 April 1849 – 22 June 1925) was a German mathematician and mathematics educator, known for his work with group theory In mathematics Mathematics (from Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as numbers ( and ), formulas and related structures (), shapes and spaces in which they are contained (), and quantities and their changes ( and ). There is no ..., complex analysis Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis Analysis is the branch of mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such ..., non-Euclidean geometry In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those that specify Euclidean geometry. As Euclidean geometry lies at the intersection of metric geometry and affine geometry, non-Euclidean geome ..., and on the associations between geome ...
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