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Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''
comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public services: Civil registry, registry of births a ...
'' in
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
, central Italy, straddling the
Arno The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber. Source and route The river originates on Monte Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennine Mountains, Apennines, and i ...

Arno
just before it empties into the
Ligurian Sea 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ Ligure) is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin ...
. It is the capital city of the
Province of Pisa A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or sovereign state, state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''Roman province, provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire, ...
. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its
leaning tower
leaning tower
(the
bell tower A bell tower is a tower A tower is a tall structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that ac ...

bell tower
of the city's cathedral), the city of over 91,104 residents (around 200,000 with the metropolitan area) contains more than 20 other historic churches, several medieval palaces, and various bridges across the Arno. Much of the city's architecture was financed from its history as one of the Italian
maritime republics The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it, repubbliche mercantili), of the Mediterranean Basin were Thalassocracy, thalassocratic city-states in Italy in the Middle Ages, Italy and Dalmatia during th ...
. The city is also home to the
University of Pisa The University of Pisa ( it, Università di Pisa, UniPi) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
, which has a history going back to the 12th century and also has the
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties ...
, founded by Napoleon in 1810, and its offshoot, the
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies , latin_name = , image = , motto = L'eccellenza come disciplina , mottoeng = Committed to excellence , established = 1987 from previously existing institutions , type = State-supported , administrative_staff ...
, as the best-sanctioned
Superior Graduate Schools in Italy A Superior Graduate School (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Region ...
.Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna di Pisa
Information statistics


History


Ancient times

The origin of the name, Pisa, is a mystery. While the origin of the city had remained unknown for centuries, the
Pelasgi The name Pelasgians ( grc, Πελασγοί, ''Pelasgoí'', singular: Πελασγός, ''Pelasgós'') was used by classical Greek writers to refer either to the ancestors of the Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllin ...
, the
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...

Greeks
, the
Etruscans The Etruscan civilization () of List of ancient peoples of Italy, ancient Italy covered a territory, at its greatest extent, of roughly what is now Tuscany, western Umbria, and northern Lazio, as well as what are now the Po Valley, Emilia-Romagna ...
, and the
Ligurians The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English language, English: Ligurians; Ancient Greek, Greek: ) were an ancient population that gave the name to Liguria, a region of Northern Italy, north-western Italy. File:Meyers b9 s0067b.jpg, Roman Liguri ...
had variously been proposed as founders of the city (for example, a colony of the ancient city of
Pisa, GreecePisa ( grc, Πῖσα) is a modern village situated to the east of Olympia, Greece. Currently it is not politically independent but is a neighborhood of the village of Archea Olympia, the capital of the Municipality of Ancient Olympia, of which it ...
). Archaeological remains from the fifth century BC confirmed the existence of a city at the sea, trading with Greeks and
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of peoples of in the and the (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). The area they originally inhabited was known as . Their forms the main branch of th ...
. The presence of an Etruscan
necropolis A necropolis (plural necropolises, necropoles, necropoleis, necropoli) is a large, designed cemetery A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are burial, buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cem ...

necropolis
, discovered during excavations in the in 1991, confirmed its Etruscan origins.
Ancient Roman In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman people, Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC ...
authors referred to Pisa as an old city.
Strabo Strabo''Strabo'' (meaning "squinty", as in strabismus Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. The eye that is focused on an object can alternate. The condition may be pre ...

Strabo
referred Pisa's origins to the mythical
Nestor Nestor may refer to: * Nestor (mythology), King of Pylos in Greek mythology Arts and entertainment * Nestor (Ulysses episode), "Nestor" (''Ulysses'' episode) an episode in James Joyce's novel ''Ulysses'' * Nestor Studios, first-ever motion pictur ...
, king of
Pylos Pylos (, ; el, Πύλος), historically also known as Navarino, is a town and a former municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or ...

Pylos
, after the fall of
Troy Troy (Greek language, Greek: Τροία) or Ilium (Greek language, Greek: Ίλιον) was an ancient city located at Hisarlik in present-day Turkey, south-west of Çanakkale. It is known as the setting for the Greek mythology, Greek myth of the ...

Troy
.
Virgil Publius Vergilius Maro (; traditional dates 15 October 7021 September 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil ( ) in English, was an ancient Roman In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 4 ...

Virgil
, in his ''
Aeneid The ''Aeneid'' ( ; la, Aenē̆is ) is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
'', states that Pisa was already a great center by the times described; the settlers from the Alpheus coast have been credited with the founding of the city in the 'Etruscan lands'. The Virgilian commentator
ServiusServius is the name of: * Servius (praenomen), the personal name * Maurus Servius Honoratus, a late fourth-century and early fifth-century grammarian * Servius Tullius, the Roman king * Servius Sulpicius Rufus, the 1st century BC Roman jurist See ...
wrote that the Teuti, or
Pelops In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of s originally told by the , and a of . These stories concern the and , the lives and activities of , , and , and the origins and significance of the ancient Greeks' own and practices. Mod ...

Pelops
, the king of the Pisaeans, founded the town 13 centuries before the start of the common era. The maritime role of Pisa should have been already prominent if the ancient authorities ascribed to it the invention of the
naval ram , a modern reconstruction of an ancient Athenian trireme. A ram was a weapon fitted to varied types of ships, dating back to antiquity. The weapon comprised an underwater prolongation of the bow (ship), bow of the ship to form an armoured beak, usu ...
. Pisa took advantage of being the only port along the western coast between
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
(then a small village) and Ostia. Pisa served as a base for Roman naval expeditions against
Liguri The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has ev ...
ans,
Gauls The Gauls ( la, Galli; grc, Γαλάται, ''Galátai'') were a group of peoples of in the and the (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). The area they originally inhabited was known as . Their forms the main branch of th ...
, and
Carthaginians The Punics, Carthaginians or Western Phoenicians, were a group of peoples in the Western Mediterranean who traced their origins to the Phoenicians. In modern scholarship, the term 'Punic' – the Latin equivalent of the Greek-derived term 'Phoen ...
. In 180 BC, it became a Roman colony under Roman law, as . In 89 BC, became a ''
municipium Municipium (pl. municipia) is the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the p ...
''. Emperor
Augustus Caesar Augustus (23 September 63 BC19 August AD 14) was the first Roman emperor The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles through ...

Augustus
fortified the colony into an important port and changed the name to . Pisa supposedly was founded on the shore, but due to the alluvial sediments from the Arno and the Serchio, whose mouth lies about north of the Arno's, the shore moved west. Strabo states that the city was away from the coast. Currently, it is located from the coast. However, it was a maritime city, with ships sailing up the Arno. In the 90s AD, a baths complex was built in the city.


Late Antiquity and Early Middle Ages

During the last years of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) was the post-Republican Republican ...

Western Roman Empire
, Pisa did not decline as much as the other cities of Italy, probably due to the complexity of its river system and its consequent ease of defence. In the seventh century, Pisa helped Pope Gregory I by supplying numerous ships in his military expedition against the
Byzantines
Byzantines
of
Ravenna Ravenna ( , , also ; rgn, Ravèna) is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna The province of Ravenna ( it, provincia di Ravenna; ) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, admin ...

Ravenna
: Pisa was the sole Byzantine centre of
TusciaTuscia is a historical region of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peni ...

Tuscia
to fall peacefully in
Lombard The term Lombard refers to members of or things related to Lombardy (man) it, Lombarda (woman) lmo, Lombard (man) lmo, Lombarda (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 ...
hands, through assimilation with the neighbouring region where their trading interests were prevalent. Pisa began in this way its rise to the role of main port of the Upper Tyrrhenian Sea and became the main trading centre between Tuscany and
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
,
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
, and the southern coasts of France and Spain. After
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
had defeated the Lombards under the command of
Desiderius Desiderius (also known as Daufer or Dauferius (born – died ) was king of the Lombards in northern Italy, ruling from 756 to 774. He is chiefly remembered for his connection to Charlemagne, who married his daughter and conquered his realm. Desid ...
in 774, Pisa went through a crisis, but soon recovered. Politically, it became part of the duchy of
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
. In 860, Pisa was captured by
vikings Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; : ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a in , with strong historical, cultural, and linguistic ties. In ...

vikings
led by Björn Ironside. In 930, Pisa became the county centre (status it maintained until the arrival of
Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francian king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henr ...

Otto I
) within the mark of
TusciaTuscia is a historical region of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, delimited by the Alps, a Italian Peninsula, peni ...
. Lucca was the capital but Pisa was the most important city, as in the middle of 10th century
Liutprand of CremonaLiutprand may refer to: *Liutprand, King of the Lombards ruled from 712 to 744 *Duke Liutprand of Benevento (died after 759) *Bishop Liutprand of Cremona, (c. 922–972) historian {{hndis, Liutprand ...
, bishop of
Cremona Cremona (, also ; ; lmo, label=Cremunés, Cremùna; egl, Carmona) is a city and ''comune'' in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po (river), Po river in the middle of the ''Pianura Padana'' (Po Valley). It is the capi ...

Cremona
, called Pisa ("capital of the province of Tuscia"), and a century later, the marquis of Tuscia was commonly referred to as "marquis of Pisa". In 1003, Pisa was the protagonist of the first
communal A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or with something, whether ...
war in Italy, against Lucca. From the naval point of view, since the 9th century, the emergence of the
Saracen file:Erhard Reuwich Sarazenen 1486.png, upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily Arab Muslims, but also Turkish people, Turks, Persian people, Persians or other Muslims as referred to by Christian ...
pirates urged the city to expand its fleet; in the following years, this fleet gave the town an opportunity for more expansion. In 828, Pisan ships assaulted the coast of
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. In 871, they took part in the defence of
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
from the Saracens. In 970, they gave also strong support to
Otto I's
Otto I's
expedition, defeating a Byzantine fleet in front of
Calabrese
Calabrese
coasts.


11th century

The power of Pisa as a maritime nation began to grow and reached its apex in the 11th century, when it acquired traditional fame as one of the four main historical
maritime republics The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it, repubbliche mercantili), of the Mediterranean Basin were Thalassocracy, thalassocratic city-states in Italy in the Middle Ages, Italy and Dalmatia during th ...
of Italy (). At that time, the city was a very important commercial centre and controlled a significant
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...

Mediterranean
merchant fleet and navy. It expanded its powers in 1005 through the sack of in the south of Italy. Pisa was in continuous conflict with some '
Saracen file:Erhard Reuwich Sarazenen 1486.png, upright 1.5, Late 15th century German woodcut depicting Saracens Saracens () were primarily Arab Muslims, but also Turkish people, Turks, Persian people, Persians or other Muslims as referred to by Christian ...
s' - a medieval term to refer to Arab
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
s - who had their bases in Corsica, for control of the Mediterranean. In 1017,
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
n
Giudicati The Judicates (''judicadus'', ''logus'' or ''rennus'' in Sardinian, ''judicati'' in Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken i ...
were militarily supported by Pisa, in alliance with Genoa, to defeat the Saracen King Mugahid, who had settled a logistic base in the north of Sardinia the year before. This victory gave Pisa supremacy in the
Tyrrhenian Sea The Tyrrhenian Sea (; it, Mar Tirreno , french: Mer Tyrrhénienne , sc, Mare Tirrenu, co, Mari Tirrenu, scn, Mari Tirrenu, nap, Mare Tirreno) is part of the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by ...
. When the Pisans subsequently ousted the Genoese from Sardinia, a new conflict and rivalry was born between these major marine republics. Between 1030 and 1035, Pisa went on to defeat several rival towns in Sicily and conquer
Carthage Carthage was the capital city of the ancient , on the eastern side of the in what is now . Carthage was the most important trading hub of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the . The city developed from a n colony ...

Carthage
in
North Africa North Africa or Northern Africa is a region encompassing the northern portion of the African continent. There is no singularly accepted scope for the region, and it is sometimes defined as stretching from the Atlantic shores of Mauritania in th ...

North Africa
. In 1051–1052, the admiral Jacopo Ciurini conquered
Corsica Corsica (, Upper , Southern , ; french: link=no, Corse ; lij, link=no, Còrsega) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north ...

Corsica
, provoking more resentment from the Genoese. In 1063, Admiral Giovanni Orlandi, coming to the aid of the
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
Roger IRoger I may refer to: :''In chronological order'' * Roger I of Carcassonne (died 1012), Count of Carcassone * Roger I of Tosny (), Norman noble * Roger I "de Berkeley" (died 1093), Norman noble, possibly the son of Roger I of Tosny - see Baron Berke ...

Roger I
, took
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
from the Saracen pirates. The gold treasure taken from the Saracens in Palermo allowed the Pisans to start the building of their cathedral and the other monuments which constitute the famous . In 1060, Pisa had to engage in their first battle with
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
. The Pisan victory helped to consolidate its position in the Mediterranean.
Pope Gregory VII Pope Gregory VII ( la, Gregorius VII; 1015 – 25 May 1085), born Hildebrand of Sovana ( it, Ildebrando da Soana), was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian d ...

Pope Gregory VII
recognised in 1077 the new "Laws and customs of the sea" instituted by the Pisans, and emperor
Henry IVHenry IV may refer to: People * Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1050–1106), King of The Romans and Holy Roman Emperor * Henry IV, Duke of Limburg (1195–1247) * Henry IV, Duke of Brabant (1251/1252–1272) * Henryk IV Probus (c. 1258–1290), Duke ...

Henry IV
granted them the right to name their own consuls, advised by a council of elders. This was simply a confirmation of the present situation, because in those years, the marquis had already been excluded from power. In 1092,
Pope Urban II Pope Urban II ( la, Urbanus II;  – 29 July 1099), otherwise known as Odo of Châtillon or Otho de Lagery, was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christia ...

Pope Urban II
awarded Pisa the supremacy over Corsica and Sardinia, and at the same time raising the town to the rank of archbishopric. Pisa sacked the
Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous , after in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11. ...

Tunisia
n city of
Mahdia Mahdia ( ar, المهدية ') is a Tunisia ) , image_map = Tunisia location (orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = Location of Tunisia in northern Africa , image_map2 = , capital = Tunis , largest_city = capital , coordinates = ...

Mahdia
in 1088. Four years later, Pisan and Genoese ships helped Alfonso VI of Castilla to push
El Cid Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (c. 1043 – 10 July 1099) was a Castilian knight and warlord in medieval Spain In many ways, the history of Spain is marked by waves of conquerors who brought their distinct cultures to the peninsula. After the passage ...

El Cid
out of
Valencia Valencia ( va, València) is the capital of the Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community of Valencian Community, Valencia and the Municipalities of Spain, third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, surpassing 800,000 ...
. A Pisan fleet of 120 ships also took part in the
First Crusade The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a series of religious wars, or Crusades, initiated, supported and at times directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The objective was the recovery of the Holy Land from Muslim conqu ...
, and the Pisans were instrumental in the taking of
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
in 1099. On their way to the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
, the ships did not miss the occasion to sack some Byzantine islands; the Pisan crusaders were led by their archbishop Daibert, the future patriarch of Jerusalem. Pisa and the other took advantage of the crusade to establish trading posts and colonies in the Eastern coastal cities of the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
. In particular, the Pisans founded colonies in
Antioch Antioch on the Orontes (; grc, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου, ''Antiókheia hē epì Oróntou''; also Syrian Antioch) grc-koi, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ ...
ia, Acre,
Jaffa Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo ( he, יָפוֹ, ) and in Arabic Yafa ( ar, يَافَا) and also called Japho or Joppa, the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo Tel Aviv-Yafo ( he, תֵּל־אָבִיב-יָפוֹ – ''Tel Aviv-Yafo'' ...

Jaffa
,
Tripoli Tripoli (; ar, طرابلس, ; ber, ⵜⵔⵢⴱⵓⵍⵙ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals ...
,
Tyre Tyre may refer to: * Tire, the outer part of a wheel Places * Tyre, Lebanon, a city ** See of Tyre, a Christian diocese seated in Tyre, Lebanon ** Tyre Hippodrome, a UNESCO World Heritage site * Tyre District, Lebanon * Tyre, New York, a town in t ...
,
Latakia Latakia ( ar, ٱللَّاذْقِيَّة \ ٱللَّاذِقِيَّة, '; Syrian Syrians ( ar, سُورِيُّون, ''Sūriyyūn''), also known as the Syrian people ( ar, الشَّعْب السُّورِيّ, : eş''-Şa‘b es-Sūrī'' ...
, and Accone. They also had other possessions in
Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; hy, Երուսաղեմ, Erusał ...

Jerusalem
and
Caesarea Caesarea () (, he, קֵיסָרְיָה), ''Keysariya'' or ''Qesarya'', often simplified to Keisarya, and Qaysaria, is a town in north-central Israel, which inherits its name and much of its territory from the ancient city of Caesarea Maritima ...

Caesarea
, plus smaller colonies (with lesser autonomy) in
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
,
Alexandria Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic: Rakodī; el, Αλεξάνδρεια ''Alexandria'') is the List of cities and towns in Egypt, third-largest city in Egypt after Cairo and Giza, ...

Alexandria
, and of course
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...

Constantinople
, where the
Byzantine Emperor This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse ...
Alexius I Comnenus Alexios I Komnenos ( grc-gre, Ἀλέξιος Ά Κομνηνός, – 15 August 1118), Latinized Alexius I Comnenus, was Byzantine emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereig ...
granted them special mooring and trading rights. In all these cities, the Pisans were granted privileges and immunity from taxation, but had to contribute to the defence in case of attack. In the 12th century, the Pisan quarter in the eastern part of Constantinople had grown to 1,000 people. For some years of that century, Pisa was the most prominent commercial and military ally of the Byzantine Empire, overcoming
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
itself.


12th century

In 1113, Pisa and
Pope Paschal II Pope Paschal II ( la, Paschalis II; 1050  1055 – 21 January 1118), born Ranierius, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1. ...

Pope Paschal II
set up, together with the count of
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
and other contingents from
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
and Italy (Genoese excluded), a war to free the Balearic Islands from the
Moors '' of Alfonso X, c. 1285 The term Moor is an Endonym and exonym, exonym first used by Christian Europeans to designate the Muslims, Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors init ...

Moors
; the queen and the king of
Majorca Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean. The capital of the island, Palma, Majorca, Palma, is also the capital of the autonomous communities of Spain, autono ...
were brought in chains to Tuscany. Though the Almoravides soon reconquered the island, the booty taken helped the Pisans in their magnificent programme of buildings, especially the
cathedral A cathedral is a church Church may refer to: Religion * Church (building) A church building, church house, or simply church, is a building used for Christian worship services and other Christian religious activities. The term is used ...
, and Pisa gained a role of pre-eminence in the
Western Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands aroun ...
. In the following years, the mighty Pisan fleet, led by archbishop Pietro Moriconi, drove away the Saracens after ferocious combats. Though short-lived, this success of Pisa in Spain increased the rivalry with Genoa. Pisa's trade with the
Languedoc Languedoc (; , ; oc, Lengadòc ) is a former province of France The Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France, frm, Royaulme de France, french: link=no, Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy ...

Languedoc
and
Provence Provence (, , , , ; oc, Provença or ''Prouvènço'' , ) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, R ...

Provence
(
Noli Noli (; lij, Nöi ) is a coast ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Noli
,
Savona Savona (; local lij, Sann-a , lij, label=Genoese Genoese may refer to: * a person from Genoa * Genoese dialect, a dialect of the Ligurian language * Republic of Genoa (–1805), a former state in Liguria See also * Genovese, a surname * ...

Savona
,
Fréjus Fréjus (; , ) is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs ...
, and
Montpellier Montpellier (, , ; oc, Montpelhièr , it, Mompellieri ) is a city in southern France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental coun ...

Montpellier
) were an obstacle to Genoese interests in cities such as
Hyères Hyères (), Provençal Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no ,), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, ...
, Fos,
Antibes Antibes (, also , ; oc, label= Provençal, Antíbol) is a coastal city in the Alpes-Maritimes Alpes-Maritimes (; oc, Aups Maritims; it, Alpi Marittime, "Maritime Alps") is a department of France In the administrative divisions of Fra ...

Antibes
, and
Marseille Marseille ( , , ; also spelled in English as Marseilles; oc, Marselha ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European langua ...

Marseille
. The war began in 1119 when the Genoese attacked several galleys on their way to the motherland, and lasted until 1133. The two cities fought each other on land and at sea, but hostilities were limited to raids and pirate-like assaults. In June 1135,
Bernard of Clairvaux Bernard of Clairvaux ( la, Bernardus Claraevallensis; 109020 August 1153), venerated as Saint Bernard, was a Burgundian abbot Abbot (from Aramaic Aramaic (: ''Arāmāyā''; : ; : ; ) is a language that originated among the in the ...

Bernard of Clairvaux
took a leading part in the
Council of Pisa The Council of Pisa was a controversial ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in 1409 in Italy, 1409. It attempted to end the Western Schism by deposing Antipope Benedict XIII, Benedict XIII (Avignon) and Pope Gregory XII, Gregory XII ...
, asserting the claims of Pope
Innocent II Pope Innocent II ( la, Innocentius II; died 23 September 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by numb ...
against those of Pope
Anacletus II Anacletus II (died January 25, 1138), born Pietro Pierleoni, was an antipope who ruled in opposition to Pope Innocent II from 1130 until his death in 1138. After the death of Pope Honorius II, the college of cardinals was divided over his successo ...
, who had been elected pope in 1130 with
Norman Norman or Normans may refer to: Ethnic and cultural identity * The Normans The Normans (Norman language, Norman: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were inhabitants of the early medieval Duchy of Normandy, descended from ...

Norman
support, but was not recognised outside Rome. Innocent II resolved the conflict with Genoa, establishing Pisan and Genoese spheres of influence. Pisa could then, unhindered by Genoa, participate in the conflict of Innocent II against king
Roger II of Sicily Roger II ( it, Ruggero II; 22 December 1095 – 26 February 1154) was King of Sicily Sicily ( it, Sicilia ; scn, Sicilia ) is the in the and one of the 20 of . It is one of the five and is officially referred to as ''Regione Siciliana ...

Roger II of Sicily
.
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public servic ...

Amalfi
, one of the maritime republics (though already declining under Norman rule), was conquered on August 6, 1136; the Pisans destroyed the ships in the port, assaulted the castles in the surrounding areas, and drove back an army sent by Roger from
Aversa Aversa () is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledg ...
. This victory brought Pisa to the peak of its power and to a standing equal to Venice. Two years later, its soldiers sacked
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
. In the following years, Pisa was one of the staunchest supporters of the
Ghibelline The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is ...
party. This was much appreciated by
Frederick IFrederick I may refer to: * Frederick of Utrecht or Frederick I (815/16–834/38), Bishop of Utrecht. * Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine (942–978) * Frederick I, Duke of Swabia (1050–1105) * Frederick I, Count of Zollern ...
. He issued in 1162 and 1165 two important documents, with these grants: Apart from the jurisdiction over the Pisan countryside, the Pisans were granted freedom of trade in the whole empire, the coast from
Civitavecchia Civitavecchia (; meaning "ancient town") is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides man ...

Civitavecchia
to
Portovenere Porto Venere (; until 1991 ''Portovenere''; lij, Pòrtivene) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , an ...

Portovenere
, a half of
Palermo Palermo ( , ; scn, Palermu , locally also or ; la, Panormus, from grc, Πάνορμος, Pánormos; older ar, بَلَرْم‎, Balarm) is a city in southern Italy Southern Italy ( it, Sud Italia; nap, 'o Sudde; scn, Italia dû Sud), ...

Palermo
,
Messina Messina (, also , ; scn, Missina ; lat, Messana; grc, Μεσσήνη, Messḗnē) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger ...

Messina
,
Salerno Salerno (, , ; nap, label=Neapolitan language, Salernitano, Saliernë, ) is an ancient city and ''comune'' in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of Salerno, namesake province. It is located on the Gulf of Salerno o ...

Salerno
and
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, the whole of
Gaeta Gaeta (; lat, Cāiēta; grc, Καιήτη, Kaiḗtē) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function T ...

Gaeta
,
Mazara
Mazara
, and
Trapani Trapani ( , ; scn, Tràpani ; lat, Drepanum; grc, Δρέπανον) is a city and municipality (''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or mun ...

Trapani
, and a street with houses for its merchants in every city of the
Kingdom of Sicily Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. L ...

Kingdom of Sicily
. Some of these grants were later confirmed by
Henry VI Henry VI may refer to: * Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165–1197) * Henry VI, Count Palatine of the Rhine (ruled 1212–1214) * Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg (crowned 1281, died 1288) * Henry VI the Older (before 1345 – 1393) * Henry VI, Count ...

Henry VI
,
Otto IV Otto IV (1175 – 19 May 1218) was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1209 until his death. Otto spent most of his early life in England and France. He was a follower of Richard the Lionheart, who made him Count of Poitou in 1196. With Richard's su ...
, and
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
. They marked the apex of Pisa's power, but also spurred the resentment of cities such as
Lucca Lucca ( , ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenance of local roads and public works. ...

Lucca
,
Massa Massa may refer to: Places *Massa, Tuscany Massa (; ) is a town and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, the administrative centre of the province of Massa and Carrara. It is located in the Frigido River Valley, near the Alpi Apuane, from th ...
,
Volterra Volterra (; Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Rep ...

Volterra
, and
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
, thwarting their aim to expand towards the sea. The clash with Lucca also concerned the possession of the castle of
Montignoso Montignoso is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Massa and Carrara in the Italy, Italian region Tuscany, located about northwest of Florence and about southeast of Massa. Montignoso borders the following municipalities: Forte dei Mar ...
and mainly the control of the , the main trade route between Rome and France. Last, but not least, such a sudden and large increase of power by Pisa could only lead to another war with Genoa. Genoa had acquired a largely dominant position in the markets of southern France. The war presumably began in 1165 on the
Rhône The Rhône ( , ) is a major river in France and Switzerland, arising in the Alps and flowing west and south through Lake Geneva and southeastern France before discharging into the Mediterranean Sea. At Arles, near its mouth, the river divides in ...

Rhône
, when an attack on a convoy, directed to some Pisan trade centres on the river, by the Genoese and their ally, the count of
Toulouse Toulouse ( , ; oc, Tolosa ) is the prefecture A prefecture (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area ...

Toulouse
, failed. Pisa, though, was allied to Provence. The war continued until 1175 without significant victories. Another point of attrition was
Sicily (man) it, Siciliana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Ethnicity , demographics1_footnotes = , demographi ...

Sicily
, where both the cities had privileges granted by
Henry VI Henry VI may refer to: * Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165–1197) * Henry VI, Count Palatine of the Rhine (ruled 1212–1214) * Henry VI, Count of Luxembourg (crowned 1281, died 1288) * Henry VI the Older (before 1345 – 1393) * Henry VI, Count ...

Henry VI
. In 1192, Pisa managed to conquer Messina. This episode was followed by a series of battles culminating in the Genoese conquest of
Syracuse Syracuse may refer to: Places Italy *Syracuse, Sicily Syracuse ( ; it, Siracusa , or scn, Seragusa, label=none ; lat, Syrācūsae ; grc-att, wikt:Συράκουσαι, Συράκουσαι, Syrákousai ; grc-dor, wikt:Συράκο ...
in 1204. Later, the trading posts in Sicily were lost when the new
Pope Innocent III Pope Innocent III ( la, Innocentius III; 1160 or 1161 – 16 July 1216), born Lotario dei Conti di Segni (anglicized as Lothar of Segni Segni (, ) is an Italy, Italian town and ''comune'' located in Lazio. The city is situated on a hilltop i ...

Pope Innocent III
, though removing the
excommunication Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure, it is a debatable main motion that could be adopted by a majority vote. Among the ...

excommunication
cast over Pisa by his predecessor
Celestine III Pope Celestine III ( la, Caelestinus III; c. 1106 – 8 January 1198), born Giacinto Bobone, was the head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, often referred to as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominati ...

Celestine III
, allied himself with the Guelph League of Tuscany, led by Florence. Soon, he stipulated a pact with Genoa, too, further weakening the Pisan presence in southern Italy. To counter the Genoese predominance in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Pisa strengthened its relationship with their traditional Spanish and French bases (Marseille,
Narbonne Narbonne (, also , ; oc, Narbona ; la, Narbo ; Late Latin:) is a commune in France, commune in southern France in the Occitanie Regions of France, region. It lies from Paris in the Aude Departments of France, department, of which it is a Subpr ...

Narbonne
,
Barcelona Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within ci ...

Barcelona
, etc.) and tried to defy the Venetian rule of the
Adriatic Sea The Adriatic Sea () is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkans. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto (where it connects to the Ionian Sea) to the northwest ...

Adriatic Sea
. In 1180, the two cities agreed to a nonaggression treaty in the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatic, but the death of Emperor
Manuel Comnenus Manuel I Komnenos ( el, Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180), Latinized Comnenus, also called Porphyrogennetos (" born in the purple"), was a Byzantine emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a cruci ...
in Constantinople changed the situation. Soon, attacks on Venetian convoys were made. Pisa signed trade and political pacts with
Ancona Ancona (, also , ; ) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 . Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic ...

Ancona
,
Pula Pula (; Italian language, Italian: ''Pola'', Istriot language, Istriot: ''Puola'', Slovene language, Slovene: ''Pulj'') is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, and the List of cities and towns in Croatia, eighth-largest city in the count ...

Pula
,
Zara
Zara
,
Split Split(s) or The Split may refer to: Places * Split, Croatia, the largest coastal city in Croatia * Split Island, Canada, an island in the Hudson Bay * Split Island, Falkland Islands * Split Island, Fiji, better known as Hạfliua Arts, entertainm ...
, and
Brindisi Brindisi ( , ; scn, label= Brindisino, Brìnnisi; la, Brundisium; grc, Βρεντέσιον, translit=Brentésion; cms, Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , ...

Brindisi
; in 1195, a Pisan fleet reached Pola to defend its independence from Venice, but the Serenissima soon reconquered the rebel sea town. One year later, the two cities signed a peace treaty, which resulted in favourable conditions for Pisa, but in 1199, the Pisans violated it by blockading the
port of Brindisi The port of Brindisi is a port in Brindisi, Italy. It is used for tourism, commercial and industrial shipping on the Adriatic Sea. Tourist traffic offer connections with the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey, while commercial concerns include coal, fuel o ...
in
Apulia it, Pugliese , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_titl ...

Apulia
. In the following naval battle, they were defeated by the Venetians. The war that followed ended in 1206 with a treaty in which Pisa gave up all its hopes to expand in the Adriatic, though it maintained the trading posts it had established in the area. From that point on, the two cities were united against the rising power of Genoa and sometimes collaborated to increase the trading benefits in Constantinople.


13th century

In 1209 in
Lerici Lerici ( lij, Lerxi, locally ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of La Spezia in Liguria (northern Italy), part of the Italian Riviera. It is situated on the coast of the Gulf of La Spezia, southeast of La Spezia. It is known as the place ...

Lerici
, two councils for a final resolution of the rivalry with Genoa were held. A 20-year peace treaty was signed, but when in 1220, the emperor
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
confirmed his supremacy over the
Tyrrhenian Tyrrhenian may refer to the: * Tyrrhenian Stage, a faunal stage from 0.26 to 0.01143 million years ago * Tyrrhenians, an ancient ethnonym associated with the Etruscans * Tyrrhenian Sea * Tyrrhenian Basin * Tyrrhenian languages See also

* * T ...
coast from
Civitavecchia Civitavecchia (; meaning "ancient town") is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides man ...

Civitavecchia
to
Portovenere Porto Venere (; until 1991 ''Portovenere''; lij, Pòrtivene) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , an ...

Portovenere
, the Genoese and Tuscan resentment against Pisa grew again. In the following years, Pisa clashed with Lucca in
Garfagnana The Garfagnana () is a historical and geographical region of central Italy, today part of the province of Lucca, in Tuscany. It is the upper valley or basin of the river Serchio, and thus lies between the main ridge of the Northern Apennines to ...
and was defeated by the
Florentines
Florentines
at Castel del Bosco. The strong
Ghibelline The Guelphs and Ghibellines (, also ; it, guelfi e ghibellini ) were factions supporting the Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is ...
position of Pisa brought this town diametrically against the Pope, who was in a strong dispute with the
Empire An empire is a "political unit" made up of several territories and peoples, "usually created by conquest, and divided between a dominant center and subordinate peripheries". Narrowly defined, an empire is a sovereign state called an empire and ...
, and indeed the pope tried to deprive the town of its dominions in northern
Sardinia Sardinia ( ; it, Sardegna ; sc, Sardigna or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a connected to the , surrounded by the and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by and and , ...

Sardinia
. In 1238,
Pope Gregory IX Pope Gregory IX ( la, Gregorius IX; born Ugolino di Conti; c. 1145 or before 1170 – 22 August 1241) was head of the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Cathol ...

Pope Gregory IX
formed an alliance between Genoa and Venice against the empire, and consequently against Pisa, too. One year later, he excommunicated Frederick II and called for an anti-Empire council to be held in Rome in 1241. On May 3, 1241, a combined fleet of Pisan and Sicilian ships, led by the emperor's son
Enzo Enzo is an Italian language, Italian given name derivative of the German name Heinz (given name), Heinz. It can be used also as the short form for Lorenzo (disambiguation), Lorenzo, Vincenzo, Innocenzo, or Fiorenzo. It is most common in the Romance ...
, attacked a Genoese convoy carrying prelates from northern Italy and France, next to the isle of
Giglio
Giglio
( Battle of Giglio), in front of
Tuscany it, Toscano (man) it, Toscana (woman) , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = Citizenship , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = Italian , demogra ...
; the Genoese lost 25 ships, while about a thousand sailors, two cardinals, and one bishop were taken prisoner. After this major victory, the council in Rome failed, but Pisa was excommunicated. This extreme measure was only removed in 1257. Anyway, the Tuscan city tried to take advantage of the favourable situation to conquer the Corsican city of Aleria and even lay siege to Genoa itself in 1243. The
Liguria it, Ligure , population_note = , population_blank1_title = , population_blank1 = , demographics_type1 = , demographics1_footnotes = , demographics1_title1 = , demographics1_info1 = , demographics1_title2 ...

Liguria
n republic of Genoa, however, recovered fast from this blow and won back
Lerici Lerici ( lij, Lerxi, locally ) is a town and ''comune'' in the province of La Spezia in Liguria (northern Italy), part of the Italian Riviera. It is situated on the coast of the Gulf of La Spezia, southeast of La Spezia. It is known as the place ...

Lerici
, conquered by the Pisans some years earlier, in 1256. The great expansion in the Mediterranean and the prominence of the merchant class urged a modification in the city's institutes. The system with consuls was abandoned, and in 1230, the new city rulers named a ''capitano del popolo'' ("people's chieftain") as civil and military leader. Despite these reforms, the conquered lands and the city itself were harassed by the rivalry between the two families of
Della Gherardesca The Gherardeschi or della Gherardesca were a family of the Republic of Pisa, dating back as early as the 11th century of Lombards, Longobard origin. They were an important one of the most prominent initially in Pisa, then of Volterra and eventuall ...
and Visconti. In 1237 the archbishop and the Emperor Frederick II intervened to reconcile the two rivals, but the strains continued. In 1254, the people rebelled and imposed 12 ("People's Elders") as their political representatives in the commune. They also supplemented the legislative councils, formed of noblemen, with new People's Councils, composed by the main guilds and by the chiefs of the People's Companies. These had the power to ratify the laws of the Major General Council and the Senate.


Decline

The decline is said to have begun on August 6, 1284, when the numerically superior fleet of Pisa, under the command of Albertino Morosini, was defeated by the brilliant tactics of the Genoese fleet, under the command of Benedetto Zaccaria and Oberto Doria, in the dramatic naval Battle of Meloria (1284), Battle of Meloria. This defeat ended the maritime power of Pisa and the town never fully recovered; in 1290, the Genoese destroyed forever the Porto Pisano (Pisa's port), and salting the earth, covered the land with salt. The region around Pisa did not permit the city to recover from the loss of thousands of sailors from the Meloria, while Liguria guaranteed enough sailors to Genoa. Goods, however, continued to be traded, albeit in reduced quantity, but the end came when the Arno started to change course, preventing the galleys from reaching the city's port up the river. The nearby area also likely became infested with malaria. The true end came in 1324, when Sardinia was entirely lost to the Aragonese. Always Ghibelline, Pisa tried to build up its power in the course of the 14th century, and even managed to defeat Republic of Florence, Florence in the Battle of Montecatini (1315), under the command of Uguccione della Faggiuola. Eventually, however, after a long siege, Pisa was occupied by Florentines in 1405. Florentines corrupted the ''capitano del popolo'' ("people's chieftain"), Giovanni Gambacorta, who at night opened the city gate of San Marco. Pisa was never conquered by an army. In 1409, Pisa was the seat of a Council of Pisa, council trying to set the question of the Western Schism, Great Schism. In the 15th century, access to the sea became more difficult, as the port was silting up and was cut off from the sea. When in 1494, Charles VIII of France invaded the Italian states to claim the Kingdom of Naples, Pisa reclaimed its independence as the Second Pisan Republic. The new freedom did not last long; 15 years of battles and sieges by the Florentine troops led by Antonio da Filicaja, Averardo Salviati and Niccolò Capponi were made, but they failed to conquer the city. Vitellozzo Vitelli with his brother Paolo Vitelli (condottiero), Paolo were the only ones who actually managed to break the strong defences of Pisa and make a breach in the Stampace bastion in the southern west part of the walls, but he did not enter the city. For that, they were suspected of treachery and Paolo was put to death. However, the resources of Pisa were getting low, and at the end, the city was sold to the Visconti family from Milan and eventually to Florence again. Its role of major port of Tuscany went to Livorno. Pisa acquired a mainly cultural role spurred by the presence of the
University of Pisa The University of Pisa ( it, Università di Pisa, UniPi) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
, created in 1343, and later reinforced by the
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties ...
(1810) and
Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies , latin_name = , image = , motto = L'eccellenza come disciplina , mottoeng = Committed to excellence , established = 1987 from previously existing institutions , type = State-supported , administrative_staff ...
(1987). Pisa was the birthplace of the important early physicist Galileo Galilei. It is still the seat of an archbishopric. Besides its educational institutions, it has become a light industrial centre and a railway hub. It suffered repeated destruction during World War II. Since the early 1950s, the US Army has maintained Camp Darby just outside Pisa, which is used by many US military personnel as a base for vacations in the area.


Geography


Climate

Pisa experiences a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification ''Csa''). The city is characterized by cool-mild winters and hot summers. This transitional climate allows Pisa to enjoy a summer almost devoid of rain, typical of central and southern Italy, as the summer (the driest season) experiences occasional rain showers. Rainfall peaks in the autumn.


Government


Main sights

While the Leaning Tower of Pisa, bell tower of the cathedral, known as "the leaning Tower of Pisa", is the most famous image of the city, it is one of many works of art and architecture in the city's , also known, since the 20th century, as (Square of Miracles), to the north of the old town center. The also houses the (the Cathedral), the Baptistry (Pisa), Baptistry and the (the monumental cemetery). The medieval complex includes the above-mentioned four sacred buildings, the hospital and few palaces. All the complex is kept by the ''Opera (fabrica ecclesiae) della Primaziale Pisana'', an old non profit foundation that operates since the building of the Cathedral (1063) to the maintenance of the sacred buildings. The area is framed by medieval walls kept by municipality administration. Other sights include: *Knights' Square (Pisa), Knights' Square (), where the , with its impressive façade designed by Giorgio Vasari may be seen. Sited on the square *Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, Pisa, Santo Stefano dei Cavalieri, church sited on Piazza dei Cavalieri, and also designed by Giorgio Vasari, Vasari. It had originally a single nave; two more were added in the 17th century. It houses a bust (sculpture), bust by Donatello, and paintings by Vasari, Jacopo Ligozzi, Alessandro Fei (painter), Alessandro Fei, and Jacopo Chimenti, Pontormo. It also contains spoils from the many naval battles between the Cavalieri (Knights of St. Stephan) and the Turks between the 16th and 18th centuries, including the Turkish battle pennant hoisted from Müezzinzade Ali Pasha, Ali Pacha's flagship at the 1571 Battle of Lepanto (1571), Battle of Lepanto. *San Sisto, Pisa, St. Sixtus. This small church, consecrated in 1133, is also close to the Piazza dei Cavalieri. It was used as a seat of the most important notarial deeds of the town, also hosting the Council of Elders. It is today one of the best preserved early Romanesque architecture, Romanesque buildings in town. *San Francesco, Pisa, St. Francis. The church of San Francesco may have been designed by Giovanni di Simone, built after 1276. In 1343 new chapels were added and the church was elevated. It has a single nave and a notable belfry, as well as a 15th-century cloister. It houses works by Jacopo da Empoli, Taddeo Gaddi and Santi di Tito. In the Gherardesca Chapel are buried Ugolino della Gherardesca and his sons. *San Frediano, Pisa, San Frediano. This church, built by 1061, has a basilica interior with three aisles, with a crucifix from the 12th century. Paintings from the 16th century were added during a restoration, including works by Ventura Salimbeni, Domenico Passignano, Aurelio Lomi, and Rutilio Manetti. *San Nicola di Pisa, San Nicola. This medieval church built by 1097, was enlarged between 1297 and 1313 by the Augustinians, Augustinians, perhaps by the design of Giovanni Pisano. The octagonal belfry is from the second half of the 13th century. The paintings include the ''Madonna with Child'' by Francesco Traini (14th century) and ''St. Nicholas Saving Pisa from the Plague'' (15th century). Noteworthy are also the wood sculptures by Giovanni and Nino Pisano, and the Annunciation by Francesco di Valdambrino. *Santa Maria della Spina. A small white marble church alongside the Arno, is attributed to Lupo di Francesco (1230), is another excellent Gothic building. *San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno. The church was founded around 952 and enlarged in the mid-12th century along lines similar to those of the cathedral. It is annexed to the Romanesque architecture, Romanesque Chapel of St. Agatha, with an unusual pyramidal cusp or peak. San Pietro in Vinculis (Pisa), San Pietro in Vinculis. Known as ''San Pierino'', it is an 11th-century church with a crypt and a cosmatesque mosaic on the floor of the main nave. *. This medieval borgo or neighborhood contains strolling arcades and the ''Lungarno'', the avenues along the river Arno. It includes the Gothic-Romanesque church of ''San Michele in Borgo'' (990). There are at least two other leaning towers in the city, one at the southern end of central , the other halfway through the riverside promenade. *Medici Palace. The palace was once a possession of the Appiano family, who ruled Pisa in 1392–1398. In 1400 the Medici acquired it, and Lorenzo de' Medici sojourned here. *. The botanical garden of the University of Pisa is Europe's oldest university botanical garden. *. The ("Royal Palace"), once belonged to the Caetani patrician family. Here Galileo Galilei showed to Grand Duke of Tuscany the planets he had discovered with his telescope. The edifice was erected in 1559 by Baccio Bandinelli for Cosimo I de Medici, and was later enlarged including other palaces. The palace is now a museum. *. This palace is a 14th-century Gothic building, and now houses the offices of the municipality. The interior shows frescoes boasting Pisa's sea victories. *. The palace is a Gothic building also known as , with its 15th-century façade and remains of the ancient city walls dating back to before 1155. The name of the building comes from the coffee rooms of , historic meeting place founded on September 1, 1775. *Mural . A modern mural, the last public work by Keith Haring, on the rear wall of the convent of the Church of ''Sant'Antonio'', painted in June 1989.


Museums

*: exhibiting among others the original sculptures of Nicola Pisano and Giovanni Pisano and the treasures of the cathedral. *: showing the sinopias from the camposanto, the monumental cemetery. These are red ocher underdrawings for frescoes, made with reddish, greenish or brownish earth colour with water. *Museo Nazionale di San Matteo: exhibiting sculptures and paintings from the 12th to 15th centuries, among them the masterworks of Giovanni Pisano, Giovanni and Andrea Pisano, the Master of San Martino, Simone Martini, Nino Pisano and Masaccio. *: exhibiting the belongings of the families that lived in the palace: paintings, statues, armors, etc. *: exhibiting a collection of instruments used in science, between a pneumatic machine of Pieter van Musschenbroek, Van Musschenbroek and a compass which probably belonged to Galileo Galilei. *''Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa, Museo di storia naturale dell'Università di Pisa'' (Natural History Museum of the University of Pisa), located in the Certosa di Pisa, Certosa di Calci, outside the city. It houses one of the largest cetacean skeletons collection in Europe. *: temporary exhibitions and cultural activities center, located in the Lungarno, in the heart of the old town, the palace is easy recognizable because it is the only blue building. *Museum of Ancient Ships, Pisa, Cantiere delle Navi di Pisa - The Pisa's Ancient Ships Archaeological Area: A museum of 10,650 square meters – 3,500 archaeological excavation, 1,700 laboratories and one restoration center – that visitors can visit with a guided tour. The Museum opened in June 2019 and has been located inside to the 16th-century Medicean Arsenals in Lungarno Ranieri Simonelli, restored under the supervision of the Tuscany Soprintendenza. It hosts a remarkable collection of ceramics and amphoras dated back from the 8th century BCE to the 2nd century BC, and also 32 ships dated back from the 2nd century BCE and the 7th century BC. Four of them are integrally preserved and the best one is the socalled ''Barca C'', also named ''Alkedo (ship), Alkedo'' (written in the Greek alphabet, ancient Greek characters). The first boat was accidentally discovered in 1998 near the Pisa San Rossore railway station and the archelogical excavations were completed 20 years later.


Educational institutions

Pisa hosts the
University of Pisa The University of Pisa ( it, Università di Pisa, UniPi) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
, especially renowned in the fields of Physics, Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science. The and the , the Italian academic élite institutions are noted mostly for research and the education of graduate students. Construction of a new leaning tower of glass and steel 57 meters tall, containing offices and apartments was scheduled to start in summer 2004 and take 4 years. It was designed by Dante Oscar Benini and raised criticism. *The
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa The Scuola Normale Superiore (commonly known in Italy as "la Normale") is a university institution of higher education based in Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties ...
was founded in 1810, by Napoleonic decree, as a branch of the École Normale Supérieure of Paris. Recognized as a "national university" in 1862, one year after Italian unification, and named during that period as "Normal School of the Kingdom of Italy" (
Superior Graduate Schools in Italy A Superior Graduate School (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Region ...
i.e. Scuola Superiore Universitaria). Located at: Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa – Piazza dei Cavalieri, 7 – 56126 Pisa (Italia) * The Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies of Pisa o
Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
is a special-statute public university located in Pisa, Italy, emerging from ''Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa'' and operating in the field of applied sciences, (
Superior Graduate Schools in Italy A Superior Graduate School (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Region ...
i.e. Scuola Superiore Universitaria) Located at: Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, P.zza Martiri della Libertà, 33 – 56127 – Pisa (Italia) * The
University of Pisa The University of Pisa ( it, Università di Pisa, UniPi) is a public research university A public university or public college is a university A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher ...
o
Università di Pisa
is one of the oldest universities in Italy. It was formally founded on September 3, 1343 by an edict of Pope Clement VI, although there had been lectures on law in Pisa since the 11th century. The University has Europe's oldest academic botanical garden i.e. Orto botanico di Pisa, founded 1544. Located at: Università di Pisa – Lungarno Pacinotti, 43 – 56126 Pisa (Italia)


Churches

*Baptistry (Pisa), Baptistry *San Francesco, Pisa, San Francesco *San Frediano, Pisa, San Frediano *San Giorgio ai Tedeschi *San Michele in Borgo *San Nicola (Pisa), San Nicola *San Paolo a Ripa d'Arno *San Paolo all'Orto *San Piero a Grado *San Pietro in Vinculis (Pisa), San Pietro in Vinculis *San Sisto (Pisa), San Sisto *San Zeno (Pisa), San Zeno *Santa Caterina (Pisa), Santa Caterina *Santa Cristina (Pisa), Santa Cristina *Santa Maria della Spina *Santo Sepolcro (Pisa), Santo Sepolcro


Palaces, towers and villas

*Palazzo del Collegio Puteano *Palazzo della Carovana *Palazzo delle Vedove *Torre dei Gualandi *Villa di Corliano *Leaning Tower of Pisa


Notable people associated with Pisa

For people born in Pisa, see :People from the Province of Pisa, People from the Province of Pisa; among notable non-natives long resident in the city: * Giuliano Amato, politician, former Premier and Minister of Interior Affairs * Silvano Arieti, psychiatrist * Gaetano Bardini, tenor * Sergio Bertoni, footballer * Andrea Bocelli, tenor * Giosuè Carducci, poet and Nobel Prize winner * Massimo Carmassi, architect * Giorgio Chiellini, footballer * Carlo Azeglio Ciampi and Giovanni Gronchi, politicians, former Presidents of the Republic of Italy * Maria Luisa Cicci, poet * Alessio Corti, mathematician * Rustichello da Pisa, writer * Enrico Fermi and Carlo Rubbia, physicists and Nobel Prize winners * Fibonacci, Leonardo Fibonacci, mathematician * Galileo Galilei, physicist * Giovanni Gentile, philosopher and politician * Orazio Gentileschi, painter * Ugolino della Gherardesca, Count Ugolino della Gherardesca, noble (see also Dante Alighieri) * Camila Giorgi, tennis player * Giacomo Leopardi, poet and philosopher * Enrico Letta, politician, former Prime Minister of Italy * Marco Malvaldi, mystery fiction, mystery novelist * Alberto Merciai, former footballer * Leo Ortolani, comic writer * Antonio Pacinotti, physicist, inventor of the dynamo * Andrea Pisano, sculptor * Afro Poli, baritone * Bruno Pontecorvo, physicist * Gillo Pontecorvo, filmmaker * Antonio Tabucchi, writer * Jason Acuña, Stunt performer


Transport


Travel links

Pisa is a one-hour drive from Florence (). One can also get a train directly to Florence from a Central rail station in Pisa (Pisa Centrale railway station, Pisa Centrale). Local buses connect the city of Pisa with all the neighboring cities (come to Pontedera, then take a bus for Volterra, San Miniato, etc.). Taxis come when requested from Pisa International Airport and Central Station.


Pisamover

Pisa has an international airport known as Pisa International Airport located in San Giusto neighborhood in Pisa. The airport has a people mover system, called
Pisamover
', opened in March 2017, that connects Airport and Pisa central railway station, that is away. It's based on a driverless "horizontal funicular" that travels the distance in 5 minutes, with a 5-minute frequency, having an intermediate stop at parking station San Giusto & Aurelia.


Buses

; Urban lines CPT (Compagnia Pisana Trasporti): * Red LAM: Cisanello Hospital - Central Station – Duomo – Parking Pietrasantina * Green LAM: San Giusto - Central Station - Pratale * Navetta E: Lungarno Pacinotti – Park Brennero – La Fontina * Navetta NightLAM: Cisanello–Lungarni (night line) * Navetta NightLAM: Pietrasantina–Lungarni (night line) * Navetta Torre: Park Pietrasantina – Largo Cocco Griffi (Duomo) * Navetta Cisanello Hospital: Park Bocchette – Cisanello (Hospital) * Bus n°2: San Giusto – Central Station – Porta a Lucca * Bus n°4: Central Station – I Passi * Bus n°5: Putignano – Central Station – C.E.P. * Bus n°6: Central Station – C.E.P. – Barbaricina * Bus n°8: Coltano – Vittorio Emanuele II square * Bus n°12: Viale Gramsci – Ospedaletto (Expò) – Bus Deapot CPT * Bus n°13: Cisanello Hospital – Piagge – Central Station – Pisanova * Bus n°14: Cisanello Hospital – Pisanova – Central Station – Piagge * Bus n°16: Viale Gramsci – Ospedaletto – Industrial Zone (some for Località Montacchiello) * Bus n°21: Airport – Central Station – C.E.P.–Duomo – I Passi (evening line) * Bus n°22: Central Station – Piagge–Pisanova–Cisanello–Pratale (evening line) ; Suburban lines CPT to/from Pisa: * Line n°10: Pisa–Tirrenia–Livorno (deviation for La Vettola-San Piero a Grado) * Line n°50: Pisa–Collesalvetti–Fauglia–Crespina * Line n°51: Collesalvetti–Lorenzana–Orciano * Line n°70: Pisa–Gello–Pontasserchio * Line n°71: Pisa – Sant'Andrea in Palazzi – Pontasserchio – San Martino Ulmiano: Pisa * Line n°80: Pisa–Migliarino–Vecchiano–Filettole * Line n°81: Pisa–Pontasserchio–Vecchiano * Line n°110: Pisa–Asciano–Agnano * Line n°120: Pisa–Calci–Montemagno * Line n°140: Pisa–Vicopisano–Pontedera * Line n°150: Pisa–Musigliano–Pettori * Line n°160: Pisa–Navacchio–Calci – Tre Colli * Line n°190: Pisa–Cascina–Pontedera * Line n°875: Pisa – Arena Metato


Trains

The city is served by two railway stations available for passengers: Pisa Centrale railway station, Pisa Centrale and Pisa San Rossore railway station, Pisa San Rossore. ''Pisa Centrale'' is the main railway station and is located along the Pisa–Livorno–Rome railway, Tyrrhenic railway line. It connects Pisa directly with several other important Italian cities such as Rome,
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
, Turin,
Naples Naples (; it, Napoli ; nap, Napule ), from grc, Νεάπολις, Neápolis, lit=new city. is the regional capital of and the third-largest city of , after and , with a population of 967,069 within the city's administrative limits as of ...

Naples
, Livorno, and Grosseto. ''Pisa San Rossore'' links the city with Lucca (20 minutes from Pisa) and Viareggio and is also reachable from ''Pisa Centrale''. It is a minor railway station located near the Leaning Tower zone. There was another station called Pisa Aeroporto railway station, Pisa Aeroporto situated next to the Airport with services to Pisa Centrale railway station, Pisa Centrale and
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
. It has been closed on December 15, 2013 for the realization of a people mover.


Cars

Pisa has two exits on the A11
Florence Florence ( ; it, Firenze ) is a city in Central-Northern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of Italian Peninsula, a peninsula delimited by the Al ...

Florence
-Pisa road and on the A12
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the Regions of Italy, Italian region of Liguria and the List of cities in Italy, sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived ...

Genoa
-Livorno road, Pisa Nord and Pisa Centro-aeroporto. Pisa Centro leads visitors to the city centre. Parking: Pratale (San Jacopo), Pietrasantina (Via Pietrasantina), Piazza Carrara, Lungarni.


Sports

Association football, Football is the main sport in Pisa; the local team, A.C. Pisa 1909, A.C. Pisa, currently plays in the Serie B (the second highest football division in Italy), and has had a top flight history throughout the 1980s and the 1990s, featuring several world-class players such as Diego Simeone, Christian Vieri and Dunga during this time. The club play at the Arena Garibaldi – Stadio Romeo Anconetani, opened in 1919 and with a capacity of 25,000. Shooting was one of the first sports to have their own association in Pisa. The ''Società del Tiro a Segno'' di Pisa was founded on July 9, 1862. In 1885, they acquired their own training field. The shooting range was almost completely destroyed during World War II. In Pisa there was a festival and game '':fr:Gioco del Ponte'' (Game of the Bridge) which was celebrated (in some form) in Pisa from perhaps the 1200s down to 1807. From the end of the 1400s the game took the form of a mock battle fought upon Pisa's central bridge (''Ponte di Mezzo''). The participants wore quilted armor and the only offensive weapon allowed was the ''targone'', a shield-shaped, stout board with precisely specified dimensions. Hitting below the belt was not allowed. Two opposing teams started at opposite ends of the bridge. The object of the two opposing teams was to penetrate, drive back, and disperse the opponents' ranks and to thereby drive them backwards off the bridge. The struggle was limited to forty-five minutes. Victory or defeat was immensely important to the team players and their partisans, but sometimes the game was fought to a draw and both sides celebrated. In 1927 the tradition was revived by college students as an elaborate costume parade. In 1935 Vittorio Emanuele III with the royal family witnessed the first revival of a modern version of the game, which has been pursued in the 20th and 21st centuries with some interruptions and varying degrees of enthusiasm by Pisans and their civic institutions.


Festivals and cultural events

* Capodanno pisano (folklore, March 25) * Gioco del Ponte (folklore) * Luminara di San Ranieri (folklore June 16) * Maritime republics regata (Folklore) * Premio Nazionale Letterario Pisa * Pisa Book Festival * Metarock (Rock music festival) * Internet Festival * San Ranieri regata (Folklore) * Turn Off Festival (House music festival) * Nessiáh (Jewish cultural Festival, November)


International relations


Twin towns and sister cities

Pisa is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with:


References


Notes


Bibliography

*
Official Abitants statistics



External links


Portal of Pisa

Pisan history portal

Official site of the Pisa Tourist Board

Official site of the Municipality of Pisa, including webcams

Moving Postcards of Pisa

Pisa Guide

A comprehensive guide of Pisa
Pisa, Coastal towns in Tuscany Municipalities of the Province of Pisa Gothic sites in Tuscany Romanesque architecture in Tuscany {{Authority control