Paramara dynasty (IAST: Paramāra) were an Indian dynasty that
Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central
India between 9th
and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them
among the Agnivanshi
Paramara dynasty was established in either 9th or 10th century.
The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century
ruler Siyaka, have been found in
Gujarat and suggest that he was a
vassal of the
Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE,
Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, and established the Paramaras as a
sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the
Madhya Pradesh had become the core Paramara territory,
with Dhara (now Dhar) as their capital. The dynasty reached its zenith
under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the
Konkan in the south, and from the
Sabarmati River in the west
Vidisha in the east.
The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of
their struggles with the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of
Kalachuris of Tripuri
Kalachuris of Tripuri and other neighbouring kingdoms.
The later Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga (now
Mandu) after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies.
Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by
the forces of
Alauddin Khalji of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic
evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years
after his death.
Malwa enjoyed a great level of political and cultural prestige under
the Paramaras. The Paramaras were well known for their patronage to
Sanskrit poets and scholars, and
Bhoja was himself a renowned scholar.
Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several
Shiva temples, although they also patronized Jain scholars.
1.2 Original homeland
2 Early rulers
3 The imperial Paramaras
6 Branches and claimed descendants
7 See also
Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates (949 CE) issued by the Paramara king Siyaka
II establish that the early Paramara rulers were the feudatories of
Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. This inscription mentions a king
called Akalavarsha (identified with the
Rashtrakuta ruler Krishna
III), followed by the expression tasmin kule ("in that family"), and
then followed by the name "Vappairaja" (identified with the Paramara
king Vakpati I). Based on the Harsola inscription, some historians
such as D. C. Ganguly theorized that the Paramaras were descended from
the Rashtrakutas. Ganguly also tried to find support for his theory in
Ain-i-Akbari, whose variation of the
Agnikula myth (see below) states
that the founder of the Paramara kingdom came to
Malwa from Deccan.
Moreover, Siyaka's successor Munja (Vakpati II) assumed titles such as
Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha: these are
Several historians have been critical of this theory. Dasharatha
Sharma notes that the
Agnikula myth about the Paramara origin had come
into being by the time of Siyaka's son Sindhuraja. Sharma argues that
Rashtrakuta royal origin of the Paramaras could not have been
forgotten within a generation. K. C. Jain theorizes that
Vappairaja's mother was related to the
Rashtrakuta family, because the
other Paramara records do not boast of the
Rashtrakuta royals as their
Siyaka and other Paramara kings before Munja did not
Rashtrakuta titles: Munja may have adopted these titles to
commemorate his predecessor's victory over the Rashtrakutas, and to
strengthen his claim over the former
The later Paramara kings claimed to be members of the
Agnivansha ("fire clan"). The
Agnikula myth of origin, which appears
in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this:
Vishvamitra forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another
Vashistha on the Arbuda mountain (Mount Abu).
conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit (agni-kunda), who defeated
Vashistha's enemies and brought back the cow.
Vashistha then gave the
hero the title Paramara ("enemy killer"). The earliest known source
to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta
Parimala, who was a court-poet of the Paramara king
997-1010). The legend is not mentioned in earlier Paramara-era
inscriptions or literary works. By this time, all the neighbouring
dynasties claimed divine or heroic origin, which might have motivated
the Paramaras to invent a legend of their own.
In the later period, the Paramaras were categorized as one of the
Rajput clans, although the
Rajput identity did not exist during their
time. A legend mentioned in a recension of
Prithviraj Raso extended
Agnikula legend to describe other dynasties as fire-born
Rajputs. The earliest extant copies of
Prithviraj Raso do not contain
this legend; this version might have been invented by the 16th century
poets who wanted to foster
Rajput unity against the Mughal emperor
Akbar. Some colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical
account to suggest a foreign origin for the Paramaras. According to
this theory, the ancestors of the Paramaras and other Agnivanshi
Rajputs came to
India after the decline of the
Gupta Empire around the
5th century CE. They were admitted in the
Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system after
performing a fire ritual. However, this theory is weakened by the
fact that the legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramara
records, and even the earliest Paramara-era account does not mention
the other dynasties as Agnivanshi.
Some historians, such as
Dasharatha Sharma and Pratipal Bhatia, have
argued that the Paramaras were originally Brahmins from the Vashistha
gotra. This theory is based on the fact that Halayudha, who was
patronized by Munja, describes the king as "Brahma-Kshtra" in
Pingala-Sutra-Vritti. According to Bhatia this expression means that
Munja came from a family of Brahmins who became Kshatriyas. In
addition, the Patanarayana temple inscription states that the
Paramaras were of
Vashistha gotra, which is a gotra among Brahmins
claiming descent from the sage Vashistha.
D. C. Sircar theorized that the dynasty descended from the Malavas.
However, there is no evidence of the early Paramara rulers being
called Malava; the Paramaras began to be called
Malavas only after
they began ruling the
A Chaulukya-Paramara coin, circa 950-1050 CE. Stylized rendition of
Chavda dynasty coins:
Indo-Sassanian style bust right; pellets and
ornaments around / Stylised fire altar; pellets around.
Coin of the Paramara king Naravarman, circa 1094-1133. Goddess Lakshmi
seated facing / Devanagari legend.
Coin of the Paramara prince Jagadeva, 12th-13th centuries CE.
Gujarat where the earliest Paramara inscriptions (of Siyaka
II) have been discovered
Based on the
Agnikula legend, some scholars such as
C. V. Vaidya and
V. A. Smith speculated that
Mount Abu was the original home of the
Paramaras. Based on the
Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates and Ain-i-Akbari, D. C.
Ganguly believed they came from the Deccan region.
The earliest of the Paramara inscriptions (that of
Siyaka II) have all
been discovered in Gujarat, and concern land grants in that region.
Based on this, D. B. Diskalkar and H. V. Trivedi theorized that the
Paramaras were associated with
Gujarat during their early days.
Historical evidence suggests that between 808-812 CE, the Rashtrakutas
Manyakheta expelled the Gurjara-
Pratiharas from the
Govinda III placed
Malwa under the protection of
Rashtrakuta chief of Lata (a region bordering Malwa,
in present-day Gujarat).
Malwa was subsequently ruled by a vassal of
the Rashtrakutas. This vassal could have been a member of the Paramara
dynasty, but there is no definitive proof of this. The start of the
Paramara rule in
Malwa cannot be dated with certainty, but it is
incontestable that they did not rule the
Malwa before the 9th century
Siyaka is the earliest known Paramara king attested by his own
inscriptions. His Harsola copper plate inscription (949 CE) is the
earliest available Paramara inscription: it suggests that he was a
vassal of the Rashtrakutas. The list of his predecessors varies
List of early Paramara rulers according to different sources
Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates (949 CE)
Nava-Sahasanka-Charita (early 11th century)
Udaipur Prashasti inscription (11th century)
Nagpur Prashasti inscription (1104 CE)
Other land grants
Siyaka alias Harsha
Paramara is the dynasty's mythical progenitor, according to the
Agnikula legend. Whether the other early kings mentioned in the
Udaipur Prashasti are historical or fictional is a topic of debate
C. V. Vaidya and K. A. Nilakantha Sastri, the Paramara
dynasty was founded only in the 10th century CE. Vaidya believes that
the kings such as Vairisimha I and
Siyaka I are imaginary, duplicated
from the names of later historical kings in order to push back the
dynasty's age. The 1274 CE Mandhata copper-plate inscription of
Jayavarman II similarly names eight successors of Paramara as
Kamandaludhara, Dhumraja, Devasimhapala, Kanakasimha, Shriharsha,
Jagaddeva, Sthirakaya and Voshari: these do not appear to be
historical figures. HV Trivedi states that there is a possibility
that Vairisimha I and
Siyaka I of the Udaipur Prashasti are same as
Vairisimha II and
Siyaka II; the names might have been repeated by
mistake. Alternatively, he theorizes that these names have been
omitted in other inscriptions because these rulers were not
Several other historians believe that the early Paramara rulers
mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti are not fictional, and the
Paramaras started ruling
Malwa in the 9th century (as Rashtrakuta
vassals). K. N. Seth argues that even some of the later Paramara
inscriptions mention only 3-4 predecessors of the king who issued the
inscription. Therefore, the absence of certain names from the
genealogy provided in the early inscriptions does not mean that these
were imaginary rulers. According to him, the mention of
Nava-Sahasanka-Charitra (composed by the court poet of the later king
Sindhuraja) proves that
Upendra is not a fictional king.
Historians such as
Georg Bühler and James Burgess identify Upendra
and Krishnaraja as one person, because these are synonyms (Upendra
being another name of Krishna). However, an inscription of Siyaka's
successor Munja names the preceding kings as Krishnaraja, Vairisimha,
and Siyaka. Based on this, Seth however identifies Krishnaraja with
Vappairaja or Vakpati I mentioned in the Harsola plates (Vappairaja
appears to be the
Prakrit form of Vakpati-raja). In his support, Seth
points out that Vairisimha has been called Krishna-padanudhyata in the
inscription of Munja i.e. Vakpati II. He theorizes that Vakpati II
used the name "Krishnaraja" instead of Vakpati I to identify his
ancestor, in order to avoid confusion with his own name.
The imperial Paramaras
The Bhojeshwar Temple, Bhojpur
Detail of the masonry of the northern dam at Bhojpur
The first independent sovereign of the
Paramara dynasty was Siyaka
Siyaka II to distinguish him from the earlier Siyaka
mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti). The
Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates (949
CE) suggest that
Siyaka was a feudatory of the
Krishna III in his early days. However, the same inscription also
mentions the high-sounding Maharajadhirajapati as one of Siyaka's
titles. Based on this, K. N. Seth believes that Siyaka's acceptance of
Rashtrakuta lordship was nominal.
Siyaka participated in their campaigns
against the Pratiharas. He also defeated some Huna chiefs ruling to
the north of Malwa. He might have suffered setbacks against the
Chandela king Yashovarman. After the death of Krishna III, Siyaka
defeated his successor Khottiga in a battle fought on the banks of the
Narmada River. He then pursued Khottiga's retreating army to the
Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, and sacked that city in 972 CE. His
victory ultimately led to the decline of the Rashtrakutas, and the
establishment of the Paramaras as an independent sovereign power in
Siyaka's successor Munja achieved military successes against the
Chahamanas of Shakambari, the Chahamanas of Naddula, the Guhilas of
Mewar, the Hunas, the Kalachuris of Tripuri, and the ruler of Gurjara
region (possibly a
Pratihara ruler). He also
achieved some early successes against the
Western Chalukya king
Tailapa II, but was ultimately defeated and killed by Tailapa some
time between 994 CE and 998 CE.
As a result of this defeat, the Paramaras lost their southern
territories (possibly the ones beyond the Narmada river) to the
Chalukyas. Munja was reputed as a patron of scholars, and his rule
attracted scholars from different parts of
India to Malwa. He was
also a poet himself, although only a few stanzas composed by him now
Sindhuraja (ruled c. 990s CE) defeated the Western
Chalukya king Satyashraya, and recovered the territories lost to
Tailapa II. He also achieved military successes against a Huna
chief, the Somavanshi of south Kosala, the Shilaharas of Konkana, and
the ruler of Lata (southern Gujarat). His court poet Padmagupta
wrote his biography Nava-Sahasanka-Charita, which credits him with
several other victories, although these appear to be poetic
Bhoja is the most celebrated ruler of the Paramara
dynasty. He made several attempts to expand the Paramara kingdom
varying results. Around 1018 CE, he defeated the
Chalukyas of Lata
Chalukyas of Lata in
present-day Gujarat. Between 1018 CE and 1020 CE, he gained
control of the northern Konkan, whose
Shilahara rulers probably served
as his feudatories for a brief period.
Bhoja also formed an
alliance against the Kalyani Chalukya king Jayasimha II, with Rajendra
Chola and Gangeya-deva Kalachuri. The extent of Bhoja's success in
this campaign is not certain, as both Chalukya and Paramara panegyrics
claimed victory. During the last years of Bhoja's reign, sometime
after 1042 CE, Jayasimha's son and successor
Someshvara I invaded
Malwa, and sacked his capital Dhara.
Bhoja re-established his
Malwa soon after the departure of the Chalukya army, but
the defeat pushed back the southern boundary of his kingdom from
Godavari to Narmada.
Bhoja's attempt to expand his kingdom eastwards was foiled by the
Chandela king Vidyadhara. However,
Bhoja was able to extend his
influence among the
Chandela feudatories, the Kachchhapaghatas of
Bhoja also launched a campaign against the
Kachchhapaghatas of Gwalior, possibly with the ultimate goal of
capturing Kannauj, but his attacks were repulsed by their ruler
Bhoja also defeated the Chahamanas of Shakambhari,
killing their ruler Viryarama. However, he was forced to retreat by
the Chahamanas of Naddula. According to medieval Muslim
historians, after sacking Somnath,
Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni changed his route
to avoid confrontation with a Hindu king named Param Dev. Modern
historians identify Param Dev as Bhoja: the name may be a corruption
of Paramara-Deva or of Bhoja's title
Bhoja may have also contributed
troops to support the
Kabul Shahi ruler Anandapala's fight against the
Ghaznavids. He may have also been a part of the Hindu alliance
that expelled Mahmud's governors from Hansi,
Thanesar and other areas
around 1043 CE. During the last year of Bhoja's reign, or
shortly after his death, the
Bhima I and the Kalachuri
king Karna attacked his kingdom. According to the 14th century author
Bhoja died of a disease at the same time the allied army
attacked his kingdom.
At its zenith, Bhoja's kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to
Konkan in the south, and from the
Sabarmati River in the west to
Vidisha in the east. He was recognized as a capable military
leader, but his territorial conquests were short-lived. His major
claim to fame was his reputation as a scholar-king, who patronized
arts, literature and sciences. Noted poets and writers of his time
sought his sponsorship.
Bhoja was himself a polymath, whose
writings cover a wide variety of topics include grammar, poetry,
architecture, yoga, and chemistry.
Bhoja established the Bhoj Shala
which was a centre for
Sanskrit studies and a temple of
present-day Dhar. He is said to have founded the city of Bhojpur, a
belief supported by historical evidence. Besides the Bhojeshwar Temple
there, the construction of three now-breached dams in that area is
attributed to him. Because of his patronage to literary figures,
several legends written after his death featured him as a righteous
scholar-king. In terms of the number of legends centered around
Bhoja is comparable to the fabled Vikramaditya.
Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal,
Vidisha with an inscription of
Fragments of the
Dhar iron pillar attributed to the Paramaras
Bhoja's successor Jayasimha I, who was probably his son, faced the
Chaulukya invasion immediately after Bhoja's
death. Bilhana's writings suggest that he sought help from the
Chalukyas of Kalyani. Jayasimha's successor and Bhoja's brother
Udayaditya was defeated by Chamundaraja, his vassal at Vagada. He
faced an invasion from the
Chaulukya ruler Karna. In response, he and
his allies defeated Karna. Udayaditya's eldest son
been credited with extensive military conquests in the Nagpur
Prashasti inscription of 1104-05 CE. However, these appear to be
poetic exaggerations. At best, he might have defeated the Kalachuris
of Tripuri. Udayaditya's younger son
Naravarman faced several
defeats, losing to the
Chandelas of Jejakabhukti
Chandelas of Jejakabhukti and the Chaulukya
king Jayasimha Siddharaja. By the end of his reign, one Vijayapala had
carved out an independent kingdom to the north-east of Ujjain.
Yashovarman lost control of the Paramara capital Dhara to Jayasimha
Siddharaja. His successor Jayavarman I regained control of Dhara, but
soon lost it to an usurper named Ballala. The
Kumarapala defeated Ballala around 1150 CE, supported by his
feudatories the Naddula Chahamana ruler Alhana and the Abu Paramara
Malwa then became a province of the Chaulukyas. A
minor branch of the Paramaras, who styled themselves as Mahakumaras,
ruled the area around
Bhopal during this time. Nearly two decades
later, Jayavarman's son
Vindhyavarman defeated the
Mularaja II, and re-established the Paramara sovereignty in Malwa.
During his reign,
Malwa faced repeated invasions from the Hoysalas and
the Yadavas of Devagiri. He was also defeated by the Chaulukya
general Kumara. Despite these setbacks, he was able to restore the
Paramara power in
Malwa before his death.
Subhatavarman invaded Gujarat, and plundered the
Chaulukya territories. But he was ultimately forced to retreat by the
Chaulukya feudatory Lavana-Prasada. His son
Arjunavarman I also
invaded Gujarat, and defeated Jayanta-simha (or Jaya-simha), who had
Chaulukya throne for a brief period. He was defeated
by Yadava general Kholeshvara in Lata.
Arjunavarman was succeeded by Devapala, who was the son of
Harishchandra, a Mahakumara (chief of a Paramara branch). He
continued to face struggles against the Chaulukyas and the Yadavas.
The Sultan of Delhi
Bhilsa during 1233-34 CE, but
Devapala defeated the Sultanate's governor and regained control of
Bhilsa. According to the Hammira Mahakavya, he was killed by
Vagabhata of Ranthambhor, who suspected him of plotting his murder in
connivance with the Delhi Sultan.
During the reign of Devapala's son Jaitugideva, the power of the
Paramaras greatly declined because of invasions from the Yadava king
Krishna, the Delhi Sultan Balban, and the Vaghela prince
Visala-deva. Devapala's younger son Jayavarman II also faced
attacks from these three powers. Either Jaitugi or Jayavarman II moved
the Paramara capital from Dhara to the hilly Mandapa-Durga
(present-day Mandu), which offered a better defensive position.
Arjunavarman II, the successor of Jayavarman II, proved to be a weak
ruler. He faced rebellion from his minister. In the 1270s, the
Yadava ruler Ramachandra invaded Malwa, and in the 1280s, the
Ranthambhor Chahamana ruler Hammira also raided Malwa. Arjuna's
Bhoja II also faced an invasion from Hammira.
Bhoja II was
either a titular ruler controlled by his minister, or his minister had
usurped a part of the Paramara kingdom.
Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by
the army of
Alauddin Khalji in 1305 CE.
Banswara or Banswada
Dharampuri or Dharampuri
Gaowdi or Gaonri
Harsud or arsauda
Harsol or Harsola
Kheda or Kaira
Kalwan or Kalvan
Jivapur Mahodia or Mahaudi
Pipliya Nagar or Piplianagar
Rahatgarh or Rahatgadh
Shergarh or Shergadh
Tilakvada or Tilakwada
Find spots of the inscriptions from the reigns of Paramara monarchs of
The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary
sources are as follows. The rulers are sons of their predecessors,
unless otherwise specified.
Paramara, mythical ancestor mentioned in the
Upendra, 9th century
Vairisimha (I), 9th century; considered fictional by some historians
Siyaka (I), 9th century; considered fictional by some historians
Vakpati (I), 9th-10th century; called Vappairaja or Bappiraja in
Harsola copper plates
Vairisimha (II), 10th century
Siyaka (II) alias Harsha, 948-972
Vakpati (II) alias Munja, 972-990s; Siyaka's elder son
Sindhuraja, 990s-1010; Siyaka's younger son
Jayasimha (I), 1055-1070
Udayaditya, 1070-1086; Bhoja's brother
Lakshma-deva, 1086-1094; Udayaditya's elder son
Naravarman, 1094-1130; Udayaditya's younger son
Jayavarman (I), 1142-1143
Interregnum, 1144-1174: An usurper named Ballala captured power in
Malwa. He was defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat. The Paramara
kingdom remained under
Chaulukya suzerainty during this period.
Arjunavarman I, 1210-1215
Devapala, 1218-1239; Son of Mahakumara Harishchandra
Jaitugideva, 1239-1255; Devapala's elder son
Jayavarman II, 1255-1274; Devapala's younger son
Arjunavarman II, 13th century
Bhoja II, 13th century
Mahlakadeva, died 1305
An inscription from Udaipur indicates that the Paramara dynasty
survived until 1310, at least in the north-eastern part of Malwa. A
later inscription shows that the area had been captured by the Delhi
Sultanate by 1338.
Branches and claimed descendants
Map showing the find-spots of the inscriptions of the imperial
Paramaras and their various branches
Besides the Paramara sovereigns of Malwa, several branches of the
dynasties ruled as feudatories at various places. These include:
Bhinmal (also known as the Paramaras of Kiradu)
Branched off from the Paramaras of
Chandravati (also known as Paramaras of Abu)
Became feudatories of the Chaulukyas of
Gujarat by the 12th
Paramaras of Vagada
Arthuna as feudatories of the Paramaras of
Paramaras of Jalor
Supplanted by the Chahamanas of Jalor
The rulers of several princely states claimed connection with the
Paramaras. These include:
Baghal State: It is said to have been founded by Ajab Dev Parmar, who
came to present-day
Himachal Pradesh from
Ujjain in the 14th
Danta State: Its rulers claimed membership of the Parmar clan and
descent from the legendary king
Vikramaditya of Ujjain
Dewas State (Senior and Junior): The
Maratha Puar rulers of these
states claimed descent from the Paramara dynasty.
Dhar State: Its founder Anand Rao Puar, who claimed Paramara descent,
received a fief from
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I in the 18th century.
Gangpur State: Its rulers claimed Paramara ancestry. According to
David Henige, this claim is doubtful.
Muli State: Its rulers claimed Paramara descent, and are said to have
started out as feudatories of the Vaghelas.
The Gandhawaria Rajputs of Mithila and the Ujjainiyas of Bhojpur also
claim descent from the Paramara dynasty.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paramaras of Malwa.
Rajput dynasties and states
List of rulers of Malwa
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Sheldon Pollock 2003, p. 179.
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^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 115-122.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, pp. 362-363.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, pp. 363-364.
^ R. C. Majumdar 1977, p. 328.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 162.
^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 137.
^ Sailendra Nath Sen 1999, p. 322.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 370.
^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 148.
^ a b Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 371.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, pp. 188.
^ Sircar 1966, pp. 187-188.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 372.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 373.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 203.
^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1977, p. 445.
^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 158.
Dasharatha Sharma 1975, p. 124.
^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 160.
^ Sailendra Nath Sen 1999, p. 25.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, pp. v-vi.
Georg Bühler 1892, p. 222.
^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 327-375.
^ Peter Jackson 2003, p. 199.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 321.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 244.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 280.
^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 333.
^ Poonam Minhas 1998, p. 49.
^ Tony McClenaghan 1996, p. 115.
^ John Middleton 2015, p. 236.
^ Tony McClenaghan 1996, p. 122.
^ David P. Henige 2004, p. 66.
^ Virbhadra Singhji 1994, p. 44.
^ "The Journal of the Bihar Purāvid Parishad".
^ Ahmad, Imtiaz (2008). "State Formation and Consolidation under the
Ujjainiya Rajputs in Medieval Bihar: Testimony of Oral Traditions as
Recorded in the Tawarikh-i-Ujjainiya". In Singh, Surinder; Gaur, I. D.
Popular Literature And Pre-Modern Societies In South Asia. Pearson
Education India. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-81-317-1358-7.
Retrieved 2 January 2012.
Outline of South Asian history
Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)
Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)
Chalcolithic (3500–1500 BC)
Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)
Indus Valley Civilisation
– Early Harappan Culture
– Mature Harappan Culture
– Late Harappan Culture
– Ochre Coloured Pottery culture
– Swat culture
Iron Age (1500–200 BC)
– Black and Red ware culture
– Painted Grey Ware culture
– Northern Black Polished Ware
Three Crowned Kingdoms
(c. 600 BC–AD 1600)
(c. 600–300 BC)
(450 BC–AD 489)
(c. 300 BC–AD 1345)
(c. 300 BC-AD 1102)
(c. 300 BC–AD 1279)
(c. 250 BC–AD 800)
(c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)
(247 BC– AD 224)
Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)
(230 BC–AD 220)
(200 BC–AD 300)
(c. 150 –c. 50 BC)
(180 BC–AD 10)
(50 BC–AD 400)
(AD 21–c. 130)
Western Satrap Empire
(AD 35–405 )
Nagas of Padmavati
(c. 250–c. 500)
(c. 250–c. 600)
Western Ganga Kingdom
Kabul Shahi Empire
(c. 550–c. 700)
Eastern Chalukya Kingdom
Western Chalukya Empire
Eastern Ganga Empire
Kalachuris of Tripuri
Kalachuris of Kalyani
(c. 1200–c. 1300)
Late medieval period (1206–1526)
– Mamluk Sultanate
– Khalji Sultanate
– Tughlaq Sultanate
– Sayyid Sultanate
– Lodi Sultanate
– Ahmadnagar Sultanate
– Berar Sultanate
– Bidar Sultanate
– Bijapur Sultanate
– Golkonda Sultanate
Early modern period
Early modern period (1526–1858)
Colonial states (1510–1961)
Periods of Sri Lanka
(Until 543 BC)
Early kingdoms period
(543 BC–377 BC)
(377 BC–AD 1017)
Crisis of the Sixteenth Century
Contemporary Sri Lanka
Influence on Southeast Asia
Partition of India
Science & Technology
Alf Hiltebeitel (2009). Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics.
University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226340555.
Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1956). Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Bharatiya Vidya
Bhavan. OCLC 4413150.
Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1977). Concise History of Ancient India:
Political history. Munshiram Manoharlal. OCLC 5311157.
Anthony Kennedy Warder (1992). "XLVI: The
Vikramaditya Legend". Indian
Kāvya Literature: The art of storytelling. Motilal Banarsidass.
Cynthia Talbot (2015). The Last Hindu Emperor: Prithviraj Cauhan and
the Indian Past, 1200–2000. Cambridge University Press.
Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān Dynasties: A Study of
Chauhān Political History, Chauhān Political Institutions, and Life
in the Chauhān Dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass.
David P. Henige (2004). Princely States of India: A Guide to
Chronology and Rulers. Orchid. ISBN 978-974-524-049-0.
Ganga Prasad Yadava (1982). Dhanapāla and His Times: A Socio-cultural
Study Based Upon His Works. Concept.
Georg Bühler (1892). "The Udepur Prasasti of the Kings of Malva".
Epigraphia Indica. 1. Archaeological Survey of India.
Harihar Vitthal Trivedi (1991). Inscriptions of the Paramāras,
Chandēllas, Kachchapaghātas, and two minor dynasties. Archaeological
Survey of India.
John Middleton (2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge.
Kailash Chand Jain (1972).
Malwa Through the Ages, from the Earliest
Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
Kirit Mankodi (1987). "Scholar-Emperor and a Funerary Temple: Eleventh
Century Bhojpur". Marg. National Centre for the Performing Arts. 39
Krishna Narain Seth (1978). The Growth of the Paramara Power in Malwa.
Progress. OCLC 8931757.
M. Srinivasachariar (1974). History of Classical
Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120802841.
Mahesh Singh (1984).
Bhoja Paramāra and His Times. Bharatiya Vidya
Prakashan. OCLC 11786897.
Poonam Minhas (1998). Traditional Trade & Trading Centres in
Himachal Pradesh: With Trade-routes and Trading Communities. Indus
Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7387-080-4.
Prabhakar Narayan Kawthekar (1995). Bilhana. Sahitya Akademi.
Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military
History. Cambridge University Press.
Pratipal Bhatia (1970). The Paramāras, c. 800-1305 A.D. Munshiram
Manoharlal. OCLC 199886.
R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore.
R. C. Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass.
Saikat K. Bose (2015). Boot, Hooves and Wheels: And the Social
Dynamics behind South Asian Warfare. Vij.
Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization.
New Age International. ISBN 9788122411980.
Sheldon Pollock (2003). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men:
Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. University of
California Press. ISBN 0-5202-4500-8.
Tony McClenaghan (1996). Indian Princely Medals. Lancer.
Virbhadra Singhji (1994). The Rajputs of Saurashtra. Popular
Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-546-9.
Paramaras of Malwa
Upendra (9th century)
Vairisimha I (9th century, possibly fictional)
Siyaka I (9th century, possibly fictional)
Vakpati I (9th-10th century)
Vairisimha (10th century)
Siyaka (c. 948-972)
Munja alias Vakpati II (c. 972-990s)
Sindhuraja (c. 990s-1010)
Bhoja (c. 1010-1055)
Jayasimha I (c. 1055-1070)
Udayaditya (c. 1070-1086)
Lakshmadeva (c. 1086-1094)
Naravarman (c. 1094-1130)
Yashovarman (c. 1133-1142)
Jayavarman I (c. 1142-1143)
Interregnum (c. 1144-1174)
Vindhyavarman (c. 1175-1194)
Subhatavarman (c. 1194-1209)
Arjunavarman I (c. 1210-1215)
Devapala (c. 1218-1239)
Jaitugideva (c. 1239-1255)
Jayavarman II (c. 1255-1274)
Arjunavarman II (13th century)
Bhoja II (13th century)