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The Paramara dynasty
Paramara dynasty
(IAST: Paramāra) were an Indian dynasty that ruled Malwa
Malwa
and surrounding areas in west-central India
India
between 9th and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them among the Agnivanshi Rajput
Rajput
dynasties. The Paramara dynasty
Paramara dynasty
was established in either 9th or 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat
Gujarat
and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka
Siyaka
sacked the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital Manyakheta, and established the Paramaras as a sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa
Malwa
region in present-day Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
had become the core Paramara territory, with Dhara (now Dhar) as their capital. The dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan
Konkan
in the south, and from the Sabarmati River
Sabarmati River
in the west to Vidisha
Vidisha
in the east. The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of their struggles with the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri
Kalachuris of Tripuri
and other neighbouring kingdoms. The later Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga (now Mandu) after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies. Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years after his death. Malwa
Malwa
enjoyed a great level of political and cultural prestige under the Paramaras. The Paramaras were well known for their patronage to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
poets and scholars, and Bhoja
Bhoja
was himself a renowned scholar. Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several Shiva temples, although they also patronized Jain scholars.

Contents

1 Origin

1.1 Ancestry 1.2 Original homeland

2 Early rulers 3 The imperial Paramaras 4 Decline 5 Rulers 6 Branches and claimed descendants 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Bibliography

Origin[edit] Ancestry[edit]

Harsola copper plates

The Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates
(949 CE) issued by the Paramara king Siyaka II establish that the early Paramara rulers were the feudatories of the Rashtrakutas
Rashtrakutas
of Manyakheta. This inscription mentions a king called Akalavarsha (identified with the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruler Krishna III), followed by the expression tasmin kule ("in that family"), and then followed by the name "Vappairaja" (identified with the Paramara king Vakpati I).[1] Based on the Harsola inscription, some historians such as D. C. Ganguly theorized that the Paramaras were descended from the Rashtrakutas. Ganguly also tried to find support for his theory in Ain-i-Akbari, whose variation of the Agnikula myth (see below) states that the founder of the Paramara kingdom came to Malwa
Malwa
from Deccan.[2] Moreover, Siyaka's successor Munja (Vakpati II) assumed titles such as Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha: these are distinctively Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
titles.[3] Several historians have been critical of this theory. Dasharatha Sharma notes that the Agnikula myth about the Paramara origin had come into being by the time of Siyaka's son Sindhuraja. Sharma argues that the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
royal origin of the Paramaras could not have been forgotten within a generation.[3] K. C. Jain theorizes that Vappairaja's mother was related to the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
family, because the other Paramara records do not boast of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
royals as their ancestors.[2] Siyaka
Siyaka
and other Paramara kings before Munja did not adopt any Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
titles: Munja may have adopted these titles to commemorate his predecessor's victory over the Rashtrakutas, and to strengthen his claim over the former Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
territories.[4][2] The later Paramara kings claimed to be members of the Agnikula or Agnivansha ("fire clan"). The Agnikula myth of origin, which appears in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this: The sage Vishvamitra
Vishvamitra
forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another sage Vashistha
Vashistha
on the Arbuda mountain (Mount Abu). Vashistha
Vashistha
then conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit (agni-kunda), who defeated Vashistha's enemies and brought back the cow. Vashistha
Vashistha
then gave the hero the title Paramara ("enemy killer").[5] The earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, who was a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja (ca. 997-1010).[6] The legend is not mentioned in earlier Paramara-era inscriptions or literary works. By this time, all the neighbouring dynasties claimed divine or heroic origin, which might have motivated the Paramaras to invent a legend of their own.[7] In the later period, the Paramaras were categorized as one of the Rajput
Rajput
clans, although the Rajput
Rajput
identity did not exist during their time.[8] A legend mentioned in a recension of Prithviraj Raso
Prithviraj Raso
extended their Agnikula legend to describe other dynasties as fire-born Rajputs. The earliest extant copies of Prithviraj Raso
Prithviraj Raso
do not contain this legend; this version might have been invented by the 16th century poets who wanted to foster Rajput
Rajput
unity against the Mughal emperor Akbar.[9] Some colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest a foreign origin for the Paramaras. According to this theory, the ancestors of the Paramaras and other Agnivanshi Rajputs came to India
India
after the decline of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
around the 5th century CE. They were admitted in the Hindu caste system
Hindu caste system
after performing a fire ritual.[10] However, this theory is weakened by the fact that the legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramara records, and even the earliest Paramara-era account does not mention the other dynasties as Agnivanshi.[11] Some historians, such as Dasharatha Sharma and Pratipal Bhatia, have argued that the Paramaras were originally Brahmins from the Vashistha gotra.[2] This theory is based on the fact that Halayudha, who was patronized by Munja, describes the king as "Brahma-Kshtra" in Pingala-Sutra-Vritti. According to Bhatia this expression means that Munja came from a family of Brahmins who became Kshatriyas.[12] In addition, the Patanarayana temple inscription states that the Paramaras were of Vashistha
Vashistha
gotra, which is a gotra among Brahmins claiming descent from the sage Vashistha.[13] D. C. Sircar theorized that the dynasty descended from the Malavas. However, there is no evidence of the early Paramara rulers being called Malava; the Paramaras began to be called Malavas
Malavas
only after they began ruling the Malwa
Malwa
region.[2]

A Chaulukya-Paramara coin, circa 950-1050 CE. Stylized rendition of Chavda dynasty
Chavda dynasty
coins: Indo-Sassanian
Indo-Sassanian
style bust right; pellets and ornaments around / Stylised fire altar; pellets around.[14]

Coin of the Paramara king Naravarman, circa 1094-1133. Goddess Lakshmi seated facing / Devanagari legend.[15]

Coin of the Paramara prince Jagadeva, 12th-13th centuries CE.

Original homeland[edit]

Harsol

Kheda

Places in Gujarat
Gujarat
where the earliest Paramara inscriptions (of Siyaka II) have been discovered

Based on the Agnikula legend, some scholars such as C. V. Vaidya and V. A. Smith speculated that Mount Abu
Mount Abu
was the original home of the Paramaras. Based on the Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates
and Ain-i-Akbari, D. C. Ganguly believed they came from the Deccan region.[16] The earliest of the Paramara inscriptions (that of Siyaka
Siyaka
II) have all been discovered in Gujarat, and concern land grants in that region. Based on this, D. B. Diskalkar and H. V. Trivedi theorized that the Paramaras were associated with Gujarat
Gujarat
during their early days.[17] Early rulers[edit] Historical evidence suggests that between 808-812 CE, the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta
Manyakheta
expelled the Gurjara- Pratiharas
Pratiharas
from the Malwa
Malwa
region. The Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
king Govinda III
Govinda III
placed Malwa
Malwa
under the protection of Karka-raja, the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
chief of Lata (a region bordering Malwa, in present-day Gujarat). Malwa
Malwa
was subsequently ruled by a vassal of the Rashtrakutas. This vassal could have been a member of the Paramara dynasty, but there is no definitive proof of this. The start of the Paramara rule in Malwa
Malwa
cannot be dated with certainty, but it is incontestable that they did not rule the Malwa
Malwa
before the 9th century CE.[18] Siyaka
Siyaka
is the earliest known Paramara king attested by his own inscriptions. His Harsola copper plate inscription (949 CE) is the earliest available Paramara inscription: it suggests that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas.[1] The list of his predecessors varies between accounts:[19][1]

List of early Paramara rulers according to different sources

Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates
(949 CE) Nava-Sahasanka-Charita (early 11th century) Udaipur Prashasti inscription (11th century) Nagpur
Nagpur
Prashasti inscription (1104 CE) Other land grants

Paramara Paramara Paramara Paramara

Upendra Upendra

Krishna

"Other kings" Vairisimha (I)

Siyaka
Siyaka
(I)

Vappairaja Vakpati (I) Vakpati (I)

Vairisimha Vairisimha Vairisimha (II) Vairisimha Vairisimha

Siyaka Siyaka
Siyaka
alias Harsha Harsha Siyaka Siyaka

Paramara is the dynasty's mythical progenitor, according to the Agnikula legend. Whether the other early kings mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti are historical or fictional is a topic of debate among historians.[20] According to C. V. Vaidya and K. A. Nilakantha Sastri, the Paramara dynasty was founded only in the 10th century CE. Vaidya believes that the kings such as Vairisimha I and Siyaka
Siyaka
I are imaginary, duplicated from the names of later historical kings in order to push back the dynasty's age.[20] The 1274 CE Mandhata copper-plate inscription of Jayavarman II similarly names eight successors of Paramara as Kamandaludhara, Dhumraja, Devasimhapala, Kanakasimha, Shriharsha, Jagaddeva, Sthirakaya and Voshari: these do not appear to be historical figures.[21] HV Trivedi states that there is a possibility that Vairisimha I and Siyaka
Siyaka
I of the Udaipur Prashasti are same as Vairisimha II and Siyaka
Siyaka
II; the names might have been repeated by mistake. Alternatively, he theorizes that these names have been omitted in other inscriptions because these rulers were not independent sovereigns.[1] Several other historians believe that the early Paramara rulers mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti are not fictional, and the Paramaras started ruling Malwa
Malwa
in the 9th century (as Rashtrakuta vassals). K. N. Seth argues that even some of the later Paramara inscriptions mention only 3-4 predecessors of the king who issued the inscription. Therefore, the absence of certain names from the genealogy provided in the early inscriptions does not mean that these were imaginary rulers. According to him, the mention of Upendra in Nava-Sahasanka-Charitra (composed by the court poet of the later king Sindhuraja) proves that Upendra is not a fictional king.[22] Historians such as Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
and James Burgess identify Upendra and Krishnaraja as one person, because these are synonyms (Upendra being another name of Krishna). However, an inscription of Siyaka's successor Munja names the preceding kings as Krishnaraja, Vairisimha, and Siyaka. Based on this, Seth however identifies Krishnaraja with Vappairaja or Vakpati I mentioned in the Harsola plates (Vappairaja appears to be the Prakrit
Prakrit
form of Vakpati-raja). In his support, Seth points out that Vairisimha has been called Krishna-padanudhyata in the inscription of Munja i.e. Vakpati II. He theorizes that Vakpati II used the name "Krishnaraja" instead of Vakpati I to identify his ancestor, in order to avoid confusion with his own name.[22] The imperial Paramaras[edit]

The Bhojeshwar Temple, Bhojpur

Detail of the masonry of the northern dam at Bhojpur

The first independent sovereign of the Paramara dynasty
Paramara dynasty
was Siyaka (sometimes called Siyaka
Siyaka
II to distinguish him from the earlier Siyaka mentioned in the Udaipur Prashasti). The Harsola copper plates
Harsola copper plates
(949 CE) suggest that Siyaka
Siyaka
was a feudatory of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
ruler Krishna III
Krishna III
in his early days. However, the same inscription also mentions the high-sounding Maharajadhirajapati as one of Siyaka's titles. Based on this, K. N. Seth believes that Siyaka's acceptance of the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
lordship was nominal.[23] As a Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
feudatory, Siyaka
Siyaka
participated in their campaigns against the Pratiharas. He also defeated some Huna chiefs ruling to the north of Malwa.[24] He might have suffered setbacks against the Chandela
Chandela
king Yashovarman.[25] After the death of Krishna III, Siyaka defeated his successor Khottiga in a battle fought on the banks of the Narmada River. He then pursued Khottiga's retreating army to the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
capital Manyakheta, and sacked that city in 972 CE. His victory ultimately led to the decline of the Rashtrakutas, and the establishment of the Paramaras as an independent sovereign power in Malwa.[26] Siyaka's successor Munja achieved military successes against the Chahamanas of Shakambari, the Chahamanas of Naddula, the Guhilas of Mewar, the Hunas, the Kalachuris of Tripuri, and the ruler of Gurjara region (possibly a Gujarat
Gujarat
Chaulukya
Chaulukya
or Pratihara
Pratihara
ruler).[27] He also achieved some early successes against the Western Chalukya
Western Chalukya
king Tailapa II, but was ultimately defeated and killed by Tailapa some time between 994 CE and 998 CE.[28][29] As a result of this defeat, the Paramaras lost their southern territories (possibly the ones beyond the Narmada river) to the Chalukyas.[30] Munja was reputed as a patron of scholars, and his rule attracted scholars from different parts of India
India
to Malwa.[31] He was also a poet himself, although only a few stanzas composed by him now survive.[32] Munja's brother Sindhuraja (ruled c. 990s CE) defeated the Western Chalukya king Satyashraya, and recovered the territories lost to Tailapa II.[33] He also achieved military successes against a Huna chief, the Somavanshi of south Kosala, the Shilaharas of Konkana, and the ruler of Lata (southern Gujarat).[33] His court poet Padmagupta wrote his biography Nava-Sahasanka-Charita, which credits him with several other victories, although these appear to be poetic exaggerations.[34] Sindhuraja's son Bhoja
Bhoja
is the most celebrated ruler of the Paramara dynasty. He made several attempts to expand the Paramara kingdom varying results. Around 1018 CE, he defeated the Chalukyas of Lata
Chalukyas of Lata
in present-day Gujarat.[35] Between 1018 CE and 1020 CE, he gained control of the northern Konkan, whose Shilahara
Shilahara
rulers probably served as his feudatories for a brief period.[36][37] Bhoja
Bhoja
also formed an alliance against the Kalyani Chalukya king Jayasimha II, with Rajendra Chola and Gangeya-deva Kalachuri. The extent of Bhoja's success in this campaign is not certain, as both Chalukya and Paramara panegyrics claimed victory.[38] During the last years of Bhoja's reign, sometime after 1042 CE, Jayasimha's son and successor Someshvara I
Someshvara I
invaded Malwa, and sacked his capital Dhara.[33] Bhoja
Bhoja
re-established his control over Malwa
Malwa
soon after the departure of the Chalukya army, but the defeat pushed back the southern boundary of his kingdom from Godavari to Narmada.[39][40] Bhoja's attempt to expand his kingdom eastwards was foiled by the Chandela
Chandela
king Vidyadhara.[41] However, Bhoja
Bhoja
was able to extend his influence among the Chandela
Chandela
feudatories, the Kachchhapaghatas of Dubkund.[42] Bhoja
Bhoja
also launched a campaign against the Kachchhapaghatas of Gwalior, possibly with the ultimate goal of capturing Kannauj, but his attacks were repulsed by their ruler Kirtiraja.[43] Bhoja
Bhoja
also defeated the Chahamanas of Shakambhari, killing their ruler Viryarama. However, he was forced to retreat by the Chahamanas of Naddula.[44] According to medieval Muslim historians, after sacking Somnath, Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
changed his route to avoid confrontation with a Hindu king named Param Dev. Modern historians identify Param Dev as Bhoja: the name may be a corruption of Paramara-Deva or of Bhoja's title Parameshvara-Paramabhattaraka.[45][46] Bhoja
Bhoja
may have also contributed troops to support the Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
ruler Anandapala's fight against the Ghaznavids.[47] He may have also been a part of the Hindu alliance that expelled Mahmud's governors from Hansi, Thanesar
Thanesar
and other areas around 1043 CE.[48][33] During the last year of Bhoja's reign, or shortly after his death, the Chaulukya
Chaulukya
king Bhima I
Bhima I
and the Kalachuri king Karna attacked his kingdom. According to the 14th century author Merutunga, Bhoja
Bhoja
died of a disease at the same time the allied army attacked his kingdom.[49][50] At its zenith, Bhoja's kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan
Konkan
in the south, and from the Sabarmati River
Sabarmati River
in the west to Vidisha
Vidisha
in the east.[51] He was recognized as a capable military leader, but his territorial conquests were short-lived. His major claim to fame was his reputation as a scholar-king, who patronized arts, literature and sciences. Noted poets and writers of his time sought his sponsorship.[52] Bhoja
Bhoja
was himself a polymath, whose writings cover a wide variety of topics include grammar, poetry, architecture, yoga, and chemistry. Bhoja
Bhoja
established the Bhoj Shala which was a centre for Sanskrit
Sanskrit
studies and a temple of Sarasvati
Sarasvati
in present-day Dhar. He is said to have founded the city of Bhojpur, a belief supported by historical evidence. Besides the Bhojeshwar Temple there, the construction of three now-breached dams in that area is attributed to him.[53] Because of his patronage to literary figures, several legends written after his death featured him as a righteous scholar-king.[54] In terms of the number of legends centered around him, Bhoja
Bhoja
is comparable to the fabled Vikramaditya.[55] Decline[edit]

Pillar in the Bijamaṇḍal, Vidisha
Vidisha
with an inscription of Naravarman

Fragments of the Dhar
Dhar
iron pillar attributed to the Paramaras

Bhoja's successor Jayasimha I, who was probably his son,[56] faced the joint Kalachuri- Chaulukya
Chaulukya
invasion immediately after Bhoja's death.[57] Bilhana's writings suggest that he sought help from the Chalukyas of Kalyani.[58] Jayasimha's successor and Bhoja's brother Udayaditya
Udayaditya
was defeated by Chamundaraja, his vassal at Vagada. He faced an invasion from the Chaulukya
Chaulukya
ruler Karna. In response, he and his allies defeated Karna. Udayaditya's eldest son Lakshmadeva has been credited with extensive military conquests in the Nagpur Prashasti inscription of 1104-05 CE. However, these appear to be poetic exaggerations. At best, he might have defeated the Kalachuris of Tripuri.[59] Udayaditya's younger son Naravarman
Naravarman
faced several defeats, losing to the Chandelas of Jejakabhukti
Chandelas of Jejakabhukti
and the Chaulukya king Jayasimha Siddharaja. By the end of his reign, one Vijayapala had carved out an independent kingdom to the north-east of Ujjain.[60] Yashovarman lost control of the Paramara capital Dhara to Jayasimha Siddharaja. His successor Jayavarman I regained control of Dhara, but soon lost it to an usurper named Ballala.[61] The Chaulukya
Chaulukya
king Kumarapala defeated Ballala around 1150 CE, supported by his feudatories the Naddula Chahamana ruler Alhana and the Abu Paramara chief Yashodhavala. Malwa
Malwa
then became a province of the Chaulukyas. A minor branch of the Paramaras, who styled themselves as Mahakumaras, ruled the area around Bhopal
Bhopal
during this time.[62] Nearly two decades later, Jayavarman's son Vindhyavarman defeated the Chaulukya
Chaulukya
king Mularaja II, and re-established the Paramara sovereignty in Malwa.[63] During his reign, Malwa
Malwa
faced repeated invasions from the Hoysalas and the Yadavas of Devagiri.[64] He was also defeated by the Chaulukya general Kumara.[65] Despite these setbacks, he was able to restore the Paramara power in Malwa
Malwa
before his death.[66] Vindhyavarman's son Subhatavarman invaded Gujarat, and plundered the Chaulukya
Chaulukya
territories. But he was ultimately forced to retreat by the Chaulukya
Chaulukya
feudatory Lavana-Prasada.[67] His son Arjunavarman I
Arjunavarman I
also invaded Gujarat, and defeated Jayanta-simha (or Jaya-simha), who had usurped the Chaulukya
Chaulukya
throne for a brief period.[68] He was defeated by Yadava general Kholeshvara in Lata.[69] Arjunavarman was succeeded by Devapala, who was the son of Harishchandra, a Mahakumara (chief of a Paramara branch).[69] He continued to face struggles against the Chaulukyas and the Yadavas. The Sultan of Delhi Iltutmish
Iltutmish
captured Bhilsa
Bhilsa
during 1233-34 CE, but Devapala defeated the Sultanate's governor and regained control of Bhilsa.[70][71] According to the Hammira Mahakavya, he was killed by Vagabhata of Ranthambhor, who suspected him of plotting his murder in connivance with the Delhi Sultan.[72] During the reign of Devapala's son Jaitugideva, the power of the Paramaras greatly declined because of invasions from the Yadava king Krishna, the Delhi Sultan Balban, and the Vaghela prince Visala-deva.[73] Devapala's younger son Jayavarman II also faced attacks from these three powers. Either Jaitugi or Jayavarman II moved the Paramara capital from Dhara to the hilly Mandapa-Durga (present-day Mandu), which offered a better defensive position.[74] Arjunavarman II, the successor of Jayavarman II, proved to be a weak ruler. He faced rebellion from his minister.[75] In the 1270s, the Yadava ruler Ramachandra invaded Malwa,[76] and in the 1280s, the Ranthambhor Chahamana ruler Hammira also raided Malwa.[77] Arjuna's successor Bhoja
Bhoja
II also faced an invasion from Hammira. Bhoja
Bhoja
II was either a titular ruler controlled by his minister, or his minister had usurped a part of the Paramara kingdom.[78] Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the army of Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
in 1305 CE.[79] Rulers[edit]

Atru

Banswara or Banswada

Betma

Bhojpur

Depalpur

Dewas

Dhar

Dharampuri or Dharampuri

Gaowdi or Gaonri

Gyaraspur

Harsud or arsauda

Harsol or Harsola

Jhalrapatan

Kheda
Kheda
or Kaira

Kalwan or Kalvan

Kamed

Jivapur Mahodia or Mahaudi

Mandhata

Modasa

Modi

Pathari

Pipliya Nagar or Piplianagar

Rahatgarh or Rahatgadh

Sehore

Shergarh or Shergadh

Tilakvada or Tilakwada

Udaipur

Ujjain

Un

Vidisha

Find spots of the inscriptions from the reigns of Paramara monarchs of Malwa[80]

The Paramara rulers mentioned in the various inscriptions and literary sources are as follows. The rulers are sons of their predecessors, unless otherwise specified.[81][82]

Paramara, mythical ancestor mentioned in the Agnikula legend Upendra, 9th century Vairisimha (I), 9th century; considered fictional by some historians Siyaka
Siyaka
(I), 9th century; considered fictional by some historians Vakpati (I), 9th-10th century; called Vappairaja or Bappiraja in Harsola copper plates Vairisimha (II), 10th century Siyaka
Siyaka
(II) alias Harsha, 948-972 Vakpati (II) alias Munja, 972-990s; Siyaka's elder son Sindhuraja, 990s-1010; Siyaka's younger son Bhoja, 1010-1055 Jayasimha (I), 1055-1070 Udayaditya, 1070-1086; Bhoja's brother Lakshma-deva, 1086-1094; Udayaditya's elder son Naravarman, 1094-1130; Udayaditya's younger son Yashovarman, 1133-1142 Jayavarman (I), 1142-1143 Interregnum, 1144-1174: An usurper named Ballala captured power in Malwa. He was defeated by the Chaulukyas of Gujarat. The Paramara kingdom remained under Chaulukya
Chaulukya
suzerainty during this period. Vindhyavarman, 1175-1194 Subhatavarman, 1194-1209 Arjunavarman I, 1210-1215 Devapala, 1218-1239; Son of Mahakumara Harishchandra Jaitugideva, 1239-1255; Devapala's elder son Jayavarman II, 1255-1274; Devapala's younger son Arjunavarman II, 13th century Bhoja
Bhoja
II, 13th century Mahlakadeva, died 1305

An inscription from Udaipur indicates that the Paramara dynasty survived until 1310, at least in the north-eastern part of Malwa. A later inscription shows that the area had been captured by the Delhi Sultanate by 1338.[83] Branches and claimed descendants[edit]

Map showing the find-spots of the inscriptions of the imperial Paramaras and their various branches

Besides the Paramara sovereigns of Malwa, several branches of the dynasties ruled as feudatories at various places. These include:

Paramaras of Bhinmal
Bhinmal
(also known as the Paramaras of Kiradu)

Branched off from the Paramaras of Chandravati
Chandravati
[84]

Paramaras of Chandravati
Chandravati
(also known as Paramaras of Abu)

Became feudatories of the Chaulukyas of Gujarat
Gujarat
by the 12th century[85]

Paramaras of Vagada

Ruled at Arthuna
Arthuna
as feudatories of the Paramaras of Malwa
Malwa
[86]

Paramaras of Jalor

Supplanted by the Chahamanas of Jalor[87]

The rulers of several princely states claimed connection with the Paramaras. These include:

Baghal State: It is said to have been founded by Ajab Dev Parmar, who came to present-day Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
from Ujjain
Ujjain
in the 14th century.[88] Danta State: Its rulers claimed membership of the Parmar clan and descent from the legendary king Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
of Ujjain[89] Dewas State
Dewas State
(Senior and Junior): The Maratha
Maratha
Puar rulers of these states claimed descent from the Paramara dynasty.[90] Dhar
Dhar
State: Its founder Anand Rao Puar, who claimed Paramara descent, received a fief from Peshwa
Peshwa
Baji Rao I
Baji Rao I
in the 18th century.[91] Gangpur State: Its rulers claimed Paramara ancestry. According to David Henige, this claim is doubtful.[92] Muli State: Its rulers claimed Paramara descent, and are said to have started out as feudatories of the Vaghelas.[93] Narsinghgarh State

The Gandhawaria Rajputs of Mithila and the Ujjainiyas of Bhojpur also claim descent from the Paramara dynasty.[94][95] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Paramaras of Malwa.

List of Rajput
Rajput
dynasties and states List of rulers of Malwa

References[edit]

^ a b c d Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 4. ^ a b c d e Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 327. ^ a b Ganga Prasad Yadava 1982, p. 36. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 87. ^ Ganga Prasad Yadava 1982, p. 32. ^ Alf Hiltebeitel 2009, p. 444. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 10-13. ^ Cynthia Talbot 2015, pp. 33-35. ^ R. B. Singh 1964, pp. 17-18. ^ Ganga Prasad Yadava 1982, p. 35. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 16. ^ Ganga Prasad Yadava 1982, p. 37. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 29. ^ [1] ^ CNG Coins ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 30. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 9. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 44-47. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, pp. 3-4. ^ a b Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 48-49. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 212. ^ a b Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 48-51. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 76-77. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 79. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 334. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 81-84. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 336-338. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 102-104. ^ M. Srinivasachariar 1974, p. 502. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, pp. 339-340. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, pp. 340-341. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 105. ^ a b c d Sailendra Nath Sen 1999, p. 320. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 341. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 137. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 140-141. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, p. 46. ^ Saikat K. Bose 2015, p. 27. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 154. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, p. 56. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, p. 69. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, pp. 172-173. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, pp. 173. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 177. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 163-165. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, pp. 61-62. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 158. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 166. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, p. 182. ^ Mahesh Singh 1984, pp. 66-67. ^ Kirit Mankodi 1987, p. 62. ^ Sheldon Pollock 2003, p. 179. ^ Kirit Mankodi 1987, p. 71. ^ Sheldon Pollock 2003, pp. 179-180. ^ Anthony Kennedy Warder 1992, pp. 176. ^ Anthony Kennedy Warder 1992, pp. 177. ^ Krishna Narain Seth 1978, pp. 182-184. ^ Prabhakar Narayan Kawthekar 1995, p. 72. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 110. ^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 115-122. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, pp. 362-363. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, pp. 363-364. ^ R. C. Majumdar 1977, p. 328. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 162. ^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 137. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen 1999, p. 322. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 370. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1956, p. 148. ^ a b Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 371. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, pp. 188. ^ Sircar 1966, pp. 187-188. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 372. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 373. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 203. ^ Asoke Kumar Majumdar 1977, p. 445. ^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 158. ^ Dasharatha Sharma 1975, p. 124. ^ Pratipal Bhatia 1970, p. 160. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen 1999, p. 25. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, pp. v-vi. ^ Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
1892, p. 222. ^ Kailash Chand Jain 1972, p. 327-375. ^ Peter Jackson 2003, p. 199. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 321. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 244. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 280. ^ Harihar Vitthal Trivedi 1991, p. 333. ^ Poonam Minhas 1998, p. 49. ^ Tony McClenaghan 1996, p. 115. ^ John Middleton 2015, p. 236. ^ Tony McClenaghan 1996, p. 122. ^ David P. Henige 2004, p. 66. ^ Virbhadra Singhji 1994, p. 44. ^ "The Journal of the Bihar Purāvid Parishad".  ^ Ahmad, Imtiaz (2008). "State Formation and Consolidation under the Ujjainiya Rajputs in Medieval Bihar: Testimony of Oral Traditions as Recorded in the Tawarikh-i-Ujjainiya". In Singh, Surinder; Gaur, I. D. Popular Literature And Pre-Modern Societies In South Asia. Pearson Education India. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-81-317-1358-7. Retrieved 2 January 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)

Madrasian Culture

Soanian
Soanian
Culture

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
Culture (7570–6200 BC)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BC)

Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BC)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC)

Malwa
Malwa
Culture (1600–1300 BC)

Jorwe Culture (1400–700 BC)

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

 – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)

 – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

 – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

 – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)

 – Swat culture (1600–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–200 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BC)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

 – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

 – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)

 – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC–AD 1600)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Ror Dynasty (450 BC–AD 489)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BC)

Seleucid India (312–303 BC)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1345)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC-AD 1102)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1279)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC–AD 800)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– AD 224)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)

Satavahana Empire (230 BC–AD 220)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BC–AD 300)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 –c. 50 BC)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BC)

Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BC–AD 10)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BC)

Indo-Scythian Kingdom (50 BC–AD 400)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21–c. 130)

Western Satrap Empire (AD 35–405 )

Kushan Empire (AD 60–240)

Bharshiva Dynasty (170–350)

Nagas of Padmavati (210–340)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Indo-Sassanid Kingdom (230–360)

Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500)

Kalabhras Empire (c. 250–c. 600)

Gupta Empire (280–550)

Kadamba Empire (345–525)

Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000)

Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom (350–1100)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire (420–624)

Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire (475–767)

Huna Kingdom (475–576)

Rai Kingdom (489–632)

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Empire (c. 500–1026)

Chalukya Empire (543–753)

Maukhari
Maukhari
Empire (c. 550–c. 700)

Harsha Empire (606–647)

Tibetan Empire (618–841)

Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075)

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire (650–1036)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Pala Empire (750–1174)

Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
Empire (753–982)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327)

Yadava Empire (850–1334)

Chaulukya
Chaulukya
Kingdom (942–1244)

Western Chalukya
Western Chalukya
Empire (973–1189)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320)

Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire (1040–1346)

Sena Empire (1070–1230)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184)

Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300)

Late medieval period (1206–1526)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)

 – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414)

 – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451)

 – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)

Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596)

 – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636)

 – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574)

 – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619)

 – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686)

 – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947)

Early modern period
Early modern period
(1526–1858)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858)

Sur Empire (1540–1556)

Madurai Kingdom (1559–1736)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918)

Bengal Subah (1576–1757)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948)

Maratha
Maratha
Empire (1674–1818)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799)

Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom (1729–1947)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849)

Colonial states (1510–1961)

Portuguese India (1510–1961)

Dutch India (1605–1825)

Danish India (1620–1869)

French India (1759–1954)

Company Raj (1757–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

Periods of Sri Lanka

Prehistory (Until 543 BC)

Early kingdoms period (543 BC–377 BC)

Anuradhapura period (377 BC–AD 1017)

Polonnaruwa period (1056–1232)

Transitional period (1232–1505)

Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1505–1594)

Kandyan period (1594–1815)

British Ceylon (1815–1948)

Contemporary Sri Lanka (1948–present)

National histories

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Regional histories

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Specialised histories

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v t e

Alf Hiltebeitel (2009). Rethinking India's Oral and Classical Epics. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226340555.  Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1956). Chaulukyas of Gujarat. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC 4413150.  Asoke Kumar Majumdar (1977). Concise History of Ancient India: Political history. Munshiram Manoharlal. OCLC 5311157.  Anthony Kennedy Warder (1992). "XLVI: The Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya
Legend". Indian Kāvya Literature: The art of storytelling. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0615-3.  Cynthia Talbot (2015). The Last Hindu Emperor: Prithviraj Cauhan and the Indian Past, 1200–2000. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107118560.  Dasharatha Sharma (1975). Early Chauhān Dynasties: A Study of Chauhān Political History, Chauhān Political Institutions, and Life in the Chauhān Dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-0-8426-0618-9.  David P. Henige (2004). Princely States of India: A Guide to Chronology and Rulers. Orchid. ISBN 978-974-524-049-0.  Ganga Prasad Yadava (1982). Dhanapāla and His Times: A Socio-cultural Study Based Upon His Works. Concept.  Georg Bühler
Georg Bühler
(1892). "The Udepur Prasasti of the Kings of Malva". Epigraphia Indica. 1. Archaeological Survey of India.  Harihar Vitthal Trivedi (1991). Inscriptions of the Paramāras, Chandēllas, Kachchapaghātas, and two minor dynasties. Archaeological Survey of India.  John Middleton (2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-45158-7.  Kailash Chand Jain (1972). Malwa
Malwa
Through the Ages, from the Earliest Times to 1305 A.D. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN 978-81-208-0824-9.  Kirit Mankodi (1987). "Scholar-Emperor and a Funerary Temple: Eleventh Century Bhojpur". Marg. National Centre for the Performing Arts. 39 (2): 61–72.  Krishna Narain Seth (1978). The Growth of the Paramara Power in Malwa. Progress. OCLC 8931757.  M. Srinivasachariar (1974). History of Classical Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120802841.  Mahesh Singh (1984). Bhoja
Bhoja
Paramāra and His Times. Bharatiya Vidya Prakashan. OCLC 11786897.  Poonam Minhas (1998). Traditional Trade & Trading Centres in Himachal Pradesh: With Trade-routes and Trading Communities. Indus Publishing. ISBN 978-81-7387-080-4.  Prabhakar Narayan Kawthekar (1995). Bilhana. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 9788172017798.  Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.  Pratipal Bhatia (1970). The Paramāras, c. 800-1305 A.D. Munshiram Manoharlal. OCLC 199886.  R. B. Singh (1964). History of the Chāhamānas. N. Kishore. OCLC 11038728.  R. C. Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120804364.  Saikat K. Bose (2015). Boot, Hooves and Wheels: And the Social Dynamics behind South Asian Warfare. Vij. ISBN 978-9-38446-454-7.  Sailendra Nath Sen (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. ISBN 9788122411980.  Sheldon Pollock (2003). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India. University of California Press. ISBN 0-5202-4500-8.  Tony McClenaghan (1996). Indian Princely Medals. Lancer. ISBN 978-1-897829-19-6.  Virbhadra Singhji (1994). The Rajputs of Saurashtra. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7154-546-9. 

v t e

Paramaras of Malwa

Early rulers

Upendra (9th century) Vairisimha I (9th century, possibly fictional) Siyaka
Siyaka
I (9th century, possibly fictional) Vakpati I (9th-10th century) Vairisimha (10th century)

Sovereigns

Siyaka
Siyaka
(c. 948-972) Munja alias Vakpati II (c. 972-990s) Sindhuraja (c. 990s-1010) Bhoja
Bhoja
(c. 1010-1055) Jayasimha I (c. 1055-1070) Udayaditya
Udayaditya
(c. 1070-1086) Lakshmadeva (c. 1086-1094) Naravarman
Naravarman
(c. 1094-1130) Yashovarman (c. 1133-1142) Jayavarman I (c. 1142-1143) Interregnum (c. 1144-1174) Vindhyavarman (c. 1175-1194) Subhatavarman (c. 1194-1209) Arjunavarman I
Arjunavarman I
(c. 1210-1215) Devapala (c. 1218-1239) Jaitugideva (c. 1239-1255) Jayavarman II (c. 1255-1274) Arjunavarman II (13th century) Bhoja
Bhoja
II (13th century) Mahala

.