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Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
is one of nine official regions of England
England
at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
including Hull, the shire county of North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the City of York), North Lincolnshire
North Lincolnshire
and North East Lincolnshire. It does not include Middlesbrough
Middlesbrough
or Redcar and Cleveland. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000.[1] The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010; they were not re-established by the newly elected House.[2] Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, and the Government Offices were abolished in 2011.

Contents

1 Geographical context

1.1 Geology 1.2 Rivers 1.3 Climate

2 Settlements

2.1 List of cities and towns

3 Local government 4 History

4.1 Industrial history 4.2 Scientific heritage 4.3 Second World War 4.4 Culture

5 Regional assembly 6 European Parliament

6.1 Election results 2014

7 Demographics

7.1 Population, density and settlements 7.2 Teenage pregnancy 7.3 Social deprivation 7.4 Elections 7.5 Eurostat
Eurostat
NUTS

8 Transport

8.1 Transport policy 8.2 Road 8.3 Rail 8.4 Mass transit 8.5 Air 8.6 Water

9 Economy

9.1 East and North 9.2 West and South

10 Sport

10.1 Football 10.2 Rugby League 10.3 Horse racing 10.4 Cricket

11 Education

11.1 Secondary education 11.2 Top twenty state schools in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
(2015 A-level results) 11.3 Colleges 11.4 Universities

12 Local media 13 References 14 External links

Geographical context[edit]

England

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of England

Governance

Monarch

Queen Elizabeth II

HM Government

Departments

Parliament of the United Kingdom

Constituencies

Current MPs

Elections

West Lothian question Devolution proposals

Regions

East Midlands East of England London North East North West South East South West West Midlands Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber

Judiciary

English Law Supreme Court of the United Kingdom Judiciary Courts

England
England
in the EU

UK elections to the European Parliament

European Parliament
European Parliament
constituencies in England

East of England East Midlands London North East England North West England South East England South West England West Midlands Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber

Local Government

Ceremonial Counties Administrative Divisions

Greater London

London Boroughs

Counties

Districts

Unitary Authorities Civil Parishes (list) Unparished Area

Other countries Atlas

v t e

Further information: Topographical areas of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Geology of Yorkshire Scammonden Dam, is the highest dam in UK at 73 metres, and Dean Head cutting is the deepest roadway cutting in Europe at 183 ft, at Scammonden Bridge, on the M62. Sutton-under-Whitestonecliffe
Sutton-under-Whitestonecliffe
claims to be longest place name in England. Geology[edit] In the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
region, there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.[3] The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors
North York Moors
in the north-east of the county are Jurassic
Jurassic
in age, while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds
Lincolnshire Wolds
to the south east are Cretaceous
Cretaceous
chalk uplands.[3] The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales, at 737 metres (2,418 ft). Rivers[edit]

The main rivers of Yorkshire.

The region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire, the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse, which reaches the North Sea
North Sea
via the Humber
Humber
Estuary.[4] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale
Swaledale
before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Nidd
River Nidd
rises on the edge of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale
Nidderdale
before reaching the Vale of York.[4] The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.[4] The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse. The most southerly Yorkshire
Yorkshire
tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. The River Derwent rises on the North York
York
Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering, then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.[4] In the far north of the county, the River Tees
River Tees
flows eastwards through Teesdale
Teesdale
and empties its waters into the North Sea
North Sea
downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors
North York Moors
to reach the sea at Whitby.[4] To the east of the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Wolds, the River Hull
River Hull
flows southwards to join the Humber
Humber
Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribble, which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes.[4] The lower stretches of the River Trent flow through North Lincolnshire
North Lincolnshire
and meet the Ouse at Trent Falls; the River Ancholme
River Ancholme
drains into the Humber
Humber
Estuary at South Ferriby.[4]

The Humber
Humber
Bridge was designed based on ideas by Sir Ralph Freeman before the 1950s, then Sir Gilbert Roberts
Gilbert Roberts
in 1955 and 1964, and a final complete design by Bernard Wex. It was made with a significant amount of ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

The largest freshwater lake in the region is Hornsea Mere
Hornsea Mere
in the East Riding of Yorkshire. Climate[edit] This region of England
England
generally has cool summers and relatively mild winters, with the upland areas of the North York Moors
North York Moors
and the Pennines
Pennines
experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York
Vale of York
the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather, particularly in winter. Between depressions, there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry, settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude, this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream
Gulf Stream
in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis. Cities such as Sheffield, Leeds, and Bradford
Bradford
are generally cooler due to their inland and upland location, while York, Hull, and Wakefield
Wakefield
are warmer due to their lowland location. The temperature is usually lower at night; January is the coldest time of the year and July is usually the warmest month.[5] Snow is not uncommon in the winter, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is mostly hilly/mountainous, and the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales and the Pennines
Pennines
can have extreme snowstorms with high snowdrifts. Inland/upland settlements, such as Skipton
Skipton
or Ilkley, have more snow than coastal towns. Hull and Scarborough have less snow as their weather is moderated by the ocean. Climate data for settlements in the region:

Climate data for Hull

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.9 (44.4) 7.3 (45.1) 9.5 (49.1) 11.4 (52.5) 14.6 (58.3) 17.7 (63.9) 20.1 (68.2) 20.2 (68.4) 17.7 (63.9) 14.0 (57.2) 9.9 (49.8) 7.8 (46) 13.1 (55.6)

Average low °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 1.7 (35.1) 3.1 (37.6) 4.6 (40.3) 6.9 (44.4) 9.7 (49.5) 12.2 (54) 12.2 (54) 10.4 (50.7) 7.4 (45.3) 4.1 (39.4) 2.4 (36.3) 6.4 (43.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 50.7 (1.996) 38.3 (1.508) 45.6 (1.795) 42.4 (1.669) 43.5 (1.713) 50 (1.97) 38.4 (1.512) 48.7 (1.917) 52.1 (2.051) 46.5 (1.831) 57.2 (2.252) 52.0 (2.047) 565.4 (22.26)

Source: [6]

Climate data for Leeds

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 5.8 (42.4) 5.9 (42.6) 8.7 (47.7) 11.3 (52.3) 15.0 (59) 18.2 (64.8) 19.9 (67.8) 19.9 (67.8) 17.3 (63.1) 13.4 (56.1) 8.8 (47.8) 6.7 (44.1) 12.58 (54.63)

Average low °C (°F) 0.3 (32.5) 0.2 (32.4) 1.6 (34.9) 3.1 (37.6) 5.5 (41.9) 8.5 (47.3) 10.4 (50.7) 10.5 (50.9) 8.7 (47.7) 6.3 (43.3) 2.9 (37.2) 1.2 (34.2) 4.93 (40.88)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 61 (2.4) 45 (1.77) 52 (2.05) 48 (1.89) 54 (2.13) 54 (2.13) 51 (2.01) 65 (2.56) 57 (2.24) 55 (2.17) 57 (2.24) 61 (2.4) 660 (25.99)

Source: [7]

Climate data for Sheffield

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6.4 (43.5) 6.7 (44.1) 9.3 (48.7) 11.8 (53.2) 15.7 (60.3) 18.3 (64.9) 20.8 (69.4) 20.6 (69.1) 17.3 (63.1) 13.3 (55.9) 9.2 (48.6) 7.2 (45) 13.1 (55.6)

Average low °C (°F) 1.6 (34.9) 1.6 (34.9) 3.1 (37.6) 4.4 (39.9) 7.0 (44.6) 10.0 (50) 12.4 (54.3) 12.1 (53.8) 10.0 (50) 7.2 (45) 4.2 (39.6) 2.6 (36.7) 6.4 (43.5)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 86.5 (3.406) 63.4 (2.496) 67.9 (2.673) 62.5 (2.461) 55.5 (2.185) 66.7 (2.626) 51.0 (2.008) 63.5 (2.5) 64.3 (2.531) 73.9 (2.909) 77.7 (3.059) 91.9 (3.618) 824.7 (32.469)

Source: The Met Office[8]

Climate data for York

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 6 (43) 7 (45) 10 (50) 13 (55) 16 (61) 19 (66) 21 (70) 21 (70) 18 (64) 14 (57) 10 (50) 7 (45) 13.5 (56.3)

Average low °C (°F) 1 (34) 1 (34) 2 (36) 4 (39) 7 (45) 10 (50) 12 (54) 12 (54) 10 (50) 7 (45) 4 (39) 2 (36) 6 (43)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 59 (2.32) 46 (1.81) 37 (1.46) 41 (1.61) 50 (1.97) 50 (1.97) 62 (2.44) 68 (2.68) 55 (2.17) 56 (2.2) 65 (2.56) 50 (1.97) 639 (25.16)

Source: BBC Weather[9]

Settlements[edit]

Leeds, the largest settlement in the region

See also: Architecture of Leeds There are seven cities in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber: Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds, Ripon, Sheffield, Wakefield
Wakefield
and York. Large towns in the area include Barnsley, Doncaster, Grimsby, Halifax, Huddersfield and Scunthorpe. Leeds
Leeds
is the largest settlement and the largest part of an urban area with a population of 1.5 million. Leeds
Leeds
is now one of the largest financial centres in the United Kingdom. Sheffield is the second-largest settlement and is a large manufacturing centre. Bradford
Bradford
is the third-largest city and was traditionally a textile manufacturing city. The decline of this industry as jobs moved offshore has resulted in a more diverse economy, as Bradford
Bradford
has developed new directions. Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
is the main port in the region and historically a notable fishing harbour. While cities such as Bradford, Leeds
Leeds
and Sheffield
Sheffield
grew during the industrial revolution, older cities in the region, such as Wakefield
Wakefield
and York, were established in trade and politics before them. The tallest occupied building in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is Bridgewater Place
Bridgewater Place
in central Leeds, commonly referred to as The Dalek. Built in 2007, at 361 feet it is the 34th tallest building in the UK. The 37-storey Sky Plaza
Sky Plaza
in Leeds
Leeds
is the world's second-tallest student accommodation building at 338 feet, and the second tallest building in the region, and the UK's 42nd tallest building, built in 2009. The 32-storey St Pauls Tower
St Pauls Tower
is now the tallest building in Sheffield
Sheffield
at 331 feet. The Royal Hallamshire Hospital
Royal Hallamshire Hospital
at 249 feet is the tallest hospital in the UK outside of London, and was built in 1979. List of cities and towns[edit]

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NY = North Yorkshire, WY = West Yorkshire, SY = South Yorkshire, EY = East Riding of Yorkshire, NL = North Lincolnshire, NEL = North East Lincolnshire > 400, 000

Leeds,[10] WY Sheffield,[11] SY Bradford,[12] WY

> 100, 000

Barnsley,[13] SY Kingston upon Hull,[14] EY York,[15] NY Huddersfield,[16] WY Doncaster,[17] SY Rotherham,[18] SY

> 70, 000

Grimsby,[19] NEL Halifax,[20] WY Wakefield, WY Harrogate, NY Scunthorpe, NL

> 50, 000

Dewsbury, WY Scarborough, NY Keighley, WY

> 30, 000

Batley, WY Castleford, WY Bridlington, EY Pudsey, WY Rothwell, WY Cleethorpes, NEL Ecclesfield, SY Beverley, EY

> 20, 000

Shipley, WY Morley, WY Pontefract, WY Horsforth, WY Guiseley, WY Yeadon, WY Penistone, SY Darton, SY Farsley, WY Normanton, WY Wetherby, WY

> 15, 000

Holmfirth, WY Thorne, SY Mirfield, WY Goole, EY Bingley, WY Rawmarsh, SY Swallownest, SY Mexborough, SY Liversedge, WY Berry Brow, WY Hatfield, SY Selby, NY Cottingham, EY Birstall, WY Denby Dale, WY Heckmondwike, WY Maltby, SY Northallerton, NY Ripon, NY Wath-upon-Dearne, SY Queensbury, WY Cleckheaton, WY Golcar, WY Swinton, SY Ossett, WY Knaresborough, NY Baildon, WY Todmorden, WY Hemsworth, WY Featherstone, WY Horbury, WY Adwick le Street, SY Conisbrough, SY Garforth, WY Ilkley, WY

Local government[edit] The official region consists of the following subdivisions:[21]

Map Ceremonial county County/ unitary Districts

1. South Yorkshire * a) Sheffield, b) Rotherham, c) Barnsley, d) Doncaster

2. West Yorkshire * a) Wakefield, b) Kirklees, c) Calderdale, d) Bradford, e) Leeds

North Yorkshire (part only) 3. North Yorkshire † a) Selby, b) Harrogate, c) Craven, d) Richmondshire, e) Hambleton, f) Ryedale, g) Scarborough

4.  York
York
U.A.

East Riding of Yorkshire 5. East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
U.A.

6.  Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
U.A.

Lincolnshire (part only) 7.  North Lincolnshire
North Lincolnshire
U.A.

8.  North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire
U.A.

Key: †shire county *metropolitan county North Lincolnshire, North East Lincolnshire, East Riding of Yorkshire and Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
unitary authorities used to form the non-metropolitan county of Humberside which meant the region was called Yorkshire
Yorkshire
& Humberside. History[edit] Star Carr, south of Scarborough, is the earliest known dwelling in the UK – 8700 BC, in the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
age. The Battle of Towton
Battle of Towton
in March 1461, in the Wars of the Roses, is the most costly on British soil. William Bradley of Market Weighton
Market Weighton
is the tallest British man ever, being 7 ft 9 in, known as the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Giant. Bradford
Bradford
had the first trolley bus in the UK in 1910. Wentworth Woodhouse
Wentworth Woodhouse
is the largest private house in the UK, off the B6090, which housed until 1979 the Lady Mabel College of Physical Education, for female PE teachers, later owned by Sheffield
Sheffield
City Polytechnic until 1988, north of Rotherham
Rotherham
and east of M1 junction 35a. The Tucano entered service with the RAF with 7 FTS in December 1989 at RAF Church Fenton.[22] On 10 May 1990 at RAF Linton-on-Ouse, Flt Lts Julie Gibson and Sally Cox were the RAF's first female pilots to fly in an RAF jet aircraft – a BAC Jet Provost
BAC Jet Provost
– with 1 FTS. Sally Cox was later the first female RAF pilot selected for fast jet training at RAF Chivenor on 14 January 1992 on the No.128 Course with the Hawk, but she withdrew seven weeks into the 17-week tactical weapons courses (No.2 Tactical Weapons Unit) in March 1992 as she found low flying too stressful. Julie would later be the RAF's first female Hercules captain in 1998; she was the first female pilot to qualify at 6 FTS at RAF Finningley. On 1 March 1991, the RAF's first female navigator, Flying Officer Anne-Marie Dawe, began with 6 FTS at RAF Finningley; she later flew on the Hercules at RAF Lyneham. On 20 July 1989 it had been announced that female RAF pilots could fly in non-combat roles. Industrial history[edit] See also: History of the steel industry (1850–1970)

Harry Brearley, inventor of stainless steel; in 1821, Pierre Berthier, a French mining engineer, had also found that adding chromium to steel made it more resistant to chemical attack

Stainless steel
Stainless steel
was invented in 1913 by Harry Brearley
Harry Brearley
of Sheffield, working for Firth Brown Steels
Firth Brown Steels
(now called Sheffield
Sheffield
Forgemasters). SAE 304 stainless steel is the most common stainless steel today, invented by Dr William Herbert Hatfield FRS in 1924 at Firth-Vickers known as Staybrite 18/8, a chromium-nickel steel. Many Swiss watches were mostly made out of Staybrite. Crucible steel
Crucible steel
had been invented in the 1740s by Benjamin Huntsman
Benjamin Huntsman
of Epworth in Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(part of the region); previously steel was made by the cementation process; the 1856 Bessemer process
Bessemer process
allowed much more steel to be made. Sheffield
Sheffield
early steel used Swedish bar iron as it had less phosphorus. The fast acting tilting converter was a huge improvement in 1860 for Sheffield
Sheffield
steel; the process meant high-phosphorus iron ore from local mines could be used. At one point, Sheffield
Sheffield
was producing 10,000 tons of steel a week. The metallurgist Eric Colbeck, when working at Hadfields Limited
Hadfields Limited
in Sheffield, invented boron steel for control rods for nuclear reactors. Metallurgists at Firth-Vickers developed the heat-resistant stainless steel (Rex 78) for the turbine blades of Frank Whittle's first engines, and Britain's first jet aircraft. John Marshall of Yorkshire developed the first-ever iron-framed buildings (industrial mills). Sir Robert Hadfield
Robert Hadfield
FRS invented manganese steel in 1882, and silicon steel, which allowed the development of electromagnets and consequently electricity; the Hadfields site is now Meadowhall Centre. Matthew Murray
Matthew Murray
of Leeds
Leeds
built the first commercially successful steam locomotive (Salamanca) in 1812. The Doncaster
Doncaster
Works at Hexthorpe
Hexthorpe
built Britain's most famous steam trains, for the GNR, then LNER (from 1923). The Manchester–Sheffield–Wath electric railway
Manchester–Sheffield–Wath electric railway
was the UK's longest electrified railway in 1953 when opened. What is now West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
in the nineteenth century was the heart of Britain's woollen weaving wills, often using Alpaca fiber
Alpaca fiber
and by connections to the important Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool Canal. Joseph Bramah
Joseph Bramah
of Barnsley
Barnsley
was important in the development of hydraulics, and also developed the hydraulic press in 1795 and in 1778 the flush toilet.

Former Coal
Coal
House in Doncaster; the peak production of coal in the UK was in 1913, when 9% of the country's male labour force worked down the pit; in the 1970s Britain consumed 2m tonnes of coal a week, which was strategically reduced by reliance on North Sea
North Sea
gas

Joseph Aspdin
Joseph Aspdin
from Leeds
Leeds
invented Portland cement
Portland cement
in 1824; when mixed with aggregates and sand, this produced concrete. John Smeaton
John Smeaton
was a famous civil engineer from Leeds, and notable for building the first modern-day lighthouse (Eddystone Lighthouse) and for developing hydraulic lime (it is able to set under water), which would lead to cement. Sir Donald Bailey (civil engineer), of Rotherham, invented the Bailey bridge
Bailey bridge
which was important in the later stages of the Second World War for crossing rivers; the design took place in 1940 at the Experimental Bridging Establishment in Christchurch, Dorset
Christchurch, Dorset
(Hampshire before 1974). The Clarence Flour Mill was built in 1891 in Hull and produced Britain's first white bread; it became part of Rank Hovis McDougall (RHM) in 1962. Smith & Nephew launched Elastoplast
Elastoplast
in 1928; since 1992 this has been owned by the German Beiersdorf
Beiersdorf
company. James Henry Atkinson of Leeds
Leeds
invented the mousetrap in 1898. ICI Fibres was headquartered in the Crimple Valley south of Harrogate; the site is now known as Hornbeam Park. The National Coal Board
National Coal Board
(NCB) was based at Coal
Coal
House, Doncaster
Doncaster
on the A18. Thomas Spencer, founder of M&S, was born in Skipton
Skipton
in 1851. Topshop
Topshop
was founded in 1964 in Sheffield, part of a Peter Robinson shop, itself owned by Burton; Topshop
Topshop
became an independent chain in 1973.

York's Chocolate Story in central York; on 28 April 1942 in the intense Baedeker raid, the Rowntree's
Rowntree's
factory in North Street received a direct hit and all of its sugar caught fire

From 1945 to 2002 all the tennis balls for Wimbledon were made by Slazenger
Slazenger
off the A61 in the south of Barnsley. Since 2006, tracks for the UK's railways have been made at Scunthorpe, and much is made for Europe's railways (mainly France, although rolled at Hayange). Terry's Chocolate Orange, first made in 1932, are now made since 2005 by Kraft Foods Polska at Fabryka w Jankowicach in Jankowice, having been bought by Kraft in 1993; Smarties, first made in York
York
in 1937, since 2006 are made at Chocoladen-Werk Hamburg, with the brand being owned by Nestlé since 1988; the Nestlé
Nestlé
Deutschland site also makes Kit Kat, first made in 1935 and named in 1937, and After Eight, first made in 1962. Mackintosh's
Mackintosh's
of Halifax invented Quality Street in 1936, Rolo
Rolo
in 1937, Munchies in 1957, Caramac
Caramac
in 1959, and Toffee Crisp
Toffee Crisp
in 1963. Rowntree's
Rowntree's
invented Fruit Gums in 1893, Aero in 1935, being still made in York
York
on Haxby
Haxby
Road, and Polos in 1948 (although actually developed before WWII). The CEGB's 400 kV Supergrid was first tested on 15 December 1963 when High Marnham Power Station
High Marnham Power Station
connected on a 64-mile (previous 275kV) line to Monk Fryston
Monk Fryston
substation (near the Selby
Selby
Fork junction); the 420-ton transformers at either end were from English Electric
English Electric
at Stafford. The first section of the (first) 275kV supergrid opened in 1951 from Staythorpe Power Station
Staythorpe Power Station
(Nottinghamshire) to West Melton (Brampton Bierlow), west of Wath-upon-Dearne. Much of West Yorkshire's connection to the southern section of the National Grid (along the Trent Valley, also known as Megawatt
Megawatt
Valley) is either through High Marnham (to Thurcroft
Thurcroft
and on to Sheffield
Sheffield
and South Yorkshire) or Creyke Beck (north of Cottingham in Skidby) to the east, (with connection via Thornton near Pocklington); Thornton and Osbaldwick (next to the A1079 in the east of York) are the only connections from Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to the north, connecting to Norton (near Carlton) and Newby near Teesside; Bradford
Bradford
West, apart from Monk Fryston, is the other main substation for the area FLUENT (owned since 2006 by Ansys) was developed at the University of Sheffield, and became the world's leading software for CFD, launched in October 1983. Helen Sharman
Helen Sharman
OBE, from Sheffield
Sheffield
and a former University of Sheffield-educated chemist who developed chocolate for Mars, was the first Briton in space on the Soyuz TM-12
Soyuz TM-12
mission on 18 May 1991, aged 27 (she is still the fifth-youngest person to have flown into space), landing with Soyuz TM-11
Soyuz TM-11
eight days later. David Mellor of Sheffield
Sheffield
produced the standard design for street furniture, including traffic lights, in the UK from 1973. The US had installed its first electric traffic lights in August 1914 in Cleveland, and traffic lights were first introduced permanently in the UK on 16 March 1928 in Leeds
Leeds
at the junction of Park Row, Leeds
Leeds
and Bond Street, although were not vehicle-actuated; there had been a one-day trial of traffic lights in Wolverhampton on 11 February 1928. Scientific heritage[edit] John Harrison
John Harrison
of Barrow upon Humber
Humber
(but born in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
at Foulby), invented the marine chronometer which allowed longitude to be accurately measured, and hence navigation at sea. This allowed Captain James Cook
James Cook
of Whitby
Whitby
to colonise much of Australia. Harrison also invented the bimetallic strip and the rolling bearing, without which most vehicles could not move. Main article: Timeline of photography technology Albert Crewe, born near Huddersfield
Huddersfield
in 1927 and attended grammar school in Bradford, invented the scanning electron microscope in 1970 at the Argonne National Laboratory
Argonne National Laboratory
(US). John Carbutt (1832–1905), from Sheffield
Sheffield
and moved to America, founded his Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 and was the first to develop sheets of celluloid coated with photographic emulsion for making films in 1888, and for William Kennedy Dickson's Kinetoscope
Kinetoscope
around 1890, which set the 35mm standard for motion and still cameras. Roundhay Garden Scene, shot on 14 October 1888 by Louis Le Prince, is the oldest surviving film in existence; 'talking' movies appeared after 1927. Dennis Taylor of T. Cooke & Sons of York
York
invented the Cooke triplet
Cooke triplet
in 1893 to stop optical aberration, and allow fine definition up to the outer edge of lenses. Prof Sir George William Gray developed LCD displays at Hull, when working for the MoD (RRE) in Malvern, developing it with the substance cyano-biphenyl in 1973; the VFD (a similar purpose) was invented in Japan in 1967. Smithson Tennant
Smithson Tennant
born Selby, educated in Beverley, discovered osmium and iridium in 1803; the two are atomic numbers 76 and 77, with osmium being the densest naturally occurring element, and iridium is the next densest. The worldwide deposition of high concentrations of iridium at the geological K-T stratigraphic boundary, and that locally of shocked quartz in the Yucatán Peninsula, led to a theory by Walter Alvarez
Walter Alvarez
in 1980 of an asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period, known as the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, that wiped out the dinosaurs. Fred Hoyle
Fred Hoyle
was an important physicist from Bingley, who discovered how stars made chemical elements, and originated the phrase big bang in 1949. An expanding universe (and consequent Big Bang) was first proposed by Georges Lemaitre
Georges Lemaitre
of Belgium to overcome Einstein's 1917 cosmological constant of a static universe, and was only widely accepted after the 1930s. The clergyman John Michell, a vicar of Thornhill, was the first person to calculate a realistic distance of stars, observed in the night sky, from Earth. As early as the 18th century he was also the first to propose that light from the stars could be deflected by their own gravity, and has been described as the father of seismology and magnetometry. Kenneth Bentley of Reckitt & Colman at Hull in 1963 discovered his Bentley compounds (orvinols), which included etorphine, which for many years was the most-powerful analgesic, and is the drug most often used to safely immobilise elephants and other large animals, and is now manufactured solely by MacFarlan Smith of Edinburgh. Prof Robert Lowry Turner and George Whyte-Watson developed chemotherapy for breast cancer in 1959 at Bradford
Bradford
Royal Infirmary. At the former Sheffield
Sheffield
Royal Infirmary in the north-west of the city centre on 25 November 1930, Cecil Paine, a pathologist, cured patients with eye infections (including pneumococcus) completely with Penicillin, having been a bacteriology student of Alexander Fleming two years previously, and had grown Penicillium notatum (now called Penicillium chrysogenum) in some meat broth. This was the first-ever cure of human disease with an antibiotic, and only gained public attention in 1983 when his medical notes were emerged by Prof Milton Wainwright in an office in Firth Court. Howard Florey
Howard Florey
was working as a professor of pathology from 1931 to 1935 at the city's university, and Paine's work gave impetus for Florey to work out how to purify penicillin, but it would be February 1941 before he treated his first patient. Prontosil, discovered by Gerhard Domagk
Gerhard Domagk
(receiving the 1939 Nobel Prize for Medicine) at Bayer
Bayer
in Wuppertal, Germany in 1932, would be the first commercially available (a sulfonamide) antibiotic. John Venn, born in Hull although moved to London, developed his well-known and ubiquitous diagrams in 1880. Tom Kilburn
Tom Kilburn
from Dewsbury, with Freddie Williams, developed the Williams tube, the first computer binary data storage. Second World War[edit] The RAF's first heavy bomber, the Short Stirling, entered service at RAF Leeming
RAF Leeming
with 7 Sqn. On 2 November 1940, RAF Linton-on-Ouse received the first Handley Page Halifax
Handley Page Halifax
with 35 Sqn. Avro
Avro
built around 4,500 Ansons at its RAF Yeadon shadow factory, and around 700 Lancasters. Culture[edit]

Black Dyke Band
Black Dyke Band
at the Lucerne Culture and Congress Centre
Lucerne Culture and Congress Centre
(KKL Luzern) in 2012

The area is well known for its brass bands, with the Brighouse
Brighouse
and Rastrick Brass Band, Black Dyke Band, Grimethorpe
Grimethorpe
Colliery Band, Carlton Main Frickley Colliery Band, Rothwell Temperance Band and Hammonds Saltaire
Saltaire
Band. Brass bands have mostly been linked with coal mines. John Bacchus Dykes
John Bacchus Dykes
from Hull wrote the hymn tunes for The King of Love My Shepherd Is and Eternal Father, Strong to Save, and arranged We Plough the Fields and Scatter. The Cranbrook tune to On Ilkla Moor Baht 'at was written by Thomas Clark, a Kent shoemaker. The Brontë family
Brontë family
are the region's best known authors. The region's most popular city for tourists is York. Castleford
Castleford
is the birthplace of the world-famous sculptor Henry Moore. Thomas Chippendale
Thomas Chippendale
was an important furniture maker, born in Otley in 1718. Rita, Sue and Bob Too
Rita, Sue and Bob Too
is a classic 1987 film made around Bradford; other classic regional films include Ken Loach's Kes, a 1969 film made in the Barnsley
Barnsley
area, The Full Monty
The Full Monty
a 1997 film made around Sheffield, and Brassed Off, a 1996 film made in the Doncaster
Doncaster
and Barnsley
Barnsley
area. The Bradford
Bradford
Small Livestock Society has held the national championships for rabbits since 1921, held at the Great Yorkshire Showground in Harrogate, and holds its Small Animal Show for other pets. Charles Hinchliffe of Huddersfield
Huddersfield
pioneered the idea of the farm shop in 1974. Donald Watson
Donald Watson
from Mexborough
Mexborough
invented the term vegan in 1944. Seebohm Rowntree
Seebohm Rowntree
was an important social researcher from York, and had a big impact on thinking on the subject. On 6 January (Twelfth Night) each year Haxey
Haxey
in North Lincolnshire holds its Haxey
Haxey
Hood. On Easter Monday
Easter Monday
each year Gawthorpe, near Wakefield, holds the World Coal
Coal
Carrying Championship. Regional assembly[edit]

Wakefield
Wakefield
Cathedral

The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humber
Humber
Assembly was a partnership of all local authorities in the region and representatives of various economic, social and environmental sectors. The full Assembly normally met three times a year, normally in February, June and October.

The full Assembly is responsible for providing regional leadership, agreeing regional strategic priorities, directing the development of the Integrated Regional Framework and endorsing key regional strategies. Membership comprises all 22 local authorities in this region, plus 15 Social, Economic and Environmental partners, and the National Parks for planning purposes.[23]

On 31 March 2009, the Assembly was abolished and replaced by Local Government Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humber, which continues to be based in the former Assembly premises in King Street in Wakefield.[24][25] Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is one of the two regions (along with the North West) that were expected to have a referendum about the establishment of an elected regional assembly. When the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, the then Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott
John Prescott
announced that he would not move orders for other referendums before the relevant provisions expired in June 2005. European Parliament[edit] Main article: Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
(European Parliament constituency) The European constituency of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
is coterminous with the English region. After the European Parliament
European Parliament
election in May 2014, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
is represented by three UK Independence Party two Labour and one Conservative MEPs. Election results 2014[edit]

Ingleborough
Ingleborough
in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales – the second highest point in the region

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
puddings

Historic region of Yorkshire

Fountains Abbey
Fountains Abbey
near Ripon

Elected candidates are shown in bold. Brackets indicate the number of votes per seat won.

European Election 2014: Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and The Humber[26][27]

List Candidates Votes % ±

UKIP Jane Collins, Amjad Bashir, Mike Hookem, Gary Shores, Jason Smith, Anne Murgatroyd 403,630 31.1 +13.7

Labour Linda McAvan, Richard Corbett, Eleanor Tunnicliffe, Asghar Khan, Helen Mirfin-Boukouris, Darren Hughes 380,189 29.3 +10.6

Conservative Timothy Kirkhope, Alex Story, John Procter, Carolyn Abbott, Michael Naughton, Ryan Stephenson 248,945 19.2 −5.3

Green Andrew Cooper, Shan Oakes, Dr Vicky Dunn, Denise Craghill, Martin Hemingway, Kevin Warnes 102,282 7.9 −0.6

Liberal Democrat Edward McMillan-Scott, James Monaghan, Joe Otten, Chris Foote-Wood, Jacqueline Bell, Aqila Choudhry 81,108 6.25 −6.9

An Independence from Europe Christopher Booth, Kerrie Oxenham, Malcolm Snelling, John Buchanan Martin, Paul Balderson Sootheran, Howard Roy Blake 24,297 1.9 N/A

BNP Marlene Guest, Adam Walker, Danny Cooke, Joanne Brown, Steven Richard Harrison, Stuart Henshaw 20,138 1.6 −8.2

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Party Stewart Arnold, Richard Carter, Richard Honnoraty 19,017 1.5 N/A

English Democrat Chris Beverley, David Wildgoose, Ian Sutton, Colin Porter, Tom Redmood, David Allen 13,288 1.0 −1.5

No2EU Trevor Howard, Mary Jackson, Carrie Hedderwick, Adrian O’Malley, Steven John Andrew, Iain Alaistair Dalton 3,807 0.29 −1.0

Turnout 1,296,701 33.5 +1.2

Demographics[edit] Population, density and settlements[edit]

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest urban area

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber 5,177,200 328/km² Leeds
Leeds
(761,100) West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Urban Area (1,499,465)

West Yorkshire 2,118,600 1,004/km² Leeds
Leeds
(761,100) West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Urban Area (1,499,465)

South Yorkshire 1,292,900 833/km² Sheffield
Sheffield
(551,800) Sheffield
Sheffield
Urban Area (640,720)

East Riding of Yorkshire 587,100 137/km² Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
(257,000) Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
Urban Area (301,416)

North Yorkshire 1,061,300 123/km² City of York
City of York
(193,300) York
York
Urban Area (137,505)

North Lincolnshire 159,000 188/km² Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
(72,660) Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
(72,660)

North East Lincolnshire 158,900 828/km² Grimsby
Grimsby
(87,574) Grimsby/ Cleethorpes
Cleethorpes
(138,842)

[28] The region has fewer degree-educated adults than the England
England
average and the UK's highest rate of cancer. Teenage pregnancy[edit] For top-tier authorities, Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
has the highest teenage pregnancy rate, closely followed by North East Lincolnshire. For top-tier authorities, North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has the lowest teenage pregnancy rate. For council districts, Ryedale
Ryedale
has the lowest rate, closely followed by Craven. Only North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has council districts in the region. Rotherham
Rotherham
had the UK's youngest grandmother – 26 years old. Her 12-year-old daughter gave birth on 26 August 1999.[29] Social deprivation[edit] For multiple deprivation in England, measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007,[30] the most deprived council districts in the region are, in descending order – Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
(11th in England), Bradford
Bradford
(32nd), Doncaster
Doncaster
(41st), Barnsley
Barnsley
(43rd), North East Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
(49th), Sheffield
Sheffield
(63rd), Wakefield
Wakefield
(66th), Rotherham
Rotherham
(68th), Kirklees
Kirklees
(82nd), Leeds
Leeds
(85th), and Scarborough (97th). These areas are mostly represented by Labour MPs, with a few Conservative MPs representing parts of Leeds
Leeds
(with a Lib Dem MP) and North East Lincolnshire, and all of Scarborough. Apart from Scarborough, they are unitary authorities. The least deprived districts are, in descending order – Harrogate, Hambleton, Richmondshire, Craven, and Selby
Selby
– all in North Yorkshire. Like all of North Yorkshire, they are represented by Conservative MPs. At county level, the least deprived areas are, in descending order – North Yorkshire, York
York
and the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
which all have roughly the same level of deprivation, and lower than the majority of England, including Cheshire
Cheshire
and Northamptonshire. The region as a whole is one of the more deprived in England, measured by having far more Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in the 20% most deprived districts than the 20% least deprived districts. Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
has the highest proportion of NEETs in the region (and fairly high for the UK – 10.6%).[31][32] This is another demographic extreme it shares with Knowsley in Merseyside. In March 2011 the region had the third highest overall unemployment claimant count in England
England
with 4.4%. For the region, Hull has the highest rate with 7.8% which is the highest for any English district; North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire
is next with 6.4%, and Doncaster
Doncaster
has 5.2%. Richmondshire
Richmondshire
has the lowest rate with 1.8% and Harrogate
Harrogate
is next lowest with 1.9%.[33] Elections[edit]

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General Election results in 2017

In the 2015 general election, 39% of the region's electorate voted Labour, 33% Conservative, 16% UKIP, 7% Liberal Democrat and 4% Green. Labour had almost twice as many seats than the Conservatives with 33 Labour, 19 Conservative and 2 Liberal Democrat. There was a 2.5% swing from Conservative to Labour. However, although Labour has around 60% of the region's seats, the geographic spread is mostly Conservative, due to the Labour seats having a much smaller geographic area. Since the 2017 general election when Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam incumbent Nick Clegg (Liberal Democrats) was defeated by Labour candidate Jared O'Mara, all of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is now held by Labour, and Labour is concentrated in the other coalfield areas and Hull.

v t e

Constituencies in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
(54)

Labour (36)

Barnsley
Barnsley
Central Barnsley
Barnsley
East Batley
Batley
and Spen Bradford
Bradford
East Bradford
Bradford
South Bradford
Bradford
West Colne Valley Dewsbury Don Valley Doncaster
Doncaster
Central Doncaster
Doncaster
North Great Grimsby Halifax Hemsworth Huddersfield Keighley Hull East Hull North Hull West and Hessle Leeds
Leeds
Central Leeds
Leeds
East Leeds
Leeds
North East Leeds
Leeds
North West Leeds
Leeds
West Normanton, Pontefract
Pontefract
and Castleford Penistone
Penistone
and Stocksbridge Rother Valley Rotherham Scunthorpe Sheffield
Sheffield
Brightside and Hillsborough Sheffield
Sheffield
Central Sheffield
Sheffield
Heeley Sheffield
Sheffield
South East Wakefield Wentworth and Dearne York
York
Central

Conservative (17)

Beverley
Beverley
and Holderness Brigg
Brigg
and Goole Calder Valley Cleethorpes Elmet and Rothwell Haltemprice and Howden Harrogate
Harrogate
and Knaresborough Morley and Outwood Pudsey Richmond (Yorks) Scarborough and Whitby Selby
Selby
and Ainsty Shipley Skipton
Skipton
and Ripon Thirsk and Malton York
York
Outer Yorkshire
Yorkshire
East

Independent (1)

Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
European constituency: Conservative (2) Labour (2) UKIP (2)

Eurostat
Eurostat
NUTS[edit] In the Eurostat
Eurostat
Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKE", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code

Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber UKE East Riding and North Lincolnshire UKE1 Kingston upon Hull UKE11

East Riding of Yorkshire UKE12

North and North East Lincolnshire UKE13

North Yorkshire UKE2 York UKE21

North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
CC UKE22

South Yorkshire UKE3 Barnsley, Doncaster
Doncaster
and Rotherham UKE31

Sheffield UKE32

West Yorkshire UKE4 Bradford UKE41

Leeds UKE42

Calderdale
Calderdale
and Kirklees UKE44

Wakefield UKE45

Transport[edit] Transport policy[edit]

M62 Ouse Bridge, built in 1976

As part of the national transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long-term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency
Highways Agency
and Network Rail.[34] Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans (LTP) which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes.[35] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and The Humber
Humber
region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
U.A.,[36] Kingston upon Hull,[37] North East Lincolnshire U.A.,[38] North Lincolnshire
North Lincolnshire
U.A.,[39] North Yorkshire,[40] South Yorkshire,[41] West Yorkshire[42] and York
York
U.A.[43] Road[edit]

The M62's route in relation to the four major cities it serves: Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds
Leeds
and Hull.

The M62 motorway
M62 motorway
is Yorkshire's main east-west thoroughfare, and north-south routes are the M1 and the A1, with only the A1 continuing further north, with an upgrade to motorway status currently being built between Leeming and Barton. The other main north-south road in the region is the A19.[44] The M180 (continuing as the A180) connects the ports at Grimsby
Grimsby
and Immingham
Immingham
via the M18 (European route E22). The A64 road
A64 road
connects areas in the North East of the region to the main body of motorways. The M1 was originally designed to finish at the A1 at Doncaster; this section became the M18 in December 1967. The section from the Thurcroft
Thurcroft
Interchange to Leeds
Leeds
(originally known as the Leeds- Sheffield
Sheffield
Spur) was essentially designed to replace the A61, which is still the main road that connects the centres of Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield
Wakefield
and Leeds, and continues through Harrogate
Harrogate
and Ripon
Ripon
to Thirsk. The M180 is shadowed by the A18, which is the main road through Scunthorpe. The single-carriageway A1079 connects Hull to York, and has been exceeding its designed capacity for many years.

The Chain Bar Interchange on the M62, looking west, at the end of the M606, north of Cleckheaton

The main north-south and east-west routes interchange at a series of junctions to the south and east of Leeds, near Castleford. Leeds
Leeds
and Bradford
Bradford
have inner-city urban motorways, while Sheffield
Sheffield
has the Sheffield
Sheffield
Parkway and Hull has the Clive Sullivan Way (A63) which connect the city centres with the motorway network. Leeds
Leeds
has an inner-ring road network made mostly out of purpose-built motorway stretches which is mostly sub-terrain to the north of the city centre. Bradford, Huddersfield, Sheffield
Sheffield
and York
York
have inner-ring roads made by re-aligning existing roads while Halifax has a town-centre relief scheme made up of the Aachen Way and the North Bridge flyovers. The Office of the Traffic Commissioner central office is on the B6159 in east Leeds
Leeds
(Hillcrest House), which processes England
England
and Wales
Wales
LGV and PSV licences. The Humber
Humber
Bridge, the tallest bridge in the UK at 538 feet, was the world's longest suspension bridge from 17 July 1981 until 5 April 1998; it was built to connect with a proposed new town near the A15/M180 interchange. Rail[edit]

Leeds
Leeds
City railway station is the busiest in the region.

The central hubs of the rail network in the region are Leeds, Sheffield
Sheffield
and York. The East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line
passes through Leeds
Leeds
and York, operated by Virgin Trains East Coast
Virgin Trains East Coast
which is based in York. The Midland Main Line
Midland Main Line
finishes at Sheffield, with a less regular service to Leeds, operated by East Midlands
East Midlands
Trains. East-west routes are the North TransPennine
North TransPennine
to Manchester, and South TransPennine
South TransPennine
through Doncaster.[45] Leeds
Leeds
has a fairly extensive commuter network and an electrified section in the North of Bradford
Bradford
provides many commuter services. Sheffield
Sheffield
has a smaller commuter rail network and there are also less extensive systems in Doncaster, Huddersfield, Wakefield
Wakefield
and Harrogate, which connect the districts of the settlements to the centre by rail. The express service between Leeds
Leeds
and Huddersfield
Huddersfield
is notably quick. SYPTE and WYPTE subsidise commuters' travel with discount schemes. Tram-trains have also been proposed in the area. However, no scheme has yet been approved. Hull is now connected to the capital with its much-improved Hull Trains service. North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
has a skeleton train network, with Scarborough and York
York
being the main destinations. The Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coast Line connects Hull to Scarborough. The Hull to York
York
Line runs along the north of the Humber
Humber
through Selby, and takes in Sherburn-in-Elmet and nearby rural stations south of York, being of great use to commuters to York
York
since being reopened in the 1980s.

A GNER InterCity 125 (or High Speed Train [HST]) near York. The InterCity 125 set the current world speed record for a diesel train (148 mph) near Thirsk in 1987.

South of the Humber, Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
and nearby rural stations are connected by the South Humberside Main Line, run by Northern. Grimsby is connected (also through Scunthorpe) on TransPennine Express's South TransPennine route from Sheffield
Sheffield
(originating at Manchester Airport).

See also: High-speed rail in the United Kingdom The region is home to a rail land speed record. On 1 November 1987, a British Rail
British Rail
HST travelled at 238 km/h between Northallerton
Northallerton
and Thirsk. The train consisted of power cars 43102 (City of Wakefield)[46] and 43159, and three Mark 3 carriages. This is the world speed record for diesel trains, which used the 18-cylinder Paxman Valenta
Paxman Valenta
engine.[47] Mass transit[edit]

Sheffield
Sheffield
Supertram in 1998

Only Sheffield
Sheffield
has its own mass-transit system, the Supertram, owned by SYPTE and run by Stagecoach. Leeds
Leeds
and Bradford
Bradford
have more developed commuter rail systems but lack any mass transit system. The Leeds Supertram was an approved scheme in Leeds. However, the funding was pulled and the scheme has been replaced by the proposed Leeds Trolleybus
Trolleybus
scheme. In the past Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds, Rotherham, Sheffield
Sheffield
and York
York
have all had mass-transit systems. Air[edit]

Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport is the busiest in the region.

Airports in the region are Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport at Yeadon, Robin Hood Airport Doncaster
Doncaster
Sheffield
Sheffield
(which opened in April 2005 on the former RAF Finningley) near Doncaster
Doncaster
and Humberside Airport (which opened in April 1974 on the former RAF Kirmington) near Brigg
Brigg
in North Lincolnshire. Leeds
Leeds
Bradford
Bradford
International Airport is the largest in the region by passenger numbers, Robin Hood boasts the longest runway (2.7 km) of any airport in the region and Humberside Airport
Humberside Airport
boasts an active heliport. Jet2.com, a popular low-cost airline at Leeds- Bradford
Bradford
has around fifty 737 aircraft. Sheffield
Sheffield
Airport formerly served the city of Sheffield. However, the airport struggled to attract many scheduled services and closed following the opening of Robin Hood Doncaster
Doncaster
Sheffield
Sheffield
Airport. Lying outside of the region Durham Tees Valley Airport
Durham Tees Valley Airport
(former RAF Middleton St. George) serves the northernmost areas of the region, being next to the River Tees, and less than a mile from Over Dinsdale on North Yorkshire's northern edge. There are day and night direct rail connections from the region to Manchester Airport.[48] National Express coach services also run directly to London Heathrow Airport from the region. Water[edit]

The Pride of York
York
(MS Norsea) ferry, which operates from Hull, in March 2010; the service to Rotterdam
Rotterdam
began in August 1965 and the service to Gothenburg (Göteborg) started in March 1966

Hull has daily ferries (former North Sea
North Sea
Ferries) to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
(Europoort).[49] Hull also has a large freight port and an active fishing port. Immingham
Immingham
carries much freight transport via DFDS Tor Line and the Stena Line. Goole
Goole
is Britain's most inland port and is used mostly for importing commodities such as coal and timber. The region also has a canal network. The Leeds
Leeds
and Liverpool Canal links West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
with the North West and the Aire and Calder Navigation links Leeds
Leeds
and the coal fields of West and North Yorkshire with the ports to the East of the region. There are also several smaller canals in the region, often built for quite specific purposes. Many stretches of the smaller canals in the region have been backfilled. The steepest locks in Britain are at Bingley
Bingley
– Bingley Five Rise Locks, built by John Longbotham, who designed the canal.

Economy[edit]

The 4GW Drax power station's 850 foot chimney, built in May 1969, is the tallest in the UK; the power station burns 10 million tonnes of coal a year, via 30 trains a day. It has the second-largest electricity output in western Europe, after Neurath Power Station
Neurath Power Station
in western Germany

Until 2011, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Forward was the Regional Development Agency charged with improving the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humber
Humber
economy, where some 270,000 businesses contribute to an economy worth in excess of £80 billion. With over 5 million people living in the region it ranks alongside some small countries including Ireland, Greece, Norway and Singapore.[50] The region has the second lowest rate of GVA in England. However, Leeds
Leeds
has a much higher average GVA than most of South Yorkshire. Business Link
Business Link
Yorkshire[51] until November 2011 was on the Capitol Business Park in Dodworth, west of the M1 near Barnsley
Barnsley
near the bypass (A628). The region's Manufacturing Advisory Service[52] was until March 2016 at Saint Martins House in Potternewton
Potternewton
next to Chapel Allerton Hospital, on the former A61, with two other offices at the Advanced Manufacturing Park, Catcliffe
Catcliffe
off the A630 Sheffield
Sheffield
Parkway, and also on St. Georges Road in the west of Hull; the functions are now represented by the organisation Made in Yorkshire. The UKTI office for the region was off the A653, directly south of Bridgewater Place
Bridgewater Place
in Holbeck, and its successor (in July 2016) DIT Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
is at the Digital Media Centre near Barnsley
Barnsley
Interchange, run by Mark Robson. NHS Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber, the regional strategic health authority, was at the roundabout at the bottom of Kirkstall
Kirkstall
Road in Leeds, with another office in the north of Sheffield. The charity-funded Yorkshire Air Ambulance, established in October 2000, is based at Nostell Priory south-east of Wakefield
Wakefield
on the A638 (previously at Leeds
Leeds
Bradford Airport) and RAF Topcliffe
RAF Topcliffe
(previously until 2012 at Bagby
Bagby
near Thirsk); the helicopter can land on the main hospitals' roofs. The state-funded Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Ambulance Service is based next to Coca-Cola on the Wakefield
Wakefield
41 Business Park, near the A650. National Blood Service for the area is off the A6102 in the north of Sheffield, at the west end of the Northern General Hospital. See also: Category:Mining in South Yorkshire Yorkshire
Yorkshire
in the past has been synonymous with coal mining. Many pits closed in the 1990s, with the last two that were open in the Pontefract
Pontefract
area at Kellingley (closed on 18 December 2015) and Sharlston. In South Yorkshire, there was Maltby Main Colliery and Hatfield Colliery
Hatfield Colliery
(closed in June 2015) at Stainforth. The NUM was very Yorkshire-dominated. Coal
Coal
still plays a part in the economy – there are two large power stations along the Aire Valley, with Drax being the second largest in Europe with 3,945 MW of capacity, and Eggborough which is owned by the Czech Republic's Energetický a průmyslový holding (EPH) since 2014 and was owned by British Energy until 2010; Ferrybridge C closed on 23 March 2016. The distribution area once looked after by the regional electricity company Yorkshire Electricity is now looked after by Northern Powergrid
Northern Powergrid
(former YEDL), owned by Berkshire Hathaway
Berkshire Hathaway
(since 2001) of Omaha, Nebraska. The supply side of the region is now owned by npower (former National Power, now owned by RWE
RWE
of Essen, Germany). 29% of the UK's oil is refined on the Humber.

v t e

Electricity generation
Electricity generation
in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber

Power stations

Biomass

Active

Blackburn Meadows Drax (co-fires, and full biomass) Eggborough (co-fires) Ferrybridge Multifuel (co-fires) Glanford Markham Grange

Proposed/Future

Brigg Stallingborough Templeborough

Closed

ARBRE (Eggborough)

Coal

Active

Drax Eggborough

Closed

Blackburn Meadows Bradford Doncaster Elland Ferrybridge A, B & C Foss Island Huddersfield Keadby Kirkstall Mexborough Neepsend Rotherham Sculcoates Skelton Grange Thornhill Thorpe Marsh Wakefield

Gas

Active

A.H. Marks Castleford Conoco Phillips East Knapton Glanford Brigg Humber
Humber
Energy CHP Immingham Keadby (mothballed) Killingholme A Killingholme B Salt End South Humber
Humber
Bank Thornhill

Hydro

Active

Burley Hydro Linton Lock Hydro River Bain Hydro Ruswarp Hydro Settle

Closed

Linton Falls

Proposed/Future

Linton Falls

Incinerators/Waste

Active

Kirklees Newlincs Sheffield Wheldale

Closed

Foss Island

Proposed

Allerton Park Quarry Ferrybridge Multi-fuel

Wind

Active

Humber
Humber
Gateway Keadby Royd Moor Out Newton Ovenden Moor Rusholme Westermost Rough

Proposed/Future

Dogger Bank Hornsea Sober Hill

Organisations

Drax Group Pre-nationalisation electric power companies Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Electricity

East and North[edit]

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British Steel Limited
British Steel Limited
steelworks at Scunthorpe

See also: List of countries by steel production Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
is where steel is smelted by British Steel Limited
British Steel Limited
(former Corus Group before September 2010 then Tata Steel Europe
Tata Steel Europe
until June 2016) in the east of the town; it is the largest steelworks in the UK. Golden Wonder crisps are made in Frodingham, opposite the steel works (former site of Riley's Potato Crisps); the brand originated in Scotland. Esca Food Solutions (another plant was in Milton Keynes before October 2007) make all the beef patties for McDonald's
McDonald's
in the UK and Ireland at their factory in Crosby in the north-west of the town, processing around 7000 cattle a week – about 12,000 kg an hour; 2.25m cattle are killed in the UK each year. IAC Group (Ecomold before 2008) have a car interiors plant on the Foxhills Ind Est in the north of Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
off the A1077; to the west, Can-Pack UK (parent company in Kraków) is on the Skippingdale Ind Est, and makes alumninium beverage cans; further north, Nisa (retailer)
Nisa (retailer)
have their headquarters on the Normanby Enterprise Park, in Flixborough
Flixborough
off the B1430. Further south on the Foxhills Ind Est towards the A1077, Wren Kitchens have a large factory in a former B&Q warehouse, which closed in 2009; next-door to the north, 2 Sisters Food Group
2 Sisters Food Group
have a large chicken processing plant (Premier Fresh Foods before 2000), built in 1988 as one of the largest plants of its type in Europe, which processes around 1,900,000 chickens per week (370 chickens per minute, and customers include KFC). TSC Foods on the Queensway Ind Estate at the A18/A1029 roundabout in south-east Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
supply many foodservice products (sauces) to most UK pub chains. Caparo Merchant Bar, next to the steel works in Scunthorpe, are the UK's largest producer of merchant bar; nearby is British Steel Wire Rod. Vossloh
Vossloh
Cogifer UK (former Corus Cogifer before 2012), a joint venture of Vossloh
Vossloh
Cogifer (of Reichshoffen) and the former Corus Rail, make railway points to the west of Scunthorpe; Voestalpine
Voestalpine
also make train tracks too at a huge foundry in Austria Pipers Crisps are on a former airfield next to the A15 at Elsham; next door is IG Industries who produce polyethylene films (shrink wrap). There are two large oil refineries west of Immingham, owned by ConocoPhillips
ConocoPhillips
(Jet) and Total. Kimberly-Clark
Kimberly-Clark
made all of its Huggies nappies for Europe at Barton-upon- Humber
Humber
until 2013; since 2016, the site has been the headquarters and factory of Wren Kitchens. Techrete on the B1207 in the north of Hibaldstow, next to the railway line, is the UK's leading maker of architectural precast cladding. County Turf, off the B1207 (Ermine Street) in Appleby made the turf for Wembley Stadium, who replaced Inturf of Wilberfoss. There is a large CEMEX cement plant at Winteringham
Winteringham
off the A1077 at the meeting point of the New River Ancholme
River Ancholme
and the Humber
Humber
(Ferriby Sluice). See also: Industry of the South Humber
Humber
Bank

The 226-acre Novartis
Novartis
Grimsby
Grimsby
in Great Coates, next to the Europarc in the west of Grimsby; it has been there since 1951, firstly as Ciba (Chemical Industry Basel) making sulfathiazole

Grimsby
Grimsby
is home of England's fishing industry (although most fish is transported from the Peterhead
Peterhead
area of Scotland
Scotland
via road), and has many frozen food factories such as Young's Seafood. The seafood industry is worth £1.8 billion to North East Lincolnshire; most of Britain's seafood comes from Grimsby. HMRC in the town centre administers the UK's deregistration of VAT for companies, and the VAT Annual Accounting Scheme. Auto-Trail makes motorhomes on the Europarc, Grimsby, owned by Paris-based Trigano. Wyndeham Gait is a main printer next to the A180/A16 roundabout. Icelandic Seachill, south of the A180 Pyewipe Roundabout, makes McDonald's
McDonald's
Filet-O-Fish. Cardsave
Cardsave
is a merchant account provider. Cofely Fabricom Engie
Engie
(former GDF SUEZ), an engineering consultancy based on the A1173 in Immingham, work in the oil and gas industry, and nearby to the east is a large Knauf
Knauf
plaster board plant. Hydro Agri had an important large fertiliser plant (built by Fisons
Fisons
in 1951) on the side of the railway; now PB Kent and its subsidiary Humber
Humber
Palmers (both owned by Origin Enterprises of Ireland) make fertiliser there. In Healing (former Little Coates) next to the Humber, Lenzing Fibers Grimsby
Grimsby
make Lyocell
Lyocell
(Tencel), where it was first made by Courtaulds in 1988, who owned the site until bought by AkzoNobel
AkzoNobel
in 1998; next door is BASF Performance Products (former Ciba). Nearby to south off the A1136/A180 junction is Europarc, also in Healing, where Kerry Group
Kerry Group
mothballed its frozen food factory in 2012; further to east in the former Little Coates
Little Coates
is Novartis, Dunlop Oil & Marine (owned by Contitech, who make rubber hose). Greenergy have a biodiesel plant at Immingham
Immingham
West Terminal. Grimsby
Grimsby
imports around 500,000 vehicles a year. The area's ports take 15% of Britain's ro-ro cargo; only Dover takes more.

Joseph Rank Ltd in Hull in January 2008

AarhusKarlshamn
AarhusKarlshamn
UK (AAK, edible oils) is at Hull Ferry Terminal. The Valuation Office Agency
Valuation Office Agency
for the north of England
England
is near King George Dock. Smith & Nephew (wound management division) and Reckitt Benckiser medical and household products companies originated in Hull, and still have large factories there. When Reckitt & Colman merged with the Dutch Benckiser in 1999, much production was moved from Hull to Swindon. Heron Frozen Foods is based there near St Andrew's Quay, and Cranswick plc
Cranswick plc
are a food-processing company based in the north of Hull, which makes up-market (Taste the Difference) gourmet sausages for Tesco and Sainsbury's, and The Black Farmer, in West Carr; Cranswick Country Foods have their main poultry processing site off the B1237 in the north of Stoneferry; nearby to the north is Greencore Grocery (birthday cakes & desserts). Maizecor (maize) are in Wincolmlee. Croda Europe has a chemical factory on the north side of the A1165 in Newland next to River Hull; further south in Sculcoates, Crown Paints have a factory on the west side of the River Hull. Walker Group in Hull own Victoria Plumb bathrooms, and the brand MFI. Aunt Bessie's is a large food company in the west of Hull near the A63 and Hessle. Nearby Norbert Dentressangle
Norbert Dentressangle
claim to run the largest pea processing factory in the world[53] at the junction of the A1166 and the Clive Sullivan Way (A63), which has supplied all of Birds Eye's peas since June 2008. Ideal Standard, the plumbing company, now in north Hull next to the Hull–Scarborough line
Hull–Scarborough line
( Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coast Line), was formed in Hull in 1936. Ideal Heating, owned by Stelrad and based nearby, make domestic boilers, and have diversified into air source heat pumps and solar thermal water heaters. Comet, who originated there, had some main offices on George Street. Gamebore Cartridge on the A1165 at Drypool, Hull and Hull Cartridge, on the Acorn Ind Estate north of Ideal, both make shotgun cartridges. Logan Teleflex (former Fabricom Airport Systems, and owned by Daifuku) makes luggage sorting systems near the B1237/A1033 junction in north Hull. KCOM Group
KCOM Group
(former Kingston Communications) is an iconic telecommunications company based next to Hull City Hall. Seven Seas, owned by Merck Group, made cod liver oil and multivitamins (Haliborange) on the A1033 in Marfleet
Marfleet
until 2015; next door is Willerby Holiday Homes, the UK's largest manufacturer of holiday homes; nearby, Paneltex is a group of engineering companies for vehicle bodies, on the Kingston International Park on the A1033, opposite Saltend; next door is Atlas Leisure Homes (in Preston). Humdinger (owned by Zetar) on the A1033 makes branded savoury snacks. Airbath (part of Reva Industries) is in north-east Hull. Fenner Dunlop Europe who claim to be the world's largest conveyor belt manufacturer, in Marfleet, have their own cricket pitch and their Hainsworth Research Centre. BP Saltend (in Preston) is Europe's largest producer of acetic acid, and part of the worldwide BP Acetyls group; next door, Ineos Enterprises makes vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and Vivergo
Vivergo
(bioethanol) is nearby. Fenner PLC is in Hessle. BAE Systems Military Air & Information (former Blackburn Aircraft, and under threat of imminent closure) at Brough is known as the Home of the Hawk, and recently made the Hawk 128, with a fully digital cockpit. Kohler Mira Ltd make showers on the Melton West Business Park, south of the A63. Guardian Industries makes float glass in Goole; Baracuta Clothing, off A614/A161 junction on the Grange Park Ind Estate are owned by Baird Group (former William Baird) of Leeds
Leeds
off Granary Wharf next to Bridgewater Place, which also owns the Racing Green brand. Timloc, part of Alumasc Group, make ventilation for buildings. Croda International, the chemical company, is in East Cowick, near the M62/M18 Langham Interchange. Swift Group in Cottingham are the only UK manufacturer of caravans. Yara UK have a fertiliser blending plant (former Phosyn before 2006) on the A1079 on a former airfield in Barmby Moor. Bridlington
Bridlington
is Europe's largest lobster port. There are many RAF bases in North Yorkshire, close to the A1, Catterick Garrison
Catterick Garrison
is the largest army base in Europe near Richmond, and home of the Infantry Training Centre. The Defence School of Transport Leconfield is near Beverley. RAF Fylingdales
RAF Fylingdales
is an important, though secret, part of NATO's Ballistic Missile Early Warning System; the Emergency Planning College at Easingwold
Easingwold
provided courses to prepare for nuclear war. Dishforth Airfield
Dishforth Airfield
was the first place in the UK to get the Apache helicopter in 2003 for the Army Air Corps, and has had helicopters since 1991, currently having three squadrons of Lynx helicopters. The helicopters train over the North York
York
Moors. 4th Regiment Royal Artillery is at Alanbrooke Barracks (former RAF Topcliffe, and former HQ of 15th Infantry Brigade, which is now at Imphal Barracks). GCHQ (former Composite Signals Organisation) have a site in the west of Scarborough. RAF Leeming
RAF Leeming
is the only RAF station in Northern England
England
that flies jet aircraft; the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Universities Air Squadron flies from RAF Linton-on-Ouse (previously it had flown from RAF Church Fenton
RAF Church Fenton
until 2013).[54] Nestlé
Nestlé
in the UK are based in York, with operations in Halifax. Persimmon plc
Persimmon plc
(the UK's second largest builder of houses, building around 14,000 houses in 2014) is at the A19/A64 Fulford Interchange. The Shepherd Building Group
Shepherd Building Group
(who own Portakabin), and Portasilo, which makes bulk handling equipment such as silos, are in Huntington off the A1036 in the east of York; AlphaGraphics UK are next door (formerly in Seamer), and to Monks Cross retail park. Virgin Trains East Coast (former East Coast until March 2015, then National Express East Coast before November 2009) is near the railway station. Terry's
Terry's
chocolate was closed in September 2005 by its new owner Kraft Foods, and production moved to Poland. Costcutter
Costcutter
is based on the A1079 in Dunnington. Best Western
Best Western
Hotels UK are based at Clifton Without. CPP Group (credit card insurance) are on Holgate Park on the A59 in the north-west of the city centre; Aviva
Aviva
have a large site on Rougier Street (B1227) for equity release, life insurance, and pensions. Rolawn at the Laveracks Ind Est on the B1228 in Elvington is Europe's largest producer of lawn turf, with its Medallion brand being the UK market leader. DBS National Security Vetting is at Imphal Barracks
Imphal Barracks
in Fulford on the A19. Tangerine Confectionery
Tangerine Confectionery
is off the A59, in Acomb Ings in the west of York, which makes toffee and fudge; its old site on Coppergate is now Jorvik Viking Centre; the neighbouring British Sugar plant closed in 2007. Sherbet fountains have been made in York since 1925; the brand was bought by Tangerine from Cadbury in 2008. See also: List of companies in Harrogate Streamline, the UK's main merchant account provider formerly owned by NatWest, is on the B6162 at Harlow Hill in the west of Harrogate; Principal Hotel Company
Principal Hotel Company
UK (hotels), is at Oatlands in the south of the town, where Hein Gericke UK is on Hornbeam Park, next to Harrogate College. Dunlopillo, a world-leading manufacturer of latex foam mattresses was for many years off the A61 at Pannal, south of Harrogate, until 2003, and from 2008 has now been headquartered in Huntingdon
Huntingdon
(Cambs). The Canadian McCain Ltd has been in Scarborough since 1969; Legrand UK make cable management systems at Cayton
Cayton
south of Scarborough on the B1261 next to McCain, and along the road from the coach builder Plaxton. W Boyes & Co (retail) are in Eastfield. Dale Power Solutions, south of the B1261 on the Eastfield Ind Estate, make electrical power supply equipment. Deep Sea Electronics make generator controllers on the Hunmanby
Hunmanby
Industrial Estate, off the A165, south of Filey. Whitby
Whitby
Seafoods Ltd is in Whitby; they are the biggest producer of scampi in the UK, and supply Wetherspoons. Westlers, based on the B1257 in Amotherby
Amotherby
make tinned convenience food, and the MoD's military ration packs (also made by Vestey Foods of Coulsdon
Coulsdon
in London). Dalepak is based in Leeming Bar
Leeming Bar
which is owned by ABP Food Group; Vale of Mowbray
Vale of Mowbray
have made pork pies in Aiskew
Aiskew
since 1928. Reed Boardall have the UK's second largest cold storage site on the west side of the A1 at Boroughbridge
Boroughbridge
(the largest is now in Wisbech
Wisbech
in Cambridgeshire).

Theakston Visitor Centre in Masham

John Smith's Brewery
John Smith's Brewery
is at Tadcaster, owned by Heineken UK, which started brewing Newcastle Brown Ale
Newcastle Brown Ale
in May 2010,[55] and Samuel Smith Brewery. At Masham, there is the Theakston Brewery
Theakston Brewery
and the Black Sheep Brewery. Skipton Building Society
Skipton Building Society
is in Skipton. Silver Cross, the iconic pram manufacturer named after Silver Cross Street in Leeds, is headquartered in Broughton at the junction of the A59 and A56 west of Skipton, although its Heritage prams are made in Bingley
Bingley
(most are made overseas). Next to Bentham railway station
Bentham railway station
(close to the Lancashire boundary) Kidde
Kidde
Products UK make foam fire extinguishers. Quorn
Quorn
is made in Stokesley
Stokesley
by Marlow Foods. The Rural Payments Agency have a main office at Northallerton. Econ Engineering
Econ Engineering
on the A61 Ripon bypass near the B6265 roundabout are Britain's leading manufacturer of salt gritters. Severfield
Severfield
is at Topcliffe on the east side of the A168, on a former airfield; they built the Olympic International Broadcast Centre in London. At another former airfield at Tockwith, further south, Stage One built the Olympic Cauldron, the glowing Olympic Rings, and the aerial stage objects.

Optare
Optare
bus factory in North Yorkshire, off the B1222

Austin Reed, who own Viyella, was on the A61 at the western end of Thirsk Racecourse until 2016. Slingsby Aviation
Slingsby Aviation
make gliders and planes in Kirkbymoorside, on the A170. Perry Slingsby Systems (part of Forum Energy Technologies), next to Slingsby make remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs), who have helped to develop the NATO Submarine Rescue System. Karro Food Group based at Malton, are a pork processor, formerly part of Vion NV. South of Selby, Saint-Gobain Glass UK (Solaglas) has made float glass for low emissivity windows since 2000 next to the A19 at the A645 roundabout, directly south of the Eggborough power station. Optare
Optare
make buses on a large industrial estate in Sherburn-in-Elmet
Sherburn-in-Elmet
(previously in Cross Gates
Cross Gates
in Leeds
Leeds
before May 2011), and have been part of Hinduja Group
Hinduja Group
since 2012. West and South[edit]

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See also: Economy of Leeds
Leeds
and List of companies based in Leeds

Asda's Headquarters, Asda
Asda
House in Leeds; Asda
Asda
was the UK's second largest supermarket until 2014, and is now third; Asda
Asda
turned over £23.3bn in 2015, and is the region's largest company

Leeds
Leeds
is now a centre of financial services companies,[56][57] with Direct Line[58] and First Direct[59] based there, as well as Asda,[60] Arla Foods UK (maker of Lurpak
Lurpak
and Anchor butter) in Stourton near the A639 junction 44 of the M1 (formerly in Kirkstall
Kirkstall
near Yorkshire Television). The Green Flag roadside recovery firm has its main call centre (in Farsley). HSBC
HSBC
opened their first UK call centre in the city, taking advantage of its advanced communications network which also led to the founding of Freeserve
Freeserve
in Leeds. The Department of Health has a large administration operation at Quarry House, a local landmark. The Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission
Child Maintenance and Enforcement Commission
was at One Leeds
Leeds
City Office Park until 2012, off the A653 south of Bridgewater Place. The NHS Appointments Commission
NHS Appointments Commission
and former NHS Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
were next to the north side of the A65 at the A58(M) junction near the former Park Lane College, where further east along the A58 is the Callcredit credit reference agency, and on the opposite side of the inner ring-road from the Skills for Care sector skills council. The Waddingtons board game company was founded in Leeds, as was the Burton tailoring company (the Burton Group became the Arcadia Group) and M & S. The Tetley's Brewery
Tetley's Brewery
closed in 2011 and moved operations to Northampton (Carlsberg). Aramark
Aramark
UK is in West Park, Leeds, in the north of the city, off the ring road. The British Library
British Library
is sited at Thorpe Arch near Wetherby, home of Goldenfry. Dr. Oetker
Dr. Oetker
products are made at Colton near M1 junction 46 and Sherburn-in-Elmet; at Thorpe Park Business Park in the east of Leeds
Leeds
(Austhorpe) also is Northern Gas Networks
Northern Gas Networks
and Republic (retailer). Ellie Louise, a clothes retailer, is at Sturton Grange north of Garforth
Garforth
on the A642, south of M1 junction 47 on the Helios 47 Ind Estate, near Ginetta Cars. Unilever
Unilever
Leeds
Leeds
(former Gibbs Proprietaries from 1965, then Elida Gibbs from 1971, then Elida Fabergé) have their aerosol division at Whinmoor, in north-east Leeds, administrated by Lever Fabergé. It claims to be the largest aerosol factory in the world, and has their research centre, and makes Impulse, Lynx, Dove and Sure. Agfa Graphics (Belgian) have their only UK factory next to Fabergé in Whinmoor, making computer to plate offset printers; 85% of the world's banknotes are printed with the parent company's technology. Nearby in Seacroft is Komori
Komori
UK (printing presses). Symington's make breakfast cereals on the Thornes Farm Business Park, near the A63 (M1 junction 45). Daniels Group, makers of New Covent Garden Food Company soups (made on the Europarc, Grimsby), are on the Acorn Business Park, off the A64, next to the Asda
Asda
at Killingbeck. Sound Leisure is the UK's leading manufacturer of juke boxes. WABCO Vehicle Control Systems UK (air brakes) is in Morley, and QHotels are on Bruntcliffe Road (A650) in Bruntcliffe. East of Morley off the A6110 is DePuy
DePuy
International (orthopaedics). Hermes Europe (former Parcelnet before 2009, which was Directline and Speedlink before 1999), based at Capitol Park on the A650 at Topcliffe, is the UK's largest home delivery company, and is part of Grattan's parent company. ATB Morley, on the B6157 next to the Owlcotes Centre and owned by Antriebstechnik AG, make electric motors. Further along the B6157 from ATB Morley at the junction with B6155, Hainsworth makes speciality textiles such as military uniforms and in 1975 produced the first Nomex
Nomex
flame-retardant flight suits for fast-jet pilots in the UK; their TITAN outfit is used by riot police and firefighters, with ceremonial fabrics made from worsted barathea, and uniform caps for the Household Division, and uniforms for others such as London Underground. Clariant
Clariant
UK, the chemical company, was in Yeadon, with a factory in Horsforth; Brenntag
Brenntag
UK is based at the A65/A658 junction at Rawdon Park in Yeadon (former Albion Chemicals before 2006) next to the fire station. EMIS Health are off the A658 in central Yeadon, and are a main supplier of GP computer systems. Craftsman Tools on the A659 in Otley make toolholding systems and fixtures. Sinclairs make the Silvine brand of stationery at Otley. Allied Glass based in south Leeds
Leeds
at the A61/A639 junction, and also has a main plant at Knottingley
Knottingley
east of town on the A645, makes glass bottles for whisky. Toggi outdoor clothing (equestrian) is at Confederation Park at the M621 junction 2 with the A643, and with Champion who make riding hats and body protectors; 600 Group, based near junction 2 of the M621, are the world's biggest manufacturer of manual and CNC lathes; it makes Colchester-Harrison lathes, and Pratt Burnerd International lathe-chucks with a lathe factory at Heckmondwike. Oliver Douglas, on the Tong Road Ind Estate off the B6154 in Wortley, make industrial (catering) washing machines. Perry Uniform makes many school uniforms for many independent schools next to the railway off the B6154 in Upper Armley. Sulzer Pumps UK have a large manufacturing facility on the A6110 near the A643 roundabout. Pland Stainless make large sinks for laboratories and hospitals. Leeds
Leeds
is the second largest manufacturing city in the UK, after London. See also: List of companies based in Bradford Morrisons
Morrisons
is based in Bradford; it has 132,000 staff and opened its first supermarket in 1961 in a converted cinema; it turned over £17.6bn in 2015, and is the region's second largest company. Also in Bradford
Bradford
are Club 18-30, Provident Financial, Seabrook Potato Crisps, Safestyle UK, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Building Society, Stylo, the Grattan (owned by Otto GmbH
Otto GmbH
since 2000)[61] catalogue retailer, and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Water. Santander UK
Santander UK
(former Abbey) has its savings division there. The Halifax bank (former Building Society) is based in Halifax, the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Bank (owned by CYBG plc
CYBG plc
and the National Australia Bank) and Leeds
Leeds
Building Society in Leeds, and with UK Asset Resolution
UK Asset Resolution
(former Bradford
Bradford
& Bingley) and NRAM Limited
NRAM Limited
(former Northern Rock) in Crossflatts. The area between Leeds, Bradford
Bradford
and Wakefield
Wakefield
is known as the Rhubarb Triangle.

Hallmark Cards
Hallmark Cards
UK factory off the A650 (Tong Street), the view on Dawson Lane

Empire Stores of Bradford
Bradford
was Britain's first mail order firm in 1890, bought by Redcats
Redcats
UK (French) and closed in 2009; it is now the site of Redcats
Redcats
UK in the north of the town centre. BASF Performance Products ( Ciba Specialty Chemicals until 2008, then Allied Colloids before 1997) is in Low Moor; it makes many chemicals including thickening agents. Bowers Metrology Group, on the B6381 near the junction with A6177 at Bradford
Bradford
Moor, are a leading measuring instruments company, and part of Spear & Jackson. Equifax
Equifax
is off the A650 in central Bradford, opposite the Leisure Exchange; next door RBS Group have a call centre. Federal-Mogul, off the A650 in east Bradford, makes automotive parts (gudgeon pins and pistons). Princes Soft Drinks have their main factory south of the A650 at Tong Street; Next have a large warehouse nearby. BorgWarner
BorgWarner
Turbo Systems make automotive turbochargers (including variable-geometry turbochargers) on the Euroway Ind Est off the M606, and produces around 750,000 a year; Jacuzzi UK is nearby. Knightsbridge Furniture is on the B6165 in Lister Hills. Nufarm UK (A H Marks before 2008), make chemicals for phenoxy herbicides, between Wyke
Wyke
and Oakenshaw. Hield
Hield
(luxury clothing) is in Trident parish, south of the city centre. Pace plc
Pace plc
(owned since 2016 by Arris International) in Saltaire
Saltaire
is the global market leader in set-top boxes; Pace bought part of Acorn, and based its set top boxes on the RISC OS, which it owned. Denso
Denso
Marston Ltd make car radiators in Shipley; HMRC (former Inland Revenue) have their main national payments office (HMRC Accounts Office) between the River Aire
River Aire
and the Leeds
Leeds
Liverpool canal at Shipley, opposite Salt's Mill, in a hexagonal building; CarnaudMetalbox Engineering (owned by Crown Holdings) are based off the A6038, and make metal canning machines. Anetic Aid is on Baildon
Baildon
Business Park on the A6038, and make operating theatre equipment (in Portsmouth). Brook Taverner is Europe's largest corporate clothing supplier in Ingrow, off the A629. Cinetic Landis UK, at Cross Hills
Cross Hills
on the B6265, make CNC-controlled grinding machines.

Cat's eyes, invented in Halifax in 1933

Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd, where cat's eyes were invented by Percy Shaw, are in Boothtown, in the north of Halifax. Rhodia Novecare UK are at Holywell Green, south of Halifax, and make surfactants for cosmetics; to the north sia Fibral make non-woven abrasives at Greetland
Greetland
off the B6114 (which leads to the Scammonden Bridge) with the company's UK HQ in Brighouse. Gower Furniture (owned by Nobia) is north-east of Halifax in Holmfield in Bradshaw. McVitie's
McVitie's
Cake Company (Jamaica Ginger and Lyle's Golden Syrup cakes, and HobNob flapjacks) is in west Halifax. Timeform
Timeform
(horse racecards) are near the A58/A629 roundabout in the north of the town centre and the A58 bridge over Hebble Brook. Crosslee plc, south of Hipperholme
Hipperholme
on the A644 towards Brighouse, is Europe's largest independent tumble dryer manufacturer, under the White Knight brand. Calrec Audio, an electronics firm that makes mixing desks, are on the A6033 at Nutclough, Hebden Bridge. Cressi-Sub
Cressi-Sub
UK (scuba gear) are at Atlas Mill, Brighouse; Kent Introl (control valves) are in the east of Brighouse
Brighouse
off the A644. Bedford Shelving are to the west. Marshalls plc
Marshalls plc
(paving stones) are next to the River Calder in Elland
Elland
and Arran Isle (hardware), near Suma Foods. Terberg DTS UK, supply its own distribution tractors and Schopf aircraft tow tractors from Lowfields Business Park, next to the River Calder off the A629 in Elland; nearby Weir Power & Industrial make Hopkinson and Batley
Batley
brands of valves. Fox's Biscuits
Fox's Biscuits
(part of Northern Foods) and Cattles are in Batley; HSL Manufacturing (High Seat Ltd) are on Grange Road Ind Est (B6128) in the east of Batley, north of Hanging Heaton. Rohm and Haas
Rohm and Haas
UK (former Morton International, making chemicals) is on the B6117 in Dewsbury Moor, on the south edge of Heckmondwike. Birkby’s Plastics make automotive components in Liversedge, and was the first company in the UK to mould plastic in the First World War. Rieter
Rieter
Automotive make car furnishings on the A638 in Heckmondwike. TMD Friction make brake pads (Mintex part of BBA) off the A638 at Chain Bar, Cleckheaton; Tangerine Confectionery (Lion Confectionery) is on the A643. Status International UK (lightbulbs) is in the centre of Cleckheaton. Mars Complementary Petcare is off the A62 on the Oakwell Way Ind Estate at Birstall, next to Birstall Shopping Park; nearby is Pitchero, a sports website firm. Poundstretcher
Poundstretcher
is in Deighton east of Huddersfield.

Syngenta (former ICI Organics, then Zeneca
Zeneca
Agrochemicals until 1993) works on the A62 in Huddersfield; it makes herbicides and cyhalothrin insecticide

David Brown Ltd.
David Brown Ltd.
is in Lockwood in Huddersfield; this company owned Aston Martin
Aston Martin
from 1947 to 1972 and the company is now part of Textron. In Huddersfield
Huddersfield
are Cummins
Cummins
Turbo Technologies (former Holset) who make turbochargers, VTL Group make automotive components, Fired Up Group who own Armco Security and Corby of Windsor (trouser press), Brook Crompton (electric motors) and Graham Group (plumbing retail). To the east of Fired Up is Britannia Rescue (owned by LV) at the A616/B6432 junction. Broadbent, make industrial centrifuges in central Huddersfield. Many fabric companies are in Huddersfield
Huddersfield
and the surrounding areas; Taylor & Lodge, owned by Bulmer & Lumb of Bradford, wove cloth for the 2011 Royal Wedding; Dugdale Bros & Co are in the centre. Novaglaze produced the glass for the London Eye. Trojan Plastics is the UK's largest bath manufacturer in Milnsbridge in west Huddersfield
Huddersfield
next to the River Colne. Thornton & Ross healthcare is on the A62 next to the River Colne in Linthwaite. Dathan Tool & Gauge (cutting tools) are in Meltham. John Cotton at the A62/A644 junction in Mirfield
Mirfield
are Europe's largest producer of duvets. Camira Fabrics (fabrics for public transport) is based at Hopton Mills, south of Mirfield, with a manufacturing site off the B6108 in the east of Meltham, and makes the upholstery for London buses; further north next to River Calder is a site of Dr. Reddy's Laboratories in the south of Mirfield. Overlooked by the Emley Moor tower at the Grange Moor
Grange Moor
Roundabout off the A637 and A642 (towards Wakefield) at Grange Moor
Grange Moor
in Kirkburton
Kirkburton
is Bonmarché, previously owned by Peacocks until 2012.

Haribo
Haribo
factory in Pontefract
Pontefract
on the A639 in the centre of the town near Tanshelf station

Hickson & Welch (owned by Arch Chemicals) were in Castleford
Castleford
and closed in 2005. Netto UK
Netto UK
(previously owned by Asda) was in South Elmsall until 2011. Nestle made Toffee Crisp
Toffee Crisp
and After Eight
After Eight
in Castleford
Castleford
until 2012 then made in Halifax, and Haribo
Haribo
makes liquorice and Pontefract
Pontefract
cakes in Pontefract. Burberry
Burberry
had a main clothing factory in Castleford
Castleford
until the end of 2015, which is planned to move to Leeds. Cott Beverages are between the A645 and the railway in the east of Pontefract
Pontefract
(former Benjamin Shaw & Sons before 2006); Tangerine Confectionery
Tangerine Confectionery
(former Cadbury-owned Monkhill Confectionery) make Butterkist (the UK's best-selling) popcorn north of Cott Beverages, near Pontefract
Pontefract
Monkhill railway station, on the site which claims to be the birthplace of liquorice. Ardagh Glass UK is in the south of Knottingley, with sites at Monk Bretton
Monk Bretton
and Wheatley (Doncaster). Stölzle Flaconnage (former Bagley's before 1994) makes glass containers, between the A645 and the Aire and Calder Navigation, and further along the A645, Tradebe recycle solvents. Total Lubricants UK is in Knottingley
Knottingley
(Ferrybridge Hill) on the B6136. Plasmor (concrete) is in the south-east of Knottingley, with a large site at Great Heck
Great Heck
next to a former airfield where H+H (Danish) make aircrete; both sites imported pulverised fuel ash (PFA) from the former Eggborough power station; in east Knottingley, off the A645, Croda Hydrocarbons (bitumen) closed in 2008.

Former Castleford
Castleford
Nestlé
Nestlé
factory in 2008

Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries
UK is next to the M62 at Castleford, near Glasshoughton railway station. LPA Group off the A655 in Hopetown, Normanton makes LED lighting for trains; Poundworld
Poundworld
was founded on a Wakefield
Wakefield
market in 1974, and the family-owned company has 240 shops. To the west, Napier Brown (part of Real Good Food) makes Whitworths' sugar in Hopetown. On the other side of the M62 (junction 31) in Whitwood, Pioneer Technology UK closed their large plasma TV factory in March 2009. Coca-Cola UK claim to have the largest soft drinks factory in the world at its 41-acre site, with 71,000 sq metres of buildings, at Outwood, which was built in 1989, and produces 6,000 cans (over 100 cans a second, on three canning lines) and 3,300 bottles a minute (seven PET bottling lines, the fastest 2 litre bottling plant in the world), producing 100 million cases of soft drinks a year; the bottle caps are made out of HDPE. To keep up with supply, Rexam
Rexam
have a can factory next door. Nearby is the headquarters of Card Factory, with over 800 shops is Britain's biggest card shop chain and started in 1997; opposite is the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Purchasing Organisation, which buys stock for most of the region's metropolitan boroughs and North Yorkshire, on south-west side of Wakefield
Wakefield
41. On the other side of the roundabout is Mitre Sports International. Morrisons
Morrisons
have their Rathbones Bakeries on Wakefield
Wakefield
41. Group Rhodes off the A638 in east Wakefield, make machine cells. On the Flanshaw Ind Est in west Wakefield
Wakefield
is Technal
Technal
(aluminium facades) and Wicona, part of Norsk Hydro. Bombardier built trains at Horbury until 2006 where they made CrossCountry's Class 221 Super Voyager and Class 220 Voyager (and were also assembled at the BN plant in Bruges, Belgium and Crespin in France, the former ANF Industrie). Northern Foods are now based at Trinity Business Park off the A636 south of Wakefield
Wakefield
town centre. Wakefield
Wakefield
Shirt Group is next to the River Calder. Double TWO shirts are based off the A638 in central Wakefield. Nooter/Eriksen UK is off the A636 next to Denby Dale
Denby Dale
railway station, and produce heat recovery steam generator (HRSGs) See also: Economy of Sheffield
Sheffield
and List of companies in Sheffield

Chesterfield Special
Special
Cylinders, directly north of Meadowhall on the B6082, on the former site of the historic Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Engine Company

Sheffield
Sheffield
is known for its steel industry, which has declined in recent years. Outokumpu
Outokumpu
(former British Steel plc Stainless) near the Tinsley Viaduct
Tinsley Viaduct
make stainless steel, just north of the former airport, with access via the A631. Polestar is on the A631 in former Brinsworth, now in Sheffield
Sheffield
(Tinsley).On the opposite side of the A631 is Betafence UK, part of the world's main fencing manufacturer, and its second biggest plant; near the start of the A631 is Tuffnells Parcel Express (owned by Connect Group
Connect Group
since 2014). Nearby, Nederman UK make fume extraction equipment. Durham Duplex and High Speed and Carbide make razor blades and industrial knives on the B6082 in Wood Hill. Nearby Davy Markham (owned by IVRCL) on the A6102 at Darnall, fabricate steel and it has one of largest engineering workshops in western Europe. In the same area is William Cook Cast Products.

Gripple
Gripple
factory on the A6109 in Burngreave

Egginton make cutlery in Netherthorpe, in the St Vincent's Quarter east of the Shalesmoor A61 roundabout, which owns Ibberson, George Wostenholm, William Rodgers (who make the Fairbairn–Sykes fighting knife), and Joseph Rodgers, the world's oldest brand of cutlery known for their pen-knives and military knives. Magtec, on the B6083 in Brightside next to the River Don, makes diesel-electric hybrid drive systems that can be retro-fitted to vehicles. Technicut is the UK's market leader in rotary cutting tools on the A6178 in Brightside. Arconic
Arconic
Forgings is at Carbrook off the A6102. Gripple
Gripple
make connectors for wire fences. British Silverware is off the A6109, in the industrial area. SCX Group in Wincobank built the rectractable-roof for the No. 1 Court (Wimbledon). Polestar, at Tinsley off the A631 next to the M1, claim to have the most advanced gravure printing plant in Europe. Tinsley Bridge off the A631 makes suspension springs and torsion bars. SIG plc
SIG plc
(Europe's largest insulation distributor) and Stanley Tools UK are at the former city airport, with a manufacturing plant off the A631 on the Hellaby
Hellaby
Ind Estate next to the M18, and had a former site on the B6075 in Sheffield. Siemens VAI
Siemens VAI
UK is on Sheffield
Sheffield
Business Park near the former airport, with EVO Group, who own the Banner stationery company, and Ansys
Ansys
(Fluent and CFX CFD software) has one of two main offices. Go Outdoors, owned by JD Sports since 2016, are in the south of Sheffield, near Bramall Lane
Bramall Lane
off the A61; Hi Gear Products, their brand is on the Boston Street Ind Est.

Cadbury Trebor Bassett at the former Bassett's
Bassett's
factory in Owlerton

Cadbury UK
Cadbury UK
(formerly Bassett's) make liquorice allsorts in the north of Sheffield
Sheffield
on the A61 next-door to Owlerton
Owlerton
Stadium; it is Cadbury's Gum & Liquorice division, and also makes Belvita
Belvita
and Oreo
Oreo
for UK market. Swann Morton
Swann Morton
is a world-leading manufacturer of scalpel blades and medical equipment at Owlerton
Owlerton
opposite Bassetts on the A61. Plusnet
Plusnet
(owned by BT), learndirect (owned by Ufi Ltd), Online Centres Network, and Jobcentre Plus
Jobcentre Plus
are in the city centre. Virgin Media have a main contact centre (former Telewest) directly south of Don Valley Stadium, and next to the tram line. Spear & Jackson, the garden tool company, are in the north of Sheffield. B. Braun Medical is at High Green, next to the A616 roundabout in Chapeltown, and Ronseal (owned by Sherwin-Williams) is nearby further south on northern edge of Chapeltown. MachineWorks in Sheffield
Sheffield
is the leading developer of CNC simulation on the B6069 near Sheffield
Sheffield
Botanical Gardens.

Liberty Speciality Steels Primary Mill continuous casting site in Aldwarke
Aldwarke
(Rotherham) in December 2007

Rosebys
Rosebys
were in Rotherham, before 2008, and KP make their nuts in Eastwood, to the north of the town. MTL Group, a steel fabrication company, is based off the A631 in Brinsworth
Brinsworth
who claim to have the largest press brake in the world (made by Ursviken). Swinden House is home of Liberty Speciality Steels's main Swinden Technology Centre, its main R&D centre in the UK, opposite Rotherham
Rotherham
General Hospital on the A618. Brinsworth
Brinsworth
Strip Mills, run by Liberty Speciality Steels (former Corus Steel Narrow Strip), is opposite the Magna museum, south of the A6178, and makes narrow strip steel. The Primary Mill makes steel billets and blooms – continuous casting with an electric arc furnace with a melting shop, and is also known as Aldwarke
Aldwarke
Works. Thrybergh Mill is east of the river off the A630, making steel bar, in a rolling mill. The Brightbar Mill is off the A6123, on the west side of the railway next to Rawmarsh, making coiled bar, in a rolling mill. These three sites around are known as Rotherham
Rotherham
Works.[62] Beatson Clark (owned by Newship Group) makes glass containers off the A6123 north of Rotherham
Rotherham
Central railway station. Dormer Tools UK (owned by Sandvik) is on Waverley Business Park (Advanced Manufacturing Park) in Catcliffe, off the B6066 next to Morrisons. LuK UK (owned by the Schaeffler Group) make clutches at Wales, south of Aston near the M1 junction 31 with the A57. Jeld-Wen UK (former Boulton & Paul) make doors on Swallownest
Swallownest
Ind Est on the B6200 in Aston cum Aughton. Laycast were nearby until November 2006, based off the B6200 at Aston cum Aughton, at which steel flywheels, vibration dampers and compacted graphite iron clutch plates were cast at its foundry. Kiveton Park Steel is on the B6059 next to Kiveton Park railway station, mostly in North and South Anston
North and South Anston
(east of Wales).

Macalloy threaded tension bar at Mariinsky Theatre
Mariinsky Theatre
in Russia

Macalloy in Dinnington is a world-leader in threaded tension bar. Fresh-Pak Chilled Foods, off the A633 at Waterside Park, Wombwell, make most of the egg mayonnaise (250 tonnes a week) found in British sandwiches and for sandwich fillers.[63] Morphy Richards
Morphy Richards
and Roberts Radio
Roberts Radio
are based between Swinton and Mexborough. Maplin Electronics is based on the former site of Manvers Main Colliery in Wath-upon-Dearne, off the A6023, with the call centre of EE (former Orange) broadband next door. The UK Commission for Employment and Skills (Sector Skills Councils) is nearby, next to Dearne Valley College, which also looks after Investors in People. Stelrad in Swinton Bridge is the UK's largest producer of domestic radiators, producing 2.5 million a year, and Europe's leading radiator company, based off the A6022. MGB Plastics, on the A6123 in north Rotherham
Rotherham
on Barbot Hall Ind Estate, are the UK's largest manufacturer of wheelie bins, making around 1 million per year.

ASOS distribution centre (former Prologis
Prologis
before 2010) being built in 2006 at Little Houghton

North-east of Barnsley
Barnsley
is Ardagh Glass at Monk Bretton. Slightly further north is Mr Kipling at Carlton; the site was Lyons Cakes (making their Battenberg cakes, Viennese Whirls and Swiss rolls) before April 1995, then RHM's Manor Bakeries until 2007, and makes their exceedingly good fruit pies; one million chocolate yule logs are made there and it is the largest mince pie factory in the world. Jack Fulton (Frozen Value Ltd) is next to the railway, off the A637 at Darton. Wharncliffe Publishing are in Barnsley, and to the east on the A628 in Oakwell, Potters Europe (former Ballotini) make glass microspheres for road reflectors. Galpharm International (bought by Perrigo
Perrigo
in January 2008) and Koyo Bearings are at Dodworth
Dodworth
near Barnsley. BRC on the Claycliffe Ind Estate, off the A637 in the north of Barnsley, makes rebar (steel reinforcement). Naylor Industries, off the B6096 between Wombwell
Wombwell
and Darfield make earthenware pipes for drainage. Kostal UK make steering column switches and electrical connectors off the A635 at Highgate in Goldthorpe. On the A6195 Grimethorpe
Grimethorpe
Bypass at Little Houghton is the NDC of ASOS.com, in the Dearne Valley, near the former site of Houghton Main Colliery. Lotus Professional (owned since 2012 by SCA) is off the A6102 north of Oughtibridge, north-west of Sheffield, in Wortley. DFS is at Adwick le Street
Adwick le Street
near the A1/A638 junction. Crompton Lighting have their main factory in Wheatley Park on the A630 in north-east Doncaster. Unipart Rail have a headquarters next to Wabtec Rail, who make railway air brakes, off the A6182 near Potteric Carr
Potteric Carr
at the J3 Business Park, near VolkerRail; nearby are two Amazon fulfilment centres, with another at the Doncaster
Doncaster
iPort in Rossington. Relate (former Marriage Guidance Council) is based off the A6182 – and on same site VolkerRail
VolkerRail
Doncaster
Doncaster
is next to DB Cargo UK
DB Cargo UK
(former EWS), Schenck Process UK, and Thales have a data centre next door. Webasto have their UK headquarters next to Lakeside Village, Doncaster on the A6182, and make sunroofs and air-conditioning systems. McCormick Tractors
McCormick Tractors
had a tractor plant in Doncaster
Doncaster
until 2007. Bridon International, a world-leading manufacturer of wire ropes (part of Melrose Industries), are based at Balby Carr, off St Catherines Interchange junction 3 of the M18, and Montracon (vehicle trailers) are headquartered there, with a manufacturing site at Market Weighton; nearby are Darfen Durafencing have been trading for over 100 years, and are the market leader in permanent fencing. Pegler Yorkshire (owned by Aalberts Industries) are near the A630 in Balby Carr, further along from Bridon, with MSI-Quality Forgings opposite with Global-MSI who manufacture petrol station forecourts. Polypipe
Polypipe
(uPVC pipes) is in Edlington. CME Sanitary Systems in Warmsworth
Warmsworth
(a former division of Polypipe, now owned by Wirquin of France) makes the UK's best selling plastic toilet seats off the Warmsworth
Warmsworth
Interchange of the A1(M). Fellowes UK (stationery) is based on West Moor Park, off West Moor Interchange junction 4 of the M18 (A630) in Armthorpe. Wirquin UK (plumbing) is off the B6376 in Warmsworth. Sport[edit] See also: Sport in England
England
and Sport in Sheffield The English Institute of Sport is situated in north-east Sheffield, towards Tinsley Viaduct; it is the home of many indoor national sports teams, and Basketball England. The Sports Turf Research Institute, off the B6459 at Bingley
Bingley
St Ives in Harden, west of Bingley, is the world authority on natural and artificial sports turf. Sheffield
Sheffield
is the home of UK climbing, being near the Peak District, and most well-known climbs are at Malham Cove, Kilnsey
Kilnsey
and Gordale. Football[edit] The region is home to numerous Premier League
Premier League
and Football League clubs. Leeds
Leeds
United, Sheffield
Sheffield
Wednesday, Sheffield
Sheffield
United and Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Town are the most successful clubs in the region in terms of trophies won, each winning 9, 9, 5 and 4 major trophies respectively. Leeds
Leeds
United are the most successful club in terms of European appearances and success, they have also been the UEFA coefficient Top Club on 3 occasions, more than any other English club. Sheffield
Sheffield
F.C., founded in October 1857, is the world's oldest football club still in existence; they play in the Evo-Stik Northern Premier League. The world's first inter-club match took place on 26 December 1860 between this club and Hallam F.C.. Herbert Chapman introduced numbered shirts. The Sheffield
Sheffield
Rules introduced free-kicks, corners and throw-ins. On 9 May 1867 Thomas Hogg and James Hogg from Skelton introduced football to South America in Argentina, founding Buenos Aires Football Club. Here is a list of the Football League
Football League
clubs in the region ranked in their final league position in the 2016–17 season.

Hull City, 18th in the Premier League
Premier League
demoted to the Championship. Sheffield
Sheffield
Wednesday, 4th in the Championship. Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Town, 5th in the Championship promoted to the Premier League via play-offs. Leeds
Leeds
United, 7th in the Championship. Barnsley, 14th in the Championship. Rotherham
Rotherham
United, 24th in the Championship relegated to League One. Sheffield
Sheffield
United, 1st in League One promoted to the Championship. Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
United, 3rd in League One. Bradford
Bradford
City, 5th in League One. Doncaster
Doncaster
Rovers, 3rd in League Two promoted to League One. Grimsby
Grimsby
Town, 14th in League Two.

Rugby League[edit] See also: History of rugby league The area, similar to north Cheshire
Cheshire
and parts of Greater Manchester (along the M62), is synonymous with rugby league. Tanya Arnold, presents the BBC rugby league programme Super League Show, broadcast nationwide from Leeds. On 22 August 1895 at the George Hotel in Huddersfield, twenty-two northern rugby clubs formed the Rugby Football League; the RFL is now based in the north-east of Leeds. Local teams are:

Batley
Batley
Bulldogs Bradford
Bradford
Bulls Castleford
Castleford
Tigers Dewsbury
Dewsbury
Rams Doncaster Featherstone
Featherstone
Rovers Halifax Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Giants Hull F.C. Hull Kingston Rovers Hunslet Keighley
Keighley
Cougars Leeds
Leeds
Rhinos Sheffield
Sheffield
Eagles Wakefield
Wakefield
Trinity Wildcats York
York
City Knights

Horse racing[edit] The St Leger Stakes, at Doncaster
Doncaster
Racecourse, is the world's oldest classic horse race, first run in 1776, founded by Major-General Anthony St. Leger; the Doncaster
Doncaster
Cup, first run in 1766, is the world's oldest continuing regulated horse race. Cricket[edit] Jim Laker, of Saltaire, took 46 wickets in a 5-test series, a record. Education[edit] There are 15 local education authorities in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humber region.[64] The schools in each authority are listed in the following –

South Hunsley School

List of schools in Barnsley List of schools in Bradford List of schools in Calderdale List of schools in Doncaster List of schools in the East Riding of Yorkshire List of schools in Hull List of schools in Kirklees List of schools in Leeds List of schools in North East Lincolnshire List of schools in North Lincolnshire List of schools in North Yorkshire List of schools in Rotherham List of schools in Sheffield List of schools in Wakefield List of schools in York

Secondary education[edit] Schools are mostly comprehensive, with some grammar schools in North Yorkshire, Calderdale
Calderdale
and Kirklees.[65] There are around 235,000 at the region's secondary schools, the 4th lowest for English regions. The region has the highest overall truancy rate in England
England
for both urban and rural areas. Inside the region for districts, Leeds
Leeds
has the highest rate with 6.9% persistent truants at secondary school, then Hull is second with 6.3%. Calderdale
Calderdale
has the lowest truancy rate for unitary authorities, almost half that of Leeds, followed by North Lincolnshire. For districts Craven
Craven
has the lowest rate. The schools in Hull have often performed among the worst (on average) in England
England
at GCSE[66] after Knowsley in Merseyside. To Hull's credit, three schools in its LEA get above-average GCSE results whereas Knowsley usually has none (it managed two in 2010). Also at GCSE, schools in Barnsley
Barnsley
and Bradford
Bradford
have low-achieving results with Barnsley
Barnsley
the worst of these, and the lowest in the region in 2010. All three of these areas coincidentally have an above-average teenage pregnancy problem. In past years, Doncaster
Doncaster
would be included in this group, but has managed to perform much better. For the metropolitan areas, Calderdale
Calderdale
and Wakefield
Wakefield
consistently perform the best, with both above the England
England
average. Rotherham
Rotherham
usually has the best results in South Yorkshire, but in 2010 it was Doncaster. York
York
and North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
consistently perform the best at GCSE in the region, and with the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
have results above the UK average. Schoolchildren in Kingston upon Hull
Kingston upon Hull
are most likely not to pass any GCSEs – over 6% with Bradford
Bradford
having a similar proportion, closely followed by Sheffield
Sheffield
and North East Lincolnshire. The East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and North Lincolnshire
North Lincolnshire
have the fewest not passing any GCSEs, followed by York. For OFSTED inspections across England, the region has the highest proportion of schools (2.7%) with bad behaviour and the lowest proportion (16.3%) of schools with good behaviour. South West England has the best behaving schoolchildren. Inside the region, Hull has the highest proportion (16.7%) of schools with bad behaviour – the worst in England
England
(Wandsworth and Bristol come joint second) – and York schools have the highest proportion (30%) of schools with outstanding behaviour. At A-level North Lincolnshire, Kirklees, Hull, York
York
and North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
perform quite well with Kirklees
Kirklees
consistently being the best by a large margin and one of the highest in England, all having results above the England
England
average. Wakefield
Wakefield
and Calderdale
Calderdale
were also close to the England
England
average. The excellent Kirklees
Kirklees
result is due to Greenhead College
Greenhead College
in Huddersfield, and North Lincolnshire's results are due to the John Leggott College, also a sixth form college. The districts of South Yorkshire
Yorkshire
perform the least in the area at A-level with Rotherham
Rotherham
having the best results in this area, slightly below-average, and the other three districts achieve similar results, much lower than those in the former districts of Humberside. Leeds
Leeds
and Bradford
Bradford
now get the lowest results in West Yorkshire. For both A-level and GCSE, Barnsley
Barnsley
and Bradford
Bradford
are very low performing, with Barnsley
Barnsley
usually getting the lowest A-level results in the region, but in 2010 North East Lincolnshire
North East Lincolnshire
came bottom with unusually low results. Hull and northern Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
have a wide socio-economic diversity – many under-achieving pupils at 16 but with high performers at A-level. Hull, although much worse at GCSE, outperforms the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
at A-level.[67] School children in North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(with York
York
and Kirklees) are the most likely to go to university – they also get the best A level results, and those in the East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
are likely to go to university, but get lower overall A level results. Top twenty state schools in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber
Humber
(2015 A-level results)[edit]

Harrogate
Harrogate
Grammar School

Heckmondwike
Heckmondwike
Grammar School

Fulford School (1040) Heckmondwike
Heckmondwike
Grammar School Ermysted's Grammar School, Skipton Greenhead College, Huddersfield Skipton
Skipton
Girls' High School The Crossley Heath School, Halifax Ripon
Ripon
Grammar School Ilkley
Ilkley
Grammar School Huntington School, York Archbishop Holgate's School, York Penistone
Penistone
Grammar School Wickersley School and Sports College Wyke
Wyke
College, Hull Tadcaster
Tadcaster
Grammar School South Holderness Technology College Malton School St Mary's Catholic Voluntary Academy, Menston South Hunsley School Bingley
Bingley
Grammar School Cathedral Academy, Wakefield
Wakefield
(868)[citation needed]

Colleges[edit] There are twenty seven FE colleges. The main four colleges are Bradford
Bradford
College, Grimsby
Grimsby
Institute, Doncaster
Doncaster
College and Hull College.

The University of Leeds
Leeds
– looking towards the Roger Stevens Building

Universities[edit] Main article: List of universities in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber

The University of Sheffield's Arts Tower
Arts Tower
(1966) is the tallest university building in the UK at 78 metres (255 ft), although Imperial College's decorative Queen's Tower is 87 metres (287 ft) and the University of Birmingham's clock tower is around 100 metres (330 ft)[citation needed]

There are ten universities and three higher education colleges in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber, along with (in 2007) 27 Further Education colleges teaching some Higher Education courses.[68] The Krebs Cycle was discovered at the University of Sheffield
Sheffield
in 1937. Liquid crystal displays were developed by the University of Hull
University of Hull
in 1972, in conjunction with the Royal Radar Establishment in Worcestershire. Low fat spreads were developed at the University of Leeds
Leeds
(in conjunction with Unilever) in the 1980s, and in the 1930s William Astbury's x-ray diffraction experiments at the university started the road to the discovery of the double helix structure. Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam University is the largest in the region with 37,000 students, but does not have the most funding. The University of Leeds is not too far behind. The University of York, a large campus similar to a collegiate university, gets much less funding than Leeds
Leeds
and Sheffield, but has quite a high research grant for its size, about half that of Leeds
Leeds
or Sheffield. The other universities do not have large research grants. Leeds
Leeds
and Sheffield
Sheffield
have around twice as much total income than any other university. York
York
and Bradford
Bradford
are the two smallest universities.[citation needed] For first degree students at universities in the region, 27% are native to the region, 16% are from North West England
England
and 11% from the East Midlands; 48% are from Northern England
England
and around 25% from Southern England.[citation needed] Access to the M62 determines the regions from which the region's universities' students originate from – the nearer they are to the motorway the easier it is to study in the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humberside region.[clarification needed][citation needed] For first degree students native to the region, 43% stay in the region, 16% go to the North West, 11% to the North East and 11% to the East Midlands; just under 10% go to Southern England, with 70% staying in Northern England. Once graduated, 53% of the region's universities' graduates (native and non-native) stay to find work in the region, with around 10% moving to the North West (Manchester); 70% stay in Northern England, with 20% going to Southern England.[citation needed]

v t e

Universities and colleges in Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber

Universities

BPP Bradford Huddersfield Hull Law Leeds Leeds
Leeds
Arts Leeds
Leeds
Beckett Leeds
Leeds
Trinity Sheffield Sheffield
Sheffield
Hallam York York
York
St John

Further Education colleges

Askham Bryan Barnsley Bishop Burton Bradford Calderdale Craven Dearne Valley Doncaster East Riding Endeavour Grimsby Hull Kirklees Leeds
Leeds
Building Leeds
Leeds
City Leeds
Leeds
Music Northern North Lindsey Rotherham Selby Sheffield Shipley Wakefield York Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coast

Sixth form colleges

Chapeltown Doncaster
Doncaster
Collegiate Elliott Hudson Franklin Greenhead Huddersfield
Huddersfield
New John Leggott Longley Park Maltings NEW Notre Dame Scarborough Thomas Rotherham Wilberforce Wyke

Local media[edit]

BBC in Queen's Gardens, Hull

Local BBC Television comes from BBC Look North in Leeds, BBC Look North in Hull, BBC Look North in Newcastle and BBC North West Tonight in Salford. ITV Yorkshire
Yorkshire
is on Kirkstall
Kirkstall
Road to the west of Leeds city centre, which broadcasts Calendar and some national programming. ITV Granada
ITV Granada
and ITV Tyne Tees
ITV Tyne Tees
also cover parts of the region. Digital switchover took place in August 2011 for most of the region, with Emley Moor (the main TV transmitter for West and South Yorkshire) converting to digital in mid-September. Emley Moor is the tallest free-standing structure in the UK, and the 25th tallest in the world, and was designed by Ove Arup. The original tower famously collapsed in March 1969. BBC Radios Humberside, Leeds, Sheffield
Sheffield
and York. Radio Humberside's High Hunsley
High Hunsley
transmitter covers most of the region, and beyond. Local commercial stations include Dearne FM
Dearne FM
(Barnsley), The Pulse of West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(Bradford), Trax FM
Trax FM
(Doncaster), Compass FM
Compass FM
(Grimsby), 97.2 Stray FM
Stray FM
(Harrogate), Home 107.9 (Huddersfield), 96.9 Viking FM (Hull), Rother FM, 96.3 Radio Aire
96.3 Radio Aire
(Leeds), Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Coast Radio (Scarborough/Whitby/Bridlington), Hallam FM (Sheffield), Fresh Radio (Skipton), Real Radio (Tingley), Ridings FM
Ridings FM
(Wakefield), Capital Yorkshire
Yorkshire
(formerly Galaxy Yorkshire), Minster FM
Minster FM
(York) and 107.8 Beverley
Beverley
FM. National radio is broadcast from Belmont in the south-east, Bilsdale for North Yorkshire, and Holme Moss
Holme Moss
for South and West Yorkshire. Moorside Edge east of Scammonden Water near the M62 is a main 5 Live transmitter on 909MW. Local newspapers are the Bradford
Bradford
Telegraph and Argus, Evening Courier, Grimsby
Grimsby
Telegraph, Huddersfield
Huddersfield
Examiner, Hull Daily Mail, Scarborough Evening News, Scunthorpe
Scunthorpe
Telegraph, Sheffield
Sheffield
Star, The Press (York), Wakefield
Wakefield
Express, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Evening Post and Yorkshire Post.[69][70] Polestar Petty in central Leeds, with web offset, for many years printed TVTimes, Radio Times, and many colour supplements, including the Daily Mail
Daily Mail
weekend magazine, but closed in December 2014. RR Donnelley UK Directory of Flaxby
Flaxby
Moor, south of the A59 east of A1(M) junction 47, printed the Yellow Pages, until the site closed at the end of 2015. Polestar Chantry, off the A650 on the Wakefield
Wakefield
41 estate, prints Marie Claire, Good Housekeeping, Woman's Weekly, Real Life, BBC Good Food, BBC Gardeners' World, Prima, Woman & Home, Red, and Country Life. Polestar Sheffield
Sheffield
prints the Telegraph magazine, and Hello!. Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Humberside are very supportive in their approach to theatre and performance festivals and hold regional championships for young performers every 2 years. The championship is sectioned in Dance, Music and Speech & Drama. The most recent championship was held on Saturday 8 September, at St Margaret's Church Hall, Horsforth in Leeds. Helen Wilson, of Harrogate, titled Music Champion and with 17-year-old Lee Peart, of Cleethorpes, winning the Speech & Drama championship.[71]

References[edit]

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