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From top, left to right: Warsaw
Warsaw
Skyline Royal Baths Park Royal Route Staszic Palace
Staszic Palace
and Copernicus Monument Warsaw
Warsaw
Old Town Castle Square Royal Castle Wilanów
Wilanów
Palace

Flag

Coat of arms

Nickname(s): Paris
Paris
of the East, Phoenix City

Motto(s): Semper invicta  ( Latin
Latin
"Ever invincible")

Warsaw

Location of Warsaw
Warsaw
in Poland Show map of Poland

Warsaw

Warsaw
Warsaw
(Europe) Show map of Europe

Coordinates: 52°14′N 21°1′E / 52.233°N 21.017°E / 52.233; 21.017

Country  Poland

Voivodeship Masovia

County city county

Founded 13th century

City rights 1323

Districts

18 boroughs

Bemowo Białołęka Bielany Mokotów Ochota Praga
Praga
Północ Praga
Praga
Południe Rembertów Śródmieście Targówek Ursus Ursynów Wawer Wesoła Wilanów Włochy Wola Żoliborz

Government

 • Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
(PO)

Area

 • City metropolis 517.24 km2 (199.71 sq mi)

 • Metro 6,100.43 km2 (2,355.39 sq mi)

Elevation 78–116 m (328 ft)

Population (2017/06/30)

 • City metropolis 1,758,143 [1]

 • Rank 1st in Poland
Poland
(9th in EU)

 • Density 3,372/km2 (8,730/sq mi)

 • Metro 3,100,844[2]

 • Metro density 509.1/km2 (1,319/sq mi)

Demonym(s) Varsovian

Time zone CET (UTC+1)

 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)

Postal code 00-001 to 04–999

Area code(s) +48 22

GDP
GDP
PPP[3] 2016

 – Total $230 billion

Website um.warszawa.pl

UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Official name Historic Centre of Warsaw

Type Cultural

Criteria ii, vi

Designated 1980 (4th session)

Reference no. [2]

UNESCO
UNESCO
region Europe

Varsovian Trumpet Call

Warsaw
Warsaw
(/ˈwɔːrsɔː/; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] ( listen); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula
Vistula
River in east-central Poland
Poland
and its population is officially estimated at 1.760 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents,[4] which makes Warsaw
Warsaw
the 9th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi).[5] Warsaw
Warsaw
is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination and a significant cultural, political and economic hub.[6][7] With a nominal GDP
GDP
of $230 billion (PPP), it is the wealthiest capital city in Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
alongside Berlin.[8] Moreover, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Once described as Paris
Paris
of the East, Warsaw
Warsaw
was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II.[9] The German invasion in 1939, the massacre of the Jewish population and deportations to concentration camps led to the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943 and to the major and devastating Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising between August and October 1944. Warsaw
Warsaw
gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after the severe damage it suffered in World War II, which left over 85% of its buildings in ruins.[10][11] On 9 November 1939, the city was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari, following the Siege of Warsaw.[12][13][14] Warsaw
Warsaw
is one of Europe’s most dynamic metropolitan cities.[15] In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
ranked Warsaw
Warsaw
as the 32nd most liveable city in the world.[16] In 2017 the city came 4th in the “Business-friendly” category and 8th in “Human capital and life style”.[15] It was also ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, BPO, ITO, as well as of the Polish media industry. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Stock Exchange is the largest and most important in Central and Eastern Europe.[17][18] Frontex, the European Union
European Union
agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
have their headquarters in Warsaw. Together with Frankfurt, London
London
and Paris, Warsaw
Warsaw
is also one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union.[19] The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University
University
of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world,[20] and the Zachęta
Zachęta
National Gallery of Art. The picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period,[21] was listed as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces, churches and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw
Warsaw
is renowned for its bars, restaurants, art galleries and, most notably, several dozen museums and outspread greenery,[22] with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.[23]

Contents

1 Etymology and names 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 16th to 18th centuries 2.3 19th and 20th centuries 2.4 Capital of Second Polish Republic: 1918–39 2.5 Second World War 2.6 1945–1989: Warsaw
Warsaw
during the People's Republic 2.7 Recent times: 1989–present

3 Geography

3.1 Location and topography 3.2 Climate 3.3 Cityscape

3.3.1 Architecture

3.4 Landmarks

3.4.1 Flora and fauna

4 Society and demographics

4.1 Immigrant population 4.2 Religion

5 Government and politics

5.1 Municipal government 5.2 Districts

6 Economy

6.1 Business and commerce 6.2 Warsaw
Warsaw
Stock Exchange 6.3 Industry

7 Education 8 Transport and infrastructure

8.1 Infrastructure

9 Culture

9.1 Music and theatre 9.2 Events 9.3 Museums and art galleries 9.4 Media and film 9.5 Sports 9.6 Warsaw
Warsaw
Mermaid

10 Famous people 11 Rankings 12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns and sister cities 12.2 Partnerships

13 Varieties 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Bibliography

Etymology and names Warsaw's name in the Polish language
Polish language
is Warszawa, approximately /vɑːrˈʃɑːvə/ (also formerly spelled Warszewa and Warszowa). Linguist Samuel Bogumił Linde
Samuel Bogumił Linde
argues that early spellings of the name included Worszewa and Werszewa.[24][25] According to some sources,[26] the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda (the Narew drainage),[27] it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology (p. 30). Originally, Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; see also etymology of Wrocław.[28] However the ending -awa is unusual for a big city; the names of Polish cities derived from personal names usually end in -ów/owo/ew/ewo (e.g. Piotrków, Adamów) while the -av- in the early name of Wrocław
Wrocław
is part of a personal name. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman, Wars, and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula
Vistula
River with whom Wars fell in love.[29] In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat
Mariensztat
neighbourhood.[30] See also the Vršovci
Vršovci
family which had escaped to Poland. The official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa (English: "The Capital City of Warsaw").[31] A native or resident of Warsaw
Warsaw
is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianin (male), warszawianka (female), warszawiacy, and warszawianie (plural). Other names for Warsaw
Warsaw
include Varsovia (Latin, Spanish) and Varsóvia (Portuguese), Varsovie (French), Varsavia (Italian), Warschau (German, Dutch), װאַרשע /Varshe (Yiddish), Varšuva (Lithuanian), and Varsó (Hungarian). For the name of Warsaw
Warsaw
in various languages, see wikt:Warsaw. History Main articles: History of Warsaw
History of Warsaw
and Timeline of Warsaw Early history

Construction of St John's Cathedral began in 1390. It is one of Warsaw's most ancient and important buildings.

The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw
Warsaw
were located in Bródno
Bródno
(9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century).[32] After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. The Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413.[32] 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on mostly crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
in 1526.[32] 16th to 18th centuries

Warsaw New Town
Warsaw New Town
in 1778. Painted by Bernardo Bellotto

In 1529, Warsaw
Warsaw
for the first time became the seat of the General Sejm, permanently from 1569.[32] In 1573 the city gave its name to the Warsaw
Warsaw
Confederation, formally establishing religious freedom in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków
Kraków
and Vilnius, Warsaw
Warsaw
became the capital of the Commonwealth and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland when King Sigismund III Vasa
Sigismund III Vasa
moved his court from Kraków
Kraków
to Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1596.[32] In the following years the town expanded towards the suburbs. Several private independent districts were established, the property of aristocrats and the gentry, which were ruled by their own laws. Three times between 1655–1658 the city was under siege and three times it was taken and pillaged by the Swedish, Brandenburgian and Transylvanian forces.[32][33] In 1700, the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
broke out. The city was besieged several times and was obliged to pay heavy tribute.[34] Warsaw
Warsaw
turned into an early-capitalistic principal city. The reign of Augustus II and Augustus III was a time of development for Warsaw. The Saxon monarchs brought many renowned German architects, who rebuilt the city in a style similar to Dresden. In 1747 the Załuski Library
Załuski Library
was established, the first Polish public library and the largest at the time.[35] Stanisław II Augustus, who remodelled the interior of the Royal Castle, also made Warsaw
Warsaw
a centre of culture and the arts.[36][37] He extended the Royal Baths Park
Royal Baths Park
and ordered the construction or refurbishment of numerous palaces, mansions and richly-decorated tenements. This earned Warsaw
Warsaw
the nickname Paris
Paris
of the East.[38] Warsaw
Warsaw
remained the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in the third and final partition of Poland;[39] it subsequently became the capital of the province of South Prussia. 19th and 20th centuries

Water Filters designed by William Lindley
William Lindley
and finished in 1886

Liberated by Napoleon's army in 1806, Warsaw
Warsaw
was made the capital of the newly created Duchy of Warsaw.[32] Following the Congress of Vienna
Vienna
of 1815, Warsaw
Warsaw
became the centre of Congress Poland, a constitutional monarchy under a personal union with Imperial Russia.[32] The Royal University of Warsaw
University of Warsaw
was established in 1816. Following the repeated violations of the Polish constitution by the Russians, the 1830 November Uprising
November Uprising
broke out. However, the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy.[32] On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw
Warsaw
crowd protesting against Russian rule over Poland
Poland
was fired upon by Russian troops.[40][41] Five people were killed. The Underground Polish National Government resided in Warsaw
Warsaw
during the January Uprising
January Uprising
in 1863–64.[41]

Marszałkowska Street as it appeared in 1912

Warsaw
Warsaw
National Philharmonic in 1918

Warsaw
Warsaw
flourished in the late 19th century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III. Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw
Warsaw
saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting and gas works.[32] The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
Census of 1897 recorded 626,000 people living in Warsaw, making it the third-largest city of the Empire after St. Petersburg and Moscow. Capital of Second Polish Republic: 1918–39 Warsaw
Warsaw
was occupied by Germany
Germany
from 4 August 1915 until November 1918. The Allied Armistice terms required in Article 12 that Germany withdraw from areas controlled by Russia
Russia
in 1914, which included Warsaw.[42] Germany
Germany
did so, and underground leader Piłsudski
Piłsudski
returned to Warsaw
Warsaw
on 11 November and set up what became the Second Polish Republic, with Warsaw
Warsaw
the capital. In the course of the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920, the huge Battle of Warsaw
Warsaw
was fought on the eastern outskirts of the city in which the capital was successfully defended and the Red Army
Red Army
defeated. Poland
Poland
stopped the full brunt of the Red Army
Red Army
by itself and defeated the idea of the "export of the revolution".[43]

The history of contemporary civilisation knows no event of greater importance than the Battle of Warsaw, 1920, and none of which the significance is less appreciated ... yet never had Poland's services been greater, never had the danger been more imminent. — Sir Edgar Vincent d'Abernon, The Eighteenth Decisive Battle of the World, Warsaw
Warsaw
1920[44]

The Średnicowy Bridge
Średnicowy Bridge
was constructed for a railway (1921-1931), connecting both parts of the city. Warszawa Główna railway station (1932-1939) was unfinished and destroyed during WWII. Stefan Starzyński
Stefan Starzyński
was Mayor of Warsaw
Warsaw
1934-1939, and he was murdered by the Nazis during the Siege in December 1939. Second World War

Sea of rubble[45] – over 85% of the buildings in Warsaw
Warsaw
were destroyed by the end of World War II, including the Old Town and Royal Castle.

After the German Invasion of Poland
Poland
on 1 September 1939 started the Second World War, Warsaw
Warsaw
was defended until 27 September. Central Poland, including Warsaw, came under the rule of the General Government, a German Nazi colonial administration. All higher education institutions were immediately closed and Warsaw's entire Jewish population – several hundred thousand, some 30% of the city – were herded into the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto.[46] The city would become the centre of urban resistance to Nazi rule in occupied Europe.[47] When the order came to annihilate the ghetto as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" on 19 April 1943, Jewish fighters launched the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising.[48] Despite being heavily outgunned and outnumbered, the Ghetto held out for almost a month.[48] When the fighting ended, almost all survivors were massacred, with only a few managing to escape or hide.[48][49]

The Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
took place in 1944. The Polish Home Army attempted to liberate Warsaw
Warsaw
from German occupation before the arrival of the Red Army.[50]

By July 1944, the Red Army
Red Army
was deep into Polish territory and pursuing the Germans toward Warsaw.[51] Knowing that Stalin was hostile to the idea of an independent Poland, the Polish government-in-exile
Polish government-in-exile
in London
London
gave orders to the underground Home Army (AK) to try to seize control of Warsaw
Warsaw
from the Germans before the Red Army
Red Army
arrived. Thus, on 1 August 1944, as the Red Army
Red Army
was nearing the city, the Warsaw Uprising began.[51] The armed struggle, planned to last 48 hours, was partially successful, however it went on for 63 days. Eventually the Home Army fighters and civilians assisting them were forced to capitulate.[51] They were transported to PoW camps in Germany, while the entire civilian population was expelled.[51] Polish civilian deaths are estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000.[52] The Germans then razed Warsaw
Warsaw
to the ground. Hitler, ignoring the agreed terms of the capitulation, ordered the entire city to be razed to the ground and the library and museum collections taken to Germany or burned.[51] Monuments and government buildings were blown up by special German troops known as Verbrennungs- und Vernichtungskommando ("Burning and Destruction Detachments").[51] About 85% of the city had been destroyed, including the historic Old Town and the Royal Castle.[53] On 17 January 1945 – after the beginning of the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army – Soviet troops entered the ruins of Warsaw, and liberated Warsaw's suburbs from German occupation.[54] The city was swiftly taken by the Soviet Army, which rapidly advanced towards Łódź, as German forces regrouped at a more westward position. 1945–1989: Warsaw
Warsaw
during the People's Republic In 1945, after the bombings, revolts, fighting, and demolition had ended, most of Warsaw
Warsaw
lay in ruins.

A tourist standing beside the iconic Palace
Palace
of Culture and Science, 1965

After World War II, under a Communist regime set up by the conquering Soviets, the "Bricks for Warsaw" campaign was initiated, and large prefabricated housing projects were erected in Warsaw
Warsaw
to address the housing shortage, along with other typical buildings of an Eastern Bloc city, such as the Palace
Palace
of Culture and Science, a gift from the Soviet Union. The city resumed its role as the capital of Poland
Poland
and the country's centre of political and economic life. Many of the historic streets, buildings, and churches were restored to their original form. In 1980, Warsaw's historic Old Town was inscribed onto UNESCO's World Heritage list.[55] John Paul II's visits to his native country in 1979 and 1983 brought support to the budding "Solidarity" movement and encouraged the growing anti-communist fervor there.[56] In 1979, less than a year after becoming pope, John Paul celebrated Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw
Warsaw
and ended his sermon with a call to "renew the face" of Poland: Let Thy Spirit descend! Let Thy Spirit descend and renew the face of the land! This land![56] These words were very meaningful for the Polish citizens who understood them as the incentive for liberal-democratic reforms.[56] Recent times: 1989–present In 1995, the Warsaw Metro
Warsaw Metro
opened with a single line. A second line was opened in March 2015.[57] With the entry of Poland
Poland
into the European Union in 2004, Warsaw
Warsaw
is currently experiencing the largest economic boom of its history.[58] The opening fixture of UEFA Euro 2012
UEFA Euro 2012
took place in Warsaw, a game in which Poland
Poland
drew 1–1 with Greece.[59] Warsaw
Warsaw
was the host city for the 2013 United Nations Climate Change Conference and for the 2016 NATO Summit. Geography Location and topography

Warsaw, seen from the International Space Station

Warsaw
Warsaw
lies in east-central Poland
Poland
about 300 km (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains
Carpathian Mountains
and about 260 km (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea, 523 km (325 mi) east of Berlin, Germany.[60] The city straddles the Vistula
Vistula
River. It is located in the heartland of the Masovian Plain, and its average elevation is 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of 115.7 metres (379.6 ft) ("Redutowa" bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side – 122.1 metres (400.6 ft) ("Groszówka" estate, district of Wesoła, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height 75.6 metres (248.0 ft) (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city – e.g. Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Hill (121 metres (397.0 ft)) and Szczęśliwice hill (138 metres (452.8 ft) – the highest point of Warsaw
Warsaw
in general).

View of Grzybowski Square
Grzybowski Square
in the central district of Warsaw. Though the city is located on the mostly flat Masovian Plain, the downtown has higher elevation than other suburbs.

Warsaw
Warsaw
is located on two main geomorphologic formations: the plain moraine plateau and the Vistula
Vistula
Valley
Valley
with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces. The Vistula
Vistula
River is the specific axis of Warsaw, which divides the city into two parts, left and right. The left one is situated both on the moraine plateau (10 to 25 m (32.8 to 82.0 ft) above Vistula
Vistula
level) and on the Vistula terraces (max. 6.5 m (21.3 ft) above Vistula
Vistula
level). The significant element of the relief, in this part of Warsaw, is the edge of moraine plateau called Warsaw
Warsaw
Escarpment. It is 20 to 25 m (65.6 to 82.0 ft) high in the Old Town and Central district and about 10 m (32.8 ft) in the north and south of Warsaw. It goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark. The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits. The pattern of the Vistula
Vistula
terraces is asymmetrical. The left side consists mainly of two levels: the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the old Vistula – riverbed. They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches. The right side of Warsaw
Warsaw
has a different pattern of geomorphological forms. There are several levels of the Vistula
Vistula
plain terraces (flooded as well as formerly flooded), and only a small part is a not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest). Climate Warsaw's climate is humid continental (Köppen: Dfb) with cold, snowy, cloudy winters and warm, sunny, stormy summers. Spring and autumn can be unpredictable, highly prone to sudden weather changes; however, temperatures are usually mild and with low humidity, especially around May and September.[61] The average temperature ranges between −1.8 °C (29 °F) in January and 19.2 °C (66.6 °F) in July. The mean year temperature is 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). Temperatures may often reach 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer, although the effects of hot weather are usually offset by relatively low dew points and large diurnal temperature differences. Warsaw
Warsaw
is Europe's fourth driest capital, with yearly rainfall averaging 529 millimetres (20.8 in), the wettest month being July.

Climate data for Warsaw
Warsaw
(1981–2010) Extremes (1951–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 17.2 (63) 22.9 (73.2) 30.5 (86.9) 32.8 (91) 35.1 (95.2) 36.0 (96.8) 37.1 (98.8) 34.5 (94.1) 25.9 (78.6) 18.9 (66) 15.4 (59.7) 37.1 (98.8)

Average high °C (°F) 0.6 (33.1) 1.9 (35.4) 6.6 (43.9) 13.6 (56.5) 19.5 (67.1) 21.9 (71.4) 24.4 (75.9) 23.9 (75) 18.4 (65.1) 12.7 (54.9) 5.9 (42.6) 1.6 (34.9) 12.6 (54.7)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.8 (28.8) −0.6 (30.9) 2.8 (37) 8.7 (47.7) 14.2 (57.6) 17.0 (62.6) 19.2 (66.6) 18.3 (64.9) 13.5 (56.3) 8.5 (47.3) 3.3 (37.9) −0.7 (30.7) 8.5 (47.3)

Average low °C (°F) −4.2 (24.4) −3.6 (25.5) −0.6 (30.9) 3.9 (39) 8.9 (48) 11.8 (53.2) 13.9 (57) 13.1 (55.6) 9.1 (48.4) 4.8 (40.6) 0.6 (33.1) −3.0 (26.6) 4.6 (40.3)

Record low °C (°F) −30.7 (−23.3) −27.6 (−17.7) −22.6 (−8.7) −6.9 (19.6) −3.1 (26.4) 1.8 (35.2) 4.6 (40.3) 3.0 (37.4) −1.6 (29.1) −9.6 (14.7) −17.0 (1.4) −24.8 (−12.6) −30.7 (−23.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 27 (1.06) 26 (1.02) 31 (1.22) 34 (1.34) 56 (2.2) 69 (2.72) 73 (2.87) 64 (2.52) 46 (1.81) 32 (1.26) 37 (1.46) 34 (1.34) 529 (20.83)

Average precipitation days 12 11 12 13 14 15 14 13 15 15 15 14 163

Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net[62]

Source #2: KNMI[63]

Cityscape Warsaw's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During the Second World War, Warsaw was razed to the ground by bombing raids and planned destruction.[51] After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled PRL. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Kronenberg Palace).[64][65] Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries. Public spaces attract heavy investment, so that the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Warsaw's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.[66]

Architecture Main article: Architecture of Warsaw

Jabłonowski Palace, an example of Renaissance
Renaissance
Revival architecture

Warsaw's palaces, churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque
Baroque
and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre. Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
is represented in the majestic churches but also at the burgher houses and fortifications. The most significant buildings are St. John's Cathedral (14th century), a typical example of the so-called Masovian Gothic style; St. Mary's Church (1411), a town house of Burbach family (14th century);[67] Gunpowder Tower (after 1379); and the Royal Castle Curia Maior (1407–1410). The most notable examples of Renaissance
Renaissance
architecture in the city are the house of the Baryczko merchant family (1562), a building called "The Negro" (early 17th century), and Salwator tenement (1632). The most interesting examples of Mannerist architecture are the Royal Castle (1596–1619) and the Jesuit Church (1609–1626) at Old Town. Among the first structures of the early Baroque, the most important are St. Hyacinth's Church (1603–1639) and Sigismund's Column
Sigismund's Column
(1644).

Hotel Bristol is a unique example of Warsaw's architectural heritage.

Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. Some of the best examples of this architecture are Krasiński Palace
Palace
(1677–1683), Wilanów Palace
Wilanów Palace
(1677–1696) and St. Kazimierz Church
St. Kazimierz Church
(1688–1692). The most impressive examples of rococo architecture are Czapski Palace (1712–1721), Palace
Palace
of the Four Winds (1730s) and Visitationist Church (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the Palace
Palace
on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Królikarnia
Królikarnia
(1782–1786), Carmelite Church (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical Holy Trinity Church (1777–1782). The economic growth during the first years of Congress Poland
Poland
caused a rapid rise of architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture; the most notable examples are the Great Theater (1825–1833) and buildings located at Bank Square (1825–1828).

Warsaw University of Technology
Warsaw University of Technology
building courtyard

Exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war (like the previously mentioned Kronenberg Palace
Palace
and Insurance
Insurance
Company Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like Warsaw
Warsaw
Philharmony edifice originally inspired by Palais Garnier
Palais Garnier
in Paris). Despite that, the Warsaw University of Technology
Warsaw University of Technology
building (1899–1902)[68] is the most interesting of the late 19th-century architecture. Some 19th-century buildings in the Praga
Praga
district (the Vistula’s right bank) have been restored although many have been poorly maintained. Warsaw’s municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the Saxon Palace
Palace
and the Brühl Palace, the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw.[69] Notable examples of post-war architecture include the Palace
Palace
of Culture and Science (1952–1955), a soc-realist skyscraper located in the city centre, and the Constitution Square with its monumental socialist realism architecture (MDM estate).[70] Contemporary architecture
Contemporary architecture
in Warsaw
Warsaw
is represented by the Metropolitan Office
Office
Building at Pilsudski Square by Lord Foster,[71] Warsaw University
University
Library (BUW) by Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski, featuring a garden on its roof and view of the Vistula
Vistula
River, Rondo 1 office building by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Museum
Museum
of the History of Polish Jews
Jews
by Rainer Mahlamäki and Golden Terraces, consisting of seven overlapping domes retail and business centre. It has been said that Warsaw, together with Frankfurt, London, Paris and Rotterdam, is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in Europe.[19] Warsaw
Warsaw
is ranked as 79th in the list of cities with the most skyscrapers around the world.[72]

Notable skyscrapers in Warsaw

PAST, oldest Warsaw
Warsaw
skyscraper

Palace
Palace
of Culture and Science

Warsaw
Warsaw
Spire

Rondo 1

Złota 44

InterContinental Warsaw

Cosmopolitan Twarda 2/4

Q22

Intraco I

Spektrum Tower

Hotel Marriott and Oxford Tower

Landmarks Main article: Tourist attractions in Warsaw

Main Market Square in Warsaw's Old Town, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site

Although contemporary Warsaw
Warsaw
is a fairly young city, it has numerous tourist attractions. Apart from the Warsaw Old Town
Warsaw Old Town
quarter, reconstructed after World War II, each borough has something to offer. Among the most notable landmarks of the Old Town are the Royal Castle, King Sigismund's Column, Market Square, and the Barbican. Further south is the so-called Royal Route, with many classicist palaces, the Presidential Palace
Palace
and the University of Warsaw
University of Warsaw
campus. Wilanów
Wilanów
Palace, the former royal residence of King John III Sobieski, is notable for its Baroque
Baroque
architecture and parks.[73] Warsaw's oldest public park, the Saxon Garden, is located within 10 minutes' walk from the old town.[74] Warsaw's biggest public park is the Łazienki Park, also called the "Royal Baths Park", established in the 17th century and given its current classical shape in the late 18th century.[75] It is located further south, on the Royal Route, about 3 km (1.9 mi) from the Warsaw
Warsaw
Old Town.

The Barbican, one of few remaining relics of the complex network of historic fortifications

Powązki Cemetery
Powązki Cemetery
is one of the oldest cemeteries in Europe,[76] full of sculptures, some of them by the most renowned Polish artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. Since it serves the religious communities of Warsaw
Warsaw
such as Catholics, Orthodox, Jews, Muslims or Protestants, it is often called a necropolis. Nearby is the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery, one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe.

Map of Warsaw
Warsaw
Old Town

Stone stairs Historical Museum Barbican Defensive walls Salwator tenement Museum
Museum
of Leather Crafts St. Anne's tenement Fukier tenement Museum
Museum
of Literature Museum
Museum
of Artistic and Precision Crafts St. Mary's Church Gothic Bridge Pelican house St. John's Cathedral Jesuit Church Canonicity Royal Castle Copper-Roof Palace East – West Route tunnel Dung Hill Warsaw
Warsaw
Mermaid
Mermaid
statue Sigismund's Column

In many places in the city the Jewish culture and history resonates down through time.[77] Among them the most notable are the Jewish theater, the Nożyk Synagogue, Janusz Korczak's Orphanage and the picturesque Próżna Street.[77] The tragic pages of Warsaw’s history are commemorated in places such as the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes, the Umschlagplatz, fragments of the Ghetto wall on Sienna Street and a mound in memory of the Jewish Combat Organization.[77]

New World Street, one of the main shopping promenades in Warsaw

There are also many places commemorating the heroic history of Warsaw.[78] Pawiak, an infamous German Gestapo
Gestapo
prison now occupied by a Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Memory of Martyrdom and the museum, is only the beginning of a walk in the traces of Heroic City.[78] The Warsaw Citadel, an impressive 19th-century fortification built after the defeat of the November Uprising, was a place of martyrdom for the Poles.[78] Another important monument, the statue of Little Insurrectionist located at the ramparts of the Old Town, commemorates the children who served as messengers and frontline troops in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising, while the impressive Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Monument by Wincenty Kućma was erected in memory of the largest insurrection of World War II.[78][79] In Warsaw
Warsaw
there are many places connected with the life and work of Frédéric Chopin. The heart of the Polish-born composer is sealed inside Warsaw's Holy Cross Church.[80] During the summer time the Chopin Statue in Łazienki Park
Łazienki Park
is a place where pianists give concerts to the park audience.[81] Also many references to Marie Curie, her work and her family can be found in Warsaw: Marie's birthplace at the Warsaw
Warsaw
New Town, the working places where she did her first scientific works[82] and the Radium Institute at Wawelska Street for the research and the treatment of which she founded in 1925.[83]

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is an important central Warsaw
Warsaw
landmark.

Krasiński Palace

St. Kazimierz Church
St. Kazimierz Church
at New Town Market Square

Canon Square with the narrowest townhouse in Europe.

Holy Cross Church

Castle Square and Sigismund's Column

St. Anne's Church

Carmelite Church

Staszic Palace
Staszic Palace
and Nicolaus Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus
monument

Three Crosses Square

Belweder Palace

Wilanów
Wilanów
Palace

Flora and fauna Green space covers almost a quarter of the area of Warsaw,[84] including a broad range from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, to avenues of trees and large historic parks, nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.

Łazienki Palace, also referred to as the Palace
Palace
on the Water

There are as many as 82 parks in the city which cover 8% of its area.[85] The oldest ones, once parts of representative palaces, are Saxon Garden, the Krasiński Palace
Palace
Garden, Łazienki Park
Łazienki Park
(Royal Baths Park), Wilanów Palace
Wilanów Palace
Park and Królikarnia
Królikarnia
Palace
Palace
Park (See also: Greenery in the city). The Saxon Garden, covering an area of 15.5 ha, was formally a royal garden. There are over 100 different species of trees and the avenues are a place to sit and relax. At the east end of the park, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is situated. In the 19th century the Krasiński Palace
Palace
Garden was remodelled by Franciszek Szanior. Within the central area of the park one can still find old trees dating from that period: maidenhair tree, black walnut, Turkish hazel and Caucasian wingnut trees. With its benches, flower carpets, a pond with ducks on and a playground for kids, the Krasiński Palace
Palace
Garden is a popular strolling destination for the Varsovians. The Monument of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is also situated here. Łazienki Park
Łazienki Park
covers an area of 76 ha. The unique character and history of the park is reflected in its landscape architecture (pavilions, sculptures, bridges, cascades, ponds) and vegetation (domestic and foreign species of trees and bushes). What makes this park different from other green spaces in Warsaw
Warsaw
is the presence of peacocks and pheasants, which can be seen here walking around freely, and royal carps in the pond. Wilanów Palace
Palace
Park dates back to the second half of the 17th century. It covers an area of 43 ha. Its central French-styled area corresponds to the ancient, Baroque
Baroque
forms of the palace. The eastern section of the park, closest to the Palace, is the two-level garden with a terrace facing the pond. The park around the Królikarnia
Królikarnia
Palace
Palace
is situated on the old escarpment of the Vistula. The park has lanes running on a few levels deep into the ravines on both sides of the palace.

Saxon Garden
Saxon Garden
with Temple of Vesta

Other green spaces in the city include the Botanic Garden and the University
University
Library garden. They have extensive botanical collection of rare domestic and foreign plants, while a palm house in the New Orangery displays plants of subtropics from all over the world.[86] Besides, within the city borders, there are also: Pole Mokotowskie (a big park in the northern Mokotów, where was the first horse racetrack and then the airport), Park Ujazdowski (close to the Sejm
Sejm
and John Lennon street), Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin, by the southern city border, and Park Skaryszewski by the right Vistula
Vistula
bank, in Praga. The oldest park in Praga, the Praga
Praga
Park, was established in 1865–1871 and designed by Jan Dobrowolski.[87] In 1927 a zoological garden (Ogród Zoologiczny) was established on the park grounds,[88] and in 1952 a bear run, still open today.

Riverside boulevards along the Vistula.

The flora of the city may be considered very rich in species. The species richness is mainly due to the location of Warsaw
Warsaw
within the border region of several big floral regions comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas (natural forests, wetlands along the Vistula) as well as arable land, meadows and forests. Bielany
Bielany
Forest, located within the borders of Warsaw, is the remaining part of the Masovian Primeval Forest. Bielany
Bielany
Forest nature reserve is connected with Kampinos Forest.[89] It is home to rich fauna and flora. Within the forest there are three cycling and walking trails. Another big forest area is Kabaty Forest by the southern city border. Warsaw
Warsaw
has also two botanic gardens: by Łazienki park (a didactic-research unit of the University
University
of Warsaw) as well as by the Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin (a unit of the Polish Academy of Science). There are 13 natural reserves in Warsaw – among others, Bielany Forest, Kabaty Woods, and Czerniaków Lake. About 15 kilometres (9 miles) from Warsaw, the Vistula
Vistula
river's environment changes strikingly and features a perfectly preserved ecosystem, with a habitat of animals that includes the otter, beaver and hundreds of bird species.[90] There are also several lakes in Warsaw – mainly the oxbow lakes, like Czerniaków Lake, the lakes in Łazienki or Wilanów
Wilanów
Parks, and Kamionek Lake. There are a lot of small lakes in the parks, but only a few are permanent – the majority are emptied before winter to clean them of plants and sediments. The Warsaw Zoo
Warsaw Zoo
covers an area of 40 hectares (99 acres).[91] There are about 5,000 animals representing nearly 500 species.[91] Although officially created in 1928,[91] it traces back its roots to 17th century private menageries, often open to the public.[92][93] Society and demographics

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1700 30,000 —    

1792 120,000 +300.0%

1800 63,400 −47.2%

1830 139,700 +120.3%

1850 163,600 +17.1%

1882 383,000 +134.1%

1901 711,988 +85.9%

1909 764,054 +7.3%

1925 1,003,000 +31.3%

1933 1,178,914 +17.5%

1939 1,300,900 +10.3%

1945 422,000 −67.6%

1950 803,800 +90.5%

1960 1,136,000 +41.3%

1970 1,315,600 +15.8%

1980 1,596,100 +21.3%

1990 1,655,700 +3.7%

2000 1,672,400 +1.0%

2005 1,697,500 +1.5%

2010 1,710,398 +0.8%

2015 1,744,351 +2.0%

2017 1,758,143 +0.8%

Note: 2010[94] 2014[95] 2017[1]

Largest groups of foreign residents[96]

Nationality Population (2016)

 Ukraine 9,066

 Vietnam 3,240[97]

 Belarus 1,821

 Russia 1,421[98]

 China 917

 France 910[99]

 India 704[100]

 Germany 636

 Italy 591[101]

 United Kingdom 589

 Spain 421

 Turkey 398[102]

 United States 356

 Sweden 332

Demographically, it was the most diverse city in Poland, with significant numbers of foreign-born inhabitants.[103] In addition to the Polish majority, there was a significant Jewish minority in Warsaw. According to the Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 638,000, Jews
Jews
constituted 219,000 (around 34% percent).[104] Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population.[46] In 1933, out of 1,178,914 inhabitants 833,500 were of Polish mother tongue.[105] World War II
World War II
changed the demographics of the city, and to this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300 years of Warsaw's history.[46] Most of the modern day population growth is based on internal migration and urbanisation. In 1939, c. 1,300,000 people lived in Warsaw,[106] but in 1945 – only 420,000. During the first years after the war, the population growth was c. 6%, so shortly the city started to suffer from the lack of flats and of areas for new houses. The first remedial measure was the Warsaw
Warsaw
area enlargement (1951) – but the city authorities were still forced to introduce residency registration limitations: only the spouses and children of the permanent residents as well as some persons of public importance (like renowned specialists) were allowed to get the registration, hence halving the population growth in the following years. It also bolstered a stereotype popular among the dwellers of other cities claiming that average Varsovians thought of themselves as better only because they lived in the capital. While all restrictions on residency registration were scrapped in 1990, a negative image of a typical Warsaw
Warsaw
inhabitant in some form persists till this day.[107][108] Immigrant population Much like most capital cities in Europe, Warsaw
Warsaw
boasts a foreign-born population that is significantly larger than in other cities, although not coming close to the figures representing the likes of Madrid
Madrid
or Rome. In 2016, it was estimated that 21,000 people living in Warsaw were foreign born, although some suspect the actual number could be as high as 60,000-150,000,[109] or 1.2~3.4% - 8.5% of all Varsovians. Of those, Ukrainians, Vietnamese, Byelorussians
Byelorussians
and Russians
Russians
were the most prominent groups.[110] Religion Main article: Religion
Religion
in Warsaw Throughout its existence, Warsaw
Warsaw
has been a multi-cultural city.[111] According to the 1901 census, out of 711,988 inhabitants 56.2% were Catholics, 35.7% Jews, 5% Greek orthodox Christians and 2.8% Protestants.[112] Eight years later, in 1909, there were 281,754 Jews (36.9%), 18,189 Protestants (2.4%) and 2,818 Mariavites (0.4%).[113] This led to construction of hundreds of places of religious worship in all parts of the town. Most of them were destroyed in the aftermath of the Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
of 1944. After the war, the new communist authorities of Poland
Poland
discouraged church construction and only a small number were rebuilt.[114] During the survey, conducted in 2010 by a team of sociologists from Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University
66% of the Warsaw
Warsaw
residents surveyed declared themselves as believers and 6% as non-believers. 32% of the faithful of the Archdiocese of Warsaw
Warsaw
attended masses and 34% of the faithful of the Warsaw- Praga
Praga
diocese. The Eucharist was received by about 15% of the faithful. Government and politics As the capital of Poland, Warsaw
Warsaw
is the political centre of the country. All state agencies are located there, including the Polish Parliament, the Presidential Office
Office
and the Supreme Court. In the Polish parliament the city and the area are represented by 31 MPs (out of 460). Additionally, Warsaw
Warsaw
elects two MEPs (Members of the European Parliament). The Sejm
Sejm
is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm
Sejm
is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish (literally 'Envoy'). It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm
Sejm
(Marszałek Sejmu). Municipal government The municipal government existed in Warsaw
Warsaw
until World War II
World War II
and was restored in 1990 (during the communist times, the National City Council – Miejska Rada Narodowa – governed in Warsaw). Since 1990, the system of city administration has been changed several times – also as the result of the reform which restored powiats, cancelled in 1975. Finally, according to the Warsaw
Warsaw
Act, the city is divided into 18 districts and forms one city powiat with a unified municipal government.[115]

Neoclassical Commission Palace, the house of the city's government

The basic unit of territorial division in Poland
Poland
is a commune (gmina).[116] A city is also a commune – but with a city charter.[116] Both cities and communes are governed by a mayor – but in the communes the mayor is vogt (wójt in Polish), however in the cities – burmistrz. Some bigger cities obtain the entitlements, i.e. tasks and privileges, which are possessed by the units of the second level of the territorial division – counties or powiats. An example of such entitlement is a car registration: a gmina cannot register cars, this is a powiat's task (i.e. a registration number depends on what powiat a car had been registered in, not the gmina). In this case we say "city county" or powiat grodzki. Such cities are for example Lublin, Kraków, Gdańsk, and Poznań. In Warsaw, its districts additionally have some of a powiat's entitlements – like the already mentioned car registration. For example, the Wola
Wola
district has its own evidence and the Ursynów
Ursynów
district – its own (and the cars from Wola
Wola
have another type of registration number than those from Ursynów). But for instance the districts in Kraków
Kraków
do not have the entitlements of a powiat, so the registration numbers in Kraków
Kraków
are of the same type for all districts.

Embassy of the Netherlands

Legislative power in Warsaw
Warsaw
is vested in a unicameral Warsaw
Warsaw
City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 60 members.[115] Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.[115] Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor (the President of Warsaw), who may sign them into law. If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote. Each of the 18 separate city districts has its own council (Rada dzielnicy).[115] Their duties are focused on aiding the President and the City Council, as well as supervising various municipal companies, city-owned property and schools. The head of each of the District Councils is named the Mayor (Burmistrz) and is elected by the local council from the candidates proposed by the President of Warsaw. The mayor of Warsaw
Warsaw
is called President. Generally, in Poland, the mayors of bigger cities are called presidents – i.e. cities with over 100,000 people or that had a president before 1990. The first Warsaw
Warsaw
President was Jan Andrzej Menich (1695–1696).[117] Between 1975 and 1990 the Warsaw
Warsaw
Presidents simultaneously led the Warsaw
Warsaw
Voivode. Since 1990 the President of Warsaw
Warsaw
had been elected by the city council.[118] In the years of 1994–1999 the mayor of the district Centrum automatically was designated as the President of Warsaw: the mayor of Centrum was elected by the district council of Centrum and the council was elected only by the Centrum residents. Since 2002 the President of Warsaw
Warsaw
is elected by all of the citizens of Warsaw.[118] The current President of Warsaw
Warsaw
is Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz
(since 2006-12-02) – the former president of the National Bank of Poland.[119] The first president elected according these rules was Lech Kaczyński. When he was elected as the President of Polish Republic (December 2005) he resigned as mayor on the day before taking office.

Headquarters of Polish government agencies in Warsaw

Poland's bicameral parliament, the Sejm
Sejm
and the Senate

Chancellery of the Prime Minister

Presidential Palace, the seat of the Polish president

Supreme Court of Poland

Supreme Administrative Court

The seat of the administration of the Masovian Voivodeship

Mostowski Palace, the seat of Warsaw's police headquarters

The main gate of the Ministry of Health

Ministry of Agriculture

Districts Main article: Districts of Warsaw

District Population Area

Mokotów 220,682 35.4 km2 (13.7 sq mi)

Praga
Praga
Południe 178,665 22.4 km2 (8.6 sq mi)

Ursynów 145,938 48.6 km2 (18.8 sq mi)

Wola 137,519 19.26 km2 (7.44 sq mi)

Bielany 132,683 32.3 km2 (12.5 sq mi)

Targówek 123,278 24.37 km2 (9.41 sq mi)

Śródmieście 122,646 15.57 km2 (6.01 sq mi)

Bemowo 115,873 24.95 km2 (9.63 sq mi)

Białołęka 96,588 73.04 km2 (28.20 sq mi)

Ochota 84,990 09.7 km2 (3.7 sq mi)

Wawer 69,896 79.71 km2 (30.78 sq mi)

Praga
Praga
Północ 69,510 11.4 km2 (4.4 sq mi)

Ursus 53,755 09.35 km2 (3.61 sq mi)

Żoliborz 48,342 08.5 km2 (3.3 sq mi)

Włochy 38,075 28.63 km2 (11.05 sq mi)

Wilanów 23,960 36.73 km2 (14.18 sq mi)

Rembertów 23,280 19.30 km2 (7.45 sq mi)

Wesoła 22,811 22.6 km2 (8.7 sq mi)

Total 1,708,491[120] 521.81 km2 (201.47 sq mi)

Until 1994, there were 7 districts in Warsaw: Śródmieście, Praga Północ, Praga
Praga
Południe, Żoliborz, Wola, Ochota, and Mokotów. Between 1994 and 2002, there were 11 districts: Centrum, Białołęka, Targówek, Rembertów, Wawer, Wilanów, Ursynów, Włochy, Ursus, Bemowo, and Bielany. In 2002, the town Wesoła
Wesoła
was incorporated and the territorial division of Warsaw
Warsaw
was established as follows: Warsaw
Warsaw
is a county (powiat), and is further divided into 18 districts (dzielnica),[121] each one with its own administrative body.[122] Each of the districts is customarily subdivided into several neighbourhoods which have no legal or administrative status. Warsaw
Warsaw
has two historic neighbourhoods, called Old Town (Stare Miasto) and New Town (Nowe Miasto), in the borough of Śródmieście.[123]

Białołęka Bielany Bemowo Żoliborz Praga
Praga
Północ Targówek Śródmieście Wola Ochota Włochy Ursus Mokotów Wawer Praga
Praga
Południe Rembertów Wesoła Ursynów Wilanów

Economy In 2011, Warsaw
Warsaw
was ranked the world's 46th most expensive city to live in.[124] It was classified as an alpha world city (also known as a "major global city that links economic regions into the world economy") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from Loughborough University, placing it on a par with cities such as Sydney, Istanbul, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
or Seoul. Business and commerce Warsaw, especially its city centre (Śródmieście), is home not only to many national institutions and government agencies, but also to many domestic and international companies. In 2006, 304,016 companies were registered in the city.[125] Warsaw's ever-growing business community has been noticed globally, regionally, and nationally. MasterCard Emerging Market Index has noted Warsaw's economic strength and commercial center. Moreover, Warsaw
Warsaw
was ranked as the 7th greatest emerging market. Foreign investors' financial participation in the city's development was estimated in 2002 at over 650 million euros. Warsaw
Warsaw
produces 12% of Poland's national income,[126] which in 2008 was 305.1% of the Polish average per capita (or 160% of the European Union average). The GDP
GDP
per capita in Warsaw
Warsaw
amounted to PLN 131,000 in 2014 (c. €30,800 or $36,000).[127] Total nominal GDP
GDP
of the city in 2010 amounted to 191.766 billion PLN, 111,696 PLN per capita, which was 301.1% of the Polish average. Warsaw
Warsaw
leads the region of East- Central Europe
Central Europe
in foreign investment and in 2006, GDP
GDP
growth met expectations with a level of 6.1%.[128] It also has one of the fastest growing economies, with GDP
GDP
growth at 6.5 percent in 2007 and 6.1 percent in the first quarter of 2008.[129]

Złote Tarasy
Złote Tarasy
(English: Golden Terraces) is a commercial and entertainment complex in the center of Warsaw.

At the same time the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland. According to the official figures it was around 4% in February 2015.[130] The city itself collects around 8,740,882,000 złotys in taxes and direct government grants. Warsaw
Warsaw
Stock Exchange Main article: Warsaw
Warsaw
Stock Exchange

The Warsaw Stock Exchange
Warsaw Stock Exchange
is the largest one in Central Europe.

Warsaw's first stock exchange was established in 1817 and continued trading until World War II. It was re-established in April 1991, following the end of the post-war communist control of the country and the reintroduction of a free-market economy.[131] Today, the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) is, according to many indicators,[129] the largest market in the region, with 374 companies listed and total capitalization of 162,584 mln EUR as of 31 August 2009.[132] From 1991 until 2000, the stock exchange was, ironically, located in the building previously used as the headquarters of the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR).[133] Industry During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. As a result, numerous large factories were built in and around the city. The largest were the Huta Warszawa Steel Works, the FSO car factory and the "Ursus" tractor factory. As the communist economy deteriorated, these factories lost significance and most went bankrupt after 1989.[134][135] Today, the Arcelor Warszawa Steel Mill (formerly Huta Warszawa) is the only major factory remaining. The FSO Car Factory was established in 1951. A number of vehicles have been assembled there over the decades, including the Warszawa, Syrena, Fiat 125p (under license from Fiat, later renamed FSO 125p when the license expired) and the Polonez. The last two models listed were also sent abroad and assembled in a number of other countries, including Egypt and Colombia. In 1995 the factory was purchased by the South Korean car manufacturer Daewoo, which assembled the Tico, Espero, Nubia, Tacuma, Leganza, Lanos and Matiz there for the European market. In 2005 the factory was sold to AvtoZAZ, a Ukrainian car manufacturer which assembled the Chevrolet Aveo there. The license for the production of the Aveo expired in February 2011 and has not been renewed since. Currently the company is defunct. The "Ursus" factory opened in 1893 and is still in operation today. Throughout its history various machinery was assembled there, including motorcycles, military vehicles, trucks and buses. However, since World War II
World War II
only tractors are still being assembled there. The number of state-owned enterprises continues to decrease while the number of companies operating with foreign capital is on the rise, reflecting the continued shift towards a modern market-based economy.[134] The largest foreign investors are Coca-Cola Amatil
Coca-Cola Amatil
and Metro AG.[134] Warsaw
Warsaw
has the biggest concentration of electronics and high-tech industry in Poland, while the growing consumer market perfectly fosters the development of the food-processing industry.[134] Education Main article: Education in Warsaw

Higher education
Higher education
in Warsaw

   Name and year established

University of Warsaw
University of Warsaw
(1816) Warsaw University of Technology
Warsaw University of Technology
(1826) Warsaw School of Economics
Warsaw School of Economics
(1906) Warsaw University of Life Sciences
Warsaw University of Life Sciences
(1818) Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University
Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University
(1999) Medical University of Warsaw
University of Warsaw
(1809/1950) Academy of Fine Arts (1844) Academy of National Defence (1947/1990) Military
Military
University
University
of Technology (1951) University
University
of Physical Education in Warsaw
Education in Warsaw
(1929) Fryderyk Chopin University of Music
Fryderyk Chopin University of Music
(1810) Kozminski University
Kozminski University
(1993) University of Social Sciences and Humanities
University of Social Sciences and Humanities
(1996)

Warsaw
Warsaw
holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Poland. It is home to four major universities and over 62 smaller schools of higher education.[136] The overall number of students of all grades of education in Warsaw
Warsaw
is almost 500,000 (29.2% of the city population; 2002). The number of university students is over 280,000.[137] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.

The main gate of the University
University
of Warsaw

Faculty of Physics of the University
University
of Warsaw

The University of Warsaw
University of Warsaw
was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland
Poland
separated Warsaw
Warsaw
from the oldest and most influential Polish academic center, in Kraków.[138] Warsaw University of Technology
Warsaw University of Technology
is the second academic school of technology in the country, and one of the largest in East-Central Europe, employing 2,000 professors.[139] Other institutions for higher education include the Medical University of Warsaw, the largest medical school in Poland
Poland
and one of the most prestigious; the National Defence University, highest military academic institution in Poland; the Fryderyk Chopin University
University
of Music, the oldest and largest music school in Poland
Poland
and one of the largest in Europe;[140] the Warsaw
Warsaw
School of Economics, the oldest and most renowned economic university in the country;[141] the Warsaw University
University
of Life Sciences, the largest agricultural university, founded in 1818;[142] and the University
University
of Social Sciences and Humanities, the first private secular university in the country.

Warsaw
Warsaw
University
University
Library

Warsaw
Warsaw
has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents. The most important library in terms of historic document collections is the National Library of Poland. The library holds 8.2 million volumes in its collection.[143] Formed in 1928,[144] it sees itself as a successor to the Załuski Library, the biggest in Poland
Poland
and one of the first and biggest libraries in the world.[144][145] Another important library – the University
University
Library, founded in 1816,[146] is home to over two million items.[147] The building was designed by architects Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on 15 December 1999.[148] It is surrounded by green. The University
University
Library garden, designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on 12 June 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft), and plants covering 5,111 m2 (55,010 sq ft).[149] As the university garden it is open to the public every day.[149] Transport and infrastructure Main article: Transport in Warsaw

Night view of the Świętokrzyski Bridge
Bridge
and the National Stadium
Stadium
from the left bank of the Vistula

S8 in Warsaw

Warsaw
Warsaw
has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased foreign investment, economic growth and EU funding. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new roads, flyovers, bridges, etc.[150] Warsaw
Warsaw
lacks a good ring road system and most traffic goes directly through the city centre, leading to the third highest level of congestion in continental Europe.[151] The Warsaw
Warsaw
ring road has been planned to consist of three express roads: S2, S8 and S17. Currently parts of S2 and S8 are open, with the remaining construction to be finished by 2019. Thanks to the A2 motorway stretching west from Warsaw, which opened in June 2012, the city now has a direct motorway connection with Łódź, Poznań
Poznań
and ultimately with Berlin. The city has two international airports: Warsaw
Warsaw
Chopin Airport, located just 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city centre, and Warsaw-Modlin Airport, located 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north, opened in July 2012. With around 100 international and domestic flights a day and with 15 500 000 passengers served in 2017, Warsaw Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Airport is by far the biggest airport in Poland
Poland
and in Central-Eastern Europe.[152] and it has also been called "the most important and largest airport in Central Europe".[153]

Warsaw
Warsaw
Chopin Airport

Public transport
Public transport
in Warsaw
Warsaw
includes buses, trams (streetcars), Metro, the light rail Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa
Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa
line, urban railway Szybka Kolej Miejska, regional rail Koleje Mazowieckie
Koleje Mazowieckie
(Mazovian Railways),[154] and bicycle sharing systems (Veturilo). The buses, trams, urban railway and Metro are managed by Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego (ZTM, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Municipal Transport Authority).

Pendolino
Pendolino
high-speed trains connect Warsaw, Kraków, Wrocław, Tri-City and the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Area.

The regional rail and light rail is operated by Polish State Railways (PKP). There are also some suburban bus lines run by private operators.[155] Bus service covers the entire city, with approximately 170 routes totalling about 2,603 kilometres (1,617 mi), and with some 1,600 vehicles. Currently, the Tramwaje Warszawskie ( Warsaw
Warsaw
Trams) company runs 863 cars on over 240 kilometres (150 mi) of tracks. Twenty-odd lines run across the city with additional lines opened on special occasions (such as All Saints' Day). The first section of the Warsaw Metro
Warsaw Metro
was opened in 1995 initially with a total of 11 stations.[156] It now has 21 stations running a distance of approximately 23 km (14 mi).[157] Initially, all of the trains were Russian built. In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from Alstom.[156] The second line running east-west will be about 31 km (19 mi). The central section is 6 km (4 mi) long with seven stations,[156] opened on 8 March 2015. The main railway station is Warszawa Centralna serving both domestic traffic to almost every major city in Poland, and international connections. There are also five other major railway stations and a number of smaller suburban stations.

Public transport
Public transport
in Warsaw

Metro Line 2, Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet station

Buses

Tram
Tram
car

Fast City Rail trains, Chopin Airport station

Warsaw
Warsaw
Suburban train

Veturilo
Veturilo
bicycle station

Infrastructure Main article: Infrastructure in Warsaw Like many cities in Central and Eastern Europe, infrastructure in Warsaw
Warsaw
suffered considerably during its time as an Eastern Bloc economy – though it is worth mentioning that the initial Three-Year Plan to rebuild Poland
Poland
(especially Warsaw) was a major success, but what followed was very much the opposite. However, over the past decade Warsaw
Warsaw
has seen many improvements due to solid economic growth, an increase in foreign investment as well as funding from the European Union. In particular, the city's metro, roads, sidewalks, health care facilities and sanitation facilities have improved markedly.[150] Today, Warsaw
Warsaw
has some of the best medical facilities in Poland
Poland
and East-Central Europe. The city is home to the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), the highest-reference hospital in all of Poland, as well as an active research and education center.[158] The Maria Skłodowska-Curie
Maria Skłodowska-Curie
Institute of Oncology is one of the largest and most modern oncological institutions in Europe.[159] The clinical section is located in a 10-floor building with 700 beds, 10 operating theatres, an intensive care unit, several diagnostic departments as well as an outpatient clinic.[159] The infrastructure has developed a lot over the past years.[160] Culture Music and theatre

The edifice of the Grand Theatre in Warsaw. It is one of the largest theatres in Europe, featuring one of the biggest stages in the world.

Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera, the Chamber Opera, the National Philharmonic Hall and the National Theatre, as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the Congress Hall in the Palace
Palace
of Culture and Science, Warsaw
Warsaw
hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the International Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Piano Competition, the International Contemporary Music Festival Warsaw Autumn, the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw
Warsaw
Summer Jazz Days, the International Stanisław Moniuszko
Stanisław Moniuszko
Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.[161] Warsaw
Warsaw
is also considered as one of the European hubs of underground electronic music with a very attractive house and techno music scene.[162] Warsaw
Warsaw
is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the National Theatre (founded in 1765) and the Grand Theatre (established 1778).[163]

President Bronisław Komorowski
Bronisław Komorowski
attends the 2010 International Chopin Piano Competition in Warsaw.

Warsaw
Warsaw
also attracts many young and off-stream directors and performers who add to the city's theatrical culture. Their productions may be viewed mostly in smaller theatres and Houses of Culture (Domy Kultury), mostly outside Śródmieście (Central Warsaw). Warsaw
Warsaw
hosts the International Theatrical Meetings. From 1833 to the outbreak of World War II, Plac Teatralny (Theatre Square) was the country's cultural hub and home to the various theatres.[164] Plac Teatralny and its environs was the venue for numerous parades, celebrations of state holidays, carnival balls and concerts. The main building housed the Great Theatre from 1833 to 1834, the Rozmaitości Theatre from 1836 to 1924 and then the National Theatre, the Reduta Theatre from 1919 to 1924, and from 1928 to 1939 – the Nowy Theatre, which staged productions of contemporary poetical drama, including those directed by Leon Schiller.[164] Nearby, in Ogród Saski (the Saxon Garden), the Summer Theatre was in operation from 1870 to 1939,[165] and in the inter-war period, the theatre complex also included Momus, Warsaw's first literary cabaret, and Leon Schiller's musical theatre Melodram. The Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre (1922–26) was the best example of "Polish monumental theatre". From the mid-1930s, the Great Theatre building housed the Upati Institute of Dramatic Arts – the first state-run academy of dramatic art, with an acting department and a stage directing department.[164] Events

Warsaw
Warsaw
Multimedia Fountain Park

Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the Vistula
Vistula
on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called Wianki
Wianki
(Polish for Wreaths) have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.[166][167] The festival traces its roots to a peaceful pagan ritual where maidens would float their wreaths of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom.[166] By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today.[166] The city council organize concerts and other events.[167] Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, and looking for the fern flower, there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.[167] Warsaw
Warsaw
Multimedia Fountain Park is located in an enchanting place, near the Old Town and the Vistula. The ‘Water – Light – Sound’ multimedia shows take place each Friday and Saturday from May till September at 9.30 pm (May and – 9 October pm). On other weekdays, the shows do not include lasers and sound. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Film Festival, an annual festival that takes place every October.[168] Films are usually screened in their original language with Polish subtitles and participating cinemas include Kinoteka ( Palace
Palace
of Science and Culture), Multikino
Multikino
at Golden Terraces and Kultura. Over 100 films are shown throughout the festival, and awards are given to the best and most popular films.[168] Museums and art galleries

Museums in Warsaw

   Name and official website

National Museum
Museum
(site) Zachęta
Zachęta
National Gallery of Art (site) Royal Castle (site) Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Museum
Museum
(site) Copernicus Science Centre
Copernicus Science Centre
(site) Centre for Contemporary Art (site) Museum
Museum
of Modern Art (site) Museum
Museum
of the Polish Army (site) Fryderyk Chopin Museum
Museum
(site) Historical Museum
Museum
of Warsaw
Warsaw
(site) Museum
Museum
of Polish History (site) Museum
Museum
of Independence (site) Museum
Museum
of the History of the Polish Jews
Jews
(site) Museum
Museum
of Sport and Tourism (site) Museum
Museum
of Communism
Communism
(site) Museum
Museum
of Caricature (site) Maria Skłodowska-Curie
Maria Skłodowska-Curie
Museum
Museum
(site)

Museum
Museum
of History of Polish Jews

The levelling of Warsaw
Warsaw
during the war has left gaping holes in the city's historic collections.[169] Although a considerable number of treasures were spirited away to safety in 1939, a great number of collections from palaces and museums in the countryside were brought to Warsaw
Warsaw
at that time as the capital was considered a safer place than some remote castle in the borderlands.[169] Thus losses were heavy.[169]

Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Museum

Gallery of the 19th-Century Art at the National Museum

As interesting examples of expositions the most notable are: the world's first Museum
Museum
of Posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world,[170] the Museum
Museum
of Hunting and Riding and the Railway Museum. From among Warsaw's 60 museums, the most prestigious ones are the National Museum
Museum
with a collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as one of the best collections of paintings in the country including some paintings from Adolf Hitler's private collection,[171] and the Museum
Museum
of the Polish Army whose set portrays the history of arms. The collections of Łazienki and Wilanów
Wilanów
palaces (both buildings came through the war in good shape) focus on the paintings of the "old masters", as do those of the Royal Castle which displays the Lanckoroński Collection including two paintings by Rembrandt.[172] The Palace
Palace
in Natolin, a former rural residence of Duke Czartoryski, is another venue with its interiors and park accessible to tourists.

The 17th-century Ostrogski Castle houses the Chopin Museum.

Holding Poland's largest private collection of art, the Carroll Porczyński Collection Museum[173] displays works from such varied artists as Paris
Paris
Bordone, Cornelis van Haarlem, José de Ribera, William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
and Vincent van Gogh[174] along with some copies of masterpieces of European painting. A fine tribute to the fall of Warsaw
Warsaw
and history of Poland
Poland
can be found in the Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Museum
Museum
and in the Katyń Museum
Museum
which preserves the memory of that crime.[175] The Warsaw Uprising
Warsaw Uprising
Museum also operates a rare preserved and operating historic stereoscopic theatre, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Fotoplastikon. The Museum
Museum
of Independence preserves patriotic and political objects connected with Poland's struggles for independence. Dating back to 1936 the Warsaw
Warsaw
Historical Museum
Museum
contains 60 rooms which host a permanent exhibition of the history of Warsaw
Warsaw
from its origins until today.

Zachęta
Zachęta
National Gallery of Art

The 17th century Royal Ujazdów Castle
Ujazdów Castle
currently houses the Centre for Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions, concerts, shows and creative workshops. The Centre currently realizes about 500 projects a year. The Zachęta
Zachęta
National Gallery of Art, the oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to the mid-19th century organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and international artists and promotes art in many other ways. Since 2011 Warsaw
Warsaw
Gallery Weekend is held on the last weekend of September. The city also possesses some oddities such as the Museum
Museum
of Caricature,[176] the Museum
Museum
of John Paul II and Primate Wyszyński, and a Motorisation Museum
Museum
in Otrębusy.[177] Media and film See also: List of films featuring Warsaw

Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street

Warsaw
Warsaw
is the media centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of TVP and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations, such as Polskie Radio
Polskie Radio
(Polish Radio), TVN, Polsat, TV4, TV Puls, Canal+ Poland, Cyfra+
Cyfra+
and MTV Poland.[178] Since May 1661 the first Polish newspaper, the Polish Ordinary Mercury, was printed in Warsaw. The city is also the printing capital of Poland
Poland
with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Rzeczpospolita, Gazeta Wyborcza
Gazeta Wyborcza
and Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat, Poland's large nationwide daily newspapers,[179] have their headquarters in Warsaw. Warsaw
Warsaw
also has a sizable movie and television industry. The city houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie companies are TOR, Czołówka, Zebra and Kadr who is behind several international movie productions.[180] Over the next few years the new Film City in Nowe Miasto, located a mere 80 km (50 mi) from Warsaw, will become the centre of Polish film production and international co-production.[180] It is to be the largest high-tech film studio in Europe.[180] The first projects filmed in the new Film City will be two films about the Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising.[180] Two backlots will be constructed for these projects – a lot of pre- World War II
World War II
Warsaw
Warsaw
and city ruins.[180] Since World War II, Warsaw
Warsaw
has been the most important centre of film production in Poland. It has also been featured in numerous movies, both Polish and foreign, for example: Kanał and Korczak by Andrzej Wajda and The Decalogue by Krzysztof Kieślowski, also including Oscar winner The Pianist by Roman Polański.[181] It is also home to the National Film Archive, which, since 1955, has been collecting and preserving Polish film culture.[182] Sports Main article: Sport in Warsaw On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, obtained from the mayor of Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Wolfgang Schuster
Wolfgang Schuster
a challenge award – a commemorative plaque awarded to Warsaw
Warsaw
as the European capital of Sport in 2008.[183]

The Interior of the National Stadium
Stadium
before the UEFA Euro
Euro
2012 semi-final match between Germany
Germany
and Italy
Italy
on 28 June 2012

The National Stadium, a 58,500 seat capacity football (soccer) stadium, replaced Warsaw's recently demolished 10th-Anniversary Stadium.[184] The national stadium hosted the opening match, 2 group matches, a quarterfinal, and a semifinal of the UEFA Euro 2012
UEFA Euro 2012
hosted jointly by Poland
Poland
and Ukraine.[185]

The Olympic Center

There are many sports centres in the city as well. Most of these facilities are swimming pools and sports halls, many of them built by the municipality in the past several years. The main indoor venue is Hala Torwar, used for all kinds of indoor sports (it was a venue for the 2009 EuroBasket[186] but it is also used as an indoor skating rink). There is also an open-air skating rink (Stegny) and a horse racetrack (Służewiec). The best of the city's swimming centres is at Wodny Park Warszawianka, 4 km (2 mi) south of the centre at Merliniego Street, where there's an Olympic-sized pool as well as water slides and children's areas.[187] From the Warsovian football teams, the most famous is Legia Warsaw – the army club with a nationwide following play at Polish Army Stadium, just southeast of the centre at Łazienkowska Street. Established in 1916, they have won the country’s championship 11 times (most recently in 2016) and won the Polish Cup 18 times. In the Champions League season 1995/96 they reached the quarter-finals, where they lost to Panathinaikos Athens. Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw, have significantly fewer supporters, yet they managed to win the country's championship two times (in 1946 and 2000) and won the cup twice as well. Polonia's home venue is located at Konwiktorska Street, a ten-minute walk north from the Old Town. Polonia was relegated from the country's top flight in 2013 because of their disastrous financial situation. They are now playing in the second league (3rd tier in Poland). Polonia Warsaw's basketball team was one of the country's elite teams until the mid-70s. Today, like the football (soccer) team, they compete in one of Poland's lower divisions as well. Warsaw
Warsaw
Mermaid

The 1659 coat of arms of Old Warsaw
Warsaw
on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books

Main article: Coat of arms of Warsaw The mermaid (syrenka) is Warsaw's symbol[188] and can be found on statues throughout the city and on the city's coat of arms. This imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century.[189] The oldest existing armed seal of Warsaw
Warsaw
is from the year 1390, consisting of a round seal bordered with the Latin
Latin
inscription Sigilium Civitatis Varsoviensis (Seal of the city of Warsaw).[190] City records as far back as 1609 document the use of a crude form of a sea monster with a female upper body and holding a sword in its claws.[191] In 1653 the poet Zygmunt Laukowski asks the question:

Warsaw
Warsaw
of strong walls; why was the emblem Mermaid
Mermaid
with sharp sword, given you by the kings? ”

— Zygmunt Laukowski[192]

1855 bronze sculpture of The Warsaw
Warsaw
Mermaid
Mermaid
in the Old Town Market Place

The Mermaid
Mermaid
Statue stands in the very centre of Old Town Square, surrounded by a fountain. Due to vandalism, the original statue had been moved to the grounds of the Historical Museum
Museum
of Warsaw
Warsaw
– the statue in the square is a copy. This is not the only mermaid in Warsaw. Another is located on the bank of the Vistula
Vistula
River near Świętokrzyski Bridge
Bridge
and another on Karowa Street. The origin of the legendary figure is not fully known. The best-known legend, by Artur Oppman, is that long ago two of Triton's daughters set out on a journey through the depths of the oceans and seas. One of them decided to stay on the coast of Denmark
Denmark
and can be seen sitting at the entrance to the port of Copenhagen. The second mermaid reached the mouth of the Vistula
Vistula
River and plunged into its waters. She stopped to rest on a sandy beach by the village of Warszowa, where fishermen came to admire her beauty and listen to her beautiful voice. A greedy merchant also heard her songs; he followed the fishermen and captured the mermaid.[193] Another legend says that a mermaid once swam to Warsaw
Warsaw
from the Baltic Sea for the love of the Griffin, the ancient defender of the city, who was killed in a struggle against the Swedish invasions of the 17th century. The mermaid, wishing to avenge his death, took the position of defender of Warsaw, becoming the symbol of the city.[193] Every member of the Queen's Royal Hussars
Queen's Royal Hussars
of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
light cavalry wears the Maid of Warsaw, the crest of the City of Warsaw, on the left sleeve of his No. 2 (Service) Dress.[194] Members of 651 Squadron Army Air Corps of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
also wear the Maid of Warsaw
Warsaw
on the left sleeve of their No. 2 (Service) Dress.[195] Famous people Further information: Category:People from Warsaw

Famous notables born in Warsaw. Clockwise from upper left: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Benoit Mandelbrot, Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
and Tamara de Lempicka.

One of the most famous people born in Warsaw
Warsaw
was Maria Skłodowska-Curie, who achieved international recognition for her research on radioactivity and was the first female recipient of the Nobel Prize.[196] Famous musicians include Władysław Szpilman
Władysław Szpilman
and Frédéric Chopin. Though Chopin was born in the village of Żelazowa Wola, about 60 km (37 mi) from Warsaw, he moved to the city with his family when he was seven months old.[197] Casimir Pulaski, a Polish general and hero of the American Revolutionary War, was born here in 1745.[198] Tamara de Lempicka
Tamara de Lempicka
was a famous artist born in Warsaw.[199] She was born Maria Górska in Warsaw
Warsaw
to wealthy parents and in 1916 married a Polish lawyer Tadeusz Łempicki.[200] Better than anyone else she represented the Art Deco
Art Deco
style in painting and art.[199] Nathan Alterman, the Israeli poet, was born in Warsaw, as was Moshe Vilenski, the Israeli composer, lyricist, and pianist, who studied music at the Warsaw
Warsaw
Conservatory.[201] Other notables include Samuel Goldwyn, the founder of Goldwyn Pictures, mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot, physicist Joseph Rotblat and biochemist Casimir Funk. Warsaw
Warsaw
was the beloved city of Isaac Bashevis Singer, which he described in many of his novels:[202] Warsaw
Warsaw
has just now been destroyed. No one will ever see the Warsaw
Warsaw
I knew. Let me just write about it. Let this Warsaw
Warsaw
not disappear forever, he wrote.[203] Rankings

Largest capital cities of the European Union: ranked 9th (2012). Most expensive cities: ranked 113th of 144. Livability Index: ranked 32nd (2012)[16]

International relations Twin towns and sister cities See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Warsaw
Warsaw
is twinned with:[204]

Astana
Astana
in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(since 2002) Berlin
Berlin
in Germany
Germany
(since 1991)[205][206] Budapest
Budapest
in Hungary
Hungary
(since 2005) Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
in Argentina
Argentina
(since 1992)[207] Chicago
Chicago
in the United States
United States
(since 1960) Coventry
Coventry
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(since 1957)[208][209] Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
in Germany
Germany
(since 1989)[210] Grozny
Grozny
in Russia
Russia
(since 1997) Hamamatsu
Hamamatsu
in Japan
Japan
(since 1990)

Hanoi
Hanoi
in Vietnam
Vietnam
(since 2000) Harbin
Harbin
in China
China
(since 1993) Île-de- France
France
in France
France
(since 1990) Istanbul
Istanbul
in Turkey
Turkey
(since 1991)[211][212] Kiev
Kiev
in Ukraine
Ukraine
(since 1994) Madrid
Madrid
in Spain
Spain
(since 1981)[213] Manila
Manila
in Philippines
Philippines
(since 2006) Moscow
Moscow
in Russia
Russia
(since 1993) Oslo
Oslo
in Norway
Norway
(since 2005)[214] Riga
Riga
in Latvia
Latvia
(since 2002)[215]

Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
in Brazil
Brazil
(since 1997) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
in France
France
(since 1995) St. Petersburg in Russia
Russia
(since 1997)[216] Seoul
Seoul
in South Korea
South Korea
(since 1996)[217][218] Taipei
Taipei
in Taiwan
Taiwan
(since 1995)[219] Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
in Israel
Israel
(since 1992)[220] The Hague
The Hague
in Netherlands
Netherlands
(since 1991) Toronto
Toronto
in Canada
Canada
(since 1990) Vilnius
Vilnius
in Lithuania
Lithuania
(since 1998)

References – city's official site.[221] Partnerships

Tbilisi, Georgia[222] Paris, France, 1999[223] Prague, Czech Republic[224] Yerevan, Armenia[225]

Varieties

v t e

Varieties

Warsaw
Warsaw
in art

Castle Square[226], Bernardo Bellotto, 1767-1768

Miodowa
Miodowa
Street, Bernardo Bellotto, 1777

New Town Market Square, Bernardo Bellotto, 1778

Piarist church, Marcin Zaleski, 1830

Krakowskie Przedmieście,[227] Marcin Zaleski, 1831

Łazienki Palace, Marcin Zaleski, 1836-38

Sand miners,[228] Aleksander Gierymski, 1887

Nowy Świat Street,[229] Władysław Podkowiński, 1900

Warsaw
Warsaw
in literature

“ City of menace, like a coffin lid thrown down an abyss as if by a tempest's blow – yet proud as a black lion who takes long to die ”

— Warsaw, Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński[230]

“ What are you doing here, poet, on the ruins Of St. John's Cathedral this sunny Day in spring? What are you thinking here, where the wind Blowing from the Vistula
Vistula
scatters The red dust of the rubble? ”

— In Warsaw, Czesław Miłosz[231]

Before the war and today

Marszałkowska Street 1912

Marszałkowska Street 2012

Great Synagogue 1910s

Blue Skyscraper 2011

Vienna
Vienna
Railway Station the end of the nineteenth century

Roman Dmowski Roundabout 2014

Saxon Square 1919

Piłsudski
Piłsudski
Square 2013

Warsaw
Warsaw
Philharmonic Hall 1918

Warsaw
Warsaw
Philharmonic Hall 2011

Brühl Palace 1939

Metropolitan building 2009

Sienna and Zgoda streets intersection 1917

Stefan Wiechecki "Wiech" Passage 2007

St. Alexander's Church 1930s

St. Alexander's Church 2009

Vienna
Vienna
Railway Station platforms before 1939

Warszawa Śródmieście railway station 2010

St. Andreas and St. Albert Church before 1939

St. Andreas and St. Albert Church 2000s

Warsaw
Warsaw
in photochrome prints

Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz
monument

City Hall

Grand Theatre

St. Alexander's Church

Staszic Palace

Greenery in the city

Library Garden

Royal Baths Park

Botanical Garden

Wilanów Palace
Wilanów Palace
Park

Saxon Garden

Krasiński Garden

Mokotów
Mokotów
Field

Agrykola Park

Ujazdów Park

Skaryszewski Park

Historical views

1573

1617

1656

1770

See also

Poland
Poland
portal EU portal

Battle of Warsaw List of tallest buildings in Warsaw List of honorary citizens of Warsaw Street names of Warsaw Tourism in Poland Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp Warsaw
Warsaw
dialect Warsaw
Warsaw
Fire Guard

Notes

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Isaac Bashevis Singer
(1986). Recovering the canon: essays on Isaac Bashevis Singer. BRILL. p. 40. ISBN 90-04-07681-6.  ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. 4 May 2005. Retrieved 29 August 2008.  ^ " Berlin
Berlin
– City Partnerships". Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013.  ^ "Berlin's international city relations". Berlin
Berlin
Mayor's Office. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 1 July 2009.  Berlin
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and Warsaw’s agreement on friendship and cooperation and a corresponding supporting program was signed in Berlin
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on 12 August 1991. ^ "Listado de ciudades hermanas" (PDF). buenosaires.gov.ar (in Spanish). Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2011. 1990. Praga. 1992. Rótterdam. 1990. Varsovia 1992.  ^ Griffin, Mary (2 August 2011). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 August 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.  ^ " Coventry
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city council webpage.  ^ "Partners – Oslo
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Find more aboutWarsawat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

References

Crowley, David (2003). Warsaw. Reaktion Books. ISBN 1-86189-179-2. Retrieved 28 August 2011.  Olchowik-Adamowska, Liliana; Ławecki, Tomasz (1 April 2006). Travellers Warsaw
Warsaw
(First ed.). Peterborough, United Kingdom: Thomas Cook Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84157-492-9. Retrieved 11 March 2010.  Bozenna Kirkpatrick (18 July 2012). "Polish Vistula
Vistula
River Victory of 1920, implications". An Outline. Electronic Museum.ca. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2013.  Official webpage of Warsaw
Warsaw
includes 360° panoramas of the UNESCO listed area. District Police Headquarters – Warsaw
Warsaw
II (part of Warsaw Metropolitan Police) Warsaw
Warsaw
Guide. Online City Guide for Warsaw
Warsaw
in Poland. Retrieved 17 May 2015. What to do and see in Warsaw

Bibliography See also: Bibliography of the history of Warsaw

Links to related articles

v t e

Districts of Warsaw

Bemowo Białołęka Bielany Mokotów Ochota Praga

Północ Południe

Rembertów Śródmieście Targówek Ursus Ursynów Wawer Wesoła Wilanów Włochy Wola Żoliborz

v t e

Mayors of Warsaw

First Polish Republic

Józef Michał Łukasiewicz (1791) Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski
Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski
(1792) Andrzej Rafałowicz (1793) Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski
Ignacy Wyssogota Zakrzewski
(1794) Józef Michał Łukasiewicz (1794) and Andrzej Rafałowicz (1794)

Prussian Occupation

Franz Schimmelpfennig von der Ove Friedrich Georg Tilly

Duchy of Warsaw

Joachim Moszyński Paweł Bieliński Stanisław Węgrzecki

Congress Poland

Karol Woyda Stanisław Węgrzecki Jakub Ignacy Łaszczyński Aleksander Graybner Teodor Andrault de Langeron Kazimierz Woyda Zygmunt Wielopolski Kalikst Witkowski Sokrates Starynkiewicz Mikołaj Bibikow Wiktor Litwiński Aleksander Miller

World War I

Zdzisław Lubomirski Piotr Drzewiecki

Second Polish Republic

Stanisław Nowodworski Władysław Jabłoński Zygmunt Słomiński Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski Stefan Starzyński

General Government

Julian Kulski Marceli Porowski Helmut Otto Oskar Rudolf Dengel Ludwig Leist

People's Republic of Poland

Marian Spychalski Stanisław Tołwiński Jerzy Albrecht Janusz Zarzycki Zygmunt Dworakowski Jerzy Majewski Mieczysław Dębicki Jerzy Bolesławski

Third Polish Republic

Stanisław Wyganowski Mieczysław Bareja Marcin Święcicki Paweł Piskorski Wojciech Kozak Lech Kaczyński Mirosław Kochalski (acting) Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz
Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz
(acting) Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Capitals of European states and territories

Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics.

Western

Amsterdam, Netherlands1 Andorra la Vella, Andorra Bern, Switzerland Brussels, Belgium2 Douglas, Isle of Man (UK) Dublin, Ireland London, United Kingdom Luxembourg, Luxembourg Paris, France Saint Helier, Jersey (UK) Saint Peter Port, Guernsey (UK)

Northern

Copenhagen, Denmark Helsinki, Finland Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) Mariehamn, Åland Islands (Finland) Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark) Olonkinbyen, Jan Mayen (Norway) Oslo, Norway Reykjavík, Iceland Stockholm, Sweden Tórshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

Central

Berlin, Germany Bratislava, Slovakia Budapest, Hungary Ljubljana, Slovenia Prague, Czech Republic Vaduz, Liechtenstein Vienna, Austria Warsaw, Poland

Southern

Ankara, Turkey3 Athens, Greece Belgrade, Serbia Bucharest, Romania Gibraltar, Gibraltar (UK) Lisbon, Portugal Madrid, Spain Monaco, Monaco Nicosia, Cyprus4 North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus4, 5 Podgorica, Montenegro Pristina, Kosovo5 Rome, Italy San Marino, San Marino Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina Skopje, Macedonia Sofia, Bulgaria Tirana, Albania Valletta, Malta Vatican City, Vatican City Zagreb, Croatia

Eastern

Astana, Kazakhstan3 Baku, Azerbaijan3 Chișinău, Moldova Kiev, Ukraine Minsk, Belarus Moscow, Russia3 Riga, Latvia Stepanakert, Artsakh4, 5 Sukhumi, Abkhazia3, 5 Tallinn, Estonia Tbilisi, Georgia3 Tiraspol, Transnistria5 Tskhinvali, South Ossetia3, 5 Vilnius, Lithuania Yerevan, Armenia3

1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands 2 Also the seat of the European Union, see Institutional seats of the European Union
European Union
and Brussels
Brussels
and the European Union 3 Transcontinental country 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe 5 Partially recognised country

v t e

Capital cities of the member states of the European Union

Netherlands: Amsterdam

Greece: Athens

Germany: Berlin

Slovakia: Bratislava

Belgium: Brussels

Romania: Bucharest

Hungary: Budapest

Denmark: Copenhagen

Ireland: Dublin

Finland: Helsinki

Portugal: Lisbon

Slovenia: Ljubljana

United Kingdom: London

Luxembourg: Luxembourg

Spain: Madrid

Cyprus: Nicosia

France: Paris

Czech Republic: Prague

Latvia: Riga

Italy: Rome

Bulgaria: Sofia

Sweden: Stockholm

Estonia: Tallinn

Malta: Valletta

Austria: Vienna

Lithuania: Vilnius

Poland: Warsaw

Croatia: Zagreb

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Poland

Auschwitz-Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940–1945) Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest
/ Belovezhskaya Pushcha (with Belarus) Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork Centennial Hall, Wrocław Churches of Peace
Churches of Peace
in Jawor and Świdnica Cracow's Historic Centre Kalwaria Zebrzydowska: the Mannerist Architectural and Park Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park Medieval Town of Toruń Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski (with Germany) Old City of Zamość Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine and its Underground Water Management System Historic Centre of Warsaw Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines Wooden churches of Southern Lesser Poland Wooden tserkvas of the Carpathian region in Poland
Poland
and Ukraine

v t e

European Capitals of Sport

2001 Madrid 2002 Stockholm 2003 Glasgow 2004 Alicante 2005 Rotterdam 2006 Copenhagen 2007 Stuttgart 2008 Warsaw 2009 Milan 2010 Dublin 2011 Valencia 2012 Istanbul 2013 Antwerp 2014 Cardiff 2015 Turin 2016 Prague 2017 Marseille 2018 Sofia 2019 Budapest 2020 Málaga 2021 Lisboa 2022 The Hague

v t e

Counties of Masovian Voivodeship

City counties

Warsaw
Warsaw
(capital) Ostrołęka Płock Radom Siedlce

Land counties

Białobrzegi Ciechanów Garwolin Gostynin Grodzisk Mazowiecki Grójec Kozienice Legionowo Lipsko Łosice Maków Mińsk Mława Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki Ostrołęka Ostrów Mazowiecka Otwock Piaseczno Płock Płońsk Pruszków Przasnysz Przysucha Pułtusk Radom Siedlce Sierpc Sochaczew Sokołów Szydłowiec Warsaw
Warsaw
West Węgrów Wołomin Wyszków Żuromin Zwoleń Żyrardów

Coordinates: 52°14′N 21°1′E / 52.233°N 21.017°E / 52.233; 21.017

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146267734 LCCN: n79018894 GND: 4079048-4 SELIBR: 162121 SUDOC: 02756391X BNF:

.