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Turin ( , : ; it, Torino ; lat, Augusta Taurinorum, then ''Taurinum'') is a city and an important business and cultural centre in . It is the of and of the , and was the first Italian capital from 1861 to 1865. The city is mainly on the western bank of the , below its , and is surrounded by the western and Hill. The population of the city proper is 852,223 (30 September 2021) while the population of the urban area is estimated by to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The is estimated by the to have a population of 2.2 million. The city used to be a major European political centre. From 1563, it was the capital of the , then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the , and the first capital of the from 1861 to 1865. Turin is sometimes called "the cradle of Italian liberty" for having been the birthplace and home of notable individuals who contributed to the ', such as . Even though much of its political influence had been lost by , althrough having being a center of movements during the ' including the , Turin became a major European crossroad for industry, commerce and trade, and is part of the "industrial triangle" along with and . It is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a of $58 billion, the city is the world's 78th richest by purchasing power. As of 2018, the city has been ranked by as a Gamma level . Turin is also home to much of the , with the headquarters of , and . The city has a rich culture and history, being known for its numerous , restaurants, churches, palaces, s, s, parks, gardens, theatres, libraries, museums and other venues. Turin is well known for its , , , and architecture. Many of Turin's , castles, gardens and elegant ' such as the , were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. A part of the historical center of Turin was inscribed in the under the name . In addition, the city is home to museums such as the and the which in turn hosts the . Turin's attractions make it one of the world's top 250 tourist destinations and the tenth most visited city in Italy in 2008. The city also hosts some of Italy's best universities, colleges, academies, and , such as the , founded in the 15th century, and the . Turin is worldwide famous by as the , the , the automobile brand FIAT and the , who compete with its rival in the ', the city's . Finally, the city, among other events, was one of the host cities of the and s, and hosted of the ; while it will host the tennis since 2021 to 2025 and the .


History


Ancient origins

The were an ancient people, who occupied the upper valley of the , in the center of modern . In 218 BC, they were attacked by as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the . The Taurini chief town (''Taurasia'') was captured by Hannibal's forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are rarely mentioned in history. It is believed that a colony was established after 28 BC under the name of ''Julia Augusta Taurinorum'' (modern Turin). Both and mention the Taurini's country as including one of the passes of the , which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times.


Roman era

In the 1st century BC (probably 28 BC), the Romans founded ''Augusta Taurinorum''. Via Garibaldi traces the exact path of the Roman city's which began at the ''Porta Decumani'', later incorporated into the ''Castello'' or ''Palazzo Madama''. The ''Porta Palatina'', on the north side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the cathedral. Remains of the Roman-period are preserved in the area of the ''Manica Nuova''. Turin reached about 5,000 inhabitants at the time, all living inside the high city walls.


Middle Ages

After the fall of the , the town, along with the rest of the Italian peninsula, was conquered by the and the , recaptured by the , but then conquered again by the whose territory then fell into the hands of the under (773). The ' (countship) was founded in the 940s and was held by the dynasty until 1050. After the marriage of with 's son , the family of the gained control. While the title of count was held by the Bishop as count of (1092–1130 and 1136–1191) it was ruled as a by the Bishops. In 1230–1235 it was a lordship under the , styled Lord of Turin. At the end of the 13th century, when it was annexed to the Duchy of Savoy, the city already had 20,000 inhabitants. Many of the gardens and palaces were built in the 15th century when the city was redesigned. The was also founded during this period.


Early modern

, also known under the nickname of ''Iron Head'' (Testa 'd Fer), made Turin the capital of the Duchy of Savoy in 1563. Piazza Reale (named today) and Via Nuova (current Via Roma) were added along with the first enlargement of the walls, in the first half of the 17th century; in the same period the ''Palazzo Reale'' () was also built. In the second half of that century, a second enlargement of the walls was planned and executed, with the building of the arcaded Via Po, connecting Piazza Castello with the bridge on the Po through the regular street grid. In 1706, during the , the French besieged the city for 117 days without conquering it. By the the Duke of Savoy acquired , soon traded for , and part of the former , and was elevated to king; thus Turin became the capital of a European kingdom. The architect began a major redesign of the city; Turin had about 90,000 inhabitants at the time.


Late modern and contemporary

Turin, like the rest of , was annexed by the in 1802. The city thus became the seat of the of until the fall of in 1814, when the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was restored with Turin as its capital. In the following decades, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia led the struggle towards the . In 1861, Turin became the capital of the newly proclaimed united until 1865, when the capital was moved to , and then to after the 1870 conquest of the . The 1871 opening of the made Turin an important communication node between Italy and France. The city in that period had 250,000 inhabitants. Some of the most iconic landmarks of the city, like the , the , the and ''Piazza Vittorio Veneto'' were built in this period. The late 19th century was also a period of rapid industrialization, especially in the automotive sector: in 1899 was established in the city, followed by in 1906. The held in Turin in 1902 is often regarded as the pinnacle of design, and the city hosted the same event in . By this time, Turin had grown to 430,000 inhabitants. After , harsh conditions brought a wave of strikes and workers' protests. In 1920 the Fiat factory was occupied. The Fascist regime put an end to the social unrest, banning trade unions and jailing socialist leaders, notably . On the other hand, largely subsidised the automotive industry, to provide vehicles to the army. Turin , being heavily damaged by the air raids in its industrial areas as well as in the city centre. Along with , , and , Turin was one of Italy's four cities that experienced by the RAF; the heaviest raid took place on 13 July 1943, when 295 bombers dropped 763 tons of bombs, killing 792 people. Overall, these raids killed 2,069 inhabitants of Turin, and destroyed or damaged 54% of all buildings in the city. The Allied's started off from the and slowly moved northwards in the following two years, leaving the northern regions occupied by Germans and collaborationist forces for several years. Turin was not captured by the Allies until the end of . By the time the vanguard of the armoured reconnaissance units of reached the city, it was already freed by the , that had begun revolting against the Germans on 25 April 1945. Days later, troops from the US Army's and came to substitute the Brazilians. In the postwar years, Turin was rapidly rebuilt. The city's automotive industry played a pivotal role in the of the 1950s and 1960s, attracting hundreds of thousands of immigrants to the city, particularly from the rural southern regions of Italy. The number of immigrants was so big that Turin was said to be "the third southern Italian city after and ". The population soon reached 1 million in 1960 and peaked at almost 1.2 million in 1971. The exceptional growth gains of the city gained it the nickname of ''Capitale dell'automobile'' (Automobile Capital), being often compared with , the major centre of the (both cities has been "twinned" in 1998). In the 1970s and 1980s, the oil and automotive industry crisis severely hit the city, and its population began to sharply decline, losing more than one-fourth of its total in 30 years. The long population decline of the city has begun to reverse itself only in recent years, as the population grew from 865,000 to slightly over 900,000 by the end of the century. In 2006, Turin hosted the .


Geography

Turin is in . It is surrounded on the western and northern front by the Alps and on the eastern front by a high hill that is the natural continuation of the hills of . Four major rivers pass through the city: the Po and three of its tributaries, the (once known as ''Duria Minor'' by the Romans, from the noun ''duria'' meaning "water"), the and the .


Climate

Located in northwestern Italy at the foot of the Alps, at a similar latitude and altitude to in the French Alps, Turin features a (: Cfa), due to its hot summers as does most of northern Italy and low intra-alpine valleys. Winters are moderately cold and dry, summers are mild in the hills and quite hot in the plains. Rain falls mostly during spring and autumn; during the hottest months, otherwise, rains are less frequent but heavier (thunderstorms are frequent). During the winter and autumn months banks of fog, which are sometimes very thick, form in the plains but rarely on the city because of its location at the end of the . Snowfalls are not uncommon during the winter months, although substantial accumulation is quite uncommon. Its position on the east side of the makes the weather drier than on the west side because of the effect. The highest temperature ever recorded was , and the lowest was .


Administration

Turin is split up into 8 s, locally called '; these do not necessarily correspond to the historical districts of the city, which are rather called ', ', ''borghi'', ''borgate'' or ''zone''. The "circoscrizioni" system originally comprised 10 of them, that were reduced to 8 by merging borough 9 into 8, and 10 into 2. The following list numerates the boroughs and the location of the historical districts inside them: * Circoscrizione 1: Centro – Crocetta * Circoscrizione 2: Santa Rita – Mirafiori Nord – Mirafiori Sud * Circoscrizione 3: San Paolo – Cenisia – Pozzo Strada – Cit Turin – Borgata Lesna * Circoscrizione 4: San Donato – Campidoglio – Parella * Circoscrizione 5: Borgo Vittoria – Madonna di Campagna – Lucento – Vallette * Circoscrizione 6: Barriera di Milano – Regio Parco – Barca – Bertolla – Falchera – Rebaudengo – Villaretto * Circoscrizione 7: – Vanchiglia – Sassi – Madonna del Pilone * Circoscrizione 8: San Salvario – Cavoretto – Borgo Po – Nizza Millefonti – – Filadelfia The Mayor of Turin is directly elected every five years. The current mayor of the city is (), elected in 2021.


Cityscape


City centre

Turin's historical architecture is predominantly and was developed under the . Nonetheless, the main street of the city centre, ''Via Roma'', was built during the Fascist era (from 1931 to 1937) as an example of , replacing former buildings already present in this area. Via Roma runs between and . Buildings on the portion between Piazza Carlo Felice and were designed by rationalist architect . These blocks were built into a reticular system, composed by austere buildings in clear rationalist style, such as the impressive ''Hotel Principi di Piemonte'' and the former ''Hotel Nazionale'' in ''Piazza CLN''. Porches are built in a continuous and marked with double columns, to be consistent with those of Piazza San Carlo. The section of the street between Piazza San Carlo and Piazza Castello was built in an eclectic style, with arcades characterised by -type arches. To this day Via Roma is the street featuring the most fashionable boutiques of the city. Via Roma crosses one of the main squares of the city: the pedestrianized Piazza San Carlo, built by in the 17th century. In the middle of the square stands the equestrian monument to , also known as ''Caval ëd Brons'' in the local dialect ("Bronze Horse"); the monument depicts the Duke sheathing his sword after the . Piazza San Carlo arcades host the most ancient cafés of the city, such as ''Caffé Torino'' and ''Caffé San Carlo''. On the northern edge of Via Roma stands ''Piazza Castello'', regarded as the heart of the city. The half-pedestrianized square hosts some significant buildings such as ''Palazzo Reale'' (Former Savoy Royal House), the ''Palazzo Madama'' (which previously hosted the Savoy senate and, for few years, the Italian senate after Italian unification), the former Baroque (rebuilt in modern style in the 1960s, after being destroyed by fire), the which hosts the , and the baroque . Moreover, Piazza Castello hosts a Fascist era building, the , a sort of skyscraper which was supposed to become the headquarters of the Fascist party, although it never served as such. The building's style is quite different from the Baroque style of Piazza Castello. The square regularly hosts the main open space events of the city, live concerts included. As for the southern part of the street, Via Roma ends in ''Piazza Carlo Felice'' and in its ''Giardino Sambuy'', a wide fenced garden right in the middle of the square. Across from Piazza Carlo Felice stands the monumental façade of , the central station of the city built between 1861 and 1868 by the architect Alessandro Mazzucchetti. The passengers building was renovated to host a shopping mall and more efficient passenger service offices. However, it is still an example of monumental architecture, with its stately foyer and some Baroque sights, such as the ''Sala Reale'' (the former Royal waiting room). In ''Piazza Castello'' converge some of the main streets of the city centre. Among them, one of the most significant is the arcaded ''Via Po'', built by in 1868 and featuring some interesting buildings, such as the first and original building of the and the historical , which was the favourite café of the 19th-century politicians. Via Po ends in (simply called Piazza Vittorio locally), the largest Baroque square in Europe and today heart of Turin nightlife. Piazza Vittorio features the most fashionable bars and not far from here, along the riverfront, the ''Murazzi'' quays used to host several bars and nightclubs open till the morning until a few years ago. Parallel to Via Roma, the other two popular pedestrian streets, namely ''Via Lagrange'' and ''Via Carlo Alberto'', cross the old town from Via Po to ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II''. Their recent pedestrianisation has improved their original commercial vocation. In particular, Via Lagrange has recently increased the presence of luxury boutiques. This street also hosts the , home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. Via Lagrange and Via Carlo Alberto cross two significant squares of the city, respectively. The former crosses ''Piazza Carignano'', well known mainly for the undulating “concave – convex-concave” Baroque façade of . This building used to host the ''Parlamento Subalpino'' (the “Subalpine Parliament”, which also became the Italian Parliament for a few years, after the Italian unification) and today houses the . The square also features the , a well-conserved Baroque theatre. Via Carlo Alberto crosses ''Piazza Carlo Alberto'', a big square hosting the rear façade of Palazzo Carignano, in eclectic style. On the other side stands the monumental ''Biblioteca Nazionale'' (National Library). Not far from Via Po stands the symbol of Turin, namely the , so named after the architect who built it, . Construction began in 1863 as a Jewish . Nowadays it houses the and it is believed to be the tallest museum in the world at . The building is depicted on the Italian 2-cent coin. Just behind ''Piazza Castello'' stands the , dedicated to Saint , which is the major church of the city. It was built during 1491–1498 and is adjacent to an earlier (1470). Annexed to the cathedral is the , the current resting place of the . The chapel was added to the structure in 1668–1694, designed by . The was built to celebrate an alleged miracle which took place during the sack of the city in 1453, when a soldier was carrying off a containing the ; the monstrance fell to the ground, while the remained suspended in air. The present church, erected in 1610 to replace the original chapel which stood on the spot, is the work of . Next to the Turin Cathedral stand the , an ancient -medieval structure that served as one of four Roman s along the of Turin. This gate allowed access from north to the '' maximus'', the typical second main street of a Roman town. The Palatine Towers are among the best preserved Roman remains in northern Italy. Close to this site, the ''Piazza della Repubblica'' plays host to the biggest open market in Europe, locally known as ''mercato di Porta Palazzo'' (''Porta Palazzo'' or ''Porta Pila'' are the historical and local names of this area). West of the Porte Palatine stands the ''Quadrilatero Romano'' (Roman Quadrilateral), the old medieval district recently renewed. The current neighbourhood is characterised by its tiny streets and its several medieval buildings and today it is popular for its ' bars and its small shops run by local artisans. The hub of the Quadrilatero is ''Piazza Emanuele Filiberto''. South of the Quadrilatero Romano stands ''Via Garibaldi'', another popular street of the city. It is a pedestrian street between Piazza Castello and ''Piazza Statuto'' which features some of the old shops of the city. Large ''Piazza Statuto'' is another example of Baroque square with arcades. Another main street of downtown is ''Via Pietro Micca'', which starts in Piazza Castello and ends in the large ''Piazza Solferino''. The street continues in ''Via Cernaia'' up to ''Piazza XXV Dicembre'', which features the former passengers building, relocated in 2012 a little more southward. The new and larger passengers building is situated between ''Corso Bolzano'' and ''Corso Inghilterra'' and is an example of contemporary architecture, being a and glass and steel structure. Porta Susa is currently the international central station of the city (high speed trains to Paris) and it is becoming the central hub of railway transportation of the city, being the station in which local trains (so-called ''Ferrovie Metropolitane''), national trains and high-speed national and international trains converge. Close to Via Cernaia stands the ''Cittadella'' (Citadel), in the ''Andrea Guglielminetti garden''. What remains of the old medieval and modern fortress of the city, it is a starting point for a tour into the old tunnels below the city.


San Salvario

Southeast of the city centre stands ''San Salvario'' district, which extends from ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'' to ''Corso Bramante'' and is delimited by the on the west side and by the Po river on the east side. Home to an increasing immigrants' community, the district is an example of integration among different cultures; it also features an incremented nightlife after the opening of several low-cost bars and restaurants. San Salvario is crossed by two main roads, ''Via Nizza'' and ''Via Madama Cristina'', and just as the city centre it is characterised by the typical of Turin's old neighbourhoods. The hub of the district is ''Piazza Madama Cristina'' which hosts a big open market, while several commercial activities flourish around it. The celebrated is situated in the east side of San Salvario and, albeit not in downtown, it represents kind of central park of Turin. Thanks to the vicinity to the city centre, the park is very popular among the local people, during the day but also at night, because of the several bars and nightclubs placed here. From the terraces of Parco del Valentino, many sights of the hills on the other side of the river can be appreciated. In the centre of the park stands the , built in the 17th century. This castle has a horseshoe shape, with four rectangular towers, one at each angle, and a wide inner court with a marble pavement. The ceilings of the false upper floors are in ''transalpino'' (i.e. French) style. The façade sports the huge coat of arms of the . Today, Castello del Valentino serves as the faculty of Architecture of the '. Another cluster of buildings in the park is the ''Borgo Medievale'' (Medieval village), a replica of medieval mountain castles of Piedmont and Aosta Valley, built for the 1884 . Other buildings in ''Corso Massimo d'Azeglio'' include the complex (Turin's exhibition hall built in the 1930s) featuring a monumental entrance with a large full height porch, a main hall designed by in reinforced concrete, and the ''Teatro Nuovo'', a theatre mostly focused on ballet exhibitions. Another building is the largest synagogue of the city, in ''Piazzetta Primo Levi'', a square. Its architecture stands in the main sight of the city, as characterised by four large towers – high – topped by four onion-shaped domes.


Crocetta

South of ''Centro'' stands the ''Crocetta'' district, considered one of the most exclusive districts of the city, because of highly rated residential buildings. At the heart of the district is the partially pedestrianised area crossed by ''Corso Trieste'', ''Corso Trento'' and ''Corso Duca D'Aosta'', plenty of some notable residential buildings in , and style. The area was built between 1903 and 1937 replacing the old , which was moved in the Southern part of the city. North of this area stands the ''GAM (Galleria d'Arte Moderna)'', one of the two Museum of Modern Arts of the Turin Metro area (the second and largest one is hosted in ''Castello di Rivoli'', a former Savoy Royal castle in the suburbs). The Museum stands in front a huge monument situated in the centre of the roundabout between ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'' and ''Corso Galileo Ferraris'': the , a King of Savoy statue situated on a 39-meters high column. Next to the Museum, another significant residential building previously hosted the head office of , one of the two main Turin football clubs. West of this area, the main building of stands along ''Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi''. The 1958 building, a complex, hosts approximately 30,000 students and is considered one of the major Institutes of Technology of the country – mainly due to the vocation of the city for the industrialisation, pushed by the automotive sector. This institute recently expanded in the western district of ''Cenisia'' with additional modern buildings. Crocetta is crossed by large and modern avenues, such as ''Corso Duca degli Abruzzi'', ''Corso Galileo Ferraris'', and ''Corso Einaudi''. These avenues feature long rows of trees, symbolic of Turin's typical urbanity. However, the most popular avenue is ''Corso De Gasperi'', which, albeit smaller than other avenues of the district, hosts one of the most fashionable open markets of the city, the so-called ''Mercato della Crocetta'', in which it is possible to find some discounted branded clothing among the more popular ones. The Western border of Crocetta is instead an example of contemporary architecture. The huge avenue, made up of ''Corso Mediterraneo'' and ''Corso Castelfidardo'', is part of ''Spina Centrale'' boulevard and was recently built over the old railway (now undergrounded): as a result, the avenue is very large (up to ) and modern, having been rebuilt with valuable materials, including a characteristic lighting system supported by white high poles. This avenue hosts some examples of contemporary art, such as 's ''Igloo'' fountain or the 's ''Opera per Torino'' monument in ''Largo Orbassano''. The East side of the district is also known as ''Borgo San Secondo'' named after the church of the same name standing in ''Via San Secondo'', a major street in the neighbourhood. This is near ''Porta Nuova'' railway station and is older than the rest of the district, featuring several apartment buildings from the late 19th century, to include the birthplace and home of author on Corso Re Umberto. A local open market is held in ''Piazza San Secondo'' and along ''Via Legnano''. The market square also hosts the former washhouse and public baths of the neighbourhood, among the oldest examples of their kind in Turin (1905). One of the main thoroughfares crossing Borgo San Secondo is ''Via Sacchi'', which serves as an ideal gate to the city centre: its Serlian arcades on the west side of the street (the east side is enclosed by ''Porta Nuova'' railway station service buildings) host some significant boutiques and hotels, such as the historic ''Pfatisch'' pastry shop and the ''Turin Palace Hotel'' (totally refurbished and reopened in 2015). South of ''Via Sacchi'', ''Ospedale Mauriziano'' is one of the ancient and major hospitals of the city. Going further southwards, it is possible to appreciate an interesting residential cluster of old public housing gravitating around ''Via Arquata''.


Cenisia

Bordered by ''Corso Castelfidardo'', ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'', ''Corso Trapani'' and ''Corso Peschiera'', this small district is mainly significant for hosting the recent expansion of Turinese '. The expansion was possible after under-grounding the railway under ''Corso Castelfidardo'' and the subsequent disposal of the old buildings dedicated to the train maintenance present in this area (so-called ''Officine Grandi Riparazioni'' or ''OGR''). ''Politecnico'' expanded its facilities through two huge overpass buildings over the avenue, linked to new buildings on the west side. This cluster of buildings forms an evocative square with a unique architectural style. The main building on the west side hosts a research centre, the ''General Motors Global Propulsion Systems'' (formerly known as ''General Motors Powertrain Europe''). ''Politecnico'' area extends till ''Via Boggio'' with further facilities hosted in the former ''OGR'' facilities. The Institute plans to further build new facilities in the current parking area. North of ''Politecnico'' facilities, the main building of the ''OGR'' former cluster, which consists in three 180-meters long joint parallel buildings, became recently a big open space which hosts temporary exhibitions and during the hot seasons, its external spaces became a fashionable site to have a typical Italian '. North of ''OGR'', a former prison complex called ''Le Nuove'' is a significant example of old European prison building. The complex was built between 1857 and 1869 during the reign of Victor Emmanuel II. After being disposed of during the 1990s, the complex was changed into a museum and it is possible to visit its facilities. An example of contemporary art is the heating plant in ''Corso Ferrucci'', which has been covered with aluminium panels. Another building (19th century), now abandoned, is the former factory of train brakes situated in ''Via Borsellino''. The remaining part of the district is mainly formed by residential buildings with not significant architectural value. The district had its development mainly after the World War II, following the industrial development of the town – in particular, the expansion of automotive factories in the ''Borgo San Paolo'' neighbourhood, culminated in the construction of in 1954, the company's former headquarters. Industrialization led to consequent population growth in the nearby areas, including ''Cenisia''. Main avenues which are crossing the district are ''Corso Ferrucci'' and ''Corso Racconigi''. This last one is hosting a huge daily open market, the ''Mercato di Corso Racconigi''.


Cit Turin

The smallest district of the city is ''Cit Turin'' ("Little Turin" in ). This small triangle surrounded by ''Corso Vittorio Emanuele II'', ''Corso Francia'' and ''Corso Inghilterra'' hosts some high rated residential buildings and is regarded as a prestigious residential neighbourhood by local people. The district features many buildings in , and style. Among them, one of the most impressive and well known is the ' (architect ''Gottardo Gussoni''). Another notable example is . Both buildings face Corso Francia. The district is well known for its commercial vocation mainly in its two main streets, ''Via Duchessa Jolanda'' and ''Via Principi d'Acaja'', ideally crossing each other among the gardens ''Giardino Luigi Martini'', locally called ''Piazza Benefica'', which hosts a popular open market. The district is also characterised by two massive recent buildings: the ''Palazzo di Giustizia'', Turin's new courthouse built in the 1990s (in a 350-metre long facility), and the first real skyscraper of Turin, the , which house the headquarters of one of the major Italian private banks.


San Donato

''San Donato'' district is between ''Corso Francia'', ''Corso Lecce'', ''Corso Potenza'', ''Via Nole'', the ''Parco Dora'' and ''Corso Principe Oddone''. It was populated since the medieval era, but becomes bigger during the 19th century, prospering around the canal ''Canale di San Donato'', which does not exist any more, currently replaced by the central street of the district, ''Via San Donato''. Buildings in the district are relatively recent (around 1820), except for the oldest group of small houses in the ''Brusachœr'' neighbourhood (''Palazzo Forneris'' building) along ''Via Pacinotti'' near the small ''Piazza Paravia''. The conservation of the street and of this old building influences the straightness of ''Via San Donato'', which makes a slight curve to result in parallel with ''Via Pacinotti'' before ending in central ''Piazza Statuto ''square. Main church of the district is the ''Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita'', which with its height of its bell tower, is well known to be the fifth tallest structure in the city of Turin, after the , the , the and the two pennons of the . The church is hosting the ''Istituto Suore Minime di Nostra Signora del Suffragio'' and it was promoted and designed by . The legend says, that he wanted to build the tallest bell tower of the town and put a clock on the top, to all the poor people to know the time for free. The small building near the church is what remains of ''Casa Tartaglino'', a small residential building which was also extended and modified by Faa di Bruno. ''Villino Cibrario'' in ''Via Saccarelli'' is another significant building designed by Barnaba Panizza in 1842. The building was equipped with a large garden which was eliminated to host the street. The neighbourhood has a high concentration of historic buildings in Art Nouveau style designed by architect Pietro Fenoglio (among the others, the prestigious ''Villino Raby'' in Corso Francia 8). Other significant buildings are the ''Villa Boringhieri'' in Via San Donato, and other Art Nouveau and Neo-Gothic buildings are situated in ''Via Piffetti ''and ''Via Durandi.'' Among the modern buildings of the district, the most significant one is, of course, the ''Torre BBPR'' Tower (which took the name from the architecture office who designed it). The building is representing the ''post-rationalism Italian architecture'' (same style of the better known tower in the city of Milan). The tower is facing the central ''Piazza Statuto'' square. The district is crossed by some significant avenues: on ''Corso Svizzera'', which crosses the district from North To South, faces the Business Centre ''Piero Della Francesca'', where the offices of ''Tuttosport,'' one of the three national sports daily newspapers has its head offices. Also on ''Corso Svizzer''a, stands one of the oldest hospitals of the city, the ''Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia'', specialised in infectious diseases. Other major avenues are ''Corso Umbria'' and ''Corso Tassoni''. Another big avenue, which borders the district on its East, is ''Corso Principe Oddone'', which in the past was along the railway to Milan. Currently the railway has been under-grounded: the avenue will be enlarged and have same architecture style of southern ''Corso Inghilterra'' in downtown, becoming one of the major avenue of Turin. The northern part of the district was part of the former industrial district of Turin, recently reconverted to a park called ''Parco Dora''. Mainly, in ''San Donato'' the portion reconverted was the one occupied by the plant of (west of ''Via Livorno'') and ironwork plants (on the East). Differently for other portions of ''Parco Dora'', this part has been totally reconverted to park without letting any evidence of the industrial area except for the cooling tower which stands along ''Corso Umbria'' and became a symbol of the park. Works are completed in the western area, where ''Corso Mortara'' has been closed to traffic and moved just a bit northern and covered by an artificial tunnel. It is possible to access the southern shore of the ''Dora'' river. South of the Park, an interesting architecture of different levels is hosting a new shopping mall called ''Centro Commerciale Parco Dora''. East of ''Via Livorno'', works are still partially in progress, with the Dora river still to be uncovered by a big slab, on which the plants used to stand). West of ''Via Livorno'', the ''Environment Park'' is a research centre for renewable energy.


Aurora

''Aurora'' is one of the most ancient districts which developed out of the medieval , north of the historical city centre. It stretches from downtown northern boundaries in ''Corso Regina Margherita'' (an extended and important thoroughfare of Turin) up to ''Corso Vigevano'' and ''Corso Novara'' in the North Side (namely the old boundary till the early 20th century); the western boundary is ''Corso Principe Oddone'' (now part of the ''Spina Centrale'' boulevard) and the eastern border is the Dora river. The district was named Aurora after the so-called ''Cascina Aurora'', an old farmstead lying north of the Dora river, right at the intersection between ''Corso Giulio Cesare'' and ''Corso Emilia''. The farmstead has long been demolished and the area has been converted to office buildings, hosting the Turinese textile company ''Gruppo Finanziario Tessile'' (''GFT'') headquarters until the early 21st century. The historical hub of the district is ''Borgo Dora'' (The "Dora Borough"), a small neighbourhood next to ''Porta Palazzo'' and enclosed by ''Corso Regina Margherita'', ''Via Cigna'', the Dora river and ''Corso Giulio Cesare''. Once known as ''Borgo del Pallone'' (literally "Ball Borough") or ''Balon'' in (), this neighbourhood is famous for its ''mercatino del Balon'' or simply ''Balon'', the Turinese that opens every Saturday in its tiny and twisted streets. Borgo Dora hosts several remarkable places, such as: ''Piccola Casa della Divina Provvidenza'' ("Little House of the Divine Providence"), also known as ''Cottolengo'', a well-known charitable organization which has been operating for almost 200 years in the city; ''Arsenale della Pace'' ("Arsenal of Peace"), a former weapons factory that currently hosts the headquarters of ''SERMIG'' (''Servizio Missionario Giovani''), a nonprofit association which assists poor and homeless people; ''Caserma Cavalli'' ("Cavalli Barracks"), one of the most representative buildings of the district, a former barracks topped by a clock tower which now hosts ''Scuola Holden'', a storytelling and performing arts school; the evocative ''Cortile del Maglio'' ("Mallet Courtyard"), a covered pedestrian area featuring bars and clubs. Across from Cortile del Maglio and Arsenale della Pace stands a wide pedestrian area which features a , a clear allusion to the neighbourhood's old name ''Balon'': recently installed, the balloon is open to public which can now take an interesting view of the city from this new high observation point. Right at the borders of Borgo Dora stands part of ''Porta Palazzo'' open market which hosts the , designed by the Italian architect . The building has replaced the ''Clothes Market'', one of the four covered pavilions of Porta Palazzo market, but unfortunately, this glass green-shaded building has been highly criticized because of its lack of usability for commercial activities, albeit an example of contemporary architecture. Another interesting building at the borders of the neighbourhood is (a.k.a. ''stazione della Ciriè-Lanzo''), a former 19th-century railway station that marked the terminus of Ciriè-Lanzo railway line until the 1980s. To this day, the station is no longer in use as well as the rails up to ''Piazza Baldissera''. The station building was recently renovated and now hosts some old locomotives, even though it is not open to the public. Unfortunately, the old rails crossing the district are totally disused and neglected, adding decay to the whole area. Borgo Dora, as many other pockets of Aurora, is characterized by the marked multi-ethnicity of its population, being home to a large community of immigrants from emerging countries. West of Borgo Dora stands ''Rione Valdocco'' ("Valdocco neighbourhood"), enclosed by ''Via Cigna'', ''Corso Regina Margherita'', ''Corso Principe Oddone'' and the Dora river. This neighbourhood hosts the significant architecture of ''Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice'' ("Maria Ausiliatrice Sanctuary") in the homonymous square and behind the church stands ''San Pietro in Vincoli'' old cemetery. Overall, the main thoroughfares of the West side of Aurora are ''Via Cigna'', which crosses the district from North to South, ''Corso Vercelli'', a historical avenue starting north of the Dora river, and ''Corso Principe Oddone'', part of the long ''Spina Centrale'' boulevard that will be built over the underground . However, the Spina Centrale project is proceeding slowly because of the lack of funds and the boulevard is still occupied by a large worksite along its span. Once completed, Aurora district will be connected to Eastern ''San Donato'', thanks to a better connection among the roads of the two adjacent districts (i.e. ''Corso Ciriè'' will continue in ''Corso Gamba'' and ''Strada del Fortino'' in ''Corso Rosai''). As for the rest of Aurora, the district is crossed by an important thoroughfare named ''Corso Giulio Cesare'', a long boulevard that extends from Porta Palazzo up to entrance in the Northern urban fringe of Turin. Other significant roads are ''Corso Palermo'', ''Via Bologna'' and ''Corso Regio Parco'', mostly in the East side of Aurora which is known as ''Borgo Rossini'' ("Rossini Borough"). Albeit not a road, the Dora river is also a significant element for the whole district, since it completely crosses it from West to East. The area north of the river features a mix of old residential buildings and remains of former factories and facilities from the 20th century. An example are the remains of ''Officine Grandi Motori'' (''OGM'') in Corso Vigevano, an old factory that produced big industrial and automotive Diesel engines, a sort of symbol of the industrial history of Turin. Another disused facility is ''Astanteria Martini'' ("Martini Emergency Department") in Via Cigna, a former emergency department from the 1920s which has been lying vacant since long. As for the old residential buildings of the area, this part of Aurora hosts the oldest block of the city, built by ''Istituto Autonomo Case Popolari'' (''IACP'') in 1908 in lieu of an old dilapidated small farm once known as ''Chiabotto delle Merle''. Despite its run-down look, the famous coffee company, along with ''IAAD'' School of Design, chose this part of the city as the location for their new headquarters, which will be built in a contemporary building dubbed ''Nuvola'' ("Cloud") right at the borders of ''Borgo Rossini''. Designed by the architect Gino Zucchi, this project is still a work in progress but excavations in the area revealed the remains of a medieval cemetery and an early Christian basilica; these findings will be preserved and will be shown to the public. ''Borgo Rossini'' hosts a number of businesses, for instance, the ' flagship store (Kappa is a noted Italian sportswear brand founded in Turin) and the ''Cineporto'' ("Cineport") a.k.a. ''La Casa dei Produttori'' ("The Filmmakers' House", which hosts the ''Turin Piedmont Film Commission Foundation'').


Vanchiglia

''Vanchiglia'' is bordered by ''Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regio Parco'' and the Po river, crossed also by the river and by two big avenues, ''Corso Regina Margherita'' and ''Corso Tortona''. ''Borgo Vanchiglia'' is the historical district: a little triangle next to downtown, situated between ''Corso San Maurizio, Corso Regina Margherita'' and the river. The district is quite popular nowadays because being quite closer to the heart of Turin nightlife ''Piazza Vittorio Veneto,'' many bars and restaurants opened recently in this area. However, Vanchiglia also includes the area called ''Vanchiglietta'', north of ''Borgo Vanchiglia''. Notable church in ''Borgo Vanchiglia'' is the French neo-Gothic ''Chiesa di Santa Giulia'' situated into ''Piazza Santa Giulia''. A notable and unusual building in the area is the so-called ''""'' (literally: " slice"), formerly known as ''Casa Scaccabarozzi.'' This building is where ''Corso San Maurizio'' meets ''Via Giulia di Barolo'', and it is one of the most peculiar examples of Turin architecture: a thin trapezoid 27 meters wide on ''Via Giulia Di Barolo'', 5 meters on ''Corso San Maurizio'' and just 0.70 meters wide on the opposite end. It was designed in 1840 by for his wife, Francesca Scaccabarozzi, probably because of a bet. The curious name comes from the shape of the palace, which resembles a "slice of polenta", and also because it is painted with an ocher colour. In the surroundings, in ''Via Vanchiglia 8'', (although in downtown and not really in ''Vanchiglia'' anymore) there is another trapezoid house, albeit with less extreme design: similarly, this building is nicknamed ''"Fetta di Formaggio"'' (cheese slice), built in 1832 for the rich ''Marchese Birago di Vische'' by the architect ''Antonio Talentino''. Other notable buildings are the town public baths, eclectic building built in 1905 (''Corso Regina Margherita'' crossing ''Via Vanchiglia''), and the''Teatro della Caduta'' theatre, opened in 2003 in ''Via Michele Buniva 23'', which with its 45 seats is the smallest theatre in Turin and among the smallest theatres in Europe. In Corso Regina Margherita, another notable building is the former ''Opera pia Reynero'', a charitable organization. The building was built in 1892. Being abandoned for a long time after it closed in 1996, it was then occupied by the Askatasuna Social Center, a non-profit anarchic organization, hosting since then various activities such as concerts, dinners, seminars and homeless solidarity initiatives. North of ''Corso Regina Margherita'', district is losing the flavour and architecture typical of Turin downtown, cause a significant portion of the district was formerly occupied by factories, nowadays partially abandoned or replaced by modern buildings. A significant example was the area occupied by gas companies between Corso Regina Margherita and the Dora river, which were partially demolished to make place to the new modern Faculty of Law building (Campus "Luigi Einaudi"), designed by the architect . This building was classified by the American television company CNN among the 10 most spectacular university buildings in the world. In the campus courtyard, a large wood statue representing a bull (symbol of Turin) has been erected by . The area hosts also a student campus. Next to the campus, a new cycling and pedestrian bridge on the Dora river was opened on 16 April 2010, linking the campus area to ''Corso Verona.'' Bridge is entitled to the architect ''Franco Mellano''. ''Parco Colletta'' is a big park area touched by the two rivers of the district, which also hosts some sport facilities, mainly football fields and a swimming pool. The district is completed by the ''Cimitero Monumentale'' cemetery. This huge complex (formerly known as ''Cimitero Generale'') is the largest cemetery in Turin, and among the first in Italy for the number of buried people (over 400,000). It is close to the ''Colletta'' park. The ancient part of the cemetery rises from the main entrance of Corso Novara with his octagonal shape. It contains numerous historical tombs and 12  km of arcades, enriched by artistic sculptures (that's why it is called a "monumental cemetery"). Over the years there have been subsequent extensions of the central historical body in the direction of the Colletta park. In the cemetery, there is a crematory temple built in 1882, the second largest in Italy after that of Milan one.


Main churches

The , a sanctuary much frequented by pilgrims, stands on the site of the 10th-century Monastery of St. Andrew, and is a work by Guarini. It was sumptuously restored in 1903. Outside the city are: the built by St. , the built in 1818 on occasion of the return of King and (1583) on Monte dei Cappuccini. In the hills overlooking the city, the provides a view of Turin against a backdrop of the snow-capped Alps. The basilica holds the tombs of many of the dukes of Savoy, as well as many of the kings of Sardinia. Superga can be reached by means of the from Sassi suburb. The Basilica of Superga was built by as an ex-voto for the liberation of Turin (1706), and served as a royal mausoleum since 1772.


Villas, parks and gardens

The most popular park in the city is . In 1961, during the celebrations of ''Italia61'' ( centenary), an important international exhibition (''FLOR61: Flowers of the world in Turin'') took place in the park with 800 exhibitors from 19 countries. For the occasion the plan for the new lighting of the park, along with its fountains and paths, was assigned to Guido Chiarelli, the head engineer at the city hall. Other large parks are ''Parco della Pellerina'', ''Parco Colletta'', ''Parco Rignon'', ''Parco Colonnetti'' and the . Around the city are several other parks such as and the , once hunting grounds of the Savoy, and those on the hills of Turin. Many parks are smaller, in the various districts: there is also a total of 240 playgrounds in these parks. In the early 1960s, mayor had the first garden in Italy with games for children inaugurated. According to a report from 2007, Turin is the first Italian city as far as structures and policies on childcare are concerned. One of the most famous parks featuring a children's playground is ''Parco della Tesoriera'', which is also home to ''Andrea della Corte Municipal Music Library''; this facility is housed in , built in 1715 and once the Royal Treasurer's residence. The park is in the Parella suburb (Turin's West Side) and hosts many concerts in summer. , commonly known as ''Rosina'' and, in as ''La Bela Rosin'' ("the beautiful Rosin"), was the and later wife of King . She was made Countess of Mirafiori and Fontanafredda, but never Queen of Italy. As the Savoy family refused to allow her to be buried next to her husband in the , her children had a mausoleum built for her in a similar form and on a smaller scale in Turin, next to the road to the Castello di Mirafiori. The circular copper-domed monument, surmounted by a and surrounded by a large park, was designed by and completed in 1888.
Parks.it (Rome: Federazione Italiana Parchi e Riserve Natural).


Demographics

In 2009, the city proper had a population of about 910,000, which is a significant increase on the 2001 census figure. This result is due to a growing immigration from and abroad. Approximately 13.5 per cent (122.946) of the population is composed of foreigners, the largest numbers coming from (51,017), (22,511), (9,165), China (5,483), and (3,417). Like many Northern Italian cities, there is a large proportion of pensioners in comparison to youth. Around 18 per cent of the population is under 20 years of age, while 22 per cent is over 65. The population of the Turin totals 1.7 million inhabitants, ranking fourth in Italy, while the Turin has a population of 2.2 million inhabitants. The median age is 43.7.


Economy

Turin developed as a city in the early twentieth century, which meant a shift from a service-based economy to an industry-based one. In the vein of many Fordist economies Turin's economy relies heavily upon its automotive and aerospace industries.Carter, Donald K. (2016-03-02). ''Remaking Post-Industrial Cities: Lessons from North America and Europe''. Routledge. p. 222. . Despite the general decline of the automotive industry since the , the city still relies heavily upon its automotive industry. Since before the second world war, the automotive industry has been the largest employer in the city, and almost all exports from Turin are manufactured goods. The city serves as the headquarters to (''Fabbrica Italiana Automobili Torino''; Turin Italian Automobiles Factory), which has since been absorbed by its parent company, the group (now ) headquartered in Amsterdam, the eighth largest automotive company in the world. Turin is still home to a sizeable Fiat factory. From the 1980s Turin diversified its economy and is shifting back towards a service economy. Tech and innovation industries are booming in Turin, which was ranked third in number of innovative startups and firms in the information-tech sector, and has some of the most patent applications to the of any city. In 2008 the city generated a of $68 billion, ranking as the world's 78th richest city by purchasing power, and 16th in Europe, according to . Turin accounts for 8 percent of Italy's GDP. The city has been ranked in 2010 by as a . Other companies operating in Turin are , , , , , , , , , , , , , (automotive), (national broadcasting company), , , Reale Mutua (finance), , , (fashion), , , (food & beverage), (hospitality and tourism), (ex-) The city is also well known for its industry , and . The modules , , , as well as the and all were produced in Turin. The future European launcher projects beyond will also be managed from Turin by the new company, a subsidiary of (70%) and Aircraft Division of (30%).


Culture


Visual art and museums

Turin, as the former capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia and the , is home of the . In addition to the 17th-century , built for Madama Reale (the official residence of the Savoys until 1865) there are many palaces, residences and castles in the city centre and in the surrounding towns. Turin is home to , the , the , , , , and the . The complex of the in Turin and in the nearby cities of , , , , , , and was declared a s by in 1997. In recent years, Turin has become an increasingly popular tourist destination, ranking 203rd in the world and 10th in Italy in 2008, with about 240,000 tourist arrivals. The specialises in archaeology and anthropology, in particular the . It is home to what is regarded as one of the largest collections of Egyptian antiquities outside of Egypt. In 2006 it received more than 500,000 visitors. The houses one of the most important collections in Italy. Other museums include the , the , the , the , the Museo delle Marionette (puppet museum) and the Museo Nazionale della Montagna (National Museum of the Mountains). Art museums include the , the , , the , and the . After it had been little more than a town for a long time, in 1559 the Duke of Savoy made Turin the capital of his domains. The Duke had the ambition to transform the city into a major artistic and cultural capital, and in the following centuries numerous artists were to work at the Savoy court, especially architects and planners like and his son , and, in the 18th century, and . As for the painting and the visual arts, Turin became a point of reference, especially in the 20th century. In the 1920s, the painter inspired a number of students called and these included , , , , and . Artists born in Turin include the sculptor and the architect . Between the 1960s and the 1970s, the international centre of Turin (), the presence in the city of artists like , , , and . In those years there was a strong artistic influence of designer . Artists currently operating in the city include and .


Music

The city's main opera house is , where Puccini premiered his ' in 1896. It burned down in 1936 and was rebuilt after WW II. On 8 October 2021, the (EBU) and announced that the city will host the , following Italy’s victory at the contest in , with the song “”, performed by . The contest will take place at the , with both semi-finals of the contest taking place on 10 & 12 May and the final taking place on 14 May. It will be the first time that Turin has hosted the contest and the third time that Italy has hosted the contest overall, with the last being in in .


Literature

A literary centre for many centuries, Turin began to attract writers only after the establishment of the court of the . One of the most famous writers of the 17th century was , which in 1608 moved to the court of . Marino suffered an assassination attempt by a rival, , and was later imprisoned for a year because of gossip that he had said and written against the duke. Perhaps, because of this, in 1615 Marino left Turin and moved to France. The main literary figures during the Baroque age in Turin were and . In the next century Torino hosted the poet from Asti for a while. The situation was very different in the 19th century, especially since the city became a point of reference for Italian unification and, subsequently, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, in those years Tommaseo, Settembrini and resided in the city. A major literary and cultural woman of that time was . In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Turin was home to writers such as , , and Dino Segre, the latter known by the pseudonym of . Turin had a very important role in Italian literature after World War II. A major publishing house, , published works by authors such as , , , , , , , and . In more recent years, writers active in the city are , , , , , , , , and . Baricco was also among the founders of the , dedicated to writing techniques teaching. In the local has a literary tradition, with names such as , , author of epic poems, and .


Religion

The city is home to the well-known : a linen cloth bearing the image of a man who appears to have suffered physical trauma in a manner consistent with crucifixion. It is kept in the royal chapel of the Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in the city centre. The shroud is one of the city's main symbols and tourist attractions, and despite historical and scientific evidence pointing to it being a 14th-century forgery, it is a symbol of .


Science and Technology

Turin had an Astronomical observatory where was active . The scientist worked as a professor in Turin. The professor of Turin University discovered the principle under during the 19 century. In modern times, Turin hosted the telco laboratory.


Media

After , , , and , Turin was chosen by as for the year 2006. The is one of the most important fairs of its kind in Europe. Turin is home to one of Italy's principal national newspapers, ', and the sports daily newspaper '. The city is also served by other publications such as the Turin editions of ', ', ', ', ' and '. has had a production centre in Turin since 1954.


Sports

The city has a rich sporting heritage as the home to two historically significant teams: (founded in 1897) and (founded in 1906). Juventus has the larger fan base, especially all over Italy and worldwide, while Torino enjoys a greater support in the city itself. The two clubs contest the oldest in Italy, the ' or the Turin derby. Juventus is and one of the most laureated in the world. It ranks joint twelfth in the list of the world's clubs with the most official international titles (sixth between European clubs).Sixth most successful European club for confederation and FIFA competitions won with 11 titles. Sixth most successful club in Europe for titles won (11), cf. and was in association football history — remaining the only one in the world () — to have won all possible official and the .In addition, Juventus F.C. were the first club in association football history to have won all possible confederation competitions (e.g. the international tournaments ) and remain the only in the world to achieve this, cf.
Juventus' owned ground, the , was inaugurated in 2011. The hosted the . This was the first time the city hosted a seasonal UEFA club competition's single-match final. Torino F.C. was founded by the union of one of the oldest football teams in Turin, (founded in 1894), with breakaways from Juventus and was the most successful team, called "Grande Torino", in the during the 1940s. In 1949, in the , a plane carrying almost the whole team crashed into the in the Turin hills. Torino currently plays its home games at the , named after the team of the 1940s, which was the host stadiums for the and the venue of the ; moreover the team recently rebuilt the historic , used for games of the youth teams and trainings of the first squad, and seat of the team museum. The city hosted the final stages of the . The most important club team is the , refounded in 2009, playing in the Italian . In 2018 Auxilium Torino went to win its first ever. Turin hosted the in February 2006. Turin is the largest city to have ever hosted a Winter Olympics, and was the largest metropolitan area to host them at the time.The 2002 games also claims this title because at the time of the Olympics its Combined Statistical Area population was 1,516,227 and some events were held in the Provo metropolitan area of 400,209

). . Retrieved 6 March 2009

16 May 2009.
The city was awarded with the title of European Capital of Sport 2015. The candidature sees the city strongly committed to increasing sports activities. The city hosts the tennis event, from 2021 to 2025.


Cinema

Turin is the Italian city where film was first established. As such, it forms the birthplace of . Because of its historic, geographical and cultural proximity to France, Italian filmmakers were naturally influenced by and the . The first Italian cinema screening occurred in Turin in March 1896. In November 1896, Italian filmmakers performed the first cinema screening of a film before a fee-paying audience. By the start of the 20th century (especially after 1907), a number of the first Italian films were aired in Turin. Examples include ', in 1914, one of the first in history. The Turin-based company , established in 1906 by , was one of the leading forces in Italian cinema and boosted the importance of the city as a filmmaking destination. The company, noted in particular for its historical epics, produced a large number of films until it was dissolved in 1924. During the 1920s and 30s, Turin hosted a number of film productions and major film studios (''film houses''), such as the , and . Today their heritage is in the modern and Turin's prominence in Italian film continued until 1937, the year was inaugurated in Rome. After World War II, the cinematic scene in Turin continued to thrive. 1956 saw the opening of the , first housed in the and then, from 2000, in the imposing headquarters of the . In 1982 the film critic created Festival Internazionale Cinema Giovani, which later became the . Today Turin is one of the main cinematographic and television centres in Italy, thanks to the role of the that reports the production of many feature films, soap operas and commercials. Turin streets were the locations where played ', drove a Mini Cooper in ', becomes the president of the Italian Republic, set his version of ', shot ', shot ', played ', ', and ', and '. Turin also became the capital of the tsar for '.


Cuisine

Turin is well known for its chocolate production, especially for its traditional, ingot-shaped chocolate called ', named after , a local mask. Moreover, the city is also known for the so-called ', a traditional hot drink made of , and served layered in a small rounded glass. Every year Turin organizes ''CioccolaTÒ'', a two-week chocolate festival run with the main Piedmontese chocolate producers, such as , Streglio, and others, as well as some big international companies, such as . As for , the now popular were first served in a historic café of downtown Turin, namely ''Caffè Mulassano'', where they were devised in 1925 as an alternative to es. In recent years, another trademark drink of the city is ''MoleCola'', an Italian that entered production in 2012 and quickly spread both in Italy and outside its native country. Local cuisine also features a particular type of pizza, so-called ' or ', which is basically a small-sized, thick-crust and deep-dish pizza typically served in several Turin pizza places. Since the mid-1980s, Piedmont has also benefited from the start of the movement and , events that have highlighted the rich agricultural and vinicultural value of the and .


Education

:''Main page: '' Turin is home to one of Italy's oldest universities, the , including its affiliated , which ranks among the best universities in the country. Another established university in the city is the , ranking among Top 50 universities in the world and #1 in Italy in the fields of engineering, technology and computer science ("Academic Ranking of World Universities" published by ). Turin also hosts the , the , and a campus of the business school, ranked among the 10 best business schools in Europe. Moreover, the city hosts three small English language post-secondary institutions: , , and the , as well a
Buddies Elementary School


Transport

The city currently has a large number of rail and road work sites. Although this activity has increased as a result of the , parts of it had long been planned. Some of the work sites deal with general roadworks to improve traffic flow, such as underpasses and flyovers, but two projects are of major importance and will radically change the shape of the city. One is the ''Spina Centrale'' ("Central Spine") project which includes the doubling of a major railway crossing the city, the locally known as ''Passante Ferroviario di Torino'' ("Turin Railway Bypass"). The railroad previously ran in a trench, which will now be covered by a major boulevard running from North to South of Turin, in a central position along the city. , on this section, will become Turin's main station to substitute the terminus of with a through station. Other important stations are , , and railway stations, though not all of them belong to the layout of the Spina Centrale. The other major project is the construction of a subway line based on the system, known as . This project is expected to continue for years and to cover a larger part of the city, but its first phase was finished in time for the , inaugurated on 4 February 2006 and opened to the public the day after. The first leg of the subway system linked the nearby town of with Porta Susa in Turin's city centre. On 4 October 2007, the line was extended to Porta Nuova and then, in March 2011, to Lingotto. A new extension of the so-called ''Linea 1'' ("Line 1") is expected in the near future, reaching both (up to Cascine Vica hamlet) in the Western belt of Turin and ''Piazza Bengasi'' in the Southeast side of the city. Furthermore, a ''Linea 2'' is in the pipeline that will connect the south-western district of Mirafiori with Barriera di Milano in the north end. In June 2018, the project entered the public consultation phase with the proposed list of 23 stations published on the city's website. The main street in the city centre, ''Via Roma'', runs atop a tunnel built during the fascist era (when ''Via Roma'' itself was totally refurbished and took on its present-day aspect). The tunnel was supposed to host the underground line but it is now used as an underground car park. A project to build an underground system was ready in the 1970s, with government funding for it and for similar projects in and Rome. Whilst the other two cities went ahead with the projects, Turin's local government led by mayor Diego Novelli shelved the proposal as it believed it to be too costly and unnecessary. The city has an international airport known as (airport code: TRN), in , about from Turin's centre – connected to the city by rail (from Dora Station) and bus (from Porta Nuova and Porta Susa railway stations). a , the , is operational. The metropolitan area is served by . Central districts are served by , lines 3,4,9 are light-rail.


Public transportation statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Turin (for example, to and from work) on a weekday is 65 min. 14.% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 19% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is , while 9% travel more than in a single direction.


Notable people


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Turin is with: * , France * , Germany * , Argentina * , United States * , Luxembourg * , Palestine * , Scotland, United Kingdom * , Belgium * , France * , Japan * , Guatemala * , Argentina * , Netherlands * , United States * , China * , Mexico The 6th district of Turin is twinned with: * , France


Cooperation agreements

Turin also cooperates with: * , Romania * , Spain * , Palestine * , Brazil * , France * , Brazil * , Israel * , China * , Vietnam * , Mongolia * , France * , France * , France * , France * , Cape Verde * , Argentina * , Russia * , Brazil * , North Macedonia * , China * , Myanmar * , Russia * , Czech Republic


See also

* *


References



*


Bibliography


External links


''Turin City Hall'' Official websitetourist informationsWeather TurinHow to reach Turin?
* {{Authority control Roman towns and cities in Italy