Troy (Ancient Greek: Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and
Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Latin: Troia and Ilium;[note
1] Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Turkish: Truva or Troya) was a
city situated in the far northwest of the region known in late
Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as
Anatolia in modern
Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles
strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known
as Hisarlik. It was the setting of the
Trojan War described in the
Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic
poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the
Iliad and the
Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with
a digamma: Ϝίλιον (Wilion); this is also supported by the
Hittite name for what is thought to be the same city, Wilusa.
A new capital called Ilium (from Greek: Ἴλιον, Ilion) was
founded on the site in the reign of the
Roman Emperor Augustus. It
flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a
bishopric and declined gradually in the Byzantine era, but is now a
Latin Catholic titular see.
In 1865, English archaeologist
Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches
in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlik, and in 1868,
Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist,
also began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert
in Çanakkale. These excavations revealed several cities built
in succession. Schliemann was at first skeptical about the
Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert
and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the
Hisarlik site, which was on Calvert's property.
Troy VII has been
identified with the city called
Wilusa by the Hittites, the probable
origin of the Greek Ἴλιον, and is generally (but not
conclusively) identified with Homeric Troy.
Today, the hill at
Hisarlik has given its name to a small village near
the ruins, which supports the tourist trade visiting the Troia
archaeological site. It lies within the province of Çanakkale,
some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital, also called
Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye. The map here shows the
Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the
Homeric plain. Due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of
Marmara, and the Black Sea, it was a central hub for the military and
Troy was added to the
UNESCO World Heritage
UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998.
1 Homeric Troy
2 Search for Troy
2.2 Dörpfeld and Blegen
2.4 Recent developments
3 Fortifications of the city
Troy VI and VII
4.2.1 Calvert's Thousand-Year Gap
5 Classical Ilium (Ilion)
5.1 Ecclesiastical history
5.2 Titular see
6 Other views and voices on Troy
6.1 Alternative views on Troy's location
6.2 Hittite and Egyptian records
6.3 In later legend
6.4 Prose Edda's Troy
7 See also
10 Sources and external links
11 Further reading
Further information: Homeric Question, Historicity of the Iliad, and
Portion of the walls of
Map of the Troad, including the site of Troy
Ancient Greek historians variously placed the
Trojan War in the 12th,
13th, or 14th centuries BC:
Eratosthenes to 1184 BC,
1250 BC, and
Duris of Samos to 1334 BC. Modern
archaeologists associate Homeric
Troy with archaeological
In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the
Scamander (presumably modern Karamenderes), where they had
beached their ships. The city of
Troy itself stood on a hill, across
the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the
Trojan War took
place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast
today, but 3,000 years ago the mouths of
Scamander were much closer to
the city, discharging into a large bay that formed a natural
harbor, which has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent
geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient
Trojan coastline, and the results largely confirm the accuracy of the
Homeric geography of Troy.
In November 2001, the geologist John C. Kraft from the University of
Delaware and the classicist
John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin,
presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the
geology of the region. They compared the present geology with the
landscapes and coastal features described in the
Iliad and other
classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, and concluded that
there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's
Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological
evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in
Besides the Iliad, there are references to
Troy in the other major
work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient
Greek literature (such as Aeschylus's Oresteia). The Homeric legend of
Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet
Virgil in his Aeneid. The Greeks
and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the
Trojan War and the
identity of Homeric
Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the
Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made
sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes
After the 1995 find of a
Luwian biconvex seal at
Troy VII, there has
been a heated discussion over the language that was spoken in Homeric
Troy. Frank Starke of the
University of Tübingen
University of Tübingen recently
demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of
Troy at the time of the
Trojan War, is connected to the
Luwian compound Priimuua, which means
"exceptionally courageous". "The certainty is growing that
Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community,"
although it is not entirely clear whether
Luwian was primarily the
official language or in daily colloquial use.
Search for Troy
Priam's Treasure, which
Heinrich Schliemann claimed to have found at
With the rise of critical history,
Troy and the
Trojan War were, for a
long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true
location of ancient
Troy had from classical times remained the subject
of interest and speculation.
Troad peninsula was anticipated to be the location. Early modern
travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including
Pierre Belon and
Pietro Della Valle, had identified
Alexandria Troas, a
ruined town approximately 20 km south of the currently accepted
location. In the late 18th century,
Jean Baptiste LeChevalier had
identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine as the
site of Troy, a mound approximately 5 km south of the currently
accepted location. LeChavalier's location, published in his Voyage de
la Troade, was the most commonly accepted theory for almost a
In 1822, the Scottish journalist
Charles Maclaren was the first to
identify with confidence the position of the city as it is now
In 1866, Frank Calvert, the brother of the United States' consular
agent in the region, made extensive surveys and published in scholarly
journals his identification of the hill of New Ilium (which was on
farmland owned by his family) on the same site. The hill, near the
city of Çanakkale, was known as Hisarlik.
In 1868, German archaeologist
Heinrich Schliemann visited Calvert and
secured permission to excavate Hisarlik. In 1871–73 and 1878–79,
he excavated the hill and discovered the ruins of a series of ancient
cities dating from the
Bronze Age to the Roman period. Schliemann
declared one of these cities—at first
Troy I, later
Troy II—to be
the city of Troy, and this identification was widely accepted at that
time. Schliemann's finds at
Hisarlik have become known as Priam's
Treasure. They were acquired from him by the Berlin museums, but
significant doubts about their authenticity persist.
The view from Hisarlık across the plain of Ilium to the Aegean Sea
Schliemann became interested in digging at the mound of
the persuasion of Frank Calvert. The British diplomat, considered a
pioneer for the contributions he made to the archaeology of Troy,
spent more than 60 years in the
Troad (modern day Biga peninsula,
Turkey) conducting field work. As Calvert was a principal
authority on field archaeology in the region, his findings supplied
evidence that Homeric
Troy might exist in the hill, and played a major
role in directing
Heinrich Schliemann to dig at the Hisarlik.
However, Schliemann downplayed his collaboration with Calvert when
taking credit for the findings, such that Susan Heuek Allen recently
described Schliemann as a "relentlessly self-promoting amateur
Schliemann's excavations were condemned by later archaeologists as
having destroyed the main layers of the real Troy.
Kenneth W. Harl in
the Teaching Company's Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor
lecture series sarcastically claims that Schliemann's excavations were
carried out with such rough methods that he did to
Troy what the
Greeks couldn't do in their times, destroying and levelling down the
entire city walls to the ground. Other scholars agree that the
damage caused to the site is irreparable. Although his work is
largely rejected, his recorded findings and artifacts added knowledge
regarding ancient Western history.
Dörpfeld and Blegen
After Schliemann, the site was further excavated under the direction
Wilhelm Dörpfeld (1893–94) and later
Carl Blegen (1932–38).
[page needed] These excavations have shown that there
were at least nine cities built, one on top of the other, at this
site. In his research, Blegen came to a conclusion that Troy's nine
levels could be further divided into forty-six sublevels .
In 1988, excavations were resumed by a team from the University of
Tübingen and the
University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati under the direction of
Professor Manfred Korfmann, with Professor Brian Rose overseeing
Bronze Age (Greek, Roman, Byzantine) excavation along the coast
Aegean Sea at the Bay of Troy. Possible evidence of a battle
was found in the form of bronze arrowheads and fire-damaged human
remains buried in layers dated to the early 12th century BC. The
question of Troy's status in the Bronze-Age world has been the subject
of a sometimes acerbic debate between Korfmann and the Tübingen
Frank Kolb in 2001–2002.
In August 1993, following a magnetic imaging survey of the fields
below the fort, a deep ditch was located and excavated among the ruins
of a later Greek and Roman city. Remains found in the ditch were dated
to the late Bronze Age, the alleged time of Homeric Troy. It is
claimed by Korfmann that the ditch may have once marked the outer
defences of a much larger city than had previously been suspected. The
latter city has been dated by his team to about 1250 BC, and it
has been also suggested — based on recent archeological evidence
uncovered by Professor Manfred Korfmann's team — that this was
indeed the Homeric city of Troy.
The archaeological site of
Troy was added to the
UNESCO World Heritage
list in 1998.
In summer 2006, the excavations continued under the direction of
Korfmann's colleague Ernst Pernicka, with a new digging permit.
In 2013, an international team made up of cross-disciplinary experts
led by William Aylward, an archaeologist at the University of
Wisconsin-Madison, was to carry out new excavations. This activity was
to be conducted under the auspices of
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart
University and was to use the new technique of "molecular
archaeology". A few days before the Wisconsin team was to leave,
Turkey cancelled about 100 excavation permits, including
In March 2014, it was announced that a new excavation would take place
to be sponsored by a private company and carried out by Çanakkale
Onsekiz Mart University. This will be the first Turkish team to
excavate and is planned as a 12-month excavation led by associate
professor Rüstem Aslan. The University's rector stated that "Pieces
Troy will contribute to Çanakkale’s culture and
tourism. Maybe it will become one of Turkey’s most important
frequented historical places.”
Fortifications of the city
The walls of Troy, first erected in the
Bronze Age between 3000 and
2600 BC, are its main defense. The remains of the walls have been
studied through the aforementioned excavations that shed light onto
the historical city itself and the mythological implications as the
walls protected the citadel during the Trojan War. The fortifications
display the importance of defense to the Trojans and how warfare is a
prominent issue for ancient cities.
The walls surround the city, lasting for several hundred meters and at
the time they were built, they were over 17 feet tall. They were
made of limestone with watchtowers and brick ramparts, or elevated
mounds that serve as protective barriers. Throughout all of the
phases, the walls served as the largest fortification for the city of
Troy to protect the Trojans against any enemies. Defense mechanisms
like the Walls of
Troy shed light onto the larger topic of warfare in
ancient times. Warfare was a large issue in not only Ancient Greece,
but locations nearby, such as Asia Minor.
Archeological plan of the
Troy was destroyed each time, the citizens would build upon the
previous settlement, causing the layers to pile on top of one
another. The layers of ruins in the citadel at
Troy I –
Troy IX, with various subdivisions:[note 2]
Troy I 3000–2600 BC (Western Anatolian EB 1)
Troy II 2600–2250 BC (Western Anatolian EB 2)
Troy III 2250–2100 BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [early])
Troy IV 2100–1950 BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [middle])
Troy V: 20th–18th centuries BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [late])
Troy VI: 17th–15th centuries BC
Troy VIh: late Bronze Age, 14th century BC
Troy VIIa: c. 1300–1190 BC, most likely setting for Homer's story
Troy VIIb1: 12th century BC
Troy VIIb2: 11th century BC
Troy VIIb3: until c. 950 BC
Troy VIII: c. 700–85 BC
Troy IX: 85 BC–c. AD 500
The first city on the site was founded in the 3rd millennium BC.
During the Bronze Age, the site seems to have been a flourishing
mercantile city, since its location allowed for complete control of
the Dardanelles, through which every merchant ship from the Aegean Sea
heading for the
Black Sea had to pass. Around 1900 BC a mass
migration was set off by the
Hittites to the east. Cities to the east
Troy were destroyed, and although
Troy was not burned, the next
period shows a change of culture indicating a new people had taken
over Troy. The first phase of the city is characterized by a
smaller citadel, around 300 ft in diameter, with 20 rectangular
houses surrounded by massive walls, towers, and gateways.
doubled in size and had a lower town and the upper citadel, with the
walls protecting the upper acropolis which housed the megaron-style
palace for the king. The second phase was destroyed by a large
fire, but the Trojans rebuilt, creating a fortified citadel larger
Troy II, but which had smaller and more condensed houses,
suggesting an economic decline. This trend of making a larger
circuit, or extent of the walls, continued with each rebuild, for Troy
III, IV, and V. Therefore, even in the face of economic troubles, the
walls remained as elaborate as before, indicating their focus on
defense and protection.
When Schliemann came across
Troy II, in 1871, he believed he had found
Homer's city. Schliemann and his team unearthed a large feature he
dubbed the Scaean Gate, a western gate unlike the three previously
found leading to the Pergamos. This gate, as he describes, was the
Homer had featured. As Schliemann states in his publication
Troja: "I have proved that in a remote antiquity there was in the
Troy a large city, destroyed of old by a fearful catastrophe,
which had on the hill of Hisarlık only its
Acropolis with its temples
and a few other large edifices, southerly, and westerly direction on
the site of the later Ilium; and that, consequently, this city answers
perfectly to the Homeric description of the sacred site of Ilios."
Troy VI and VII
Troy VI was destroyed around 1250 BC, probably by an earthquake. Only
a single arrowhead was found in this layer, and no remains of bodies.
However, the town quickly recovered and was rebuilt in a layout that
was more orderly. This rebuild continued the trend of having a heavily
fortified citadel to preserve the outer rim of the city in the face of
earthquakes and sieges of the central city.
Troy VIIa, which has been dated to the mid-to-late-13th century BC, is
the most often cited candidate for the
Troy of Homer.
appears to have been destroyed by war. The evidence of fire and
slaughter around 1184 BC, which brought
Troy VIIa to a close, led to
this phase being identified with the city besieged by the Greeks
during the Trojan War. This was immortalized in the
Iliad written by
Calvert's Thousand-Year Gap
Initially, the layers of
Troy VI and VII were overlooked entirely,
because Schliemann favoured the burnt city of
Troy II. It was not
until the need to close "Calvert's Thousand Year Gap" arose—from
Dörpfeld's discovery of
Troy VI—that archaeology turned away from
Troy and began working towards finding Homeric
"Calvert's Thousand Year Gap" (1800–800 BC) was a period not
accounted for by Schliemann's archaeology and thus constituting a hole
in the Trojan timeline. In Homer's description of the city, a section
of one side of the wall is said to be weaker than the rest. During
his excavation of more than three hundred yards of the wall, Dörpfeld
came across a section very closely resembling the Homeric description
of the weaker section. Dörpfeld was convinced he had found the
walls of Homer's city, and now he would excavate the city itself.
Within the walls of this stratum (
Troy VI), much Mycenaean pottery
Late Helladic (LH) periods III A and III B
(c.1400–c.1200 BC) was uncovered, suggesting a relation between the
Trojans and Mycenaeans. The great tower along the walls seemed likely
to be the "Great Tower of Ilios".
The evidence seemed to indicate that Dörpfeld had stumbled upon
Ilios, the city of Homer's epics. Schliemann himself had conceded that
Troy VI was more likely to be the Homeric city, but he never published
anything stating so. The only counter-argument, confirmed
initially by Dörpfeld (who was as passionate as Schliemann about
finding Troy), was that the city appeared to have been destroyed by an
earthquake, not by men. There was little doubt that this was the
Troy of which the Mycenaeans would have known.
In 480 BC, the Persian king Xerxes sacrificed 1,000 cattle at the
Athena Ilias while marching through the Hellespontine
region towards Greece. Following the Persian defeat in 480–479,
Ilion and its territory became part of the continental possessions of
Mytilene and remained under Mytilenaean control until the unsuccessful
Mytilenean revolt in 428–427. Athens liberated the so-called Actaean
cities including Ilion and enrolled these communities in the Delian
League. Athenian influence in the Hellespont waned following the
oligarchic coup of 411, and in that year the Spartan general Mindaros
emulated Xerxes by likewise sacrificing to
Athena Ilias.[note 1] From
c. 410–399, Ilion was within the sphere of influence of the local
Lampsacus (Zenis, his wife Mania, and the usurper Meidias)
who administered the region on behalf of the Persian satrap
In 399, the Spartan general
Dercylidas expelled the Greek garrison at
Ilion who were controlling the city on behalf of the Lampsacene
dynasts during a campaign which rolled back Persian influence
throughout the Troad. Ilion remained outside the control of the
Persian satrapal administration at
Dascylium until the Peace of
Antalcidas in 387–386. In this period of renewed Persian control c.
387–367, a statue of Ariobarzanes, the satrap of Hellespontine
Phrygia, was erected in front of the temple of
Athena Ilias. In
360–359 the city was briefly controlled by
Charidemus of Oreus, a
Euboean mercenary leader who occasionally worked for the
Athenians. In 359, he was expelled by the Athenian Menelaos son of
Arrabaios, whom the Ilians honoured with a grant of proxeny—this is
recorded in the earliest civic decree to survive from Ilion. In
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont and came to the
city, where he visited the temple of
Athena Ilias, made sacrifices at
the tombs of the Homeric heroes, and made the city free and exempt
from taxes. According to the so-called 'Last Plans' of Alexander
which became known after his death in June 323, he had planned to
rebuild the temple of
Athena Ilias on a scale that would have
surpassed every other temple in the known world.
Antigonus Monophthalmus took control of the
Troad in 311 and created
the new city of Antigoneia Troas which was a synoikism of the cities
of Skepsis, Kebren, Neandreia, Hamaxitos, Larisa, and Kolonai. In c.
311–306 the koinon of
Athena Ilias was founded from the remaining
cities in the
Troad and along the Asian coast of the
soon after succeeded in securing a guarantee from Antigonus that he
would respect their autonomy and freedom (he had not respected the
autonomy of the cities which were synoikized to create
Antigoneia). The koinon continued to function until at least the
1st century AD and primarily consisted of cities from the Troad,
although for a time in the second half of the 3rd century it also
Chalcedon from the eastern Propontis. The
governing body of the koinon was the synedrion on which each city was
represented by two delegates. The day-to-day running of the synedrion,
especially in relation to its finances, was left to a college of five
agonothetai, on which no city ever had more than one representative.
This system of equal (rather than proportional) representation ensured
that no one city could politically dominate the koinon. The
primary purpose of the koinon was to organize the annual Panathenaia
festival which was held at the sanctuary of
Athena Ilias. The festival
brought huge numbers of pilgrims to Ilion for the duration of the
festival as well as creating an enormous market (the panegyris) which
attracted traders from across the region. In addition, the koinon
financed new building projects at Ilion, for example a new theatre c.
306 and the expansion of the sanctuary and temple of
Athena Ilias in
the 3rd century, in order to make the city a suitable venue for such a
In the period 302–281, Ilion and the
Troad were part of the kingdom
of Lysimachus, who during this time helped Ilion synoikize several
nearby communities, thus expanding the city's population and
Lysimachus was defeated at the Battle of Corupedium
in February 281 by Seleucus I Nikator, thus handing the Seleucid
kingdom control of Asia Minor, and in August or September of 281 when
Seleucus passed through the
Troad on his way to Lysimachia in the
nearby Thracian Chersonese Ilion passed a decree in honour of him,
indicating the city's new loyalties. In September Seleucus was
assassinated at Lysimachia by
Ptolemy Keraunos, making his successor,
Antiochus I Soter, the new king. In 280 or soon after Ilion passed a
long decree lavishly honouring Antiochus in order to cement their
relationship with him.[note 4] During this period Ilion still lacked
proper city walls except for the crumbling
Troy VI fortifications
around the citadel, and in 278 during the Gallic invasion the city was
easily sacked. Ilion enjoyed a close relationship with Antiochus
for the rest of his reign: for example, in 274 Antiochus granted land
to his friend Aristodikides of
Assos which for tax purposes was to be
attached to the territory of Ilion, and c. 275–269 Ilion passed a
decree in honour of Metrodoros of Amphipolis who had successfully
treated the king for a wound he received in battle.
Silver tetradrachm from
Troy with head of Athena, c. 165–150 BC
The odeon dates to the Roman
Troy IX and was renovated by
The city was destroyed by Sulla's rival, the Roman general Fimbria, in
85 BC following an eleven-day siege. Later that year when Sulla
had defeated Fimbria he bestowed benefactions on Ilion for its loyalty
which helped with the city's rebuilding. Ilion reciprocated this act
of generosity by instituting a new civic calendar which took 85 BC as
its first year. However, the city remained in financial distress
for several decades, despite its favoured status with Rome. In the 80s
BC, Roman publicani illegally levied taxes on the sacred estates of
Athena Ilias and the city was required to call on L.
Julius Caesar for
restitution; while in 80 BC, the city suffered an attack by
pirates. In 77 BC the costs of running the annual festival of the
Athena Ilias became too pressing for both Ilion and the
other members of the koinon and L.
Julius Caesar was once again
required to arbitrate, this time reforming the festival so that it
would be less of a financial burden. In 74 BC the Ilians once
again demonstrated their loyalty to Rome by siding with the Roman
Lucullus against Mithridates VI. Following the final
defeat of Mithridates in 63–62,
Pompey rewarded the city's loyalty
by becoming the benefactor of Ilion and patron of
Athena Ilias. In
Julius Caesar likewise bestowed benefactions on the city,
recalling the city's loyalty during the Mithridatic Wars, the city's
connection with his cousin L. Julius Caesar, and the family's claim
that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan
Aeneas and therefore shared kinship with the Ilians.
In 20 BC, the Emperor
Augustus visited Ilion and stayed in the house
of a leading citizen, Melanippides son of Euthydikos. As a result
of his visit, he also financed the restoration and rebuilding of the
Athena Ilias, the bouleuterion (council house) and the
theatre. Soon after work on the theatre was completed in 12–11 BC,
Melanippides dedicated a statue of
Augustus in the theatre to record
Classical Ilium (Ilion)
A new city called Ilium (from Greek Ilion) was founded on the site in
the reign of the
Roman Emperor Augustus. It flourished until the
establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric in the Roman
province Hellespontus (civil
Diocese of Asia
Diocese of Asia but declined gradually in
the Byzantine era
No later than the 4th century, it was a suffragan of the provincial
capital's Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cyzicus, in the sway of the
Patriarchate of Constantinople. Several bishops are historically
Orion attended the
First Ecumenical Council
First Ecumenical Council at
Nicaea in 325
Leucadius was among the schismatic group of
Arian heretical bishops
Council of Sardica and
Council of Philippopolis in 344
to convene their alternative 'synod'.
Teosebius partook in the Council of
Chalcedon in 451.
Johannes participated in the second Council of
Constantinople in 553.
Niceta attended the Second Council of
Nicaea in 787.
Georgius participated in the
Photian Council of 869 which condemned
Patriarch Photios of
Constantinople in his own capital.
The diocese was nominally restored no later then 1926 as Latin Titular
bishopric of Ilium (Latin) / Ilio (Curiate Italian) / Ilien(sis)
It is vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, so far
of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank :
Michel-Joseph Bourguignon d’Herbigny,
Jesuit Order (S.J.)
(1926.02.11 – 1937.07)
James Maguire (1939.10.05 – 1944.10.10)
Eugene Joseph McGuinness (1944.11.11 – 1948.02.01)
Leo John Steck (1948.03.13 – 1950.06.19)
Francesco Maria Franco (1950.07.10 – 1968.02.07)
Other views and voices on Troy
Alternative views on Troy's location
A small minority of contemporary writers argue that Homeric
not at the
Hisarlik site, but elsewhere in
Anatolia or outside
it—e.g. in England, Pergamum, Scandinavia, or
Herzegovina. These proposals have not been accepted by mainstream
Hittite and Egyptian records
In the 1920s, the Swiss scholar
Emil Forrer claimed that the
Wilusa and Taruisa found in Hittite texts should be
identified with Ilion and Troia, respectively. He further noted
that the name of Alaksandu, a king of
Wilusa mentioned in a Hittite
treaty, is quite similar to Homer's Paris, whose birthname was
Alexandros. Subsequent to this, the
Tawagalawa letter (CTH 181) was
found to document an unnamed Hittite king's correspondence to the king
of the Ahhiyawa, referring to an earlier "
Wilusa episode" involving
hostility on the part of the Ahhiyawa. The Hittite king was long held
Mursili II (c. 1321–1296), but, since the 1980s, his son
Hattusili III (1265–1240) is commonly preferred, although his other
son Muwatalli (c. 1296–1272) remains a possibility.
Inscriptions of the
New Kingdom of Egypt
New Kingdom of Egypt also record a nation T-R-S as
one of the
Sea Peoples who attacked Egypt during the XIX and XX
Dynasties. An inscription at
Deir el-Medina records a victory of
Ramesses III over the Sea Peoples, including one named "Tursha"
(Egyptian: [twrš3]). It is probably the same as the earlier "Teresh"
(Egyptian: [trš.w]) on the stele commemorating Merneptah's victory in
a Libyan campaign around 1220 BC.
These identifications were rejected by many scholars as being
improbable or at least unprovable. However,
Trevor Bryce championed
them in his 1998 book The Kingdom of the Hittites, citing a piece of
Manapa-Tarhunda letter referring to the kingdom of
beyond the land of the Seha River (the classical
Caicus and modern
Bakırçay) and near the land of "Lazpa" (Lesbos). Recent evidence
also adds weight to the theory that
Wilusa is identical to
archaeological Troy. Hittite texts mention a water tunnel at Wilusa,
and a water tunnel excavated by Korfmann, previously thought to be
Roman, has been dated to around 2600 BC. The identifications of
Troy and of the
Ahhiyawa with Homer's Achaeans remain
somewhat controversial but gained enough popularity during the 1990s
to be considered majority opinion. That agrees with metrical evidence
Iliad that the name ᾽Ιλιον (Ilion) for
Troy was formerly
Ϝιλιον (Wilion) with a digamma.[further explanation needed]
In later legend
Such was the fame of the
Epic Cycle in Roman and Medieval times that
it was built upon to provide a starting point for various founding
myths of national origins. The most influential, Virgil's Aeneid,
traces the journeys of the Trojan prince Aeneas, supposed ancestor of
the founders of Rome and the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In a later era,
the heroes of Troy, both those noted in
Homer and those invented for
the purpose, often continued to appear in the origin stories of the
nations of Early Medieval Europe. The
Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie was
common cultural ground for European dynasties, as a Trojan
pedigree was both gloriously ancient and established an equality with
the ruling class of Rome. A Trojan pedigree could justify the
occupation of parts of Rome's former territories.
On that basis, the Franks filled the lacunae of their legendary
origins with Trojan and pseudo-Trojan names: in Fredegar's 7th-century
chronicle of Frankish history,
Priam appears as the first king of the
Franks.[full citation needed] The Trojan origin of France was such
an established article of faith that in 1714, the learned Nicolas
Fréret was Bastilled for showing through historical criticism that
the Franks had been Germanic, a sore point counter to Valois and
Bourbon propaganda.[full citation needed]
In similar manner,
Geoffrey of Monmouth reworked earlier material such
Historia Brittonum to trace the legendary kings of the Britons
from a supposed descendant of
Aeneas called Brutus.
Likewise, Snorri Sturluson, in the prologue to his Icelandic Prose
Edda, traced the genealogy of the ancestral figures in Norse mythology
to characters appearing at
Troy in Homer's epic, notably making Thor
to be the son of Memnon. Sturluson referred to these figures as having
made a journey across Europe towards Scandinavia, setting up kingdoms
as they went.
Prose Edda's Troy
The Icelandic national bard and possibly most important source of
Norse Mythology, Snorri Sturluson, identifies
Troy with Åsgard. About
it were 12 kingdoms and 12 chiefs. One of them, Múnón, married
Priam's daughter, Tróán, and had by her a son, Trór, to be
Thor in Old Norse. Similarly the Áss
Vidarr is identified
Ancient settlements in Turkey
Cities of the ancient Near East
Historicity of the Iliad
The Golden Bough (mythology)
^ a b c Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more
poetic term: Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles. "Ilium". A Latin
Dictionary. Tufts University: The Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved
^ For the new chronological boundaries of
Troy VIII-IX which differ
from those used by Blegen see C. B. Rose, ‘The 1991 Post-Bronze Age
excavations at Troia’ Studia Troica 2 (1992) 44 n. 16.
Strabo 13.1.26: [Λυσίμαχος] συνῴκισέ τε εἰς
αὐτὴν τὰς κύκλῳ πόλεις ἀρχαίας ἤδη
κεκακωμένας. These probably included Birytis, Gentinos, and
Sigeion: J. M. Cook, The
Troad (Oxford 1973) 364. Birytis and Gentinos
are not securely located, but recent excavations at
Sigeion appear to
independently confirm Strabo’s account by indicating an abandonment
date soon after c. 300: Th. Schäfer, Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı
32.2 (2009) 410–412, 33.2 (2012) 248–249. This may have been
Lysimachus in 302: Diodorus 20.107.4.
^ Inschriften von Ilion 32. A minority of scholars instead attempt to
date this inscription to the reign of Antiochus III (222–187 BC).
^ Korfmann, Manfred O. (2007). Winkler, Martin M, ed. Troy: From
Iliad to Hollywood Epic. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing
Limited. p. 25. ISBN 1-4051-3183-7.
Troy or Ilios (or
Wilios) is most probably identical with
Wilusa or Truwisa ...
mentioned in the Hittite sources
^ Burney, Charles (2004). "Wilusa". Historical dictionary of the
Hittites. Metuchen, N.J: Scarecrow Press. p. 311.
^ Wood 1985, pp. 54–55.
^ Aşkin, Mustafa (1981).
Troy (2005 rev ed.). Istanbul: Keskin.
p. 34. ISBN 975-7559-37-7.
^ Bryce, Trevor (2005). The Trojans and their neighbours. Taylor &
Francis. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-34959-8.
^ Aşkin, Mustafa (2005). Troy: With Legends, Facts, and New
Developments. Istanbul: Keskin Color. p. 72.
ISBN 975-7559-37-7. Hisarlik, a village near the ruins of
^ Kraft, John C (15 August 1980). "Geomorphic Reconstructions in the
Environs of Ancient Troy" (PDF). Science. 209: 776–782 – via
^ Wood 1985, p. 16.
^ Cenker, Işil Cerem; Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne (2008). Shopes, Linda;
Hamilton, Paula, eds. Oral History and Public Memories. Philadelphia,
PA: Temple University Press. p. 76.
^ Strabo, Geography XIII, I, 36, tr. H. L. Jones, Loeb Classical
Library; Pliny, Natural History, V.33, tr. H. Rackham, W. S. Jones and
D. E. Eichholz, Loeb Classical Library.
^ "Geologists investigate Trojan battlefield". BBC News. 7 February
^ Kraft, John C. (2001). "
Bronze Age Paleogeographies at Ancient
Troy". Geological Society of America. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
^ Ball, Philip (29 January 2003). "Geologists show
Homer got it
right". Nature. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
^ Harbor areas at ancient Troy: Sedimentology and geomorphology
complement Homer's Iliad, Geoscience World (abstract)
^ "Press Release: Geology corresponds with Homer's description of
ancient Troy". University of Delaware.
^ Starke, Frank (1997). "Troia im Kontext des historisch-politischen
und sprachlichen Umfeldes Kleinasiens im 2. Jahrtausend". Studia
Troica. 7: 447–87.
^ Latacz 2004, p. 116
^ Schliemann 1881, p. 184.
^ Schliemann 1881, pp. 184–191.
^ Maclaren, Charles (2010). A Dissertation On the
Topography of the
Plain of Troy: Including an Examination of the Opinions of Demetrius,
Chevalier, Dr. Clarke, and Major Rennell. Bibliobazaar.
ISBN 1-146-73161-2. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
^ Schliemann 1881, p. 189.
^ Wood 1985, pp. 42–44.
^ Allen 1995, p. 379.
^ Allen 1995, p. 380.
^ Allen 1999, p. From introductory blurb –not in book
^ Kenneth W. Harl. "Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor".
Retrieved March 7, 2016.
^ Stefan Lovgren. "Is
Troy True". Retrieved March 7, 2016.
^ Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Troja und Ilion, Beck & Barth, 1902
^ Carl W. Blegen, Troy; excavations conducted by the University of
Cincinnati, 1932–1938, Princeton University Press, 1950
^ Allen 1995, p. 259.
^ "Project Troia". University of Tübingen, University of Cincinnati.
Retrieved 6 March 2014.
^ "UW-Madison archaeologists to mount new expedition to Troy".
^ Simmons, Dan (July 22, 2013). "UW-Madison archaeology trip to Troy
postponed until next summer". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved 6 May
^ Çanakkale – Dogan News Agency (13 March 2014). "New term
excavations start at city of
Troy with Turkish team".
hurriyetdailynews.com. Hurriyet daily News. Retrieved 28 December
^ a b c d e the Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (November 22,
^ Mellaart, James (January 1958). "The end of the early
Bronze Age in
Anatolia and the Aegean". American Journal of Archaeology. 62 (1):
9–33. doi:10.2307/500459. JSTOR 500459.
^ a b Neer, Richard T. (2012). Greek Art and Archaeology. New York:
Thames & Hudson. p. 21. ISBN 9780500288771.
^ Schliemann 1881, p. 75
^ Schliemann 1881, p. 277
^ Bauer 2007, pp. 253–58.
^ "Archaeological Site of Troy –
UNESCO World Heritage
UNESCO World Heritage Centre".
Whc.unesco.org. 1998-12-02. Retrieved 2012-08-15.
^ Allen 1995, p. 142.
^ Homer. "Iliad". XVI,
^ Wood 1985, p. 89.
^ Homer. "Iliad". VI, 386
^ Allen 1995, p. 143.
^ Wood 1985, p. 228.
^ Wood 1985, p. 223.
^ Diodorus 17.17.6.
Aeneas Tacticus 24.3–14.
^ Inschriften von Ilion 23.
^ Arrian, Anabasis 1.11–12, Diodorus Siculus 17.17–18, Plutarch,
Life of Alexander 15, Justin 9.5.12,
Strabo 13.1.26, 32.
^ Diodorus 18.4.5.
^ Inschriften von Ilion 1.
Myrlea and Calchedon: Inschriften von Ilion 5–6.
^ D. Knoepfler, ‘Les agonothètes de la Confédération d’Athéna
Ilias: une interpretation nouvelle des données épigraphiques et ses
conséquences pour la chronologie des émissions monétaires du
Koinon’ Studi Ellenistici 24 (2010) 33–62.
^ Panegyris: L. Robert, Monnaies antiques en Troade (Paris 1966)
^ Theatre: Inschriften von Ilion 1. Temple: C. B. Rose, ‘The Temple
Athena at Ilion’ Studia Troica 13 (2003) 27–88 and contra D.
Hertel, ‘Zum Heiligtum der
Athena Ilias von Troia IX und zur
frühhellenistischen Stadtanlage von Ilion’ ArchAnz (2004)
^ Inschriften von Ilion 31.
^ Inschriften von Ilion 33 (Aristodikides), 34 (Metrodoros).
Strabo 13.1.27, Livy, Periochae 83.
^ Inschriften von Ilion 10.2–3.
^ Inchriften von Ilion 71 (publicani), 73 (pirates).
^ Inschriften von Ilion 10.
Lucullus 10.3, 12.2.
^ Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 46.1565.
^ Lucan, Pharsalia 9.964–999, Suetonius, Divus Julius 79.3.
^ Dio Cassius 54.7, Inschriften von Ilion 83.
^ Inschriften von Ilion 83.
^ Wilkens, Iman Jacobs (1990). Where
Troy Once Stood: The Mystery of
Odyssey revealed. Groningen: Rider & Co.
p. 68. ISBN 0-7126-2463-5.
^ Lascelles, John (2005). Troy: The World Deceived. Homer's Guide to
Pergamum. Victoria, B.C.:
Trafford Publishing (self-published).
p. 34. ISBN 1-4120-5829-5.
^ Vinci, Felice (2005). The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales: The
Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Migration of Myth. Rochester, Vt.: Inner
Traditions – Bear & Company. ISBN 1-5947-7052-2.
^ Price, Roberto Salinas (2006). Homeric Whispers: Intimations of
Orthodoxy in the
Iliad and Odyssey. San Antonio, Texas: Scylax Press.
p. 19. ISBN 0-9108-6511-6.
^ Carter & Morris 1995, pp. 34–35
^ a b Huppert, George (1965). "The Trojan Franks and their Critics".
Studies in the Renaissance. 12: 227–41. doi:10.2307/2857076.
^ Hay, Denys (1968). Europe: The Emergence of an Idea. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh U.P. pp. 49–50.
^ A. Joly first traced the career of the
Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie in Benoit de
Sainte-More et le
Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie (Paris 1871).
^ Exinde origo Francorum fuit. Priamo primo rege habuerant.
^ Larousse du XIXe siècle sub "Fréret", noted by Huppert 1965.
Sources and external links
Find more aboutTroyat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Texts from Wikisource
Travel guide from Wikivoyage
Data from Wikidata
Troia Projekt and CERHAS (2013). "Welcome to Troy". Troy. University
of Cincinnati. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des
Mittelalters, Universität Tübingen, and Department of Classics,
University of Cincinnati, Ohio (2010). "Troia and the Troad –
Archaeology of a Region: The new excavations at Troy". Project Troia.
Institut für Ur- u. Frühgeschichte. Retrieved 8 August
2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
Troia Project (2004). "Reconstructions". Troia VR. University of
Tübingen. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
Heath, Sebastian; Tekkök, Billur, eds. (2007–2009). "Greek, Roman
and Byzantine Pottery at Ilion (Troia)". Classics Department,
University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
Heath, Sebastian; Mannsperger, Dietrich; Rose, C. Brian; Wallrodt,
John (2013). "Coins from Ilion (Troia)". Classics Department,
University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
Rutter, Jeremy B. (2013). "Welcome". Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology.
Dartmouth College. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
Troy VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War".
Thomas, Neil (2003). "Geology corresponds with Homer's description of
ancient Troy". UDaily Archive. University of Delaware. Retrieved 10
Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig
1931, p. 445
Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus,
Paris 1740, vol. I, coll. 775–778
Bibliography – Works cited
Allen, Susan (July 1995). "'Finding the Walls of Troy': Frank Calvert,
Excavator". American Journal of Archaeology. 99 (3): 379–407.
doi:10.2307/506941. Retrieved 30 January 2013.
Allen, Susan Heuck (1999). Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert
Heinrich Schliemann at Hisarlik. University of California Press.
Bauer, Susan Wise (2007). "The Battle for Troy". The History of the
Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome. Norton.
pp. 253–58. ISBN 9780393070897.
Carter, Jane Burr; Morris, Sarah P., eds. (1995). The Ages of Homer.
Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71208-1.
Latacz, Joachim (2004).
Troy and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old
Mystery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schliemann, Henry (1881). Ilios. The city and country of the Trojans:
the results of researches and discoveries on the site of
Troad in the years 1871–72–73–78–79. New York:
Harper & Brothers.
Wood, Michael (1985). In Search of the Trojan War. BBC Books; First
Thus edition. ISBN 978-0563201618.
Easton, D.F.; Hawkins, J.D.; Sherratt, A.G.; Sherratt, E.S. (2002).
Troy in Recent Perspective". Anatolian Studies. 52: 75–109.
Shepard, Alan; Powell, Stephen D., eds. (2004). Fantasies of Troy:
Classical Tales and the Social Imaginary in Medieval and Early Modern
Europe. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies.
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