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Troy
Troy
(Ancient Greek: Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Latin: Troia and Ilium;[note 1] Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha;[1][2] Turkish: Truva or Troya) was a city situated in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia
Anatolia
in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known as Hisarlik. It was the setting of the Trojan War
Trojan War
described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey
Odyssey
suggests that the name Ἴλιον (Ilion) formerly began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον (Wilion); this is also supported by the Hittite name for what is thought to be the same city, Wilusa. A new capital called Ilium (from Greek: Ἴλιον, Ilion) was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric and declined gradually in the Byzantine era, but is now a Latin Catholic titular see. In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert
Frank Calvert
excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlik, and in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist, also began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale.[3][4] These excavations revealed several cities built in succession. Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik
Hisarlik
with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert[5] and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hisarlik
Hisarlik
site, which was on Calvert's property. Troy VII
Troy VII
has been identified with the city called Wilusa by the Hittites, the probable origin of the Greek Ἴλιον, and is generally (but not conclusively) identified with Homeric Troy. Today, the hill at Hisarlik
Hisarlik
has given its name to a small village near the ruins, which supports the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site.[6] It lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital, also called Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye. The map here shows the adapted Scamander
Scamander
estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain. Due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, and the Black Sea, it was a central hub for the military and trade.[7] Troy
Troy
was added to the UNESCO World Heritage
UNESCO World Heritage
list in 1998.

Contents

1 Homeric Troy 2 Search for Troy

2.1 Schliemann 2.2 Dörpfeld and Blegen 2.3 Korfmann 2.4 Recent developments

3 Fortifications of the city 4 Historical Troy
Troy
uncovered

4.1 Troy
Troy
I–V

4.1.1 Schliemann's Troy
Troy
II

4.2 Troy
Troy
VI and VII

4.2.1 Calvert's Thousand-Year Gap

4.3 Troy
Troy
VIII 4.4 Troy
Troy
IX

5 Classical Ilium (Ilion)

5.1 Ecclesiastical history 5.2 Titular see

6 Other views and voices on Troy

6.1 Alternative views on Troy's location 6.2 Hittite and Egyptian records 6.3 In later legend 6.4 Prose Edda's Troy

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources and external links 11 Further reading

Homeric Troy[edit] Further information: Homeric Question, Historicity of the Iliad, and Troy
Troy
VII

Portion of the walls of Troy
Troy
(VII)

Map of the Troad, including the site of Troy

Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
historians variously placed the Trojan War
Trojan War
in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC: Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
to 1184 BC, Herodotus
Herodotus
to 1250 BC, and Duris of Samos to 1334 BC. Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy
Troy
with archaeological Troy
Troy
VII.[8] In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander
Scamander
(presumably modern Karamenderes),[9] where they had beached their ships. The city of Troy
Troy
itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War
Trojan War
took place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast today, but 3,000 years ago the mouths of Scamander
Scamander
were much closer to the city,[10] discharging into a large bay that formed a natural harbor, which has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient Trojan coastline, and the results largely confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy.[11] In November 2001, the geologist John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and the classicist John V. Luce from Trinity College, Dublin, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region.[12] They compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad
Iliad
and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, and concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy
Troy
and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.[13][14][15] Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy
Troy
in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature (such as Aeschylus's Oresteia). The Homeric legend of Troy
Troy
was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil
Virgil
in his Aeneid. The Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War
Trojan War
and the identity of Homeric Troy
Troy
with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus. After the 1995 find of a Luwian
Luwian
biconvex seal at Troy
Troy
VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language that was spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen
University of Tübingen
recently demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of Troy
Troy
at the time of the Trojan War, is connected to the Luwian
Luwian
compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous".[16] "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/ Troy
Troy
belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community," although it is not entirely clear whether Luwian
Luwian
was primarily the official language or in daily colloquial use.[17] Search for Troy[edit]

Priam's Treasure, which Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann
claimed to have found at Troy

With the rise of critical history, Troy
Troy
and the Trojan War
Trojan War
were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy
Troy
had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation. The Troad
Troad
peninsula was anticipated to be the location. Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle, had identified Troy
Troy
with Alexandria
Alexandria
Troas, a ruined town approximately 20 km south of the currently accepted location.[18] In the late 18th century, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier had identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine as the site of Troy, a mound approximately 5 km south of the currently accepted location. LeChavalier's location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most commonly accepted theory for almost a century.[19] In 1822, the Scottish journalist Charles Maclaren
Charles Maclaren
was the first to identify with confidence the position of the city as it is now known.[20][21] In 1866, Frank Calvert, the brother of the United States' consular agent in the region, made extensive surveys and published in scholarly journals his identification of the hill of New Ilium (which was on farmland owned by his family) on the same site. The hill, near the city of Çanakkale, was known as Hisarlik.[22] Schliemann[edit] In 1868, German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann
visited Calvert and secured permission to excavate Hisarlik. In 1871–73 and 1878–79, he excavated the hill and discovered the ruins of a series of ancient cities dating from the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to the Roman period. Schliemann declared one of these cities—at first Troy
Troy
I, later Troy
Troy
II—to be the city of Troy, and this identification was widely accepted at that time. Schliemann's finds at Hisarlik
Hisarlik
have become known as Priam's Treasure. They were acquired from him by the Berlin museums, but significant doubts about their authenticity persist.

The view from Hisarlık across the plain of Ilium to the Aegean Sea

Schliemann became interested in digging at the mound of Hisarlik
Hisarlik
at the persuasion of Frank Calvert. The British diplomat, considered a pioneer for the contributions he made to the archaeology of Troy, spent more than 60 years in the Troad
Troad
(modern day Biga peninsula, Turkey) conducting field work.[23] As Calvert was a principal authority on field archaeology in the region, his findings supplied evidence that Homeric Troy
Troy
might exist in the hill, and played a major role in directing Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann
to dig at the Hisarlik.[24] However, Schliemann downplayed his collaboration with Calvert when taking credit for the findings, such that Susan Heuek Allen recently described Schliemann as a "relentlessly self-promoting amateur archaeologist".[25] Schliemann's excavations were condemned by later archaeologists as having destroyed the main layers of the real Troy. Kenneth W. Harl in the Teaching Company's Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor lecture series sarcastically claims that Schliemann's excavations were carried out with such rough methods that he did to Troy
Troy
what the Greeks couldn't do in their times, destroying and levelling down the entire city walls to the ground.[26] Other scholars agree that the damage caused to the site is irreparable.[27] Although his work is largely rejected, his recorded findings and artifacts added knowledge regarding ancient Western history. Dörpfeld and Blegen[edit] After Schliemann, the site was further excavated under the direction of Wilhelm Dörpfeld
Wilhelm Dörpfeld
(1893–94) and later Carl Blegen
Carl Blegen
(1932–38). [28][29][page needed] These excavations have shown that there were at least nine cities built, one on top of the other, at this site. In his research, Blegen came to a conclusion that Troy's nine levels could be further divided into forty-six sublevels .[30] Korfmann[edit] In 1988, excavations were resumed by a team from the University of Tübingen and the University of Cincinnati
University of Cincinnati
under the direction of Professor Manfred Korfmann, with Professor Brian Rose overseeing Post- Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(Greek, Roman, Byzantine) excavation along the coast of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
at the Bay of Troy. Possible evidence of a battle was found in the form of bronze arrowheads and fire-damaged human remains buried in layers dated to the early 12th century BC. The question of Troy's status in the Bronze-Age world has been the subject of a sometimes acerbic debate between Korfmann and the Tübingen historian Frank Kolb
Frank Kolb
in 2001–2002. In August 1993, following a magnetic imaging survey of the fields below the fort, a deep ditch was located and excavated among the ruins of a later Greek and Roman city. Remains found in the ditch were dated to the late Bronze Age, the alleged time of Homeric Troy. It is claimed by Korfmann that the ditch may have once marked the outer defences of a much larger city than had previously been suspected. The latter city has been dated by his team to about 1250 BC, and it has been also suggested — based on recent archeological evidence uncovered by Professor Manfred Korfmann's team — that this was indeed the Homeric city of Troy. Recent developments[edit] The archaeological site of Troy
Troy
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage list in 1998. In summer 2006, the excavations continued under the direction of Korfmann's colleague Ernst Pernicka, with a new digging permit.[31] In 2013, an international team made up of cross-disciplinary experts led by William Aylward, an archaeologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was to carry out new excavations. This activity was to be conducted under the auspices of Çanakkale
Çanakkale
Onsekiz Mart University and was to use the new technique of "molecular archaeology".[32] A few days before the Wisconsin team was to leave, Turkey
Turkey
cancelled about 100 excavation permits, including Wisconsin's.[33] In March 2014, it was announced that a new excavation would take place to be sponsored by a private company and carried out by Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. This will be the first Turkish team to excavate and is planned as a 12-month excavation led by associate professor Rüstem Aslan. The University's rector stated that "Pieces unearthed in Troy
Troy
will contribute to Çanakkale’s culture and tourism. Maybe it will become one of Turkey’s most important frequented historical places.”[34] Fortifications of the city[edit] The walls of Troy, first erected in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
between 3000 and 2600 BC, are its main defense. The remains of the walls have been studied through the aforementioned excavations that shed light onto the historical city itself and the mythological implications as the walls protected the citadel during the Trojan War. The fortifications display the importance of defense to the Trojans and how warfare is a prominent issue for ancient cities. The walls surround the city, lasting for several hundred meters and at the time they were built, they were over 17 feet tall.[35] They were made of limestone with watchtowers and brick ramparts, or elevated mounds that serve as protective barriers.[35] Throughout all of the phases, the walls served as the largest fortification for the city of Troy
Troy
to protect the Trojans against any enemies. Defense mechanisms like the Walls of Troy
Troy
shed light onto the larger topic of warfare in ancient times. Warfare was a large issue in not only Ancient Greece, but locations nearby, such as Asia Minor. Historical Troy
Troy
uncovered[edit]

Archeological plan of the Hisarlik
Hisarlik
citadel

When Troy
Troy
was destroyed each time, the citizens would build upon the previous settlement, causing the layers to pile on top of one another.[35] The layers of ruins in the citadel at Hisarlik
Hisarlik
are numbered Troy
Troy
I – Troy
Troy
IX, with various subdivisions:[note 2]

Troy
Troy
I 3000–2600 BC (Western Anatolian EB 1) Troy
Troy
II 2600–2250 BC (Western Anatolian EB 2) Troy
Troy
III 2250–2100 BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [early]) Troy
Troy
IV 2100–1950 BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [middle]) Troy
Troy
V: 20th–18th centuries BC (Western Anatolian EB 3 [late]) Troy
Troy
VI: 17th–15th centuries BC Troy
Troy
VIh: late Bronze Age, 14th century BC Troy
Troy
VIIa: c. 1300–1190 BC, most likely setting for Homer's story Troy
Troy
VIIb1: 12th century BC Troy
Troy
VIIb2: 11th century BC Troy
Troy
VIIb3: until c. 950 BC Troy
Troy
VIII: c. 700–85 BC Troy
Troy
IX: 85 BC–c. AD 500

Troy
Troy
I–V[edit] The first city on the site was founded in the 3rd millennium BC. During the Bronze Age, the site seems to have been a flourishing mercantile city, since its location allowed for complete control of the Dardanelles, through which every merchant ship from the Aegean Sea heading for the Black Sea
Black Sea
had to pass. Around 1900 BC a mass migration was set off by the Hittites
Hittites
to the east. Cities to the east of Troy
Troy
were destroyed, and although Troy
Troy
was not burned, the next period shows a change of culture indicating a new people had taken over Troy.[36] The first phase of the city is characterized by a smaller citadel, around 300 ft in diameter, with 20 rectangular houses surrounded by massive walls, towers, and gateways.[35] Troy
Troy
II doubled in size and had a lower town and the upper citadel, with the walls protecting the upper acropolis which housed the megaron-style palace for the king.[37] The second phase was destroyed by a large fire, but the Trojans rebuilt, creating a fortified citadel larger than Troy
Troy
II, but which had smaller and more condensed houses, suggesting an economic decline.[35] This trend of making a larger circuit, or extent of the walls, continued with each rebuild, for Troy III, IV, and V. Therefore, even in the face of economic troubles, the walls remained as elaborate as before, indicating their focus on defense and protection. Schliemann's Troy
Troy
II[edit] When Schliemann came across Troy
Troy
II, in 1871, he believed he had found Homer's city. Schliemann and his team unearthed a large feature he dubbed the Scaean Gate, a western gate unlike the three previously found leading to the Pergamos.[38] This gate, as he describes, was the gate that Homer
Homer
had featured. As Schliemann states in his publication Troja: "I have proved that in a remote antiquity there was in the plain of Troy
Troy
a large city, destroyed of old by a fearful catastrophe, which had on the hill of Hisarlık only its Acropolis
Acropolis
with its temples and a few other large edifices, southerly, and westerly direction on the site of the later Ilium; and that, consequently, this city answers perfectly to the Homeric description of the sacred site of Ilios."[39] Troy
Troy
VI and VII[edit] Main article: Troy
Troy
VII Troy
Troy
VI was destroyed around 1250 BC, probably by an earthquake. Only a single arrowhead was found in this layer, and no remains of bodies. However, the town quickly recovered and was rebuilt in a layout that was more orderly. This rebuild continued the trend of having a heavily fortified citadel to preserve the outer rim of the city in the face of earthquakes and sieges of the central city.[37] Troy
Troy
VIIa, which has been dated to the mid-to-late-13th century BC, is the most often cited candidate for the Troy
Troy
of Homer. Troy
Troy
VIIa appears to have been destroyed by war.[40] The evidence of fire and slaughter around 1184 BC, which brought Troy
Troy
VIIa to a close, led to this phase being identified with the city besieged by the Greeks during the Trojan War. This was immortalized in the Iliad
Iliad
written by Homer.[41] Calvert's Thousand-Year Gap[edit] Initially, the layers of Troy
Troy
VI and VII were overlooked entirely, because Schliemann favoured the burnt city of Troy
Troy
II. It was not until the need to close "Calvert's Thousand Year Gap" arose—from Dörpfeld's discovery of Troy
Troy
VI—that archaeology turned away from Schliemann's Troy
Troy
and began working towards finding Homeric Troy
Troy
once more.[42] "Calvert's Thousand Year Gap" (1800–800 BC) was a period not accounted for by Schliemann's archaeology and thus constituting a hole in the Trojan timeline. In Homer's description of the city, a section of one side of the wall is said to be weaker than the rest.[43] During his excavation of more than three hundred yards of the wall, Dörpfeld came across a section very closely resembling the Homeric description of the weaker section.[44] Dörpfeld was convinced he had found the walls of Homer's city, and now he would excavate the city itself. Within the walls of this stratum ( Troy
Troy
VI), much Mycenaean pottery dating from Late Helladic
Late Helladic
(LH) periods III A and III B (c.1400–c.1200 BC) was uncovered, suggesting a relation between the Trojans and Mycenaeans. The great tower along the walls seemed likely to be the "Great Tower of Ilios".[45] The evidence seemed to indicate that Dörpfeld had stumbled upon Ilios, the city of Homer's epics. Schliemann himself had conceded that Troy
Troy
VI was more likely to be the Homeric city, but he never published anything stating so.[46] The only counter-argument, confirmed initially by Dörpfeld (who was as passionate as Schliemann about finding Troy), was that the city appeared to have been destroyed by an earthquake, not by men.[47] There was little doubt that this was the Troy
Troy
of which the Mycenaeans would have known.[48] Troy
Troy
VIII[edit] In 480 BC, the Persian king Xerxes sacrificed 1,000 cattle at the sanctuary of Athena
Athena
Ilias while marching through the Hellespontine region towards Greece.[49] Following the Persian defeat in 480–479, Ilion and its territory became part of the continental possessions of Mytilene
Mytilene
and remained under Mytilenaean control until the unsuccessful Mytilenean revolt in 428–427. Athens liberated the so-called Actaean cities including Ilion and enrolled these communities in the Delian League. Athenian influence in the Hellespont waned following the oligarchic coup of 411, and in that year the Spartan general Mindaros emulated Xerxes by likewise sacrificing to Athena
Athena
Ilias.[note 1] From c. 410–399, Ilion was within the sphere of influence of the local dynasts at Lampsacus
Lampsacus
(Zenis, his wife Mania, and the usurper Meidias) who administered the region on behalf of the Persian satrap Pharnabazus.[note 1] In 399, the Spartan general Dercylidas expelled the Greek garrison at Ilion who were controlling the city on behalf of the Lampsacene dynasts during a campaign which rolled back Persian influence throughout the Troad. Ilion remained outside the control of the Persian satrapal administration at Dascylium until the Peace of Antalcidas in 387–386. In this period of renewed Persian control c. 387–367, a statue of Ariobarzanes, the satrap of Hellespontine Phrygia, was erected in front of the temple of Athena
Athena
Ilias.[50] In 360–359 the city was briefly controlled by Charidemus of Oreus, a Euboean mercenary leader who occasionally worked for the Athenians.[51] In 359, he was expelled by the Athenian Menelaos son of Arrabaios, whom the Ilians honoured with a grant of proxeny—this is recorded in the earliest civic decree to survive from Ilion.[52] In May 334 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
crossed the Hellespont and came to the city, where he visited the temple of Athena
Athena
Ilias, made sacrifices at the tombs of the Homeric heroes, and made the city free and exempt from taxes.[53] According to the so-called 'Last Plans' of Alexander which became known after his death in June 323, he had planned to rebuild the temple of Athena
Athena
Ilias on a scale that would have surpassed every other temple in the known world.[54] Antigonus Monophthalmus
Antigonus Monophthalmus
took control of the Troad
Troad
in 311 and created the new city of Antigoneia Troas which was a synoikism of the cities of Skepsis, Kebren, Neandreia, Hamaxitos, Larisa, and Kolonai. In c. 311–306 the koinon of Athena
Athena
Ilias was founded from the remaining cities in the Troad
Troad
and along the Asian coast of the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
and soon after succeeded in securing a guarantee from Antigonus that he would respect their autonomy and freedom (he had not respected the autonomy of the cities which were synoikized to create Antigoneia).[55] The koinon continued to function until at least the 1st century AD and primarily consisted of cities from the Troad, although for a time in the second half of the 3rd century it also included Myrlea
Myrlea
and Chalcedon
Chalcedon
from the eastern Propontis.[56] The governing body of the koinon was the synedrion on which each city was represented by two delegates. The day-to-day running of the synedrion, especially in relation to its finances, was left to a college of five agonothetai, on which no city ever had more than one representative. This system of equal (rather than proportional) representation ensured that no one city could politically dominate the koinon.[57] The primary purpose of the koinon was to organize the annual Panathenaia festival which was held at the sanctuary of Athena
Athena
Ilias. The festival brought huge numbers of pilgrims to Ilion for the duration of the festival as well as creating an enormous market (the panegyris) which attracted traders from across the region.[58] In addition, the koinon financed new building projects at Ilion, for example a new theatre c. 306 and the expansion of the sanctuary and temple of Athena
Athena
Ilias in the 3rd century, in order to make the city a suitable venue for such a large festival.[59] In the period 302–281, Ilion and the Troad
Troad
were part of the kingdom of Lysimachus, who during this time helped Ilion synoikize several nearby communities, thus expanding the city's population and territory.[note 3] Lysimachus
Lysimachus
was defeated at the Battle of Corupedium in February 281 by Seleucus I Nikator, thus handing the Seleucid kingdom control of Asia Minor, and in August or September of 281 when Seleucus passed through the Troad
Troad
on his way to Lysimachia in the nearby Thracian Chersonese Ilion passed a decree in honour of him, indicating the city's new loyalties.[60] In September Seleucus was assassinated at Lysimachia by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Keraunos, making his successor, Antiochus I Soter, the new king. In 280 or soon after Ilion passed a long decree lavishly honouring Antiochus in order to cement their relationship with him.[note 4] During this period Ilion still lacked proper city walls except for the crumbling Troy
Troy
VI fortifications around the citadel, and in 278 during the Gallic invasion the city was easily sacked.[61] Ilion enjoyed a close relationship with Antiochus for the rest of his reign: for example, in 274 Antiochus granted land to his friend Aristodikides of Assos
Assos
which for tax purposes was to be attached to the territory of Ilion, and c. 275–269 Ilion passed a decree in honour of Metrodoros of Amphipolis who had successfully treated the king for a wound he received in battle.[62] Troy
Troy
IX[edit]

Silver tetradrachm from Troy
Troy
with head of Athena, c. 165–150 BC

The odeon dates to the Roman Troy
Troy
IX and was renovated by Hadrian
Hadrian
in 124 AD.

The city was destroyed by Sulla's rival, the Roman general Fimbria, in 85 BC following an eleven-day siege.[63] Later that year when Sulla had defeated Fimbria he bestowed benefactions on Ilion for its loyalty which helped with the city's rebuilding. Ilion reciprocated this act of generosity by instituting a new civic calendar which took 85 BC as its first year.[64] However, the city remained in financial distress for several decades, despite its favoured status with Rome. In the 80s BC, Roman publicani illegally levied taxes on the sacred estates of Athena
Athena
Ilias and the city was required to call on L. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
for restitution; while in 80 BC, the city suffered an attack by pirates.[65] In 77 BC the costs of running the annual festival of the koinon of Athena
Athena
Ilias became too pressing for both Ilion and the other members of the koinon and L. Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
was once again required to arbitrate, this time reforming the festival so that it would be less of a financial burden.[66] In 74 BC the Ilians once again demonstrated their loyalty to Rome by siding with the Roman general Lucullus
Lucullus
against Mithridates VI.[67] Following the final defeat of Mithridates in 63–62, Pompey
Pompey
rewarded the city's loyalty by becoming the benefactor of Ilion and patron of Athena
Athena
Ilias.[68] In 48 BC, Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
likewise bestowed benefactions on the city, recalling the city's loyalty during the Mithridatic Wars, the city's connection with his cousin L. Julius Caesar, and the family's claim that they were ultimately descended from Venus through the Trojan prince Aeneas
Aeneas
and therefore shared kinship with the Ilians.[69] In 20 BC, the Emperor Augustus
Augustus
visited Ilion and stayed in the house of a leading citizen, Melanippides son of Euthydikos.[70] As a result of his visit, he also financed the restoration and rebuilding of the sanctuary of Athena
Athena
Ilias, the bouleuterion (council house) and the theatre. Soon after work on the theatre was completed in 12–11 BC, Melanippides dedicated a statue of Augustus
Augustus
in the theatre to record this benefaction.[71] Classical Ilium (Ilion)[edit] A new city called Ilium (from Greek Ilion) was founded on the site in the reign of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
Augustus. It flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric in the Roman province Hellespontus (civil Diocese of Asia
Diocese of Asia
but declined gradually in the Byzantine era Ecclesiastical history[edit] No later than the 4th century, it was a suffragan of the provincial capital's Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cyzicus, in the sway of the Patriarchate of Constantinople. Several bishops are historically documented :

Orion attended the First Ecumenical Council
First Ecumenical Council
at Nicaea
Nicaea
in 325 Leucadius was among the schismatic group of Arian
Arian
heretical bishops abandoning the Council of Sardica and Council of Philippopolis in 344 to convene their alternative 'synod'. Teosebius partook in the Council of Chalcedon
Chalcedon
in 451. Johannes participated in the second Council of Constantinople
Constantinople
in 553. Niceta attended the Second Council of Nicaea
Nicaea
in 787. Georgius participated in the Photian Council
Photian Council
of 869 which condemned Patriarch Photios of Constantinople
Constantinople
in his own capital.

Titular see[edit] The diocese was nominally restored no later then 1926 as Latin Titular bishopric of Ilium (Latin) / Ilio (Curiate Italian) / Ilien(sis) (Latin adjective). It is vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, so far of the fitting Episcopal (lowest) rank :

Michel-Joseph Bourguignon d’Herbigny, Jesuit Order
Jesuit Order
(S.J.) (1926.02.11 – 1937.07) James Maguire (1939.10.05 – 1944.10.10) Eugene Joseph McGuinness (1944.11.11 – 1948.02.01) Leo John Steck (1948.03.13 – 1950.06.19) Francesco Maria Franco (1950.07.10 – 1968.02.07)

Other views and voices on Troy[edit] Alternative views on Troy's location[edit] A small minority of contemporary writers argue that Homeric Troy
Troy
was not at the Hisarlik
Hisarlik
site, but elsewhere in Anatolia
Anatolia
or outside it—e.g. in England,[72] Pergamum,[73] Scandinavia,[74] or Herzegovina.[75] These proposals have not been accepted by mainstream scholarship. Hittite and Egyptian records[edit] In the 1920s, the Swiss scholar Emil Forrer claimed that the placenames Wilusa and Taruisa found in Hittite texts should be identified with Ilion and Troia, respectively.[76] He further noted that the name of Alaksandu, a king of Wilusa mentioned in a Hittite treaty, is quite similar to Homer's Paris, whose birthname was Alexandros. Subsequent to this, the Tawagalawa letter (CTH 181) was found to document an unnamed Hittite king's correspondence to the king of the Ahhiyawa, referring to an earlier " Wilusa episode" involving hostility on the part of the Ahhiyawa. The Hittite king was long held to be Mursili II
Mursili II
(c. 1321–1296), but, since the 1980s, his son Hattusili III
Hattusili III
(1265–1240) is commonly preferred, although his other son Muwatalli (c. 1296–1272) remains a possibility. Inscriptions of the New Kingdom of Egypt
New Kingdom of Egypt
also record a nation T-R-S as one of the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
who attacked Egypt during the XIX and XX Dynasties. An inscription at Deir el-Medina
Deir el-Medina
records a victory of Ramesses III
Ramesses III
over the Sea Peoples, including one named "Tursha" (Egyptian: [twrš3]). It is probably the same as the earlier "Teresh" (Egyptian: [trš.w]) on the stele commemorating Merneptah's victory in a Libyan campaign around 1220 BC. These identifications were rejected by many scholars as being improbable or at least unprovable. However, Trevor Bryce championed them in his 1998 book The Kingdom of the Hittites, citing a piece of the Manapa-Tarhunda letter referring to the kingdom of Wilusa as beyond the land of the Seha River (the classical Caicus
Caicus
and modern Bakırçay) and near the land of "Lazpa" (Lesbos). Recent evidence also adds weight to the theory that Wilusa is identical to archaeological Troy. Hittite texts mention a water tunnel at Wilusa, and a water tunnel excavated by Korfmann, previously thought to be Roman, has been dated to around 2600 BC. The identifications of Wilusa with Troy
Troy
and of the Ahhiyawa
Ahhiyawa
with Homer's Achaeans remain somewhat controversial but gained enough popularity during the 1990s to be considered majority opinion. That agrees with metrical evidence in the Iliad
Iliad
that the name ᾽Ιλιον (Ilion) for Troy
Troy
was formerly Ϝιλιον (Wilion) with a digamma.[further explanation needed] In later legend[edit] Such was the fame of the Epic Cycle
Epic Cycle
in Roman and Medieval times that it was built upon to provide a starting point for various founding myths of national origins. The most influential, Virgil's Aeneid, traces the journeys of the Trojan prince Aeneas, supposed ancestor of the founders of Rome and the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In a later era, the heroes of Troy, both those noted in Homer
Homer
and those invented for the purpose, often continued to appear in the origin stories of the nations of Early Medieval Europe.[77][78] The Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie
was common cultural ground for European dynasties,[79] as a Trojan pedigree was both gloriously ancient and established an equality with the ruling class of Rome. A Trojan pedigree could justify the occupation of parts of Rome's former territories.[77] On that basis, the Franks filled the lacunae of their legendary origins with Trojan and pseudo-Trojan names: in Fredegar's 7th-century chronicle of Frankish history, Priam
Priam
appears as the first king of the Franks.[80][full citation needed] The Trojan origin of France was such an established article of faith that in 1714, the learned Nicolas Fréret was Bastilled for showing through historical criticism that the Franks had been Germanic, a sore point counter to Valois and Bourbon propaganda.[81][full citation needed] In similar manner, Geoffrey of Monmouth reworked earlier material such as the Historia Brittonum to trace the legendary kings of the Britons from a supposed descendant of Aeneas
Aeneas
called Brutus. Likewise, Snorri Sturluson, in the prologue to his Icelandic Prose Edda, traced the genealogy of the ancestral figures in Norse mythology to characters appearing at Troy
Troy
in Homer's epic, notably making Thor to be the son of Memnon. Sturluson referred to these figures as having made a journey across Europe towards Scandinavia, setting up kingdoms as they went. Prose Edda's Troy[edit] The Icelandic national bard and possibly most important source of Norse Mythology, Snorri Sturluson, identifies Troy
Troy
with Åsgard. About it were 12 kingdoms and 12 chiefs. One of them, Múnón, married Priam's daughter, Tróán, and had by her a son, Trór, to be pronounced Thor
Thor
in Old Norse. Similarly the Áss Vidarr
Vidarr
is identified with Aeneas. See also[edit]

Ancient settlements in Turkey Cities of the ancient Near East Dardanians (Trojan) Historicity of the Iliad The Golden Bough (mythology) Trojan language

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Lewis, Charlton T.; Short, Charles. "Ilium". A Latin Dictionary. Tufts University: The Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 2008-03-01.  ^ For the new chronological boundaries of Troy
Troy
VIII-IX which differ from those used by Blegen see C. B. Rose, ‘The 1991 Post-Bronze Age excavations at Troia’ Studia Troica 2 (1992) 44 n. 16. ^ Strabo
Strabo
13.1.26: [Λυσίμαχος] συνῴκισέ τε εἰς αὐτὴν τὰς κύκλῳ πόλεις ἀρχαίας ἤδη κεκακωμένας. These probably included Birytis, Gentinos, and Sigeion: J. M. Cook, The Troad
Troad
(Oxford 1973) 364. Birytis and Gentinos are not securely located, but recent excavations at Sigeion
Sigeion
appear to independently confirm Strabo’s account by indicating an abandonment date soon after c. 300: Th. Schäfer, Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı 32.2 (2009) 410–412, 33.2 (2012) 248–249. This may have been punishment for Sigeion
Sigeion
resisting Lysimachus
Lysimachus
in 302: Diodorus 20.107.4. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 32. A minority of scholars instead attempt to date this inscription to the reign of Antiochus III (222–187 BC).

References[edit]

^ Korfmann, Manfred O. (2007). Winkler, Martin M, ed. Troy: From Homer's Iliad
Iliad
to Hollywood Epic. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing Limited. p. 25. ISBN 1-4051-3183-7. Troy
Troy
or Ilios (or Wilios) is most probably identical with Wilusa or Truwisa ... mentioned in the Hittite sources  ^ Burney, Charles (2004). "Wilusa". Historical dictionary of the Hittites. Metuchen, N.J: Scarecrow Press. p. 311. ISBN 0-8108-4936-4.  ^ Wood 1985, pp. 54–55. ^ Aşkin, Mustafa (1981). Troy
Troy
(2005 rev ed.). Istanbul: Keskin. p. 34. ISBN 975-7559-37-7.  ^ Bryce, Trevor (2005). The Trojans and their neighbours. Taylor & Francis. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-34959-8.  ^ Aşkin, Mustafa (2005). Troy: With Legends, Facts, and New Developments. Istanbul: Keskin Color. p. 72. ISBN 975-7559-37-7. Hisarlik, a village near the ruins of Troy.  ^ Kraft, John C (15 August 1980). "Geomorphic Reconstructions in the Environs of Ancient Troy" (PDF). Science. 209: 776–782 – via JSTOR.  ^ Wood 1985, p. 16. ^ Cenker, Işil Cerem; Thys-Şenocak, Lucienne (2008). Shopes, Linda; Hamilton, Paula, eds. Oral History and Public Memories. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. p. 76. ISBN 1-59213-141-7.  ^ Strabo, Geography XIII, I, 36, tr. H. L. Jones, Loeb Classical Library; Pliny, Natural History, V.33, tr. H. Rackham, W. S. Jones and D. E. Eichholz, Loeb Classical Library. ^ "Geologists investigate Trojan battlefield". BBC News. 7 February 2003.  ^ Kraft, John C. (2001). " Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Paleogeographies at Ancient Troy". Geological Society of America. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ Ball, Philip (29 January 2003). "Geologists show Homer
Homer
got it right". Nature. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ Harbor areas at ancient Troy: Sedimentology and geomorphology complement Homer's Iliad, Geoscience World (abstract) ^ "Press Release: Geology corresponds with Homer's description of ancient Troy". University of Delaware.  ^ Starke, Frank (1997). "Troia im Kontext des historisch-politischen und sprachlichen Umfeldes Kleinasiens im 2. Jahrtausend". Studia Troica. 7: 447–87.  ^ Latacz 2004, p. 116 ^ Schliemann 1881, p. 184. ^ Schliemann 1881, pp. 184–191. ^ Maclaren, Charles (2010). A Dissertation On the Topography
Topography
of the Plain of Troy: Including an Examination of the Opinions of Demetrius, Chevalier, Dr. Clarke, and Major Rennell. Bibliobazaar. ISBN 1-146-73161-2. Retrieved 28 December 2014.  ^ Schliemann 1881, p. 189. ^ Wood 1985, pp. 42–44. ^ Allen 1995, p. 379. ^ Allen 1995, p. 380. ^ Allen 1999, p. From introductory blurb –not in book itself. ^ Kenneth W. Harl. "Great Ancient Civilizations of Asia Minor". Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ Stefan Lovgren. "Is Troy
Troy
True". Retrieved March 7, 2016.  ^ Wilhelm Dörpfeld, Troja und Ilion, Beck & Barth, 1902 ^ Carl W. Blegen, Troy; excavations conducted by the University of Cincinnati, 1932–1938, Princeton University Press, 1950 ^ Allen 1995, p. 259. ^ "Project Troia". University of Tübingen, University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "UW-Madison archaeologists to mount new expedition to Troy".  ^ Simmons, Dan (July 22, 2013). "UW-Madison archaeology trip to Troy postponed until next summer". Wisconsin State Journal. Retrieved 6 May 2014.  ^ Çanakkale – Dogan News Agency (13 March 2014). "New term excavations start at city of Troy
Troy
with Turkish team". hurriyetdailynews.com. Hurriyet daily News. Retrieved 28 December 2014.  ^ a b c d e the Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (November 22, 2016). "Troy".  ^ Mellaart, James (January 1958). "The end of the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
in Anatolia
Anatolia
and the Aegean". American Journal of Archaeology. 62 (1): 9–33. doi:10.2307/500459. JSTOR 500459.  ^ a b Neer, Richard T. (2012). Greek Art and Archaeology. New York: Thames & Hudson. p. 21. ISBN 9780500288771.  ^ Schliemann 1881, p. 75 ^ Schliemann 1881, p. 277 ^ Bauer 2007, pp. 253–58. ^ "Archaeological Site of Troy – UNESCO World Heritage
UNESCO World Heritage
Centre". Whc.unesco.org. 1998-12-02. Retrieved 2012-08-15.  ^ Allen 1995, p. 142. ^ Homer. "Iliad". XVI, ^ Wood 1985, p. 89. ^ Homer. "Iliad". VI, 386 ^ Allen 1995, p. 143. ^ Wood 1985, p. 228. ^ Wood 1985, p. 223. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
7.43. ^ Diodorus 17.17.6. ^ Demosthenes
Demosthenes
23.154–157; Aeneas
Aeneas
Tacticus 24.3–14. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 23. ^ Arrian, Anabasis 1.11–12, Diodorus Siculus 17.17–18, Plutarch, Life of Alexander 15, Justin 9.5.12, Strabo
Strabo
13.1.26, 32. ^ Diodorus 18.4.5. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 1. ^ Myrlea
Myrlea
and Calchedon: Inschriften von Ilion 5–6. ^ D. Knoepfler, ‘Les agonothètes de la Confédération d’Athéna Ilias: une interpretation nouvelle des données épigraphiques et ses conséquences pour la chronologie des émissions monétaires du Koinon’ Studi Ellenistici 24 (2010) 33–62. ^ Panegyris: L. Robert, Monnaies antiques en Troade (Paris 1966) 18–46. ^ Theatre: Inschriften von Ilion 1. Temple: C. B. Rose, ‘The Temple of Athena
Athena
at Ilion’ Studia Troica 13 (2003) 27–88 and contra D. Hertel, ‘Zum Heiligtum der Athena
Athena
Ilias von Troia IX und zur frühhellenistischen Stadtanlage von Ilion’ ArchAnz (2004) 177–205. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 31. ^ Strabo
Strabo
13.1.27. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 33 (Aristodikides), 34 (Metrodoros). ^ Strabo
Strabo
13.1.27, Livy, Periochae 83. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 10.2–3. ^ Inchriften von Ilion 71 (publicani), 73 (pirates). ^ Inschriften von Ilion 10. ^ Plutarch, Lucullus
Lucullus
10.3, 12.2. ^ Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum 46.1565. ^ Lucan, Pharsalia 9.964–999, Suetonius, Divus Julius 79.3. ^ Dio Cassius 54.7, Inschriften von Ilion 83. ^ Inschriften von Ilion 83. ^ Wilkens, Iman Jacobs (1990). Where Troy
Troy
Once Stood: The Mystery of Homer's Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey
Odyssey
revealed. Groningen: Rider & Co. p. 68. ISBN 0-7126-2463-5.  ^ Lascelles, John (2005). Troy: The World Deceived. Homer's Guide to Pergamum. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford Publishing (self-published). p. 34. ISBN 1-4120-5829-5.  ^ Vinci, Felice (2005). The Baltic Origins of Homer's Epic Tales: The Iliad, the Odyssey, and the Migration of Myth. Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions – Bear & Company. ISBN 1-5947-7052-2.  ^ Price, Roberto Salinas (2006). Homeric Whispers: Intimations of Orthodoxy in the Iliad
Iliad
and Odyssey. San Antonio, Texas: Scylax Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-9108-6511-6.  ^ Carter & Morris 1995, pp. 34–35 ^ a b Huppert, George (1965). "The Trojan Franks and their Critics". Studies in the Renaissance. 12: 227–41. doi:10.2307/2857076.  ^ Hay, Denys (1968). Europe: The Emergence of an Idea. Edinburgh: Edinburgh U.P. pp. 49–50.  ^ A. Joly first traced the career of the Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie
in Benoit de Sainte-More et le Roman de Troie
Roman de Troie
(Paris 1871). ^ Exinde origo Francorum fuit. Priamo primo rege habuerant. ^ Larousse du XIXe siècle sub "Fréret", noted by Huppert 1965.

Sources and external links[edit]

Find more aboutTroyat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Texts from Wikisource Travel guide from Wikivoyage Data from Wikidata

Official website General

Troia Projekt and CERHAS (2013). "Welcome to Troy". Troy. University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 

Archaeology

Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters, Universität Tübingen, and Department of Classics, University of Cincinnati, Ohio (2010). "Troia and the Troad – Archaeology of a Region: The new excavations at Troy". Project Troia. Institut für Ur- u. Frühgeschichte. Retrieved 8 August 2013. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

Troia Project (2004). "Reconstructions". Troia VR. University of Tübingen. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  Heath, Sebastian; Tekkök, Billur, eds. (2007–2009). "Greek, Roman and Byzantine Pottery at Ilion (Troia)". Classics Department, University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 10 August 2013.  Heath, Sebastian; Mannsperger, Dietrich; Rose, C. Brian; Wallrodt, John (2013). "Coins from Ilion (Troia)". Classics Department, University of Cincinnati. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 

Rutter, Jeremy B. (2013). "Welcome". Aegean Prehistoric Archaeology. Dartmouth College. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 

"Lesson 23: Troy
Troy
VI".  "Lesson 27: Troy VII
Troy VII
and the Historicity of the Trojan War". 

Geography

Thomas, Neil (2003). "Geology corresponds with Homer's description of ancient Troy". UDaily Archive. University of Delaware. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 

Ecclesiastical history

Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 445 Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol. I, coll. 775–778

Bibliography – Works cited

Allen, Susan (July 1995). "'Finding the Walls of Troy': Frank Calvert, Excavator". American Journal of Archaeology. 99 (3): 379–407. doi:10.2307/506941. Retrieved 30 January 2013.  Allen, Susan Heuck (1999). Finding the Walls of Troy: Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann
at Hisarlik. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20868-1.  Bauer, Susan Wise (2007). "The Battle for Troy". The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome. Norton. pp. 253–58. ISBN 9780393070897.  Carter, Jane Burr; Morris, Sarah P., eds. (1995). The Ages of Homer. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71208-1.  Latacz, Joachim (2004). Troy
Troy
and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926308-6  Schliemann, Henry (1881). Ilios. The city and country of the Trojans: the results of researches and discoveries on the site of Troy
Troy
and through the Troad
Troad
in the years 1871–72–73–78–79. New York: Harper & Brothers.  Wood, Michael (1985). In Search of the Trojan War. BBC Books; First Thus edition. ISBN 978-0563201618. 

Further reading[edit]

Easton, D.F.; Hawkins, J.D.; Sherratt, A.G.; Sherratt, E.S. (2002). " Troy
Troy
in Recent Perspective". Anatolian Studies. 52: 75–109. doi:10.2307/3643078.  Shepard, Alan; Powell, Stephen D., eds. (2004). Fantasies of Troy: Classical Tales and the Social Imaginary in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies. 

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(Kızkalesi) Corydala Cremna Cyaneae Cyrrhus Dalisandus in Isauria Dalisandus in Pamphylia Dias Domuztepe Elaiussa Sebaste Emirzeli Epiphania Erymna Etenna Eudocia (Lycia) Eudocias (Pamphylia) Gagae Gözlükule Hacilar Idebessos Irenopolis Isba Issus Kandyba Karakabaklı Karatepe Kibyra Lebessus Limyra Lyrbe Magydus Mallus Mamure Castle Mastaura Meloë Mezgitkale Mopsuestia Myra Nisa Olba Olympos Öküzlü Orokenda Patara Perga Phaselis Phellus Podalia Rhodiapolis Rhosus Sagalassos Seleucia in Pamphylia Seleucia Pieria Seleucia Sidera Selge Side Sidyma Sillyon Simena Sinda Soli Sozopolis Syedra Tapureli Tell Tayinat Telmessos Telmessos
Telmessos
(Caria) Termessos Tlos Trebenna Xanthos Yanıkhan Yumuktepe

Southeastern Anatolia

Antioch
Antioch
in the Taurus Antioch
Antioch
in Mesopotamia Apamea on the Euphrates Carchemish Urshu Khashshum Çayönü Dara Edessa Göbekli Tepe Harran Kussara Nevalı Çori Sakçagözü Sam'al Samosata Sareisa Seleucia at the Zeugma Sultantepe Tille Tushhan Zeugma

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 11145376336783721248 LCCN: sh85138

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