2nd century CE–10th century: Jabal
Tayy and Syrian Desert
10th century–16th century: Jabal Tayy, Syrian Desert, Jibal
al-Sharat, al-Balqa, Palmyrene Steppe, Upper Mesopotamia, Northern
Julhumah ibn 'Udad
Monophysite Christianity (pre-638)
Islam (post 630)
Tayy (Arabic: طيء/ALA-LC: Ṭayy), also known as Ṭayyi or
Taiesʾ, is a large and ancient
Arab tribe, whose descendants today
are the tribe of Shammar, who continue to live throughout the Middle
Eastern states of the
Arab world and the rest of the world. The nisba
Tayy is at-Ṭāʾī (الطائي). The Tayy's
origins trace back to the Qahtanites and their original homeland was
Yemen. In the 2nd century CE, they migrated to the northern Arabian
mountain ranges of Jabal Aja and Jabal Salma, which then collectively
became known as "Jabal Tayy" (later "Jabal Shammar"). The latter
continues to be the traditional homeland of the tribe until the
present day. They later established relations with the Sassanid
Persian and Byzantine empires. Though traditionally allied with the
Sassanids' Lakhmid clients, the
Tayy supplanted the
Lakhmids as the
rulers of al-Hirah in the 610s. In the late 6th century, the Fasad War
split the Tayy, with members of its Al Jadila branch converting to
Christianity and migrating to Syria where they became allied with the
Ghassanids, and the Al Ghawth branch remaining in Jabal Tayy. A
chieftain and poet of the Al Ghawth, Hatim at-Ta'i, is widely known
among Arabs until today.
Hatim's son Adi, and another
Tayy chieftain, Zayd al-Khayr, converted
Islam together with much of their tribe in 629–630, and became
companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The
Tayy participated in
numerous Muslim military campaigns after Muhammad's death, including
Ridda Wars and the Muslim conquest of Persia. The Al Jadila in
northern Syria remained Christian until the Muslim conquest of their
region in 638. The
Tayy was split during the First Fitna, with those
Arabia and Iraq supporting
Ali as caliph and those in Syria
supporting Mu'awiyah. The latter and his Umayyad kinsmen ultimately
triumphed and members of the
Tayy participated in the Umayyad conquest
Sindh in the early 8th century. Nonetheless, a branch of the Tayy
under Qahtaba ibn Shabib were among the leaders of the Abbasid
Revolution which toppled the Umayyads in the mid-8th century. The Tayy
fared well under the Abbasids, producing military officials and
renowned poets, such as
Buhturi and Abu Tammam.
By the mid-9th century, Abbasid authority had eroded and the
left dominant in the southern
Syrian Desert and Jabal Tayy. Under
Jarrahid chieftains, they established themselves in Palestine
under Fatimid rule. As the virtually independent rulers of the area
Ramla and Jabal Tayy, they controlled the key routes
between Egypt, Syria,
Arabia and Iraq. They vacillated between the
Fatimids and the Byzantines and then between the Seljuks and Crusaders
until the late 12th and early 13th centuries, when the Tayy's various
subbranches, chief among them the Al Fadl, were left as the last
Arab tribe in the region extending from Najd
northward to Upper Mesopotamia.
2 Pre-Islamic era
2.1 Migration to Jabal Tayy
2.2 Relations with Sassanids and Byzantines
2.2.1 Fifth century
2.2.2 Sixth century
3 Islamic era
3.1 Muhammad's days
3.2 Ridda Wars
3.3 Rashidun conquests
3.4 Umayyad period
3.5 Abbasid period
3.6 Fatimid period
3.7 Later Islamic era
6 External links
The Tayy's progenitor, according to early
Arab genealogists, was
Julhumah ibn Udad, who was known as "Tayy" or "Tayyi". The
theory in some
Arab tradition, as cited by 9th-century Muslim
historian al-Tabari, holds that Julhumah's laqab (surname) of
Ṭayyiʾ derived from the word ṭawā, which in
Arabic means "to
plaster". He received the name because he was said to have been
"the first to have plastered the walls of a well", according to
al-Tabari. Julhumah's ancestry was traced to
Kahlan ibn Saba ibn
Ya'rub, great-grandson of Qahtan, the semi-legendary, common ancestor
Arab tribes of southern Arabia. Julhumah was a direct
Kahlan via Julhumah's father Zayd ibn Yashjub, who
in turn was a direct descendant of 'Arib ibn Zayd ibn Kahlan.
The two main branches of
Tayy were Al al-Ghawth and Al Jadilah. The
former was named after al-Ghawth, a son of Julhumah. The immediate
offspring of al-Ghawth's son, 'Amr, were Thu'al, Aswadan (commonly
known as Nabhan), Hani, Bawlan and Salaman. The offspring of Thu'al
(Banu Thu'al) and Aswadan (Banu Nabhan) became leading sub-branches of
Tayy in northern Arabia, while the offspring of Hani (Banu Hani)
became a major sub-branch in southern Mesopotamia. According to
Arab genealogists, the Banu Thu'al were the ancestors of
the Banu Rabi'ah of Syria, and in turn of the
Al Fadl emirs.
The Al Jadilah's namesake was a woman of the
Tayy named Jadilah, whose
sons Hur and Jundub became the progenitors of Banu Hur and Banu
Jundub, respectively. The latter produced the numerous Al
al-Tha'alib (Tha'laba) subbranch, which itself produced the Banu La'm,
which became a leading sub-branch of Al Jadilah in northern Arabia.
Jarm (or Jurum) may have also been a branch of the Al
According to the 14th-century
Arab historian and sociologist, Ibn
Tayy were among those
Qahtanite tribes who lived in the
hills and plains of Syria and Mesopotamia and intermarried with
Ibn Khaldun further stated that Tayyid tribesmen did
"not pay any attention to preserving the (purity of) lineage of their
families and groups". Thus the lineage of the Tayy's many
subbranches was difficult for genealogists to accurately ascertain.
Migration to Jabal Tayy
Tayy were originally based in Yemen, but migrated to northern
Arabia in the late 2nd century CE, in the years following the
dispersion of the Banu
Azd from Yemen. They largely lived among the
north Arabian mountain ranges of Jabal Aja and Jabal Salma, and from
there they would make incursions into Syria and Iraq during times of
drought. Their concentration in Jabal Aja and Jabal Salma lent the
mountain ranges their ancient, collective name "Jabal Tayy". Prior
Tayy migration, the mountains had been the home of the Banu
Assad, who lost some territory with the arrival of Tayyid
tribesmen. However, the two tribes ultimately became allies in
later centuries and intermarried. In ancient times, the two main
branches of the
Tayy were the Al al-Ghawth and Al Jadila. The
tribesmen lived in different parts of the region, with those living
among the mountains known as the "al-Jabaliyyun" (the Mountaineers),
those on the plain (mostly from Al Jadila) known as "as-Sahiliyyun"
(the Plainsmen) and those on the desert sands known as
Relations with Sassanids and Byzantines
Tayy were so widespread and influential throughout the Syrian
Desert that Syriac authors from Mesopotamia used their name, Taienos,
Tayenoi, Taiyaya or Tayyaye (ܛܝܝܐ), to describe
Arab tribesmen in
general in much the same way "Saracenos" was often used by authors
from Byzantine Syria and
Egypt as a generic term for
Arabs. The Syriac word was also entered into the language
of the Sasanid Persians as Tāzīg (Middle Persian: tʾcyk') and
later Tāzī (Persian: تازی), also meaning "Arab". For the
Tayy specifically, the Syriac authors would use the word "Tu'aye".
Tayy were subjects of the Sassanid Persians. However, they
were also counted as allies by the Byzantines' chief
Arab foederati in
the early to mid-5th century, the Salihids. The
Tayy are mentioned
in the late 5th century as having raided numerous villages in the
plains and mountains of the Syrian Desert, including parts of
Byzantine territory. This prompted the Byzantine army to mobilize
Arab clients at the desert frontiers with Sassanid-held
Mesopotamia to confront the Tayy. The Byzantines demanded
restitution from the Tayy, but the Sassanid general Qardag Nakoragan
instead opened negotiations that called for the Byzantines' Arab
clients to restore livestock and captives taken from Sassanid
territory in previous years in return for compensation from the
Tayy. The negotiations succeeded, and moreover, the Sassanids and
Byzantines delineated their borders to prevent future raiding between
Arab clients. However, to the embarrassment of
the Sassanids and the outrage of the Byzantines, four hundred Tayyid
tribesmen raided several minor villages in Byzantine territory while
representatives of the two sides were meeting in Nisibis. Despite
this violation of the bilateral agreement, the Sassanid-Byzantine
Throughout the 6th century, the
Tayy continued their relations with
the Sassanids and their chief
Arab clients, the
Mesopotamia. Towards the end of the 6th century, a Tayyid chief
named Hassan assisted the Sassanid king
Khosrow II when the latter
fled from his usurper, Bahram Chobin, by giving Khosrow a horse. A
few years later, the Lakhmid governor of al-Hirah, al-Nu'man III fell
out with Khosrow II, who had been restored to the Sassanid throne, and
sought safety with the Tayy. The tribe refused to grant refuge to
al-Nu'man, who was married to two Tayyid women, and he was ultimately
killed by the Sassanids in 602. A Tayyid chief, Iyas ibn Qabisah
al-Ta'i, subsequently migrated to al-Hirah with some of his tribesmen
and became its governor, ruling from 602 to 611 CE. The Banu Bakr
ibn Wa'il tribe opposed the rule of Iyas and began raiding Sassanid
territory in southern Mesopotamia. In response, Iyas commanded
Arab and Persian troops against the
Banu Bakr at the
Battle of Dhi Qar in 609, in which the Sassanids were defeated.
According to historian Irfan Shahid, evidence suggests clans of the
Tayy moved into Byzantine-held Syria beginning in the 6th century.
By then, the
Ghassanids had largely supplanted the Salihids as the
Byzantines' main foederati, and the Salihids began living alongside
Tayy in the region of Kufa. In the late 6th century, the Al
al-Ghawth and Al Jadila fought against each other in the 25-year-long
Fasad War (harb al-Fasad) in northern Arabia. Numerous atrocities
were committed by both factions and the war resulted in the migration
of several Al Jadila clans from the north Arabian plains to
Syria, while the Al al-Ghawth remained in Jabal Aja and Jabal
Salma. The Jadila tribesmen founded a hadir (military encampment)
Qinnasrin (Chalcis) called "Hadir Tayyi" after the tribe.
The Ghassanid king al-Harith ibn Jabalah brokered a peace between the
Tayy factions, ending the Fasad War. Afterward, the Tayy's
relations with the Ghassanids, which had previously been checkered,
were much improved. The Al Jadila converted to Christianity, the
religion adopted decades earlier by the Ghassanids. Some other
clans of the Banu
Tayy remained pagan, worshiping the deities of Ruda
and al-Fils. Those who converted to Christianity apparently
embraced their new faith zealously and produced two well-known
priests, named in Syriac sources as Abraham and Daniel.
Sometime during the 6th century, the
Tayy and the Asad formed a
confederation, which was later joined by the
Banu Ghatafan as
well. The alliance collapsed when Asad and
Ghatafan assaulted both
the Al al-Ghawth and Al Jadilah and drove them out of their
territories in Jabal Tayy. However, one of the leaders of the
Asad, Dhu al-Khimarayn Awf al-Jadhami defected from the
after and reestablished the alliance with the Tayy. Together, they
Ghatafan and restored their territories in Jabal
The Tayy's initial reaction to the emergence of
varied, with some embracing the new faith and others resistant. The
Tayyid clans of Jabal Tayy, all of whom lived within close proximity
of each other, had maintained close relationships with the inhabitants
and tribes of
Mecca and Medina, the setting of Islam's birth.
Among their contacts in
Mecca were tribesmen from the Quraysh, the
tribe of the Islamic prophet and leader, Muhammad. There was a
degree of intermarriage between the
Tayy and Quraysh. The Tayy
also had a level of interaction with the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir,
with the father of one of its leading members and enemy of the early
Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf (died 624), being from Tayy. In the
first years of Muhammad's mission, individual members of certain
Tayyid clans converted to Islam. Among these early converts were
Suwayd ibn Makhshi who fought against the pagan Arabs of Mecca,
including two of his kinsmen, in the
Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr in 624 CE; Walid
ibn Zuhayr who served as a guide for the Muslims in their expedition
against the Banu Asad in
Qatan in 625; and Rafi' ibn Abi Rafi' who
fought under Muslim commander
Amr ibn al-As
Amr ibn al-As in the
Battle of Chains
Battle of Chains in
Muhammad dispatched his cousin
Ali ibn Abi Talib on an
expedition to destroy the Tayy's principal idol, al-Fils, in Jabal
Aja. As a result of the expedition, the Tayy's Kufa-based Christian
chieftain, Adi ibn Hatim, who belonged to the Banu Thu'ayl branch of
Al al-Ghawth, fled to Syria with some of his tribesmen to join
other Tayyid clans, but his sister was captured. The Tayyid clans
that remained in Jabal Tayy, including Banu Ma'n, Banu Aja, Banu
Juwayn and Banu Mu'awiya, converted to Islam. Meanwhile, Adi's
Muhammad to release her, which he did after learning
that her father was Hatim ibn Abdullah. Out of respect for the
latter's honorable reputation,
Muhammad gave her good clothes and
money and had her escorted to her family in Syria. Impressed by
Muhammad's treatment of his sister, Adi met
Muhammad and converted to
Islam, along with most of his kinsmen. In 630–31, a delegation
of fifteen Tayyid chiefs led by Zayd al-Khayl, who belonged to the
Banu Nabhan clan of the Al al-Ghawth, converted to
pledged allegiance to Muhammad. The latter was uniquely impressed by
Zayd, who died a year later. Thus by the time of Muhammad's
death, the Arabia-based clans of the Al Jadilah and Al al-Ghawth had
become Muslims. In doing so, they firmly broke away from their
long-time alliance with the
Banu Assad and Banu Ghatafan.
Following Muhammad's death in 632, several
Arab tribes rebelled
against his Rashidun successor, Caliph Abu Bakr, switching their
Tulayha of the Banu Asad. The Tayy's allegiance during
Ridda Wars is a "widely disputed matter", according to
historian Ella Landau-Tasseron. Some Muslim traditions claim all
Tayy remained committed to Islam, while Sayf ibn Umar's
tradition holds they all defected. Landau-Tasseron asserts that
neither extreme is correct, with some
Tayy leaders, foremost among
them Adi ibn Hatim, fighting on the Muslim side and others joining the
rebels. However, Tayyid rebels did not engage in direct conflict with
Muhammad had appointed Adi to collect sadaqa (tribute) from the Tayy
and Banu Asad. After Muhammad's death and the resulting chaos
among the Muslims and the belief that
Islam would imminently collapse,
those among the
Tayy who had paid their sadaqa (in this case, 300
camels) to Adi demanded the return of their camels or they would
rebel. Adi either advised them to abandon this demand because
Islam would survive Muhammad's death and they would be viewed as
traitors or threatened to fight against them if they revolted.
After this encounter, the accounts of contemporary and early Muslim
historians vary. It is clear, that Adi played an integral role in
preventing much of the rebellious clans of
Tayy from actually fighting
the Muslims and preventing the Muslims from attacking the Tayy.
When he heard news of Abu Bakr's dispatch of a Muslim army against the
Tayy in Syria, he sought to stop their march by smuggling the
contested 300 camels to Abu Bakr, making the
Tayy the first tribe to
pay the sadaqa, an action that was widely lauded by Muhammad's
It is apparent that Adi's traditional rivals within the
Tayy from the
Banu Nabhan (led by Zayd's son Muhalhil) and Banu La'm (led by Thumama
ibn Aws), or at least some of their members, joined
Tulayha in Buzakha
(in northern Najd), while their other members also defected but
remained in Jabal Tayy. Adi persuaded the latter to return to
Islam, which they agreed to. However, they refused to abandon
their tribesmen in Buzakha, fearing
Tulayha would hold them hostage if
he discovered they joined the Muslims. Thus, Adi and the Muslim
Tayyids devised a strategy to lure the
Tayy in Tulayha's camp to
return to Jabal
Tayy by issuing a false claim that the Muslims were
attacking them. When the apostate Tayyids reached their tribesmen
in Jabal Tayy, far from Tulayha's reach, they discovered the false
alarm and were persuaded to rejoin Islam. With this, the entirety
of the Al al-Ghawth had returned to the Muslim side. However, the
Al Jadila remained in revolt and the Muslim commander Khalid ibn
al-Walid was set to move against them. He was stopped by the
intercession of Adi, who was able secure the Al Jadila's allegiance
The consensus in all Muslim traditions is that the
firmly on the Muslims' side by the time of the
Battle of Buzakha in
September 632. The
Tayy supposedly were given their own banner in
the Muslim army, per their request, which was a testament to their
influence since only the Ansar (core of the Muslim force) had their
own banner. At the
Battle of Buzakha against Tulayha, Adi and
Muknif ibn Zayd, who unlike Zayd's other son Muhalhil had fought
alongside the Muslims from the start, commanded the right and left
wings of the Muslim army.
Battle of the Bridge
Battle of the Bridge against the Sassanids in 634, another
of Zayd's sons, Urwah, participated and was said by al-Baladhuri to
have "fought so fiercely that his action was estimated to be
equivalent to be that of a whole group of men". During the battle,
Tayy tribesmen on the Sassanid side defected to the Muslim
army, preventing an imminent Muslim rout. Among those who
defected were the poet Abu Zubayd at-Ta'i. Urwah later fought at
Battle of al-Qadisiyah
Battle of al-Qadisiyah and died fighting the Daylamites. The
Al Jadila tribesmen based in
Qinnasrin did not join their Arabian
counterparts and fought alongside the Byzantines during the Muslim
conquest of Syria. The Muslim general Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
encountered them in their hadir in 638, after which many agreed to
convert to Islam, though a large section remained Christian and agreed
to pay jizya (poll tax). Most of the Christian tribesmen
became Muslims in the few years after, with few exceptions.
In the first Muslim civil war, the
Tayy under Adi were strong
Ali against the Umayyads. They fought alongside him
Battle of the Camel
Battle of the Camel and the
Battle of Siffin
Battle of Siffin in 656 and 657,
respectively. During the latter battle, a chief of the tribe,
Sa'id ibn Ubayd at-Ta'i, was slain. Unlike the
Tayy of Arabia, the
Tayy in Syria led by Habis ibn Sa'd at-Ta'i aligned with the Umayyads,
who assigned Habis as the commander of Jund Hims. In a
confrontation between the two sides in Iraq, Habis was killed.
Habis was the maternal uncle of Adi's son, Zayd, and the latter was
angered by his slaying, prompting him to seek out and kill the Ali
loyalist, a member of the Banu Bakr, responsible for Habis's
death. Zayd's act was sharply condemned by Adi who threatened to
hand him over to Ali, prompting Zayd to defect to the Umayyads.
Afterward, Adi smoothed over the consequent tension with Ali's camp by
reaffirming his loyalty. The Umayyads ultimately triumphed and
established a caliphate that had reached the
Indian Subcontinent by
the early 8th century. A Tayyid commander named al-Qasim ibn Tha'laba
ibn Abdullah ibn Hasn played an instrumental role in the Umayyad
Sindh in 712 by killing the country's Hindu king Raja
Dahir in battle.
The Abbasids contested leadership of the caliphate and overtook the
Umayyads in what became known as the
Abbasid Revolution in the mid-8th
century. The leader of the Abbasid movement in
Persia was a member of the Tayy, Qahtaba ibn Shabib.
The tribe fared well during Abbasid rule. A prominent akhbari
(transmitter of hadith) in the early 9th century was a Tayyid named
al-Haytham ibn Adi (died 822). Two major poets from the Tayy
also emerged in the 9th century:
Abu Tammam and al-Buhturi. The
former, who authored the Hamasah anthology, may not have been an
actual member of the tribe, but had adopted the tribe as his
Abbasid authority in Syria and Iraq eroded considerably after the
beginning of the "Anarchy at Samarra" in 861, which left the vast
expanse of the Syrian and Arabian deserts without governmental
oversight. During this period, the
Tayy dominated the southern
part of the Syrian Desert, the
Banu Kilab dominated the northern part
Banu Kalb dominated central Syria. The latter tribe, whose
presence in the region had preceded the Muslim conquest and the
migration of the
Tayy and Kilab, was largely sedentarized, while the
Tayy and Kilab, being relative newcomers to the region, were still
highly mobile nomadic groups. According to Kamal Salibi, the
Tayy's "chief military asset, in fact, was their Bedouin swiftness of
movement". Moreover, the durable connections the
Tayy of Syria
maintained with their north Arabian counterparts in Jabal
them virtually independent and prone to revolt against the various
Muslim states in Syria and Iraq.
Tayy made their abode in Transjordan and the Bilad al-Sharat
mountains between Transjordan and the Hejaz. Here they first
received attention in 883 when they launched a revolt that spanned
southern Syria and the northern Hejaz. The Tayy's revolt prevented
the passage of the annual
Hajj caravan from Damascus to
Mecca until it
was quashed by the Tulunid ruler Khumarawayh (884–896) in 885.
For the remainder of Khumarawayh's reign, the
suppressed, possibly due to the help of older-established
like the Judham and Lakhm. However, law and order once again broke
down during the reigns of Khumarawayh's successors Jaysh and Harun
between 896 and 904. This coincided with the rising strength of
the anarchist Qarmatian movement in eastern
Arabia and southern
Tayy associated themselves with the
establish their dominance of southern Syria; with likely Qarmatian
Tayy launched a revolt between Syria and the Hejaz
in 898, during which they plundered caravans and disrupted lines of
See also: Jarrahids
Qarmatians attacked Ikhshidid-controlled Palestine in 968,
the leading Tayyid clan of Jarrah came with them and firmly
established themselves in the country. However, under the Jarrahid
Tayy assisted the Fatimids, who conquered the
Ikhshidids, against the
Qarmatians in 971 and 977. During the
latter occasion, the
Jarrahid chieftain Mufarrij ibn Daghfal captured
the pro-Qarmatian rebel, Alptakin, and handed him over to the Fatimids
in exchange for a large reward. In return for his support,
Mufarrij was appointed by the
Fatimids as the governor of Ramla, the
traditional Muslim capital of Palestine. Mufarrij was also the
preeminent chieftain of the Banu
Tayy tribe as a whole, giving him
authority over his Bedouin and peasant kinsmen in an area extending
from the coast of Palestine eastward through
Balqa and to the Tayy's
traditional homeland in northern Arabia. While his Fatimid
assignment gave him prestige, Mufarrij's tribal authority was the
source of his independent power. The Tayyid-dominated region was
the location of the overland routes connecting Egypt, Syria, Iraq and
Arabia. This gave Mufarrij significant leverage with the Fatimids, who
thus could not afford alienating him and risk him switching allegiance
to the Fatimids' rivals in Iraq, the Buwayhids.
In 981–82, relations between the
Jarrahids and the Fatimids
collapsed and the former were driven out of Palestine. They sacked
Hajj pilgrim caravan later in 982, then annihilated a Fatimid army
at Ayla, before being defeated and forced to flee north toward
Homs. Between then and Mufarrij's death in 1013, the
allegiance between the various regional powers, including the
Fatimids, Byzantines, and the Hamdanids' Turkish governor of Homs,
Bakjur. By the time of Mufarrij's death, the
Jarrahids had restored
their dominant position in Palestine. Mufarrij's son, Hassan,
maintained relations with the
Fatimids under Caliph al-Hakim, but when
the latter disappeared, Hassan's relations with his successor
In 1021, the Banu Nabhan led by Hamad ibn Uday besieged the Khurasani
pilgrim caravan in Fayd near Jabal
Tayy despite being paid off by the
Khurasani sultan, Mahmud of Ghazni. During this period, in 1025,
Tayy made an agreement with the Kilab and the Kalb, whereby Hassan
ibn Mufarrij of
Tayy ruled Palestine, Sinan ibn Sulayman of the Kalb
ruled Damascus and
Salih ibn Mirdas
Salih ibn Mirdas of the Kilab ruled Aleppo.
Together, they defeated a Fatimid punitive expedition sent by Caliph
az-Zahir at Ascalon, and Hassan conquered al-Ramla. The alliance
fell apart when the Kalb defected to the Fatimids, who decisively
Tayy and Kilab near
Lake Tiberias in 1029, prompting
Hassan and his tribesmen to flee northward.
Tayy established an alliance with the Byzantines and upon the
latter's invitation, the 20,000-strong
Tayy of Syria relocated their
encampments from the vicinity of
Palmyra to the al-Ruj plain, near
Byantine-held Antioch, in 1031. The
Tayy continued to fight
alongside the Byzantines under Hassan and his son Allaf, protecting
Marwanid advances in 1036. In 1041, the
Jarrahids regained control of Palestine, but the
Fatimids continued to
go to war against them. The
Jarrahids continued to disrupt Fatimid
rule until the
Fatimids were driven out of Syria and Palestine in
Later Islamic era
See also: Al Fadl
With the end of the Fatimid era in Syria and Palestine, descendants of
Mufarrij entered the service of the Muslim states of the region, first
with the cadet branches of the Seljuk Empire, beginning with the
Burids of Damascus, then their Zengid successors, who came to rule
all of Syria and Upper Mesopotamia. At times, the
alongside the Crusaders, who had conquered the Syrian coastal regions,
including Palestine, in 1098–1100. By the end of the 11th
century, the Banu Rabi'ah branch of the
Tayy (direct descendants of
Mufarrij) and the Mazyadid branch of the
Banu Assad were the last
Arab tribes in Syria and Iraq, with the rest having
"disappeared from the political map", according to historian Mustafa
The tribal distribution in the Syrian and north Arabian deserts had
significantly changed by the late 12th century as a result of the
decline of several major tribes, the expansion of others, namely the
Tayy, and the gradual assimilation of substantial Bedouin population
with the settled inhabitants. The
Tayy were left as the
predominant tribe of the entire Syrian steppe, Upper Mesopotamia, Najd
and the northern Hejaz. The
Tayy divisions and their respective
territories at the time were as follows: The
Al Fadl of Banu Rabi'ah
controlled the regions of
Hama eastward to
Qal'at Ja'bar at
the Euphrates Valley and southward along the valley through
ultimately to the al-Washm region of central Najd; the Al Mira of Banu
Rabi'ah controlled the
Golan Heights and the area southward to the
al-Harrah field north of Mecca; the Al
Ali branch of the Al Fadl
Ghouta region around Damascus and southeastward to
Tayma and al-Jawf in northern Najd; the
Shammar and Banu Lam
controlled Jabal Aja and Jabal Salma; the Ghuzayya held territories
within parts of Syria, the
Hejaz and Iraq that were controlled by the
Banu Rabi'ah. In Lower Egypt, the Sunbis branch of the
in the Buhayrah district, while the Tha'laba branch inhabited the area
stretching from Egypt's
Mediterranean coast northeastward to
al-Kharruba in the western Galilee. The Tha'laba were particularly
influential in the al-Sharqiyah district in the Nile Delta. The
Banu Jarm, who inhabited the area stretching from Gaza to the northern
coastline of Palestine, were also a Tayyid tribe according to some
sources, while others consider them to be from the Qud'ah branch of
the Banu Himyar tribe.
During Mamluk rule, the Bedouin of Syria were used as auxiliaries in
the Mamluks' wars with the Mongols based in Iraq and Anatolia. In
central and northern Syria, the Bedouin came under the authority of
Al Fadl emirs in their capacity as the hereditary officeholders of
the amir al-ʿarab (commander of the Bedouin) post, beginning with
Isa ibn Muhanna (r. 1260–1284). The Al Mira emirs held a
similar, but lower-ranking office, in southern Syria, and its
preeminent emir was known as malik al-ʿarab (king of the
Bedouin). In al-Sharqiyah, the Tha'laba, whose encampments were
close to the Mamluk seat of government, were tasked with maintaining
and protecting the barid (postal route) in their district and were
occasionally appointed to government posts. The
Tayy in Syria and
Egypt were both required to supply Arabian horses to the Mamluks for
use in the army and barid. Sultan an-Nasir
Muhammad had a special
affinity for the Bedouin and maintained strong relations with the
tribes of Syria and Egypt. However, following his death, the state's
relations with the Bedouin deteriorated. The Tha'laba left their
semi-permanent camp in al-Sharqiya to maraud across the country and
joined the revolt of the al-A'id tribe in the mid-14th century.
^ a b Bräu 1936, p. 624.
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These prefixes ignored in the alphabetical ordering: Al, Bani, Banu.
Banu Abdul Qays
Banu Bakr ibn Abd Manat