Book of the All-Virtuous Wisdom of Yeshua ben Sira, commonly
called the Wisdom of
Sirach /ˈsaɪræk/ or simply Sirach, and also
known as the
Book of Ecclesiasticus /ɪˌkliːziˈæstɪkəs/
(abbreviated Ecclus.) or Ben Sira, is a work of ethical
teachings, from approximately 200 to 175 BCE, written by the Jewish
Ben Sira of Jerusalem, on the inspiration of his father Joshua
son of Sirach, sometimes called
Jesus son of
Sirach or Yeshua ben
Eliezer ben Sira.
In Egypt, it was translated into Greek by the author's unnamed
grandson, who added a prologue. This prologue is generally considered
the earliest witness to a canon of the books of the prophets, and thus
the date of the text as we have it is the subject of intense scrutiny.
The book itself is the largest wisdom book from antiquity to have
1 Canonical status
4 Authorship and translation of work
5 Language and alternative titles
6 Date and historical significance
8 Theological significance
8.1 Influence in the Jewish doctrine and liturgy
8.2 In the New Testament
8.3 Messianic interpretation by Christians
9 References to non-religious texts
10 References in culture
11 See also
14 External links
"Alle Weissheit ist bey Gott dem Herren..." (modern orthography: Alle
Weisheit ist bei Gott dem Herrn) (Sirach, first chapter, German
translation), anonymous artist 1654
See also: Development of the
Old Testament canon
Sirach is accepted as part of the
Christian biblical canons
Christian biblical canons by
Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and most of Oriental Orthodox. The
Anglican Church does not accept
Sirach as protocanonical, and says it
should be read only "for example of life and instruction of manners;
but yet doth not apply them to establish any doctrine." Similarly,
the Lutheran Churches include it in their lectionaries, and as a book
proper for reading, devotion, and prayer. It was cited in some
writings in early Christianity. There are claims that it is cited in
Epistle of James, and also the non-canonical
Didache (iv. 5) and
Epistle of Barnabas
Epistle of Barnabas (xix. 9).
Clement of Alexandria
Clement of Alexandria and
from it repeatedly, as from a γραφή, or holy book. The
Catalogue of Cheltenham, Pope Damasus I, the Councils of Hippo
(393) and Council of Carthage (397), Pope Innocent I, the second
Council of Carthage (419), the
Council of Florence
Council of Florence (1442) and
Augustine all regarded it as canonical, although Jerome, Rufinus of
Aquileia and the
Council of Laodicea ranked it instead as an
ecclesiastical book. The
Apostolic Canons (not recognized by the
Catholic Church) stated as venerable and sacred the Wisdom of
Sirach. Finally the Roman
Catholic Church confirmed the previous
councils and declared it to be canonical in 1546 during the fourth
session of the Council of Trent.
Sirach is not part of the Jewish canon, once thought to have been
established at the hypothetical Council of Jamnia, perhaps due to its
late authorship, although it is not clear that the canon was
completely "closed" at the time of Ben Sira. Others have suggested
that Ben Sira's self-identification as the author precluded it from
attaining canonical status, which was reserved for works that were
attributed (or could be attributed) to the prophets, or that it
was denied entry to the canon as a rabbinical counter-reaction to its
embrace by the nascent Christian community.
However, some Jews in the diaspora considered
Sirach scripture. For
instance, the Greek translation made by Ben Sira's grandson was
included in the Septuagint, the 2nd-century
BCE Greek version of the
Jewish scriptures used by Diaspora Jews, through which it became part
of the Greek canon. The multiplicity of manuscript fragments uncovered
Cairo Genizah evidence its authoritative status among Egyptian
Jewry until the Middle Ages.
Because it was excluded from the Jewish canon,
Sirach was excised from
the Protestant canon following the Reformation.
As with other wisdom books, there is no easily recognizable structure
in Sirach; in many parts it is difficult to discover a logical
progression of thought or to discern the principles of arrangement.
However, a series of six poems about the search for and attainment of
wisdom (1:1–10, 4:11–19; 6:18–37; 14:20–15:10; 24:1–33; and
38:24–39:11) divide the book into something resembling chapters,
although the divisions are not thematically based. The exceptions
are the first two chapters, whose reflections on wisdom and fear of
God provide the theological framework for what follows, and the last
nine chapters, which function as a sort of climax, first in an
extended praise of God's glory as manifested through creation
(42:15–43:33) and second in the celebration of the heroes of ancient
Israel's history dating back to before the Great Flood through
contemporary times (see previous section).
Despite the lack of structure, there are certain themes running
Book that reappear at various points. The New Oxford
Annotated Apocrypha identifies ten major recurring topics:
1. The Creation (16:24–17:24, 18:1–14; 33:7–15; 39:12–35; and
2. Death (11:26–28; 22:11–12; 38:16–23; and 41:1–13);
3. Friendship (6:5–17; 9:10–16: 19:13–17; 22:19–26:
27:16–21; and 36:23–37:15);
4. Happiness (25:1–11; 30:14–25; and 40:1–30);
5. Honor and shame (4:20–6:4; 10:19–11:6; and 41:14–42:8);
6. Money matters (3:30–4:10; 11:7–28; 13:1–14:19; 29:1–28; and
7. Sin (7:1–17; 15:11–20; 16:1–17:32; 18:30–19:3; 21:1–10;
22:27–23:27; and 26:28–28:7);
8. Social justice (4:1–10; 34:21–27; and 35:14–26);
9. Speech (5:6,9-15; 18:15–29; 19:4–17; 20:1–31; 23:7–15;
27:4–7; 27:11–15; and 28:8–26); and
10. Women (9:1–9; 23:22–27; 25:13–26:27; 36:26–31; and
Illustration for Sirach, c. 1751.
The Wisdom of
Sirach is a collection of ethical teachings. Thus
Ecclesiasticus closely resembles Proverbs, except that, unlike the
latter, it is presented as the work of a single author, not an
anthology of maxims drawn from various sources, presented in verse
form. The question of which apothegms actually originated with Sirach
is open to debate, although scholars tend to regard him as a compiler
The teachings are applicable to all conditions of life: to parents and
children, to husbands and wives, to the young, to masters, to friends,
to the rich, and to the poor. Many of them are rules of courtesy and
politeness; and a still greater number contain advice and instruction
as to the duties of man toward himself and others, especially the
poor, as well as toward society and the state, and most of all toward
Wisdom, in ben Sirach's view, is synonymous with the fear of God, and
sometimes is identified in his mind with adherence to the Mosaic law.
The maxims are expressed in exact formulas, and are illustrated by
striking images. They show a profound knowledge of the human heart,
the disillusionment of experience, a fraternal sympathy with the poor
and the oppressed.
Sirach exhibits little compassion for either women or
slaves, and advocates distrust and possessiveness over women, and
the harsh treatment of slaves (which presupposes the validity of
slavery as an institution), positions which are not only difficult
for modern readers, but cannot be completely reconciled with the
social milieu at the time of its composition.
As in Ecclesiastes, two opposing tendencies war in the author: the
faith and the morality of olden times, which are stronger than all
argument, and an
Epicureanism of modern date. Occasionally Sirach
digresses to attack theories which he considers dangerous; for
example, that man has no freedom of will, and that God is indifferent
to the actions of mankind and does not reward virtue. Some of the
refutations of these views are developed at considerable length.
Through these moralistic chapters runs the prayer of Israel imploring
God to gather together his scattered children, to bring to fulfilment
the predictions of the Prophets, and to have mercy upon his Temple and
his people. The book concludes with a justification of God, whose
wisdom and greatness are said to be revealed in all God's works as
well as in the history of Israel. These chapters are completed by the
author's signature, and are followed by two hymns, the latter
apparently a sort of alphabetical acrostic.
Of particular interest to biblical scholars are Chapters 44–50, in
Ben Sira praises "men of renown, and our fathers in their
generation", starting from the antediluvian Enoch and continuing
through to "Simon, the high priest, son of Onias" (300–270 BCE).
Within this recitation,
Ben Sira identifies, either directly or
indirectly, each of the books of the
Old Testament that would
eventually become canonical, with the apparent exception of only Ezra,
Daniel, Ruth, Esther, and perhaps Chronicles. The ability to date
the composition of
Sirach within a few years given the
autobiographical hints of
Ben Sira and his grandson (author of the
introduction to the work) provides great insight regarding the
historical development and evolution of the Jewish canon.
Authorship and translation of work
Jesus ben Sirach
Illustration of the high priest
Sirach in the Secret
Honour of the Fugger by Jörg Breu the Younger, 1545–1549
Joshua ben Sirach, or, according to the Greek text "
Jesus the son of
Sirach of Jerusalem", was a Jewish scribe who had been living in
Jerusalem, may have authored the work in Alexandria,
180–175 BCE, where he is thought to have established a school.
Sirach is unique among all
Old Testament and Apocryphal writers in
that he signed his work.
The Prologue, attributed to Ben Sira's grandson and dated to 132 BCE,
is generally considered the earliest witness to a canon of the books
of the prophets. Thus the date of the text, has been the subject of
intense scrutiny by biblical scholars.
Joshua ben Sirach's grandson was in Egypt, translating and editing
after the usurping
Hasmonean line had definitively ousted Simon's
heirs in long struggles and was finally in control of the High
Priesthood in Jerusalem. Comparing the Hebrew and Greek versions shows
that he altered the prayer for Simon and broadened its application
("may He entrust to us his mercy"), in order to avoid having a work
centered around praising God's covenanted faithfulness that closed on
an unanswered prayer.
The Greek translator states in his preface that he was the grandson of
the author, and that he came to
Egypt in the thirty-eighth year of the
reign of "Euergetes". This epithet was borne by only two of the
Ptolemies. Of these, Ptolemy III
Euergetes reigned only twenty-five
years (247–222 BCE) and thus Ptolemy VIII
Euergetes must be
intended; he ascended the throne in the year 170 BCE, together with
his brother Ptolemy VI Philometor, but he soon became sole ruler of
Cyrene, and from 146 to 117
BCE held sway over all Egypt. He dated his
reign from the year in which he received the crown (i.e., from 170
BCE). The translator must therefore have gone to
Egypt in 132 BCE.
The translation into Greek is believed to have been done after 117
Language and alternative titles
Book of ben Sirach" (ספר בן סירא, Sefer ben Siraʼ) was
originally written in Hebrew, and was also known in Hebrew as the
"Proverbs of ben Sirach" (משלי בן סירא, Mišley ben Siraʼ)
or the "Wisdom of ben Sirach" (חכמת בן סירא, Ḥokhmat ben
Siraʼ). The book was not accepted into the
Hebrew Bible and the
original Hebrew text was not preserved in the Jewish canon. However,
various original Hebrew versions have since been recovered, including
fragments recovered within the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls and the Cairo Genizah,
the latter of which includes fragments from six separate
The Greek translation was accepted in the
Septuagint under the
(abbreviated) name of the author: Sirakh (Σιραχ). Some Greek
manuscripts give as the title the "Wisdom of Iēsous Son of Sirakh" or
in short the "Wisdom of Sirakh". The older
Latin versions were based
on the Septuagint, and simply transliterated the Greek title in Latin
letters: Sirach. In the
Vulgate the book is called Liber Iesu filii
Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua Son of Sirach").
Church Fathers also called it the "All-Virtuous Wisdom",
Latin Church Fathers, beginning with Cyprian, termed it
Ecclesiasticus because it was frequently read in churches, leading the
Latin Fathers to call it liber ecclesiasticus (
Latinised Greek for "church book"). Similarly, the
Nova Vulgata and
many modern English translations of the Apocrypha use the title
Ecclesiasticus, literally "of the Church" because of its frequent use
in Christian teaching and worship.
Babylonian Talmud occasionally cites Ben-Sira (Sanhedrin 100b;
Hagigah 13a, Baba Bathra 98b, etc.), but even so, it only paraphrases
his citations, without quoting from him verbatim. This is shown by
comparing fragmented texts of the original Hebrew "
Book of Wisdom"
(Ecclesiastus) discovered in
Qumran with the same quotes as given in
the Babylonian Talmud.
Date and historical significance
Considering the average length of two generations, Sirach's date must
fall in the first third of the 2nd century BCE. Furthermore, Sirach
contains a eulogy of "Simon the High Priest, the son of Onias, who in
his life repaired the House" (50:1). Festschrift M.Gilbert and other
scholars[who?] posit that this seems to have formed the original
ending of the text, and that Chapters 50 (from verse 2) and 51 are
later interpolations. Under this theory, the second High Priest
Simon (died 196 BCE) would have been intended, and the composition
would have concluded shortly thereafter, given that struggles between
Simon's successors (175–172 BCE) are not alluded to in the book, nor
is the persecution of the Jews by
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (168
The work of
Sirach is presently known through various versions, which
scholars still struggle to disentangle.
The Greek version of
Sirach is found in many codices of the
As early as 1896, several substantial Hebrew texts of Sirach, copied
in the 11th and 12th centuries, were found in the Cairo geniza (a
synagogue storage room for damaged manuscripts). Although none of
these manuscripts is complete, together they provide the text for
about two-thirds of the Wisdom of Sirach. According to scholars
Solomon Schechter and Frederic Kenyon, this shows that the
book was originally written in Hebrew.
In the 1950s and 1960s three copies of portions of
Sirach were found
among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The largest scroll was discovered at
Masada, the Jewish fortress destroyed in 73 CE. The earliest of these
scrolls (2Q18) has been dated to the second part of the 1st century
BCE, approximately 150 years after
Sirach was first composed. These
early Hebrew texts are in substantial agreement with the Hebrew texts
discovered in Cairo, although there are numerous minor textual
variants. With these findings, scholars are now more confident that
the Cairo texts are reliable witnesses to the Hebrew original.
Influence in the Jewish doctrine and liturgy
Hebrew translation of Sirach, 1814
Although excluded from the Jewish canon,
Sirach was read and quoted as
authoritative from the beginning of the rabbinic period. There are
numerous citations to
Sirach in the
Talmud and works of rabbinic
literature (as "ספר בן סירא", e.g., Hagigah 13a, Niddah 16b;
Ber. 11b). Some of those (Sanhedrin 100b) record an unresolved debate
between R'Joseph and Abaye as to whether it is forbidden to read the
Sirach, wherein Abaye repeatedly draws parallels between statements in
Sirach cited by R'Joseph as objectionable and similar statements
appearing in canonical books.
Sirach may have been used as a basis for two important parts of the
Jewish liturgy. In the
Mahzor (High Holiday prayer book), a medieval
Jewish poet may have used
Sirach as the basis for a poem, KeOhel
HaNimtah, in the
Yom Kippur musaf ("additional") service for the High
Holidays. However, some question whether this passage in
referring at all to Yom Kippur, and thus argue it cannot form the
basis of this poem. Some early 20th Century scholars also argued
that the vocabulary and framework used by
Sirach formed the basis of
the most important of all Jewish prayers, the Amidah, but that
conclusion is disputed as well.
Current scholarship takes a more conservative approach. On one hand,
scholars find that "
Ben Sira links
Torah and wisdom with prayer in a
manner that calls to mind the later views of the Rabbis", and that the
Jewish liturgy echoes
Sirach in the "use of hymns of praise,
supplicatory prayers and benedictions, as well as the occurrence of
[Biblical] words and phrases [that] take on special forms and
meanings." However, they stop short of concluding a direct
relationship existed; rather, what "seems likely is that the Rabbis
ultimately borrowed extensively from the kinds of circles which
Ben Sira and the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls ...."
In the New Testament
Some people claim that there are several allusions to the Wisdom of
Sirach in the New Testament. These include the Virgin Mary's
Magnificat in Luke 1:52 following
Sirach 10:14; the description of the
seed in Mark 4:5, 16-17 following
Sirach 40:15; the statement by Jesus
in Matthew 7:16,20 following
Sirach 27:6; and James 1:19 quoting
The distinguished patristic scholar Henry Chadwick has claimed that in
Jesus was directly quoting
Sirach 51:23, as well as
comparing Matthew 6:12 "And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our
debtors." (KJV) with
Sirach 28:2 "Forgive your neighbor a wrong, and
then, when you petition, your sins will be pardoned."
Messianic interpretation by Christians
Some Christians regard the catalogue of famous men in
containing several messianic references. The first occurs during the
verses on David. Sir 47:11 reads "The Lord took away his sins, and
exalted his power for ever; he gave him the covenant of kings and a
throne of glory in Israel." This references the covenant of 2 Sam 7,
which pointed toward the Messiah. "Power" (Heb. qeren) is literally
translated as horn. This word is often used in a messianic and Davidic
sense (e.g. Ezek 29:21, Ps 132:17, Zech 6:12, Jer 33:15). It is also
used in the Benedictus to refer to
Jesus ("and has raised up a horn of
salvation for us in the house of his servant David").
Another verse (47:22) that Christians interpret messianically begins
by again referencing 2 Sam 7. This verse speaks of Solomon and goes on
to say that David's line will continue forever. The verse ends telling
us that "he gave a remnant to Jacob, and to
David a root of his
stock." This references Isaiah's prophecy of the Messiah: "There shall
come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow
out of his roots"; and "In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as
an ensign to the peoples; him shall the nations seek…" (Is 11:1,
References to non-religious texts
(Verse numbers may vary slightly between versions)
Aesop's fable of The Two Pots referenced at
The Egyptian Satire of the Trades (written during the Middle Kingdom
of Egypt, between 2025 and 1700 BCE), or another work in that
tradition referenced at
References in culture
The opening lines of the 1982 Academy Awarded Best Picture, Chariots
of Fire, "Let us now praise famous men, and our fathers that begat
us", is from
In "Canon Alberic's Scrap-Book", the first ghost story in his first
M. R. James has his protagonist, Dennistoun,
quote lines from Ecclesiasticus 39:28: "Some spirits there be that are
created for vengeance, and in their fury lay on sore strokes."
Title of James Agee and Walker Evans's book: Let Us Now Praise Famous
Men (Three Tenant Families), from
Roy Kinneer Patteson, Jr.
Development of the
Hebrew Bible canon
^ Or "…of Joshua son of Sirach", the literal translation of ben.
^ MLA citation. Gigot, Francis. Ecclesiasticus. The Catholic
Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909
Book of Ben Sira". BibleStudyTools.com. Salem Communications
Corporation. Retrieved 2013-10-25.
^ a b c d e f g Daniel J. Harrington (2001). Michael Coogan, ed. The
New Oxford Annotated Bible: With the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books
(4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 99–101.
^ "Canon VI. Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation.
The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion". Church Society. Retrieved 25
^ a b c d "Sirach, The Wisdom of
Jesus the Son of". Jewish
^ Westcott, Brooke Foss (2005). A general survey of the history of the
canon of the
New Testament Page 570 (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Wipf &
Stock. ISBN 1597522392.
^ Session 11–4 February 1442
^ in Trullo, Council. The Apostolic Canons. Canon 85. newadvent.
Retrieved 12 October 2016.
^ Manhardt,Laurie, Ph.D., Come and See Wisdom: Wisdom of the Bible, p.
173 (Emmaus Road Publishing 2009), ISBN 978-1-931018-55-5.
^ Ska, Jean Louis, The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies
and Basic Questions, pp. 184–195 (Mohr Siebeck Tübingen 2009),
^ Mulder, Otto, Simon the High Priest in
Sirach 50, p. 3 fn.8
(Koninkliijke Brill nv 2003), ISBN 978-90-04-12316-8 ("The highly
esteemed book of
Ben Sira is not sacred Scripture [because] 'the
author was known to have lived in comparatively recent times, in an
age when, with the death of the last prophets, the holy spirit had
departed from Israel.").
^ Sulmasy, Daniel P., M.D. The Rebirth of the Clinic: An Introduction
to Spirituality in Health Care, p. 45 (Georgetown Univ. Press 2006),
^ Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). Invitation to the Apocrypha. Grand
Rapids, Mich. [u.a.]: Eerdmans. p. 90.
^ e.g, see:
Sirach 42:12–14 ("Do not look upon any one for
beauty,and do not sit in the midst of women;  for from garments
comes the moth,and from a woman comes woman's wickedness.  Better
is a man's harshness than a woman's indulgence, a frightened daughter
than any disgrace."); Sir. 22:3 ("the birth of a daughter is a loss").
Sirach 7:27 ("With all your heart honor your father,and do not
forget the birth pangs of your mother."); Sir. 36:24–25 ("He who
acquires a wife gets his best possession,a helper fit for him and a
pillar of support. Where there is no fence, the property will be
plundered;and where there is no wife, a man will wander about and
sigh."). See Trenchard, Warren C. Ben Sira's View of Women, Brown
Judaic Studies, No. 38 (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1982).
Sirach 33:24–28 ("Fodder and a stick and burdens for an
ass;bread and discipline and work for a servant. Set your slave to
work, and you will find rest;leave his hands idle, and he will seek
liberty.  Yoke and thong will bow the neck,and for a wicked
servant there are racks and tortures...Set him to work, as is fitting
for him,and if he does not obey, make his fetters heavy."). But see:
Sir. 33:30–31 ("If you have a servant, let him be as
yourself,because you have bought him with blood. If you have a
servant, treat him as a brother,for as your own soul you will need
^ Harrington, pp. 89–90.
^ Marttila, Marko. Foreign Nations in the Wisdom of Ben Sira: A Jewish
Sage between Opposition and Assimilation, pp. 196–199 (Walter de
Gruyter GmbH & Co. 2012), ISBN 978-3-11-027010-5.
^ Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures II, Volume 5, Ehud Ben Zvi ed.,
pp. 179–190 (Gorgias Press LLC 2007), ISBN 978-1-59333-612-7.
David Salter (1994) "The Date of Ecclesiasticus" Vetus
Testamentum 44(4): pp. 563–566
David Arthur (2002) "Wisdom of Ben Sira" Introducing the
Apocrypha: Message, Context, and Significance Baker Academic, Grand
Rapids, p. 158, ISBN 0-8010-2319-X
^ a b Guillaume, Philippe (2004). "New Light on the Nebiim from
Alexandria: A Chronography to Replace the Deuteronomistic History"
(PDF). Journal of Hebrew Scriptures (5: Section: 3. The Date of Ben
^ Baxter, J. Sidlow (1968). The Strategic Grasp of the Bible.
Zondervan. p. 46.
^ Sirach, Introduction – United States Conference of Catholic
^ See generally The Hebrew of the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira:
Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Leiden University, 11–14 December
1995, Volume 26 (T. Muraoka & J.F. Elwolde eds.),
^ Testimonia, ii. 1; iii. 1, 35, 51, 95, et passim
^ Mulder, p. 11. However, other scholars take the position that Sirach
started with chapters 1–23 and 51, with the intermediate sections
being inserted thereafter. Mulder, pp. 30–31.
1 Maccabees 1:20–25, see "Polyglot Bible. 1 Maccabees". Retrieved
^ Flavius Josephus. "How the City
Jerusalem Was Taken, and the Temple
Pillaged. As Also Concerning the Actions of the Maccabees, Matthias
and Judas; and Concerning the Death of Judas". In William Whiston. The
Wars of the Jews.
^ a b Stone, Michael E. (ed.) (1984) Jewish Writings of the Second
Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran, sectarian writings,
Philo, Josephus Van Gorcum, Assen, Netherlands, p. 290,
^ See for example the account of Schechter's work on the Geniza
manuscripts in Soskice, Janet (2010) Sisters of Sinai: How Two Lady
Adventurers Found the Hidden Gospels. London: Vintage, 240 –249
^ Adams, A.W (1958) Our
Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. London:
Eyre & Spottiswoode, 83
^ Elizur, Shulamit, "A New Fragment from the Hebrew Text of the Book
of Ben Sira", Tarbiz76 (2008) 17–28 (in Hebrew)
^ Egger-Wenzel, Renate "Ein neues Sira-Fragment des MS C", Biblische
Notizen 138 (2008) 107–114.
^ Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 100b
^ See: M.R. Lehmann, "The Writings of Ben Sira, the Dead Sea Scrolls
and Temple Worship in the Liturgy of Yom Kippur", in Piyyut in
Tradition, vol. 2 (eds. B. Bar-Tikva and E. Hazan [Hebrew]; Ramat Gan:
Bar-Ilan Univ., 2000), pp. 13–18.
^ Tabori, Yosef (1996). Moʻade Yiśraʼel bi-teḳufat ha-Mishnah
Talmud (Mahad. 2. metuḳenet u-murḥevet. ed.). Yerushalayim:
Hotsaʼat sefarim ʻa. sh. Y.L. Magnes, ha-Universiṭah ha-ʻIvrit.
p. 260 n.4. ISBN 9652238880.
^ Reif, Stefan C. Prayer in Ben Sira,
Qumran and Second Temple
Judaism: A Comparative Overview, in Ben Sira's God: Proceedings of the
Ben Sira Conference, Durham, Renate Egger-Wenzel ed., p.
322 (Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. 2002), ISBN 3-11-017559-2.
^ a b Reif, p. 338.
^ Scripture Catholic – Deuterocanonical Books In The New Testament
^ a b Chadwick, Henry.(2001) The Church in Ancient Society: From
Galilee to Gregory the Great Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, page
28, ISBN 0-19-924695-5
^ Skehan, Patrick (1987) The Wisdom of Ben Sira: a new translation
with notes (Series: The Anchor
Bible volume 39) Doubleday, New York,
p. 524, ISBN 0-385-13517-3
^ Skehan, p. 528
^ See footnote to the Biblical passage in The
Jerusalem Bible, Garden
City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1966
^ Rollston, Chris A. (April 2001). "
Ben Sira 38:24–39:11 and The
Egyptian Satire of the Trades". Journal of Biblical Literature. 120
(Spring): 131–139. doi:10.2307/3268597.
^ Colin Welland (July 17, 2015). "
Chariots of Fire
Chariots of Fire Script"
Beentjes, Pancratius C. (1997) The
Ben Sira in Hebrew: A Text
Edition of All Extant Hebrew Manuscripts and a Synopsis of All
Ben Sira Texts E.J. Brill, Leiden,
Toy, Crawford Howell and Lévi, Israel (1906) "Sirach, The Wisdom of
Jesus the Son of" entry in the Jewish Encyclopedia
Amidah, entry in (1972) Encyclopedia Judaica Jerusalem, Keter
Publishing, Jerusalem, OCLC 10955972
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The King James Version of Wisdom of Sirach
Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) –
Vulgate with Douay-Rheims version
BenSira.org, original Hebrew manuscripts
"Ecclesiasticus" Catholic Encyclopedia
Ecclesiasticus, "Biblical Proportions"
Sirach – Bibledex video overview
Sirach 2012 Translation with Audio
The Wisdom of
Jesus the Son of Sirach, Jewish Encyclopedia (1906 ed.).
Book of Wisdom
Roman Catholic Old Testament
Eastern Orthodox Old Testamentsee Deuterocanon
Books of the Bible
Old Testament Protocanon
Additions to Esther
Baruch / Letter of Jeremiah
Additions to Daniel
Song of the Three Children
Bel and the Dragon
Prayer of Manasseh
1, 2, and 3 Meqabyan
Paralipomena of Baruch
Letter of Baruch
Chapters and verses
Major prophets / Minor prophets
Old Testament canon
New Testament canon
Dead Sea Scrolls
New Testament manuscript categories
New Testament papyri
New Testament uncials
Other books referenced in the Bible
New Testament apocrypha
Synod of Hippo