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Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram[3] (5 January 1592  – 22 January 1666),[7] better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
(Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"),[8] was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.[9] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was widely considered to be the most competent of Emperor Jahangir's four sons and after Jahangir's death in late 1627, when a war of succession ensued, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
emerged victorious. He put to death all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself emperor in January 1628 in Agra
Agra
under the regnal title "Shah Jahan" (which was originally given to him as a princely title). Although an able military commander, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
is perhaps best remembered for his architectural achievements. The period of his reign is widely considered to be the golden age of Mughal architecture. Shah Jahan commissioned many monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal in Agra, which entombs his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. In September 1657, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
fell seriously ill, which set off a war of succession among his four sons, in which his third son Aurangzeb, emerged victorious.[10] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
recovered from his illness, but Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
put his father under house arrest in Agra
Agra
Fort from July 1658 until his death in January 1666.[11] On 31 July 1658, Aurangzeb crowned himself emperor under the title "Alamgir."[12] The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
reached the pinnacle of its glory during Shah Jahan's reign and he is widely considered to be one of the greatest Mughal emperors.[13]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Birth 1.2 Education 1.3 Khusraw rebellion 1.4 Nur Jahan

2 Marriages

2.1 Military commander

3 Rebel prince 4 Governorship 5 Reign (1628–1658)

5.1 Administration of the Mughal Empire 5.2 Rajput
Rajput
revolutionaries 5.3 Famine of 1630 5.4 Relations with the Deccan Sultanates 5.5 Sikh rebellion led by Guru Hargobind 5.6 Relations with the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty 5.7 Relations with the Ottoman Empire 5.8 War
War
with Portuguese 5.9 Religious attitude 5.10 Ministers

6 Later life 7 Contributions to architecture 8 Coins 9 Full title 10 See also 11 Issue 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

Early life[edit] Birth[edit] Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram was born on 5 January 1592 in Lahore, in modern-day Pakistan, and was the third son of Prince Salim (later known as 'Jahangir' upon his accession).[14] His mother was a Rajput princess from Marwar
Marwar
called Princess Jagat Gosaini
Jagat Gosaini
(her official name in Mughal chronicles was Bilqis Makani). The name "Khurram" (joyous) was chosen for the young prince by his grandfather, Emperor Akbar, with whom the young prince shared a close relationship.[14] Just prior to Khurram's birth, a soothsayer had reportedly predicted to the childless Empress Ruqaiya Sultan
Sultan
Begum, Akbar's first wife and chief consort, that the still unborn child was destined for imperial greatness.[15] So, when Khurram was born in 1592 and was only six days old, Akbar
Akbar
ordered that the prince be taken away from his mother and handed him over to Ruqaiya so that he could grow up under her care, and Akbar
Akbar
could fulfill his wife's wish to raise a Mughal emperor.[15] Ruqaiya assumed the primary responsibility for Khurram's upbringing and he grew up under her care.[16] The two shared a close relationship with each other as Jahangir
Jahangir
noted in his memoirs that Ruqaiya had loved his son, Khurram, "a thousand times more than if he had been her own [son]."[17] Khurram remained with her until he had turned almost 14. After Akbar's death in 1605, the young prince was allowed to return to his father's household, and thus, be closer to his biological mother.[15] Education[edit] As a child, Khurram received a broad education befitting his status as a Mughal prince, which included martial training and exposure to a wide variety of cultural arts, such as poetry and music, most of which was inculcated, according to court chroniclers, by Akbar
Akbar
and Ruqaiya. In 1605, as Akbar
Akbar
lay on his deathbed, Khurram, who at this point was 13,[18][full citation needed] remained by his bedside and refused to move even after his mother tried to retrieve him. Given the politically uncertain times immediately preceding Akbar's death, Khurram was in a fair amount of physical danger of harm by political opponents of his father,[19] and his conduct at this time can be understood as a precursor to the bravery that he would later be known for.[citation needed] Khusraw rebellion[edit] In 1605, his father succeeded to the throne, after crushing a rebellion by Prince Khusrau – Khurram remained distant from the court politics and intrigues in the immediate aftermath of that event, which was apparently a conscious decision on Jahangir's part.[20] As the third son, Khurram did not challenge the two major power blocs of the time, his father's and his step-brother's; thus he enjoyed the benefits of Imperial protection and luxury while being allowed to continue with his education and training.[21] This relatively quiet and stable period of his life allowed Khurram to build his own support base in the Mughal court, which would be useful later on in his life.[citation needed] Nur Jahan[edit] Due to the long period of tensions between his father and step-brother, Khurram began to drift closer to his father and over time started to be considered the de facto heir-apparent by court chroniclers. This status was given official sanction when Jahangir granted the sarkar of Hissar-Feroza, which had traditionally been the fief of the heir-apparent, to Khurram in 1608.[22] Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
was an intelligent and beautiful lady with an excellent educational background. She was an active participant in the decisions made by Jahangir. Slowly and gradually, she became the actual power behind the throne, as Jahangir
Jahangir
became more indulgent in wine and opium. Coins began to be struck containing her name along with Jahangir's name. Her near and dear relatives acquired important positions in the Mughal court, termed as the Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
junta by historians. After the death of Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1627, Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
was put under house arrest and led a quiet life. Marriages[edit]

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and Mumtaz Mahal

In 1607, Khurram became engaged to Arjumand Banu Begum (1593–1631), who is also known as Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
(Persian for "the chosen one of the Palace"). They met in their youth. They were about 14 and 15 when they engaged, and five years later they got married. The young girl belonged to an illustrious Persian noble family that had been serving Mughal Emperors since the reign of Akbar. The family's patriarch was Mirza Ghiyas Beg, who was also known by his title I'timād-ud-Daulah or "Pillar of the State". He had been Jahangir's finance minister and his son, Asaf Khan – Arjumand Banu's father – played an important role in the Mughal court, eventually serving as Chief Minister. Her aunt was the Empress Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
and is thought to have played matchmaker in arranging the marriage.[citation needed] The prince would have to wait five years before he was married in 1612 (1021 AH), on a date selected by the court astrologers as most conducive to ensuring a happy marriage. This was an unusually long engagement for the time. However, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
first married Princess Kandahari Begum, the daughter of a great-grandson of Shah Ismail I
Ismail I
of Persia
Persia
with whom he had a daughter, his first child.[23]

Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shukoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV

Politically speaking, the betrothal allowed Khurram to be considered as having officially entered manhood, and he was granted several jagir, including Hissar-Feroze and ennobled to a military rank of 8,000, which allowed him to take on official functions of state, an important step in establishing his own claim to the throne.[citation needed] In 1612, aged 20, Khurram married Arjumand Banu Begum, who became known by the title Mumtaz Mahal, on the auspicious date chosen by court astrologers. The marriage was a happy one and Khurram remained devoted to her. She bore him fourteen children, out of whom seven survived into adulthood. In addition, Khurram had two children from his first two wives.[23] Though there was genuine love between the two, Arjumand Banu Begum was a politically astute woman and served as a crucial advisor and confidante to her husband.[24] Later on, as empress, Mumtaz Mahal wielded immense power, such as being consulted by her husband in state matters and being responsible for the imperial seal, which allowed her to review official documents in their final draft.[citation needed]

A depiction of The Taj Mahal, the burial place of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and his wife Mumtaz Mahal, by artist Edwin Lord Weeks, The Walters Art Museum

Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
died, aged 37 (7 July 1631), while giving birth to Gauhara Begum in Burhanpur, the cause of death being postpartum haemorrhage, which caused considerable blood-loss after a painful labour of thirty hours.[25] Contemporary historians note that Princess Jahanara, aged 17, was so distressed by her mother's pain that she started distributing gems to the poor, hoping for divine intervention, and Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was noted as being "paralysed by grief" and weeping fits.[26] Her body was temporarily buried in a walled pleasure garden known as Zainabad, originally constructed by Shah Jahan's uncle Prince Daniyal
Daniyal
along the Tapti River. Her death had a profound impact on Shah Jahan's personality and inspired the construction of the Taj Mahal, where she was later reburied.[citation needed] In the intervening years Khurram had taken three other wives, Kandahari Begum
Kandahari Begum
(m. 12 December 1609) and Izz un-Nisa Begum (m. 3 September 1617), the daughters of Muzaffar Husain Mirza Safawi and Shahnawaz Khan, son of Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana, respectively. But according to court chroniclers, his relationship with his other wives was more out of political consideration, and they enjoyed only the status of being royal wives.[27] Military commander[edit] Prince Khurram showed extraordinary military talent. The first occasion for Khurram to test his military prowess was during the Mughal campaign against the Rajput
Rajput
state of Mewar, which had been a hostile force to the Mughals since Akbar's reign. In 1614, commanding an army numbering around 200,000, Khurram began the offensive against the Rajput
Rajput
kingdom.[citation needed] After a year of a harsh war of attrition, Maharana Amar Singh II surrendered conditionally to the Mughal forces and became a vassal state of the Mughal Empire.[28] In 1617, Khurram was directed to deal with the Lodi in the Deccan to secure the Empire's southern borders and to restore imperial control over the region. His successes in these conflicts led to Jahangir granting him the title of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
(Persian: "King of the World") and raised his military rank and allowed him a special throne in his Durbar, an unprecedented honour for a prince, thus further solidifying his status as crown prince.[citation needed]Edward S. Holden writes, "He was flattered by some, envied by others. loved by none."[29] Rebel prince[edit]

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
on horseback (during his youth).

Inheritance of power and wealth in the Mughal empire was not determined through primogeniture, but by princely sons competing to achieve military successes and consolidating their power at court. This often led to rebellions and wars of succession. As a result, a complex political climate surrounded the Mughal court in Khurram's formative years. In 1611 his father married Nur Jahan, the widowed daughter of a Persian noble. She rapidly became an important member of Jahangir's court and, together with her brother Asaf Khan, wielded considerable influence. Arjumand was Asaf Khan's daughter and her marriage to Khurram consolidated Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
and Asaf Khan's positions at court. Court intrigues, however, including Nur Jahan's decision to have her daughter from her first marriage wed Prince Khurram's youngest brother Shahzada Shahryar and her support for his claim to the throne led to much internal division. Prince Khurram resented the influence Nur Jahan held over his father and was angered at having to play second fiddle to her favourite Shahryar, his half-brother and her son-in-law. When the Persians besieged Kandahar, Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
was at the helm of the affairs. She ordered Prince Khurram to march for Kandahar, but he refused. As a result of Prince Khurram's refusal to obey Nur Jahan's orders, Kandahar
Kandahar
was lost to the Persians after a forty-five-day siege.[citation needed] Prince Khurram feared that in his absence Nur Jahan would attempt to poison his father against him and convince Jahangir
Jahangir
to name Shahryar the heir in his place. This fear brought Prince Khurram to rebel against his father rather than fight against the Persians. In 1622 Prince Khurram raised an army with the support of Mahabat Khan
Mahabat Khan
and marched against his father and Nur Jahan.[citation needed]. He was defeated at Bilochpur in March 1623. Later he took refuge in Udaipur
Udaipur
Mewar
Mewar
with Maharaja Karan Singh II
Karan Singh II
. He was first lodged in Delwada Ki Haveli and subsequently shifted to Jagmandir Palace on his request. Prince Khurram exchanged his turban with maharana and that turban is still preserved in Pratap Museum, Udaipur.(R V Somani 1976). It is believed that mosaic work of Jagmandir inspired him to use mosaic work in Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
of Agra. His rebellion did not succeed and Khurram was forced to submit unconditionally. Although the prince was forgiven for his errors in 1626, tensions between Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
and her stepson continued to grow beneath the surface. Upon the death of Jahangir
Jahangir
in 1627,the wazir Asaf Khan, who had long been a quiet partisan of Prince Khurram, acted with unexpected forcefulness and determination to forestall his sister the empress Nur Jahan's plans to place Prince Shahryar on the throne. He put Nur Jahan in close confinement.He obtained control of Prince khurram's three sons who were under her care. Asaf Khan also managed palace intrigues to ensure Prince Khurram's succession the throne.[30] Prince Khurram succeeded to the Mughal throne as Abu ud-Muzaffar Shihab ud-Din Mohammad Sahib ud-Quiran ud-Thani Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Padshah
Padshah
Ghazi (Urdu: شهاب الدین محمد خرم), or Shah Jahan.[31] His regnal name is divided into various parts. Shihab ud-Din mean "Star of the Faith", Sahib al-Quiran ud-Thani means "Second Lord of the Happy Conjunction of Jupiter and Venus". Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
means "King of the World", alluding to his pride in his Timurid roots and his ambitions. More epithets showed his secular and religious duties. He was also Khalifat Panahi ("Refuge of the Caliphate"), but Zill-i Allahi, or the "Shadow of God on Earth".[citation needed] His first act as ruler was to execute his chief rivals and imprison his step mother Nur Jahan. Upon Shah Jahan's orders several executions took place on 23 January 1628. Those put to death included his own brother Shahryar; his nephews Dawar and Garshasp, sons of Shah Jahan's previously executed brother Prince Khusrau; and his cousins Tahmuras and Hoshang, sons of the late Prince Daniyal.[32][33] This allowed Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
to rule his empire without contention. Governorship[edit]

deccan or dravidas 1611–1612 Bihar 1613–1614 Gujurat 1614–1618 Delhi 1623–1627 West bengal 1624–1625 Bihar 1625–1627

Reign (1628–1658)[edit] Administration of the Mughal Empire[edit]

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
at his Durbar

Throne of king Shah Jahan, Red Fort, Delhi

Evidence from the reign of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
states that in 1648 the army consisted of 911,400 infantry, musketeers, and artillery men, and 185,000 Sowars commanded by princes and nobles. During his reign the Marwari horse
Marwari horse
was introduced, becoming Shah Jahan's favourite, and various Mughal cannons were mass-produced in the Jaigarh Fort. Under his rule, the empire became a huge military machine and the nobles and their contingents multiplied almost fourfold, as did the demands for more revenue from the peasantry. But due to his measures in the financial and commercial fields, it was a period of general stability—the administration was centralised and court affairs systematised. The Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
continued to expand moderately during his reign as his sons commanded large armies on different fronts. India at the time was a rich centre of the arts, crafts and architecture, and some of the best of the architects, artisans, craftsmen, painters and writers of the world resided in Shah Jahan's empire. It is believed that at the time the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
had the highest gross domestic product in the world.[34][35] Rajput
Rajput
revolutionaries[edit] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
annexed the Rajput
Rajput
confederates of Baglana, Mewar
Mewar
and Bundelkhand. He then chose his 16-year-old son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to serve in his place and subdue the rebellion by the Bundela
Bundela
Rajputs led by Jhujhar Singh. Famine of 1630[edit] A famine broke out in 1630–32 in Deccan, Gujarat and Khandesh as a result of three main crop failures.[36] Two million died of starvation, grocers sold dogs' flesh and mixed powdered bones with flour. Parents ate their own children. Some villages were completely destroyed, their streets filled with human corpses. In response to the devastation, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
set up langar (free kitchens) for the victims of the famine.[37] Relations with the Deccan Sultanates[edit] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
captured the fortress at Daulatabad, Maharashtra, in 1632, and imprisoned Husain Shah of the Nizam Shahi Kingdom of Ahmednagar. Golconda submitted in 1635 and then Bijapur in 1636. Shah Jahan appointed Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
as Viceroy of the Deccan, consisting of Khandesh, Berar, Telangana, and Daulatabad. During his viceroyalty, Aurangzeb conquered Baglana, then Golconda in 1656, and then Bijapur in 1657.[38]:170–171 Sikh rebellion led by Guru Hargobind[edit]

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A rebellion of the Sikhs led by Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
took place and in return Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
ordered the destruction of the Sikh temple in Lahore. Skirmishes were fought at Rohilla (1621), Amritsar (1634), Lahira (1634), Kartarpur (1635), and elsewhere. Relations with the Safavid
Safavid
dynasty[edit]

Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Shah Jahan, hunting lions at Burhanpur.

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and his sons captured the city of Kandahar
Kandahar
in 1638 from the Safavids, prompting the retaliation of the Persians led by their powerful ruler Abbas II of Persia, who recaptured it in 1649. The Mughal armies were unable to recapture it despite repeated sieges during the Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War.."[38] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
also expanded the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
to the west beyond the Khyber Pass
Khyber Pass
to Ghazna
Ghazna
and Kandahar. Relations with the Ottoman Empire[edit] While he was encamped in Baghdad, the Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Murad IV
Murad IV
is known to have met Shah Jahan's ambassadors: Mir Zarif and Mir Baraka, who presented 1000 pieces of finely embroidered cloth and even armour. Murad IV
Murad IV
presented them with the finest weapons, saddles and Kaftans and ordered his forces to accompany the Mughals to the port of Basra, where they set sail to Thatta
Thatta
and finally Surat.[39] War
War
with Portuguese[edit] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
gave orders in 1631 to Qasim Khan, the Mughal viceroy of Bengal, to drive out the Portuguese from their trading post at Port Hoogly. The post was heavily armed with cannons, battleships, fortified walls, and other instruments of war.[40] The Portuguese were accused of trafficking by high Mughal officials and due to commercial competition the Mughal-controlled port of Saptagram
Saptagram
began to slump. Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
was particularly outraged by the activities of Jesuits
Jesuits
in that region, notably when they were accused of abducting peasants. On 25 September 1632 the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
raised imperial banners and gained control over the Bandel
Bandel
region and the garrison was punished.[41] Religious attitude[edit]

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
leading the Mughal Army, in the upper left War
War
elephants bear emblems of the legendary Zulfiqar.

Under Shah Jahan, the reaction by the orthodox Muslims to the policies of Akbar
Akbar
and Jahangir
Jahangir
had an effect for the first time.[42] He was more radical in his thinking than his father and grandfather. Upon his accession, he adopted new policies which reversed Akbar's treatment of non-Muslims. In 1633, his sixth regnal year, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
began to impose his interpretation of Sharia
Sharia
provisions against construction or repair of churches and temples. After learning that wealthy Hindus wished to complete several unfinished temples in Benares, he ordered all new temples in the city to be destroyed. Following this, only prominent shrines encountered during military campaigns were damaged. He celebrated Islamic festivals with enthusiasm unfamiliar to his predecessors. Long-dormant royal interest in the Holy Cities was also revived during his reign.[43] Ministers[edit] Shah Jahan's treasurer was Shaikh Farid, who founded the city of Faridabad. Later life[edit]

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Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and his eldest son Dara Shukoh.

When Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
became ill in 1658, Dara Shukoh
Dara Shukoh
(Mumtaz Mahal's eldest son) assumed the role of regent in his father's stead, which swiftly incurred the animosity of his brothers. Upon learning of his assumption of the regency, his younger brothers, Shuja, Viceroy of Bengal, and Murad Baksh, Viceroy of Gujarat, declared their independence, and marched upon Agra
Agra
in order to claim their riches. Aurangzeb, the third son, and ablest of the brothers[citation needed], gathered a well trained army and became its chief commander. He faced Dara's army near Agra
Agra
and defeated him during the Battle of Samugarh. Although Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
fully recovered from his illness, Aurangzeb declared him incompetent to rule and put him under house arrest in Agra
Agra
Fort. Jahanara Begum
Jahanara Begum
Sahib, Jahan's first daughter, voluntarily shared his 8-year confinement and nursed him in his dotage. In January 1666, Shah Jahan fell ill. Confined to bed, he became progressively weaker until, on 22 January, he commended the ladies of the imperial court, particularly his consort of later years Akbarabadi Mahal, to the care of Jahanara. After reciting the Kal'ma (Laa ilaaha ill allah) and verses from the Quran, Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
died, aged 74. Shah Jahan's chaplain Sayyid Muhammad Qanauji and Kazi Qurban of Agra came to the fort, moved his body to a nearby hall, washed it, enshrouded it and put it in a coffin of sandalwood.[24] Princess Jahanara had planned a state funeral which was to include a procession with Shah Jahan's body carried by eminent nobles followed by the notable citizens of Agra
Agra
and officials scattering coins for the poor and needy.[44] Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
refused to accommodate such ostentation. The body was taken by river to the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
and was interred there next to the body of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal.[45] Contributions to architecture[edit] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
left behind a grand legacy of structures constructed during his reign. He was one of the greatest patrons of Mughal architecture.[46] His most famous building was the Taj Mahal, which he built out of love for his wife, the empress Mumtaz Mahal. Its structure was drawn with great care and architects from all over the world were called for this purpose. The building took twenty years to complete and was constructed from white marble underlaid with brick. Upon his death, his son Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had him interred in it next to Mumtaz Mahal. Among his other constructions are the Red Fort
Red Fort
also called the Delhi Fort or Lal Qila in Urdu, large sections of Agra Fort, the Jama Masjid, the Wazir Khan Mosque, the Moti Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, sections of the Lahore
Lahore
Fort, the Mahabat Khan
Mahabat Khan
Mosque in Peshawar, the Jahangir
Jahangir
mausoleum—his father's tomb, the construction of which was overseen by his stepmother Nur Jahan
Nur Jahan
and the Shahjahan Mosque. He also had the Peacock Throne, Takht e Taus, made to celebrate his rule. Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
also placed profound verses of the Quran
Quran
on his masterpieces of architecture.[citation needed] The Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque in Thatta, Sindh
Sindh
province of Pakistan (100 km / 60 miles from Karachi) was built during the reign of Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
in 1647. The mosque is built with red bricks with blue coloured glaze tiles probably imported from another Sindh's town of Hala. The mosque has overall 93 domes and it is world's largest mosque having such number of domes. It has been built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end when the speech exceeds 100 decibels. It has been on the tentative UNESCO World Heritage list since 1993.[47]

Red Fort

The elegant Naulakha Pavilion
Naulakha Pavilion
at the Lahore
Lahore
Fort was built during the reign of Shah Jahan.

Agra
Agra
Fort

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and the Mughal Army
Mughal Army
return after attending a congregation in the Jama Masjid, Delhi.

Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque
Wazir Khan Mosque
is considered to be the most ornate Mughal-era mosque.[48]

Moti Masjid (Red Fort)

Finial, Tamga
Tamga
of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(combining a crescent and a spear pendant with the word Allah).

Coins[edit] Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
continued striking coins in three metals i.e. gold (mohur), silver (rupee) and copper (dam). His pre-accession coins bear the name Khurram.

Gold Mohur from Akbarabad (Agra)

Silver rupee coin of Shah Jahan, from Patna.

Copper Dam from Daryakot mint

Silver Rupee from Multan

Full title[edit]

Styles of Shah Jahan

Reference style Padshah

Spoken style His Imperial Majesty

Alternative style Alam Pana

Shah Jahan's full imperial title was: Shahanshah Al- Sultan
Sultan
al-'Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram, Malik-ul-Sultanat, Ala Hazrat Abu'l-Muzaffar Shahab ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
I, Sahib-i-Qiran-i-Sani, Padshah
Padshah
Ghazi Zillu'llah, Firdaus-Ashiyani, Shahanshah—E—Sultanant Ul Hindiya Wal Mughaliya

Single Leaf of a Portrait of Shah Jahan.

Shah Jahan

See also[edit]

Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Wine cup of Shah Jahan

Issue[edit]

Children of Shah Jahan

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes

Parhez Banu Begum

21 August 1611 - 1675 Shah Jahan's first child born to his first wife, Kandahari Begum. Parhez Banu was her mother's only child and died unmarried.

Hur-al-Nisa Begum

30 March 1613 - 5 June 1616 The first of fourteen children born to Shah Jahan's second wife, Mumtaz Mahal. She died of smallpox at the age of 3.[49]

Jahanara Begum Padshah
Padshah
Begum

23 March 1614 - 16 September 1681 Shah Jahan's favourite and most influential daughter. Jahanara became the First Lady ( Padshah
Padshah
Begum) of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
after her mother's death, despite the fact that her father had three other consorts. She died unmarried.

Dara Shukoh Padshahzada-i-Buzurg Martaba, Jalal ul-Kadir, Sultan
Sultan
Muhammad Dara Shikoh, Shah-i-Buland Iqbal

20 March 1615 - 30 August 1659 The eldest son and heir-apparent. He was favoured as a successor by his father, Shah Jahan, and his elder sister, Princess Jahanara Begum, but was defeated and later killed by his younger brother, Prince Muhiuddin (later the Emperor Aurangzeb), in a bitter struggle for the imperial throne. He married and had issue.

Shah Shuja

23 June 1616 - 7 February 1661 He survived in the war of succession. He married and had issue.

Roshanara Begum Padshah
Padshah
Begum

3 September 1617 - 11 September 1671 She was the most influential of Shah Jahan's daughters after Jahanara Begum and sided with Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
during the war of succession. She died unmarried.

Jahan Afroz

25 June 1618 - March 1619 The only child of Shah Jahan's third wife, Izz-un-Nissa (titled Akbarabadi Mahal). Jahan Afroz died at the age of one year and nine months.[50]

Aurangzeb Mughal emperor

3 November 1618 - 3 March 1707 Succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor
Mughal emperor
after emerging victorious in the war of succession that took place after Shah Jahan's illness in 1657.

Izad Bakhsh

18 December 1619 - February/March 1621[51] Died in infancy.

Surayya Banu Begum

10 June 1621 - 28 April 1628[51] Died of smallpox at the age of 7.[49]

Unnamed son

1622 Died soon after birth.[51]

Murad Bakhsh

8 October 1624 - 14 December 1661 He was killed in 1661 as per Aurangzeb's orders.[49] He married and had issue.

Lutf Allah

4 November 1626 - 13 May 1628[51] Died at the age of one and a half years.[49]

Daulat Afza

8 May 1628 - 13 May 1629[52] Died in infancy.

Husnara Begum

23 April 1630 - 1629[51] Died in infancy.

Gauhara Begum

17 June 1631 - 1675 Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
died while giving birth to her on 17 June 1631 in Burhanpur. She died unmarried.

Notes[edit]

^ Shujauddin, Mohammad; Shujauddin, Razia (1967). The Life and Times of Noor Jahan. Lahore: Caravan Book House. p. 121.  ^ Necipoğlu, edited by Gülru (1994). Muqarnas : an annual on Islamic art
Islamic art
and architecture. Leiden, Netherlands: E.J. Brill. p. 143. ISBN 9789004100701. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c Singh, edited by Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 649. ISBN 9780199699308. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Richards, J.F. (1995). Mughal empire (Transferred to digital print. ed.). Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. p. 127. ISBN 9780521566032.  ^ Koch, Ebba (2006). The complete Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
and the riverfront gardens of Agra. Bookwise (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. 120.  ^ Flood, Finbarr Barry; Necipoglu, Gulru (2017). A Companion to Islamic Art and Architecture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 897. ISBN 9781119068570.  ^ "Shah Jahan". Encyclopædia Britannica.  ^ Middleton, John (2015). World Monarchies and Dynasties. Routledge. p. 451. ISBN 9781317451587.  ^ Gonzalez, Valerie (2016). Aesthetic Hybridity in Mughal Painting, 1526–1658. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 9781317184874.  ^ Richards, J.F. (1995). Mughal empire (Transferred to digital print. ed.). Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press. p. 158. ISBN 9780521566032.  ^ al.], [consultants: Shainool Jiwa ... [et (2011). Illustrated dictionary of the Muslim world. Tarrytown, N.Y.: Marshall Cavendish Reference. p. 136. ISBN 9780761479291.  ^ ed, McHenry, Robert, general (1992). The new encyclopaedia Britannica : in 32 vol (15. ed., [19. print.]. ed.). Chicago u.a.: Encyclopaedia Britannica. p. 74. ISBN 9780852295533.  ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1986). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 59. ISBN 9788120710153.  ^ a b Findly 1993, p. 125 ^ a b c Faruqui, Munis D. Princes of the Mughal Empire, 1504–1719. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-107-02217-1.  ^ Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 299. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2. Retrieved 22 November 2014.  ^ Jahangir
Jahangir
(1968). Henry Beveridge, ed. The Tūzuk-i-Jahāngīrī: or, Memoirs of Jāhāngīr, Volumes 1–2. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 48.  ^ Qazvini, Asad Beg; Mughal-era historian ^ Prasad, Beni (1930) [First published 1922]. History of Jahangir (Second ed.). Allahabad: The Indian Press. p. 189. During his grandfather's last illness, he [Khurram] refused to leave the bedside surrounded by his enemies. Neither the advice of his father nor the entreaties of his mother could prevail on him to prefer the safety of his life to his last duty to the old man.  ^ Jahangir, Tuzk-e-Jahangiri; The Emperor's memoirs ^ Nicoll, Fergus (2009). Shah Jahan. London: Haus. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-906598-18-1.  ^ Prasad, Beni (1930) [First published 1922]. History of Jahangir (Second ed.). Allahabad: The Indian Press. p. 190. Khusrau conspired, rebelled, and lost the favour of his father ... Of all the sons of Jahangir, Khurram was marked out to be the heir-apparent and successor ... In 1608 the assignment of the sarkar of Hissar Firoz to him proclaimed to the world that he was intended for the throne.  ^ a b Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2.  ^ a b Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals. Penguin Books India. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-14-100143-2.  ^ Kumar, Anant (January–June 2014). "Monument of Love or Symbol of Maternal Death: The Story Behind the Taj Mahal". Case Reports in Women's Health. Elsevier. 1: 4–7. doi:10.1016/j.crwh.2014.07.001. Retrieved 21 December 2015.  ^ pg. 177 Nicolls, Fergus; Shah Jahan ^ Asad Beg Qazvani; Mughal era historian ^ Prasad, Beni (1930) [First published 1922]. History of Jahangir (Second ed.). Allahabad: The Indian Press. p. 239. Constant skirmishes were thinning the Rajput
Rajput
ranks ... [Amar Singh] offered to recognize Mughal supremacy ... Jahangir
Jahangir
gladly and unreservedly accepted the terms.  ^ Holden, Edward S. (2004) [First published 1895]. Mughal Emperors of Hindustan (1398-1707). New Delhi, India: Asian Educational Service. p. 257. ISBN 81-206-1883-1.  ^ Richards, John, F (2008). The Mughal Empire. Delhi: Manas Saikia for Cambridge University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-81-85618-49-4.  ^ Nicol, Fergus (2009). Shah Jahan: The Rise and Fall of the Mughal Emperor. Penguin Books India. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-670-08303-9.  ^ Death of the Emperor (Jahangir) The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, Sir H. M. Elliot, London, 1867–1877, Vol 6. ^ [1]Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India, by Ellison Banks Findly, Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US, page 275–282, 284, "23 January ...". ^ "The 5 most dominant economic empires of all time". Fortune. 2014-10-05. Retrieved 2016-08-18.  ^ Maddison, Angus (2006-01-01). The World Economy. Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 978-92-64-02261-4.  ^ Ó Gráda, Cormac (March 2007). "Making Famine History". Journal of Economic Literature. American Economic Association. 45 (1): 5–38. JSTOR 27646746. Well-known famines associated with back-to-back harvest failures include ... the Deccan famine of 1630–32  ^ Mahajan, Vidya Dhar (1971) [First published in 1961]. Mughal Rule in India (10th ed.). Delhi: S. Chand. pp. 148–149. OCLC 182638309.  ^ a b Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-93-80607-34-4.  ^ Farooqi, N. R. (1989). Mughal-Ottoman relations: a study of political & diplomatic relations between Mughal India and the Ottoman Empire, 1556-1748. Idarah-i Adabiyat-i Delli. Retrieved 2015-06-14.  ^ Frances Pritchett. "part2_14". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ Duiker, William J.; Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2006). World History: From 1500. pp. 431, 475. ISBN 978-0-495-05054-4. Retrieved 26 September 2012.  ^ Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 0-521-56603-7.  ^ Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-521-56603-7.  ^ "Shahzadi Jahanara Begum
Jahanara Begum
Sahib--Facets of Her Life". Madhu ki Diary. 27 April 2014. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016. Retrieved 10 August 2016.  ^ Zamani, Mariam Uz (1 February 2015). "Discovery Mughal, Rajput
Rajput
& Mauryan History". Mariam Uz Zamani. Retrieved 10 August 2016.  ^ Catherine B. Asher, Architecture of Mughal India, Part 1, Volume 4, (Cambridge University Press, 1992), 169. ^ Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque UNESCO World Heritage Centre Retrieved 10 February 2011 ^ Masson, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich (2003). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Development in contrast : from the sixteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-103876-1.  ^ a b c d Moosvi, Shireen (2008). People, taxation, and trade in Mughal India. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 115,. ISBN 9780195693157.  ^ Mubārak, Abū al-Faz̤l ibn (1927). Ain i Akbari. Qausain. p. 551.  ^ a b c d e Sarker, Kobita (2007). Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
and his paradise on earth : the story of Shah Jahan's creations in Agra
Agra
and Shahjahanabad in the golden days of the Mughals (1. publ. ed.). Kolkata: K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 40. ISBN 9788170743002.  ^ Desai, compiled and translated by W.E. Begley and Z.A. (1989). Taj Mahal : the illumined tomb : an anthology of seventeenth-century Mughal and European documentary sources. Cambridge, Mass.: Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture. p. 23. ISBN 9780295969442. 

References[edit]

Asher, Catherine Ella Blanshard (2003). The New Cambridge History of India, Vol I:4 – Architecture of Mughal India (Hardback) (First published 1992, reprinted 2001,2003 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 368. ISBN 0-521-26728-5.  Koch, Ebba (Aug 2006). The Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra
Agra
(Hardback) (First ed.). Thames & Hudson Ltd. pp. 288 pages. ISBN 0-500-34209-1.  Lal, K.S. (1988). The Mughal Harem. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. ISBN 81-85179-03-4.  Begley, W, The Symbolic Role of Calligraphy on Three Imperial Mosques of Shah Jahan, Kaladarsana, 1978, pp. 7 – 18 Banks Findly, Ellison (1993). Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shah Jahan

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
I.

Shah Jehan in Christian Art Shah Jahan's 353rd death anniversary observed at Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
at TwoCircles.net History of Islam
Islam
in India at IndiaNest.com Shah Jahan's Coin Database Shah Jahan

Shah Jahan Timurid Dynasty Born: 5 January 1592 Died: 22 January 1666

Regnal titles

Preceded by Jahangir Mughal Emperor 1627–1658 Succeeded by Aurangzeb

v t e

Mughal Empire

Emperors

Babur Humayun Akbar Jahangir Shah Jahan Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
(Alamgir) Muhammad Azam Shah Bahadur Shah I Jahandar Shah Farrukhsiyar Rafi ud-Darajat Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
II Muhammad Shah Ahmad Shah Bahadur Alamgir II Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
III Shah Alam II Akbar
Akbar
II Bahadur Shah II

Battles and conflicts

Battle of Panipat (1526) Gujarat conquest Battle of Khanwa Battle of Ghaghra Siege of Sambhal Battle of Panipat (1556) Battle of Thanesar Siege of Chittorgarh Siege of Ranthambore Battle of Tukaroi Battle of Raj Mahal Battle of Haldighati Battle of Bhuchar Mori Siege of Kandahar Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War
War
(1622–23) Siege of Orchha Mughal– Safavid
Safavid
War
War
(1649–53) Battle of Samugarh Battle of Khajwa Suppression of Tilpat rebellion Ahom–Mughal conflicts Siege of Purandhar Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Mughal–Maratha Wars

Siege of Bijapur Siege of Jinji

Child's War Siege of Golconda Battle of Karnal Third Battle of Panipat Battle of Buxar Siege of Delhi

Architecture

Taj Mahal Gardens of Babur Fatehpur Sikri

Tomb of Salim Chishti

Humayun's Tomb Red Fort Lahore
Lahore
Fort Jahangir
Jahangir
Mahal Lalbagh Fort Akbar's Tomb Agra
Agra
Fort Chawk Mosque Shalimar Gardens Achabal Gardens Jahangir's Tomb Bibi Ka Maqbara Badshahi Mosque Shahi Bridge Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
Mosque, Thatta Sheesh Mahal Sunehri Masjid Tipu Sultan
Sultan
Mosque Wazir Khan Mosque more

Adversaries

Ibrahim Lodi Rana Sanga Sher Shah Suri Hemu Maharana Pratap Malik Ambar Gokula Pratapaditya Shivaji Lachit Borphukan Khushal Khattak Sir Josiah Child Guru Gobind Singh Henry Every Bajirao I Nader Shah Hector Munro

Provinces

Bengal Subah Gujarat Subah

See also

Art Cuisine Culture Flag Gardens Language Military Painting Persians Tribe Weapons Timurid dynasty

family tree

Successor states

Maratha Empire Rajput
Rajput
states Jats Sikh Empire Nawabs of Bengal Awadh Nizam of Hyderabad Carnatic Kingdom of Mysore Rohilkhand

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 13108102 LCCN: n50002533 ISNI: 0000 0000 6675 1721 GND: 119006693 SUDOC: 070037116 BNF: cb13512982s (data) BIBSYS: 11040807 ULAN: 500245

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