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The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
(also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)[nb 1] were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. After several defeats at the hands of Ivan III
Ivan III
and Vasily III, the Lithuanians were increasingly reliant on Polish aid, which eventually became an important factor in the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Before the first series of wars in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
had already gained control of a lot of Rus' territories, from Kiev
Kiev
to Mozhaisk, following the collapse of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
after the Mongol invasions. Over the course of the series of wars, particularly in the 16th century, the Muscovites were able to expand their domain westwards, taking control of many Rus' lands.

Contents

1 Historical background

1.1 14th century: Lithuanian expansion 1.2 15th century: strengthening Moscow

2 First or border war (1492–1494) 3 Second war (1500–1503) 4 Third war (1507–1508) 5 Fourth war (1512–1522) 6 Fifth or Starodub
Starodub
war (1534–1537) 7 Livonian War

7.1 Gallery

8 Footnotes 9 References

Historical background[edit] 14th century: Lithuanian expansion[edit] Main article: Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1368–72)

Expansion of the Lithuanian state from the 13th to 15th centuries

Muscovy and Lithuania had been involved in a series of conflicts since the reign of Gediminas, who defeated a coalition of Ruthenian princes in the Battle on the Irpen' River
Battle on the Irpen' River
and seized Kiev, the former capital of Kievan Rus'. By the mid-14th century, an expanding Lithuania had absorbed Chernigov
Chernigov
and Severia. Algirdas, the successor of Gediminas, forged an alliance with the Grand Duchy of Tver
Tver
and undertook three expeditions against Moscow, attempting to take advantage of the youth of the Grand Prince of Moscow, Dmitry Ivanovich, who nevertheless succeeded in fending off these encroachments. The first intrusions of Lithuanian troops into the Moscow
Moscow
principality occurred in 1363. In 1368, Algirdas
Algirdas
carried out the first major expedition against Moscow. Having devastated the Russian borderland, the Lithuanian prince routed the troops of the prince of Starodoub Simeon Dmitrievich Krapiva and prince of Obolensk Konstantin Yuryevich. On November 21, Algirdas
Algirdas
routed the Moscow
Moscow
sentry troops on the river Trosna. However, he could not seize the Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin. The troops of Algirdas
Algirdas
ruined the area around the city and captured a significant portion of the Muscovite population. In 1370, Algirdas made another expedition against Moscow. He ruined the area around of Volok Lamskiy. On December 6, he besieged Moscow
Moscow
and started to devastate the surrounding area. Having received the message that the prince Vladimir Andreevich was coming to help Moscow, Algirdas returned to Lithuania. In 1372 Algirdas
Algirdas
attacked the Moscow principality again and reached Lyubutsk. However, the Grand Prince of Moscow
Moscow
Dmitry Ivanovich routed the sentry troops of Algirdas, and the Lithuanians concluded an armistice with Moscow. In 1375, Algirdas devastated the Smolensk
Smolensk
principality.[1] Some elements in Muscovy wished to gain control of all territories that once were part of Kievan Rus', many of which were at that time part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
(including today's territories of Belarus
Belarus
and Ukraine). Further, Moscow
Moscow
wished to expand its access to the Baltic Sea, an increasingly important trade route. Thus, the conflict between Lithuania and Muscovy was only just beginning.[2][3] 15th century: strengthening Moscow[edit] Conflicts resumed during the reign of Dmitry's son Vasily I, who was married to Sophia, the only daughter of Grand Duke Vytautas
Vytautas
of Lithuania. In 1394, Vytautas
Vytautas
devastated the Grand Duchy of Ryazan, leaving many settlements in ashes. In 1402, he quarrelled with his son-in-law over control of the Duchy of Smolensk. After Vytautas captured his capital, Yuri of Smolensk
Smolensk
fled to Vasily's court and tried to enlist his assistance in regaining Smolensk. Vasily hesitated until Vytautas
Vytautas
advanced on Pskov. Alarmed by Lithuania's continuing expansion, Vasily sent an army to aid the Pskovians against his father-in-law. The Russian and Lithuanian armies met near the Ugra River, but neither commander ventured to commit his troops to battle. A peace ensued, whereby Vytautas
Vytautas
kept Smolensk. First or border war (1492–1494)[edit]

Expansion of the Russian state, 1500–1626

Ivan III
Ivan III
considered himself an heir to the fallen Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and defender of the Orthodox Church. He proclaimed himself sovereign of all Rus' and claimed patrimonial rights to the former lands of Kievan Rus'.[4] Such ambitions led to the steady growth of Muscovite territory and power. The Mongol Yoke ended in 1480 with the defeat of Akhmat Khan
Akhmat Khan
of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in the Great stand on the Ugra river. Moscow
Moscow
extended its influence to the Principality of Ryazan
Ryazan
in 1456, annexed the Novgorod Republic
Novgorod Republic
in 1477, and the Principality of Tver
Tver
in 1483.[5] Further expansionist goals of Ivan III
Ivan III
clashed with the Lithuanian interests. Around 1486–87, territories along the ill-defined Lithuanian–Muscovite border in the upper reaches of the Oka River were under attack by Muscovy,[5] allied with Meñli I Giray, khan of the Crimean Khanate.[6] Tensions continued to rise. In August 1492, without declaring war, Ivan III
Ivan III
began large military actions: he captured and burned Mtsensk, Lyubutsk, Serpeysk, and Meshchovsk;[7] raided Mosalsk; and attacked territory of the Dukes of Vyazma.[8] Orthodox nobles began switching sides to Moscow
Moscow
as it promised better protection from military raids and an end to religious discrimination by Catholic Lithuanians. Ivan III
Ivan III
officially declared war in 1493, but the conflict soon ended.[8] Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander Jagiellon sent a delegation to Moscow
Moscow
to negotiate a peace treaty. An "eternal" peace treaty was concluded on February 5, 1494. The agreement marked the first Lithuanian territorial losses to Moscow: the Principality of Vyazma
Vyazma
and a sizable region in the upper reaches of the Oka River.[4] The lost area was estimated to be approximately 87,000 km2 (34,000 sq mi).[9] A day before the official confirmation of the treaty, Alexander Jagiellon
Alexander Jagiellon
was betrothed to Helena, daughter of Ivan III
Ivan III
(the role of the groom was performed by Stanislovas Kęsgaila
Stanislovas Kęsgaila
as Alexander was in Poland).[10] Second war (1500–1503)[edit]

v t e

Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1500–1503)

Vedrosha (1500) Siritsa River (1501) Mstislavl (1501) Pskov (1502) Lake Smolino (1502) Smolensk (1502)

Military campaigns in 1500

Hostilities were renewed in May 1500,[11] when Ivan III
Ivan III
took advantage of a planned Polish–Hungarian campaign against the Ottoman Empire:[4] While preoccupied with the Ottomans, Poland and Hungary would not provide assistance to Lithuania. The pretext was the alleged religious intolerance toward the Orthodox in the Lithuanian court. Helena was forbidden by her father Ivan III
Ivan III
to convert to Catholicism, and that provided numerous opportunities for Ivan III, as defender of all Orthodox, to interfere in Lithuanian affairs and rally Orthodox believers.[4] The Muscovites promptly overran Lithuanian fortresses in Bryansk, Vyazma,[11] Dorogobuzh, Toropets, and Putyvl.[12] Local nobles, particularly the Vorotynskys, often joined the Muscovite cause. Another attack came from southeast into Kiev
Kiev
Voivodeship, Volhynia, and Podolia.[10] On July 14, 1500, the Lithuanians suffered a great defeat in the Battle of Vedrosha, and Grand Hetman Konstanty Ostrogski was captured. The defeat was one of the reasons for the proposed Union of Mielnik between Poland and Lithuania.[13] In November 1501, the Lithuanians were defeated again in the Battle of Mstislavl. The Crimean Tatars destroyed the Golden Horde, a Lithuanian ally, when its capital New Sarai
New Sarai
was conquered in 1502.[14] In June 1501, John I Albert, King of Poland, died leaving his brother Alexander Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania, the strongest candidate for the Polish throne. Alexander became preoccupied with the succession.[15] To counter religious accusations, Alexander attempted to establish a church union between Catholics and Orthodoxs as it was envisioned at the Council of Florence
Council of Florence
– the Orthodoxs would retain their traditions, but would accept the pope as their spiritual sovereign.[16] Metropolitan of Kiev
Kiev
agreed to such an arrangement, but Helena protested. Polish nobles, including Bishop Erazm Ciołek and Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellończyk, discussed the issue of royal divorce.[17] In the meantime the war continued, just not as successfully for Muscovy. As Lithuanian forces arrived to the region, the Muscovite forces had to move slowly. Additionally, the Livonian Order, led by Wolter von Plettenberg, joined the war as an ally of Lithuania.[12] The Livonian troops won the Battle of the Siritsa River in August 1501, besieged Pskov, and won the Battle of Lake Smolino in September 1502. In 1502, Ivan III
Ivan III
organized a campaign to capture Smolensk, but the city withstood the siege as Muscovites chose poor strategy and did not have enough artillery.[12] Peace negotiations began in mid-1502. Alexander asked Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary
to act as the mediator, and a six-year truce was concluded on the Feast of the Annunciation (March 25) in 1503.[18] The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
lost approximately 210,000 square kilometres (81,000 sq mi),[9] or a third of its territory: Chernihiv, Novhorod-Siverskyi, Starodub, and lands around the upper Oka River.[4] Russian historian Matvei Kuzmich Liubavskii counted Lithuanian losses at 70 volosts, 22 towns, and 13 villages.[19] The Lithuanians also acknowledged Ivan's title, sovereign of all Rus'.[6] Third war (1507–1508)[edit] See also: Glinsky's Rebellion

Muscovite campaign against the Lithuanians by Sergei Ivanov (1903)

In 1506, Alexander died. Vasili III, who succeeded his father Ivan III in 1505, advanced his bid for the Polish throne,[20] but Polish nobles chose Sigismund I the Old, who was crowned both as King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. In 1507, Sigismund I sent envoys to Moscow
Moscow
to request the return of the territories acquired by the 1503 truce.[21] At the same time, Khan Meñli I Giray broke off his alliance with Moscow
Moscow
due to its campaign against Kazan.[20] Sigismund I received an iarlyk for the Muscovite territories of Novgorod, Pskov, and Ryazan.[20] The war was intertwined with a rebellion by Michael Glinski, Court Marshal of Lithuania, a favorite of Alexander Jagiellon
Alexander Jagiellon
and a man of opportunity.[22] When Sigismund I the Old
Sigismund I the Old
succeeded Alexander in 1506, he did not show the same favors to Glinski. Jan Jurjewicz Zabrzeziński, Voivode of Trakai
Voivode of Trakai
and Glinki's old political opponent, accused Glinski of treason – he alleged that Glinski poisoned Grand Duke Alexander and had ambitions of becoming king himself.[23] Glinski then organized a rebellion, murdered Zabrzeziński in February 1508, and declared himself defender of the Orthodox faith (even though he was a Catholic of Mongol descent).[23] His followers unsuccessfully attacked the Kaunas Castle
Kaunas Castle
in an attempt to liberate the prisoner Ahmad, Khan of the Great Horde.[24] Glinski then established himself in Turaŭ
Turaŭ
and contacted Vasili III. Glinski started retreating towards Moscow
Moscow
and attempted to capture Minsk, Slutsk, Mstsislaw, and Krychaw. He only managed to take Mazyr
Mazyr
when his relative opened the gates.[24] Near Orsha, he joined with Muscovite forces but was defeated by Konstanty Ostrogski, Grand Hetman of Lithuania.[25] This series of defeats demonstrated the rebellion, despite its claims to protect the rights of the Orthodox, was not supported by the general population and did not spread.[24] The war eventually ended with the inconclusive 'eternal peace treaty' on October 8, 1508, which maintained the territorial accords of the 1503 truce.[26] Fourth war (1512–1522)[edit]

v t e

Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1512–22)

Smolensk Smolensk Vitebsk Polotsk Smolensk Orsha Velikiye Luki Toropets Opochka Polotsk

Battle of Orsha
Orsha
in 1514

Despite the peace treaty, the relationship between the two countries remained tense. Sigismund I demanded extradition of Michael Glinski for trial, while Vasili III
Vasili III
demanded better treatment of his widowed sister Helena.[27] Vasili also discovered that Sigismund was paying Khan Meñli I Giray to attack the Grand Duchy of Moscow.[28] At the same time, Albert of Prussia
Albert of Prussia
became the Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights and was unwilling to acknowledge Poland's suzerainty as required by the Second Peace of Thorn (1466).[29] The tension eventually resulted in the Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21)
Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21)
and allied Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
with Vasili III.[28] In December 1512, Muscovy invaded the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
seeking to capture Smolensk, a major trading center.[30] Their first six- and four-week sieges in 1513 failed,[31] but the city fell in July 1514.[32] Prince Vasily Nemoy Shuysky
Vasily Nemoy Shuysky
was left as viceregent in Smolensk.[32] This angered Glinski, who threatened to rejoin Sigismund I but was imprisoned by the Russians.[33] Russia
Russia
then suffered a series of defeats in the field. In 1512, Grand Hetman of Lithuania, Konstanty Ostrogski, ravaged Severia and defeated a 6,000-strong Russian force. On 8 September 1514, the Russians suffered a major defeat at the Battle of Orsha.[34] Despite their victory, the Polish–Lithuanian army was unable to move quickly enough to recapture Smolensk.[35] In 1518, Russian forces were beaten during the siege of Polotsk,[36] when according to legend the Lithuanian forces were inspired by the sight of their patron saint, Saint Casimir. The Russians invaded Lithuania again in 1519, raiding Orsha, Mogilev, Minsk, Vitebsk, and Polotsk.[37] By 1521, Sigismund had defeated the grand master and allied with the Kazan
Kazan
and Crimean Tatar hordes against Moscow.[38] Crimean khan Mehmed I Giray carried out a ruinous attack on the Moscow
Moscow
principality, resulting in a commitment from the grand prince to pay tribute.[39] The Lithuanian troops led by Dashkovich participated in the attack and tried to take Ryazan.[40] In 1522, a treaty was signed that called for a five-year truce, no prisoner exchange, and for Russia
Russia
to retain control of Smolensk.[41] The truce was subsequently extended to 1534.[42] Fifth or Starodub
Starodub
war (1534–1537)[edit] Upon Vasily's death in 1533, his son and heir, Ivan IV, was only three years old. His mother, Elena Glinskaya, acted as the regent and engaged in power struggles with other relatives and boyars.[43] The Polish–Lithuanian monarch decided to take advantage of the situation and demanded the return of territories conquered by Vasily III.[44] In the summer of 1534, Grand Hetman Jerzy Radziwiłł
Jerzy Radziwiłł
and the Tatars devastated the area around Chernigov, Novgorod
Novgorod
Seversk, Radogoshch, Starodub
Starodub
and Briansk.[38] In October 1534, a Muscovite army under the command of Prince Ovchina-Telepnev-Obolensky, Prince Nikita Obolensky, and Prince Vasily Shuisky
Shuisky
invaded Lithuania, advancing as far as Vilnius and Navahrudak, and built a fortress on Lake Sebezh
Sebezh
the following year, before being stopped.[45] The Lithuanian army under Hetman Radziwill, Andrei Nemirovich, Polish Hetman Jan Tarnowski, and Semen Belsky launched a powerful counterattack and took Homel
Homel
and Starodub.[46] In 1536, the fortress Sebezh
Sebezh
defeated Nemirovich's Lithuanian forces when they tried to besiege it, and then the Muscovites attacked Liubech, razed Vitebsk, and built fortresses at Velizh
Velizh
and Zavoloche.[46] Lithuania and Russia
Russia
negotiated a five-year truce, without prisoner exchange, in which Homel
Homel
stayed under the king's control, while Muscovy kept Sebezh
Sebezh
and Zavoloche.[47]

Territorial losses of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
from 1430 to 1583[48]

Year Area (approximate) Explanation

1429 930,000 km2 (360,000 sq mi) Largest extent

1430 Lost 21,000 km2 (8,100 sq mi) Lost western Podolia
Podolia
to Poland during the Lithuanian Civil War

1485 Lost 88,000 km2 (34,000 sq mi) Lost Yedisan
Yedisan
to the Crimean Khanate

1494 Lost 87,000 km2 (34,000 sq mi) First war with Russia

1503 Lost 210,000 km2 (81,000 sq mi) Second war with Russia

1522 Lost 56,000 km2 (22,000 sq mi) Fourth war with Russia; included Smolensk

1537 Gained 20,000 km2 (7,700 sq mi) Fifth war with Russia

1561 Gained 85,000 km2 (33,000 sq mi) Gained Duchy of Livonia
Duchy of Livonia
by the Treaty of Vilnius (1561)

1569 Lost 170,000 km2 (66,000 sq mi) Transferred Ukrainian territories to Poland by the Union of Lublin

1582 Lost 40,000 km2 (15,000 sq mi) Livonian War

1583 365,000 km2 (141,000 sq mi) Territory after the Livonian War

Livonian War[edit] Main article: Livonian War In 1547, the Grand Duchy of Moscow
Grand Duchy of Moscow
officially became known as the Tsardom of Russia, with Ivan IV
Ivan IV
crowned as Tsar
Tsar
and "Ruler of all Rus'". The tsar sought to gather the ethnically Ruthenian lands of the former Kievan Rus', engaging with other powers around the Baltic Sea in the Livonian War.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1569

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
in 1590s

During the reign of Sigismund II Augustus
Sigismund II Augustus
in Poland and Lithuania, Tsar
Tsar
Ivan IV
Ivan IV
invaded Livonia, first in 1568 when the Livonian Knights sought alliance with Poland and Lithuania; the Poles and Lithuanians were able to defend only southern Livonia. Lithuania and Poland were initially allied with Denmark and fought against the Tsardom of Russia allied with Sweden; after several years the coalitions changed and Poland–Lithuania allied themselves with Sweden against Russia
Russia
and Denmark. Eventually, the 1570 ceasefire divided Livonia
Livonia
between the participants, with Lithuania controlling Riga
Riga
and Russians expanding access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by taking hold of Narva. The Lithuanians felt increasingly pressured by the Tsar; further, Lithuanian lesser nobility pressured the Grand Duke and magnates for gaining the same rights as Polish nobility (szlachta), i.e. the Golden Freedoms. Eventually, in 1569, after Sigismund II Augustus
Sigismund II Augustus
transferred significant territories of Grand Duchy to Poland and after months of hard negotiations, Lithuanians partially accepted Polish demands and entered in alliance with the Union of Lublin, forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. In the next phase of the conflict, in 1577, Ivan IV
Ivan IV
took advantage of the Commonwealth internal strife (called the war against Danzig in Polish historiography), and, during the reign of Stefan Batory
Stefan Batory
in Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, invaded Livonia, quickly taking almost the entire territory, with the exception of Riga
Riga
and Reval (now Tallinn). That war would last from 1577 to 1582. Stefan Batory
Stefan Batory
replied with a series of three offensives against Russia, trying to cut off Livonia
Livonia
from the main Russian territories. During his first offensive in 1579 with 22,000 men, he retook Polatsk, Polish–Lithuanian troops also devastated Smolensk
Smolensk
region, and Severia up to Starodoub.[49] During the second, in 1580, with 29,000-strong army Stefan Batory
Stefan Batory
took Velizh, Usvyat,[49] Velikiye Luki. In 1581 the Lithuanians burnt down Staraya Russa,[49] with a 100,000-strong army Stefan Batory
Stefan Batory
started the Siege of Pskov
Pskov
but failed to take the fortress. The prolonged and inconclusive siege led to negotiations, which with the aid of papal legate Antonio Possevino ended in the peace of Jam Zapolski in which the Tsar
Tsar
renounced his claims to Livonia
Livonia
and Polotsk
Polotsk
but conceded no core Russian territories. The peace lasted for a quarter of a century, until the Commonwealth forces invaded Russia
Russia
in 1605. Gallery[edit]

Siege of Pskov, painting by Karl Brullov, depicts the siege from the Russian perspective – terrified running Poles and Lithuanians, and heroic Russian defenders under the Orthodox Christian religious banners.

Batory at Pskov, painting by Jan Matejko, depicts the siege from the Polish–Lithuanian perspective – Russian nobility doing homage before the victorious Commonwealth ruler. In reality, Pskov
Pskov
was not taken by the Commonwealth as the Peace of Jam Zapolski
Peace of Jam Zapolski
was concluded before the siege ended.

Footnotes[edit]

^ The conflicts are referred to as 'Muscovite wars' (Polish: wojny moskiewskie) in Polish historiography and as 'Lithuanian wars' in Russian one; English historiography uses both, ex. 'Muscovite wars' in Lukowski, Jerzy; Hubert Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0-521-55917-0.  and 'Lithuanian wars' in Wilson, Andrew (2002). The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation. Yale University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-300-09309-8. . Some sources also may use Russo- instead of Muscovite.

References[edit]

Notes

^ Sergey Solovyov. History of Russia
Russia
from the Earliest Times, ISBN 5-17-002142-9, v.3 [1] ^ Obolensky (2000), p. 365 ^ Perrie (2002), p. 98 ^ a b c d e Kiaupa (2000), p. 221 ^ a b Petrauskas (2009), p. 460 ^ a b Smith Williams (1907), p. 179 ^ Stevens (2007), p. 57 ^ a b Petrauskas (2009), p. 461 ^ a b Norkus (2009), p. 61 ^ a b Petrauskas (2009), p. 463 ^ a b Davies (2005), p. 111 ^ a b c Stevens (2007), p. 58 ^ Lietuvos istorijos institutas (2009-10-02). "1501 10 03 Lenkijos taryba ir Lietuvos atstovai nutarė, kad abi valstybės bus sujungtos į vieną valstybę. Lietuva šios sutarties neratifikavo". Lietuvos Didžiosios Kunigaikštystės kalendorius (in Lithuanian). Delfi.lt.  ^ Magocsi (2010), p. 180 ^ Petrauskas (2009), p. 464 ^ Nowakowska (2007), p. 134 ^ Nowakowska (2007), pp. 134–135 ^ Nowakowska (2007), pp. 135–136 ^ Alef (1959), p. 155 ^ a b c Smith Williams (1907), p. 185 ^ Kiaupa (2000), p. 225 ^ Petrauskas (2009), p. 423 ^ a b Petrauskas (2009), p. 436 ^ a b c Petrauskas (2009), p. 465 ^ Jurginis (1985), p. 638 ^ Petrauskas (2009), p. 466 ^ Smith Williams (1907), p. 186 ^ a b Soloviev (1976), p. 54 ^ Davies (2005), p. 114 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 55 ^ Stevens (2007), pp. 57–58 ^ a b Soloviev (1976), p. 56 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 58 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 59 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 60 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 78 ^ Soloviev (1976), pp. 78–79 ^ a b Soloviev (1976), p. 79 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 82 ^ Sergey Solovyov. History of Russia
Russia
from the Earliest Times, ISBN 5-17-002142-9, v.5 [2] ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 83 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 84 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 187 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 188 ^ Soloviev (1976), pp. 188–189 ^ a b Soloviev (1976), p. 189 ^ Soloviev (1976), p. 194 ^ Norkus (2009), pp. 60–62 ^ a b c Sergey Solovyov. History of Russia
Russia
from the Earliest Times, ISBN 5-17-002142-9, v.6 [3]

References

Alef, Gustave (1959). Rulers and nobles in fifteenth-century Muscovy. Variorum Reprints. ISBN 0860781208.  Davies, Norman (2005). God's Playground: A History of Poland. I (Revised ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-925339-5.  Jurginis, Juozas (1985). "Glinskio maištas". In Jonas Zinkus; et al. Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. I. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. p. 468. LCC 86232954.  (in Lithuanian) Kiaupa, Zigmantas; Jūratė Kiaupienė; Albinas Kunevičius (2000) [1995]. The History of Lithuania Before 1795 (English ed.). Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. ISBN 9986-810-13-2.  Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). A History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples (2nd ed.). University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9781442610217.  Norkus, Zenonas (2009). "Kada senoji Lietuvos valstybė tapo imperija ir nustojo ja būti? Atsakymas į lietuvišką klausimą, naudojantis estišku metodu" (PDF). Lietuvos istorijos studijos. 23. ISSN 1392-0448. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22.  Nowakowska, Natalia (2007). Church, State and Dynasty in Renaissance Poland: The Career of Cardinal Fryderyk Jagiellon (1468-1503). Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 9780754656449.  Obolensky, Dmitry (2000). The Byzantine Commonwealth: Eastern Europe, 500–1453. Sterling Publishing Company. ISBN 1-84212-019-0.  Perrie, Maureen (2002). The Cult of Ivan the Terrible in Stalin's Russia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-65684-9.  Petrauskas, Rimvydas; Jūratė Kiaupienė (2009). Lietuvos istorija. Nauji horizontai: dinastija, visoumenė, valstybė (in Lithuanian). IV. Baltos lankos. ISBN 978-9955-23-239-1.  Smith Williams, Henry (1907). The Historians' History of the World: A Comprehensive Narrative of the Rise and Development of Nations as Recorded by Over Two Thousand of the Great Writers of All Ages. 17. Hooper & Jackson, Ltd. OCLC 22998871.  Soloviev, Sergei M. (1976). Graham, Hugh F., ed. History of Russia. The Age of Vasily III. 9. Gulf Breeze: Academic International Press. ISBN 0875690661.  Stevens, Carol B. (2007). Russia's Wars of Emergence 1460–1730. Pearson Education. ISBN 978-0-582-21891-8. 

v t e

Armed conflicts involving Russia
Russia
(incl. Imperial and Soviet times)

Internal

Razin's Rebellion Bulavin Rebellion Pugachev's Rebellion Decembrist revolt Russian Civil War August Uprising Bitch Wars Coup d'état attempt (1991) 1993 Russian constitutional crisis First Chechen War War of Dagestan Second Chechen War Insurgency in the North Caucasus

Pre-17th century

Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376) First Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1492–94) Russo-Swedish War (1495–97) Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1500–03) Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1507–08) Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1512–22) Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1534–37) Russo-Crimean Wars Russo- Kazan
Kazan
Wars Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) Livonian War Russian Conquest of Siberia (1580–1747) Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
and the Time of Troubles Ingrian War Smolensk
Smolensk
War Russo-Persian War (1651–53) Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
(1652–89) Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1676–81) Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

18th–19th century

Great Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1710–11) Russo-Persian War (1722–23) War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38) Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48) Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Seven Years' War Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) Bar Confederation Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Russo-Polish War (1792) Kościuszko Uprising Russo-Persian War (1796) War of the Second Coalition War of the Third Coalition Russo-Persian War (1804–13) War of the Fourth Coalition Russo-Turkish War (1806–12) Anglo-Russian War Finnish War War of the Fifth Coalition French invasion of Russia War of the Sixth Coalition War of the Seventh Coalition Russian conquest of the Caucasus Caucasian War

Russo-Circassian War Murid War

Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) November Uprising Russian conquest of Bukhara Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Crimean War January Uprising Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) Boxer Rebellion

Russian invasion of Manchuria

20th century

Russo-Japanese War Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 World War I Russian Civil War Ukrainian–Soviet War Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian–Soviet War

Polish–Soviet War Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan Red Army invasion of Armenia Red Army invasion of Georgia Red Army intervention in Mongolia Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Xinjiang War (1937) World War II

Soviet invasion of Poland Winter War Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940) Continuation War Eastern Front (World War II) Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Soviet–Japanese War

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Ili Rebellion First Indochina War Korean War Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Eritrean War of Independence War of Attrition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Sino-Soviet border conflict Vietnam War Ogaden War South African Border War Soviet–Afghan War

Post-Soviet

Nagorno-Karabakh War Transnistria War Georgian Civil War Tajikistani Civil War Russo-Georgian War Intervention in Ukraine

Annexation of Crimea War in Donbass

Intervention in Syria

Military history of Russia Russian Winter Russian Revolution Cold War S

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